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E. f^tmOU COULTER 




E. MERTON COULTER 



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SOIITHERH CFLTIVATOE, 


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AND TO 


INTRODUCE A MORE ENLIGHTENED SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURE. 


ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS ELEGANT ENGRAVBfGS. 


DANIEL LEE, M. D. and D. REDMOND, Editors. 


VOLUME XV.-1857, 




AUGUSTA, GEORGIA. 

PUBLISHED BY WILLIAM S. JONES, PROPRIETOPv. 

1857. 






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SOUTHEEN CULTIVATOS. 


INDEX TO TOL. 15, FOE 1857. 


PliANTATION ECONOMY AND MISCELEANY. 

Agriculture in Georgia, Fairs, &:.e Page 50 

“ Diversified Pages 138, 209 

“ of the United States Page 243 

“ value of Lime in “ 21 

Agricultural Botany — Chinese Sugar Cane “ 21 

" Heading, Benefits of “ 107 

U. S. Society Pages 130, 145, 179 

Colleges Page 203 

- ■ • - • "237 

247 
259 
320 
83 
17 
87 
115 
117 
162 
278 
288 
306 
289 
308 
308 
194 
363 
365 
365 
367 
19 
23 

, 210 
Page 117 
149 
245 
334 
81 


“ Lectures in Georgia 

“ State Fairs for 1857 “ 

“ Clubs in Texas “ 

“ Premiums “ 

Animal Manures “ 

Angora Goats “ 

Apples, Southern, making Cider “ 

Ashes, wood, &c “ 

“ as a fertilizer “ 

Aristocracy, village “ 

Apiary, or Bee House (illustrated) “ 

Appetite, want of “ 

“ to give a horse, an “ 

Absenteeism, Southern “ 

Alcohol and Brandy from the Chinese Cane “ 

Arkansas, resources and developments “ 

Ants, killing in Texas “ 

Autumn, Spirit of “ 

Autumn Words, the Season, &c “ 

Agriculture “ 

Agriculturists, training, &c “ 

Bacon “ 

Boys “ 

Bees and their Management Pages 78, 130, 178 

“ notes on Pag 

‘ Hiving “ 

“ Tansey takes away their pugnacity. 

“ and Honey 

Basket Willow, Culture of 


331 

352 

29 

308 

368 

369 
371 
371 


Botts in Horses Pages 112, 192 

Bott question, will it ever be settled? Page 149 

Book, new. Cotton Planter’s Manual Page 127 

Barometer for Farmers Pages, 176, 227 

Brinley’s Steel Plows Page 183 

Bhnd Staggers in Horses Pages 206, 223, 320 

Bermuda Grass Pages 247, 336 

Bathing Page 257 

“Bill Bug” or Com Borer Pages 271, 366 

Baggett Bur Plow, «fec Pages 301, 343 

Broom Corn, cultm'e of “ 171 

Bean Poles, a substitute for “ 225 

Cliinese Sugar Cane and Imphee “ 362 

“ “ for Hogs “ 362 

“ “ North and South „ 15 

“ “ in Mississippi “ 17 

“ “ Agiicultural Botany “ 21 

“ “ as a Fertilizer, &c, “ 55 

“ “ its value, &c-.Pages53, 63, 65, 84, 109, 

[113, 119,129, 144,151,172,176, 178,273,279, 273,343, 340 

Concrete Buildings, Mr. Saxton’s Page 18 

“ Walls, rock in ‘‘ 248 

“ House of D. Redmond at “Fruitland” “ 242 

Cisterns, cement, &c Pages 19, 129, 341 

^ “ “ for Syrup Page 257 

Cotton, cut worm, rust and rot ‘‘ 20 

“ tall picking “ 34 

“ Spinning on Plantations— Henry’s Patent.. “ 45 

“ Northern Factories, &c “ 49 

Sea Island “ 


Cotton, circumstances alter cases Page 84 

“ Culture of “ 85 

“ Report on “ 116 

“ Gin, its oiagin, &c Pages 113, 207 

“ Planter’s Manual Page 127 

“ to Long Planters in Florida “ 144 

“ Plant and Olive Branch “ 162 

“ crop and course of exchange “ 174 

“ False Statistics “ 179 

“ for Roofing, &c “ 177 

“ Baling with Iron Hoops Pages 212, 225, 239, 307 

“ and Corn in Mississippi Page 215 

“ Threshers Pages 63, 215 

“ Culture in Arkansas Page 225 

“ Empire of “ 247 

“ anew Gin “ 247 

“ crop in Choctaw County, Mississippi “ 306 

“ Baskets, Osier Willow for “ 310 

“ Young, dying, cause of, remedy, &c “ 

“ Crop of the United States “ 

“ most extraordinary... “ 

“ and Sugar Cane in Louisiana....**** “ 

“ the proper preparation of for market “ 

“ Crop, DeBow’s Review on the “ 

“ Native “ 

Chickens, Cure for swelled feet in.... *.i*-** 

Composts Pages 130, 333 

Country Houses, Southern— “Fruitland,” near Au- 
gusta, Ga Page 242 

Culture, level— Letter from Col. Cannon. ..Pages 12, 83, 206 

Chinese Prolific Pea Pages 32, 54, 64, 236 

Crime, one of the roads to Page 55 

“Chinas” the, a Plea for. . . - “ 85 

China Berries as food for Animals “ 100 

“ kUlHogs “ 149 

“ poisonous .Pages 162, 210 

Climate, the Relations of Labor and Page 106 

“Cultivator,” The Pages 119, 300 

Cuban Sugar Plantation Page 1^ 

Calves, raising “ 

Cane Roots, plows for “ 

Crops, Rotation of “ 

“ Weather, &c “ 

Chufas “ 

Colors, effect of on Health “ 

Cut Worm, the Pages 181, 247 

Cold, intense, its effect Page 194 

Cream Soap “ 194 

Cows, feeding on Tomatoes “ 215 

Childhood, shadows of. “ 215 

Crusher, Corn and Cob Page 227, 307, 343 

Corn Crib, rat proof. Page 227 

“ and Cob Crusher 

“ keeping green for winter 

“ and Hogs 

Corn Stalk Cultm’e 

Cholera, Poultry 

Chess, or “Cheat” in Wheat 

Chickens and Turkeys, raising 

Clothing for Negroes, Water Proof 

Cement for Iron 

Cottage Homes, Suburban, &c 

China Beri-y, information wanted 

Cider Making 

Clover, the raising of 

Dairy, a Southern, reply to “E. G. P.” 

Devon Cow, “Helena” 

“Kate Kearney,” P; 


108 

149 

161 

276 

178 

180 


227 
“ 279 
“ 321 
“ 368 
“ 257 
“ 258 
“ 299 
“ 306 
“ 311 
“ 335 
“ 53 

“ 87 

“ 276 
“ 40 

“ 20 
[52, 175 


66 ! Ditching, Hill Side Pages 53, 82, 146, 148, 273, 298 


INDEX TO VOLUME XV 


■'JV 


'Ditching Hill Sides, Level Page 311 

“ “ H[£»w leveling instrument “ 335 

Digger, ^Mapes' & 'G>i*bs’"iiotary Pages 110, 143, 214 

Degs, feirses and SkebP" Page 15 

Draininglolv land/s,^ Pages 246, 307 

Dress, simplicity of English “ 215 

Ducks ."successfuimethoid of raising “ 267 

Emigration, i . . ^ Page 114 

Education, best suited to young farmers “ 288 

'English developments; remarkable “ 310 

Experiment, fra«eti6ns of an acre for an, &c “ 370 

Forage mating ;ahd'V7intering Stock a.. “ 10 

' Fodder plants ... — “ 17 

« palling. “ 119 

■Foot Eril, to eiure-... Pages 19, 86 

‘Fish experimemt.'.. “ 53,259 

Farmer, the, and his Home Page 118 

"Farmer’s Private Library “ 52 

“ Meteorology for “ 86 

Farm Stock; feeding steamed food “ 79 

Farming in Florida “ 213 

“ Horth-and South Pages 258, 298 

Fence, Iroard, a cheap “ 114, 131 

“ Wire at the West. Page 311 

Fhes... “ 115 

February number;, remarks on “ 128 

Floating Mills “ 143 

Fattening. Hogs “ 161 

Flesh in Vegetables Pages 182, 183 

Fashionable Friends Page 184 

Free Labor, what it leads to “ 224 

“ Society— Life in New York “ 270 

Fowls, Hame?;s. Shanghai “ .224 

“ '4?,out in Page 257, 257, 308, 353 

Field Peas and their culture Page 238 

Female Health and Beauty “ 290 

Food- and Drink, simple “ 319 

Flea'S [ Meas ! 1 “ 319 

Fi-uit for Health.... “ 225 

Grass, itethering work Horses, at “ 177 

Stanford’s Wild Oats “ 215 

“ Lawn for the South “ 306 

‘‘ Land, how to manure, &c “ 230 

Bermuda “ 336 

‘f “ — Agriculture “ 369 

Gitisses for the South Pages 70, 340 

G’J-.mo Page 110 

‘‘ astonishing effects of “ 163 

“ Homemade “ 181 

Ground Peas, or “Pindars” “ 119 

■Game vs. Shanghai ‘f 224 

Gout in Fowls Pages 257, 335 

Gi-dpe Culture Pages 301, 336 

Hay making in the South Page 12 

Hydraulic, or WaterKam “ 15 

Horse, a good “ 15 

Horses, Morgan (illustrated) “ 33 

Horses, Botts in, &c “ 365 

“ Han- Oil for “ 34 

“ Scratches in “ 86 

“ Botts in Pages 112, 192, 343 

“ Dogs and Sheep Page 115 

“ feeding in travelling “ 173 

“ Lampas in, how cured “ 177 

“ Blind Staggers in Pages 206, 233, 320 

» Shoeing r. “ 290 

“ to give an appetite “ 306 

“ Treatment of “ 341 

Horizontaliziug 83 

Homestead, The, (poetry) “ 161 

.House, the Old, (poetry) “ 118 

Hygiene, Plantation Pages 140, 170 

Hogs, “thumps” in— a cure >. Page 161 

Hogs— Chinese Sugar Cane, &c ’ “ 262 

“ fattening “ 161 

“ and Pork Making Pages 212, 226 

“ Black and White Page 226 

“ and Corn “ 321 

Harris’ Patent Plow “ 176 

Hop Tree (illustrated) “ 299 

Hives and Hiving Bees “ 210 

Health, Fruit for “ 225 

Hill Side Ditching— Mr. Harmons, Terms. “ 298 

LevelEows “ 273 

Hardwick’s Level “ 311 

“ “ new leveling instrument “ 335 

Houses, Cheap Paint for “ 321 

“ Southern Country “ 242 


In^rovement of our Land— our Watc'hward,&c.'’ 

[Pages 22, 224,234, 279 


Irish Potatoes, fall crop Page 180 

Iron Hoops for Baling Cotton Page 225, 239, 212 

Inquiries - Page 271 

Irrigation, raising water for “ 275 

Itch, Mad “ 371 

Japan Pea - “ 129 

J amaica, misfortunes of “ 86 

Kitchen, “a love’’ of a “ 112 

Level Cnltm-e, CoL Cannon, &c Pages 12, 83,206 

“ Eows Page 273 

Leveling Instrument “ 116 

“ Land “ 148 

Lime, its value, &c “ 21 

Library, Farmers’ Private “ 52 

Labor, Lecture on Pages 42, 74 

“ the relations of. Page 106 

Letter from Texas. . - “ 23 

“ a miscellaneous “ 80 

“ from Lieutenant Maury “ 86 

Liquid Manures “ 86 

Light at Home (poetry) “ 108 

Lampas in Horses “ 197 

Low Lands, Draining “ 246 

Lands, old, renovating “ 25T 

Land, exhaustion of “ 274 

“ Sandy, improvement “ 279 

Landscape .^Esthetics, &c “ 304 

Lupin, White— Mechanics and Agriculture, &c “ 368 

Ladies, a good word for the, &c “ 371 

Moon’s influence on man and plant “ 54 

Manures — suhsoiling “ 83 

“ Liquid “ 86 

“ Covering “ 182 

“ making Pages 205, 333 

Meteorology for Farmers Page 86 

Milking “ 87 

Milk, Eice “ 229 

“ “ 266 

Mills, Floating “ 143 

“ Wooden, for Chinese Cane “ 176 

“ Sugar, description “ 212 

“ “ a cheap... “ 226 

“ Saw, Portable Pages 241 298 

“ Sugar, a good and cheap Page 272 

Mobile, trade of “ 151 

Mutton W.S. Pork “ 289 

Memorandums “ 342 

Muscadine Wine “ 342 

Moss, Machine for Spinning Spanish or Long “ 367 

Mules, interesting article on “ 363 

Negro Houses— Sunday Labor “ 237 

Never give up “ 54 

Ohio, Sheep in “ 66 

Oat culture at the South. “ 77 

Orchardists, a hint to “ 87 

Oil, one perrny’s worth “ 163 

Other Folk's Eyes.. “ 2:5 

Osier or Basket Willow in Texas “ 241 

“ Willow for Cotton Baskets Pages 81 , 310 

Old Fielas, reclairniug, deep plowing Page 259 

Overseer’s Eules, &c “ 303 

Poultry, Breeds, management “ 16 

“ Cholera — Snake Bites, &c “ 257 

Pea Vine Hay, saving “ 32 

Pea, Chirrese Prolific Pa^es 32, 54. 64 

“ Japan ...Page 129 

“ extraordinary “ 131 

Peas for Hogs “ 55 

Plow, Steam “ 64 

Plows for the South Pages 83, 183, 271, 340 

Plow, Harris' Patent Subsoil and Turning Page 176 

“ Steel (Brinley’s) “ 183 

Potato, Sweet, seed of “ 99 

Potatoes, seedling, sporrtaneously produced “ 150 

‘ ‘ Irish , fall crop -v “ 180 

“ Sweet, saving “ 309 

Pindars, or Ground Peas “ 119 

Plantation Hygiene Pages 140, 170 

Poetry, rural .". .Page 149 

Plantiog Seeds, time of “ 179 

Pneumonia in Cattle “ 181 

Preaching of the Trees (poetry) “ 240 

Pork ■ys. Mutton “ 289 

Paint, Cheap for Houses “ 321 

Planters, to the “ 364 

Prices, the prospect of. “ 366 

Eural Architecture — Ornamental Gardening “ 46 

“ Literature, Southern, &c “ 147 

“ Art Association “ 153 

Eat Trap, funny “ 225 


INDEX TO VOLUME XV, 


V 


227 

246 

308 


77 

78 

79 
86 
87 

111 

119 

128 

See. 


Rat Proof Com Crib Page ^7 

Rice Mills 

“ Hulling Machines 

“ Com, and Chinese Cane 

Roofing, a good and cheap ‘ 246 

Rescue Crass 270 

Right Spirit ‘340 

Soap making, the art and principles of. Pages 34, 48 

“ Cream Page 194 

Steeping Seeds ^2 

South, defending the - 64 

Southern Country Houses — “Fruitland” ‘ 242 

Sheep in Ohio ‘ 66 

“ raising in the South Pages 111, 211 

Stock Growers, hints for Page 

“ Raising in the South 

Sowing and Reaping (poetry) 

Shade Trees about Dwellings 

Slavery, strength of 

Sm-faces. how to lay off 

Sorghum Saccharatum 

Sugar Plantation, Cuban . 

“ Cane, Chinese Pages 15, 17, 21, 53, 55, &c 

[See “Chinse Sugar Cane.” 

from the Sorgho Pages 142, 279 

“ Cane, the new Page 172 

“ scarcity of “ 212 

Soil, stirring the “ 130 

“ exhaustmg the “ 183 

Shanghais, swelled feet, Seeds, &c “ 146 

Subsoiling Pages 83, 129, 214 

Salerastus a poison Page 161 

Snake Bites, cure for “ 193 

Season, in South Western Georgia “ 211 

Swamp Lands, clearing Pages 214, 239 

StaUs for Horses, Dr. Eddy’s Page 226 

Sorgho Saccharometer “ 241 

“ experiments in South Carohna “ 340 

Stanford s Wild Oat Grass “ 270 

Shoeing Horses “ 290 

Sea Island Planters, Habits of, &c “ 300 

Sun Flower Culture “ 321 

Salt — its uses and Manufactm'e “ 338 

Symp from the Sorgho “ 342 

“ Cistern for “ 2-57 

Seeding, Drilling vs. Broadcast “ 366 

Snuff “DipniDg” “ 371 

Tomatoes, feeding cov. s on “ 215 

Texas, Cattle from “ 23 

“ Items ‘‘ 116 

“ frost in “ 193 

“ killing Ants in “ 194 

Turkeys, raising in Mississippi “ 148 

“ and Chickens “ 299 

Tillage, a few thoughts on “ 173 

Trade, the laws of, &c “ 210 

Tobacco Crop, the next “ 290 

Tanning Leather, the quick process “ 319 

Trees in Gra- s Land, how to manure “ 230 

Thousandfold “ 353 

Underdrains, wooden, cheap “ 144 

Vineyards “ 258 

Wet Weather, Work for “ 366 

Weevil, killi.-ig the 320 

Wild Oat Grass “ 270 


EDITORIAL., 


Answers to Correspondents, Pages 24, 56, 88, 120, 184, 216, 

[280, 312, 344, 372 


Agricultural Statistics, 
“ Geology 


Page 26 
“ 222 
“ 186 
Pages 248, 312 
: Page 312 

: “ 314 


Wheat, seed, suggestions 'as to . 

“ growing near tlie Texas coast “ 

“ “ mrotat’on “ 

Willow, Osier, for Baskets “ 

What a man waRts his wife to know “ 

Wool Grower, a great 

Warm Weather Drops “ 

ork for the Month (January) “ 

“ “ (Febraafy) “ 

“ “ (March) “ 

“ (April) 

“ “ (^4ay) “ 

“ ‘‘ (June) “ 

“ “ (July). 


(August). 

“ “ (Septenr.ber) “ 

“ “ (October) “ 

“ “ (Xovember) “ 

“ “ (December) “ 

Wine Prospects in South Carolina “ 

“ Make your own “ 

“ Georgia “ 

Wines, American “ 

Weight, selling by “ 

Work for wet weather “ 


194 

226 

310 

81 

118 

1.50 

225 

9 

41 

73 

10.5 

137 

169 

201 

233 

265 

297 

229 

361 

273 

309 
370 
367 

310 
366 


Society in Mississippi 
“ Fairs, Southern 

“ Book Publishing 

“ Fans : : 

“ Society in Jackson county, Texas “ 345 

Book Table, Our, Pages 25, 56, 89, 121, 154, 217, 281, 314, 

[346, 373 

Brood Mares, sale of : : : 

Berckmans, Louis E. : : . 

Boilers, Cane Mills, Sec. : : : 

Bott Flies and their young : : 

Burton's Sugar Mill : : : : 

Cotton Seed exported : : : 

“ Planters, important invention for 
“ Plastic— valuable invention 
“ Packing ; : : : 

“ Crop of 1856 : : : 

“ Growth of, in United States, and manufac 
turein England : 

“ Culture in Algiers : 

“ Circular, from Xew York 
“ Culture, of : : : 

“ and Negroes : : : 

Cooper’s Patent Plow : : 

Chinese Sugar Cane and Prolific Pea 

“ “ &c., ; : ; 

“ “ Introduction of 

“ “in Illinois 

“ “ Sugar from 

“ “ Syrup : 

Correspondents, To, : : : 

Concrete, or Artificial Rock Houses 
“ and Mud Houses : 

“ Houses : ; : 

Crops and Weather : : : 

China Tree, value of the : : 

Chemistry of Tillage : : 

Chinese Prolific Pea— Mr. Fleming’s crop 
Coffee Pot— a great one ! : 

Camel Load : : 

Devon Cattle, sale of : : 

Ditching Hill Sides — a proposition 
Enlargement of the Southern Cultivator 
Enlarging the Cultivator : 

Education in Rural Districts 
Explanation, a word of : 

Fair, the Atlanta : : 

Fruits that never fail : 

Frait in Louisiana : : 

“ Preserving for Winter 
! Georgia Wine : : : 

j Grape Growing and Wine Making Made Easy 
I “ Rot in the* : : 

: Gardening, Landscape : 

^ ‘•Home Ji'urual,” The 
■ Ploney Crop — a great : 

I Hides and Lrather : : 

I Houses, Concrete, &:c., : 

[ “ Mud and Concrete 

i Hill Side Ditching — a proposition 
I IlluRrations : : : 

j Leather and Hides : : 

I Lime, Water, doc., : : 

! Landscape Gardening : 

’ Mustang W'ine : : : 

Mills, Sugar Cane : : 

'• Burton’s Sugar Cane 
Michaux’s Bequest : : 

Missi-ssippi State Agricultural Society 
“ “ Fair : 

Mail, seeds by : : : 

Muscadine 'Wine : : 

i\Ient and Position : : 

Negroes and Cotton : : 

Palma Christi : : : 

Peabody’s New Strawbeiry 
Peppermint Oil : : : 

plan s, rare, for disfribiition 
Preserving Fruit for winter 
Prolific Pea — Mr. Fleming's crop 
Russell's Magazine : : 

Reprints ; : : • 

Rural Districts, educations 
Renew your Subscriptions 
Reasonable Request : 


Page 27 
“ 120 
“ 121 
“ 186 
“ 248 
“ 26 
“ 26 
“ 58 

“ 58 

“ 59 


91 
156 
217 

217 
282 

90 
90 

Pages 90, 345 
Page 120 
“ 155 
“ 313 
“ 314 
Pages 90, 121 
Page 152 
“ 185 
“ 216 
“ 153 
“ 345 
“ 251 
Pages 282, 314 
282 
345 
184 
250 
184 

373 

218 
252 

374 
248 
345 
186 
281 
312 
345 
344 

26 
126 
154 

Pages 152, 185 
Page 185 
“ 150 
“ 216 
“ J54 
“ 185 
“ 344 
“ 58 

“ 121 
“ 248 
“ 154 
“ 186 
“ 345 
“ 248 
“ 282 
“ 345 
“ 282 
“ 345 
“ 24 

“ 154 
“ 185 
“ 186 
“ 283 

“ 185 
“ 216 
“ 218 
“ 344 
“ 345 


VI 


INDEX TO VOLUME XV 


Ulieuiiiatism : ; : 

Kot ill tlie Grajie : : 

Sufjfar Cane Mil s, IJoi'erK, &c. 

“ from t,he Cliiese Cane 
Sorglio Sucrar : : : 

‘ and Tinphee : ; 

Southern Cultivator, Enlargement of 
SentimontH, Our : ; 

Southern Agricultural Fairs 
Strawberry, Peabody’s new 
Tillage, tlie Chemistry of : 

Wine Test of Mr. Axt : 

“ I'remiums at the Louisville Fair 
“ Mustang : : : 

“ Georgia : : : 

“ Musc.adine : : 

Weather and Lhe Crops : 

Water Lime : : : 

Yield, a great : : : 


Page 345 
“ 345 
“ 121 
“ 313 
“ 153 
“ 344 
“ 184 
» 217 
Pages 248, 312 
Page 24 
“ 51 

“ 25 

“ 81 
“ 58 

“ 281 
“ 282 
“ 153 
“ 155 
“ 27 


IIOKTICIJLTIJRAL DEPARTMENT. 


Apples in the South : : 

“ Soutlieni Seedling best 
Apple and Pear Blight : 

Aphis, Cabbage : : 

Borers, remedy for : : 

Baptisia, description of a new 
Bene Plant : : 

Bulbous Flowers for the South 
Brandy, Catawba, in Alabama 
Cabbage Aphis : : 

Catalogue, Fruitland Nursery 
Curculio, the — queries : 

“ The : : : 

“ its liabits : : 

Corn, Green for the Table in winter 
Cucumber Vine, Prolific : 

Catawba Brandy in Alabama 
Dwarf Pears : : : 

Evergreens, removing : 

Edgings, Ornamental for the South 
Flowers for the South : 

Fruit Growing in the South 
Fruits that never fail 
“ for the South : 

Fruit Trees, low headed 
“ Grafting 

Fruit in Florida : 

“ Southern : : 

“ Preserved : 

“ in Polk County, Texas 
“ Ilealthfulnees of : 

“ Trees, protection of from frost 
“ “ to kill Inse 'ts on 

“ “ keep straight 

“ “ Planting : 

“ proper size of, for transplanting 
Fruits of the Season ; : : 

‘‘Fruitland Nursery” Catalogue, &c 
Fig, the : : : : : 

“ Culture : : : : 

Fustic, “ Vir<riha Lutca'’ : 

Farm Gardens : : : ; 

Grape Growing and Wine : 

“ Culture and Wine Making 
“ Kebecca ; : ; 

“ Isabella : : : : 

‘‘ Cropofl85fi : : 

“ Culture in Tennessee : 

“ (hdture , : : ; 

“ Growing and Wine Making Mf 
Grapes, Wine, Preserved Fruit 
“ Iveport upon : : 

Gardening, subsoil : : : 

“ moral influence of 
Gardens, Farm : 

“ Vegetable 

Grafting Fruit Trees 
Hedges for the South 
Horticulture, a few words on 
Haw stock for Pears : 

Irish Potatoes, how to raise and keep 
Insects, to kill on Fruit Trees : 
Luxury, a cheap ; : : : 

Longworth, N., letter from, on Strawberries 
Laurel Oil, for Flies, &.e. 


:ide Easy 


: Page 94 

Pages 123, 252 
Page 220 
“ 95 

“ 127 
“ 160 
189 

Pages 285, 349 
Page 288 
“ 95 

“ 123 
“ 190 
“ 221 
“ 283 
“ 256 
Pages 287, 351 
Page 289 
“ 32 

“ 130 
“ 191 
Pages 27, 92 
Page 30 
“ 248 
Pages 32, 252 
Page 60 
“ 95 

“ 125 
“ 130 
“ 160 
“ 285 
“ 287 
“ 316 
“ 318 
“ 190 
“ 374 
“ 375 
“ 2.54 
“ 123 
“ 63 

“ 125 
“ 222 
“ 62 
“ 29 

“ 376 
“ 366 
“ 377 
“ 29 

“ 95 

“ 284 
“ 314 
“ 160 
347 
“ 1.59 
“ 188 
“ 62 
“ 190 
“ 95 

“ 191 
“ 3.50 
“ 220 
“ 318 
“ 318 
“ 287 
“ 317 
“ 221 


Mushrooms, raising : : : : 

Orchards, Planting, special directions : 

“ plant Now! : : : : 

“ and Vineyards in South Carolina 
Pear, the — its Culture in the South : : 

“ Tree, longevity of : : : : 

“ Trees, preparation of Gi'ound for : 
Pears, profit of : : : : : : 

“ Winter 


Page 62 
“ 316 
“ 351 
“ 98 

Pages 28, 122 
Page 157 
“ 99 

“ 61 
“ 62 


“ on the Quince Stock, for the South, Pages 160, 254, 283 
“ on the Haw stock : : : . Page 220 

• “ and their Culture, notes : : : “93 

Pomological Society of Georgia ; : ; “29 

“ “ Report of Commit- 
tee ad interim :::::: “59 

Peach Worms :::::: “62 

“ Tree, the— Prof. Mapes’ system : : “ 123 

Plants, migration of : : : : : : “ 127 

“ new Native “ 2^ 

Pruning in Summer : : : : : “ 158 

“ proper mode of : : : : “ 254 

Roses, cultm-e of : : : : ; : “ 318 

Strawberry, the “ 125 

Strawberries, watering : : : : : “ 189 

“ their culture, best varieties, «fec. “ 219 

“ Letter on, Irom N. Longworth “ 317 

Scuppemong Wine : : : : : “ 221 

Trees and Shrubs for the South, Ornamental, Pages 126, 156 
“ Southern best ; : : : Pages 350 


“ Insects, &c. : : 

Tree Pseony — {Pmonia Moutan) : : : 

Vintage in the West — letter from R. Buchanan, Esq. 
Vineyai'ds, Southern : . : : : 

“ — Cost of Posts— yield per acre, &c. 

“ and Orchards in South Carolina 
“Virgilia Lutea” : : 

Wine : : : : 

“ at the South : : 


190 

375 

377 

31 

377 

98 

222 

286 

287 


DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND RECIPES. 


Apples, pure Wine of : 

Apple Jelly : : : 

Bacon, a new mode of saving 
Bleeding from a tooth, to stop 
Blueing for Clothes 
Bleaching Muslins : 

Citron, to preserve : 

Cans, sealing wax for 
Clothes, Blueing for : 

China, to mend broken 
Convulsions in Children 
Cholera Infantum : 

Cider, to Clarify : 

Gilding, to keep flies off 
Ham, to preserve : 

Jelly, Quince and Apple 
Knives, cleaning 
Leather Varnish 
Paint, a cheap 
Preserves, Water Melon 
Poison, antidote to 
Quinces for the Table 
“ and Apple Jelly 
Rats, to drive away : 

Sealing Wax for Cans 
Starch Polish, to make 
Tea, to make properly 
Vinegar : : : 

Wine, to make pure from Apples 
Water Melon Preserves : : 


Page 322 
“ 322 
“ 66 
“ 100 
“ 100 
“ 131 
“ 66 
“ 66 
“ 100 
“ 100 
“ 131 
“ 131 
“ 131 
“ 66 
“ 66 
“ 322 
“ 131 
“ 131 
“ 322 
“ 322 
“ 66 
“ 66 
“ 322 
“ 322 
“ 66 
“ 100 
“ 66 
“ 131 
“ 322 
“ 322 


ILLUSTRATIONS. 


Page 278 
“ 130 


Apiary or Bee House of Mr. LaTaste : 

Bee Hives 

Country Houses, Southern : ; : : “ 242 

Concrete House, at “Fruitland” : : : “ 242 

Devon Cow, “Helena” : : : : : “20 

“ “Kate Kearney” : : . : : “52 

Hop Tree “299 

Leveling Instniment : : : : : “ 115 

Level, Mr. Hardwick’s : : : : : “ 311 

Morgan Horses, “North Star” and “Green Mountain” “ 23 

Mill— a good and cheap Sugar : : : “ 272 

Plow, Harris’ Patent Subsoil and Turning : “ 176 

Sugar Mill— a good and cheap : : : “ 272 





DEVOTED EXCLUSIVELY TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF 


AGRICULTURE. 


YOL. XY. 


AUGUSTA, GA., JANUARY, 1857. 


NO. 1. 


WILLIAM S. JONES, PublirsUer, 


DANIEL LEE, 3I.D., nnd D. KEDMOND, Editors. 


See Terms on Last Page. 

^lautatwtt CtuEDiiin anb Pilisttllaiiij. 

WORK FOR THE 3IONTH=-( JANE AKA .) 

THE PLANTATION. 

We can add little to our previous hints under’thls head 
most of which we are constrained to repeat for the benefit 
of new readers: 

Plovjinix must now be pushed vigorously and steadily 
wherever the ground is not too wet. Turn well under 
all vegetable matter, that it may decompose, and yield 
nutriment to the coming crops of Corn, Cotton, &c. Plow 
tZeej^and if you have no regular subsoil plow, let your 
turning plow be followed in the same furrow, by a bull 
tongue, or broad coulter, drawn by a stout team. This 
wfill loosen up the subsoil, and bring into cultivation a por- 
tion of your land which heretofore has never been made 
available. 1 he miserable system of scratching to the depth 
of three or four inches, must be abandoned. No Planter 
in the South should pretend to plant a crop of Corn or 
Colton in less than 10 inches of mellow and well maiiurod 
soil. Try deep plovri^ g one year, and you will need no 
urging hereafter. 

J.I.n-Atre should now be hauled out, distri juted over the 
ground and turned deeply under. Scatter it evenly, so 
that all the plants may be fed. 

Spretad all trash; weeds, corn and cotton stalks, &c., 
over >our land and turn them under with the plow. Haul 
leaf mould from the hollows of the woods, and cnmpo't it 
with barn yard manure, lime and ashes, ijtforeyou spread 
it on your fields. 

Fill up gullies with logs, brush, &c , and ‘run ditches 
horizonally along ycur hill sides, to prevent washing 
Da'p plowing will also be found of great benefit on hill 
sides subject to wash. In ail cases plow horizontally, i. e , 
across instead of up and down the hilt sides. 

Repair old buildings— erect new ones— look over and 
repair your farm implements— take good careof your stock, 
and keep all work animals in good condition for tin 
hard labor they they will have to accompli.sh the coming 
aeason. 


A new year, and new era in Southern Agriculture and 
Plorticulture are now dawning upon us. We have the 
finest climate, and so.me of the richest lands under the 
sun— to say nothing of that system of domestic servitude 
which supplies us with the best and most easily controlled 
field laborers in tiie universe, and enables us to produce in 
vast quantities one of the earth’s greatest staples. Cotton ! 
— a crop whi'’h controls the destiny of nations. We should 
then, endeavor fully to appreciate our high position and 
manifold advantages, and let us this year, commence cur 
plantingroperations with the determination to make larger 
crops than heretofore — to practice a more thorough sys- 
tem of plantation and domestic economy — to avail your- 
selves of all the lights of agricultural science — to improve 
our old worn out fields — to keep out of debt — and by our 
earnest and persevering efforts, to elevate the vocation of 
the Southern Planter to its rightful position, at the head of 
all other professions. 

Nor, while devoting all proper energy and attention to 
the urgent and laborious duties of the plantation, must we 
forget the still lugher claims of home and its surroundings. 
Let us encircle this choicest and dearest spot of earth, 
with ever) ti/ing that can make it lovely and attractive. 
Plant all the choicest fruits of our sunny clime, in such 
abundance that tioi only your own household and servants 
but the pent up inhabitants of neighboring cities shall be 
fully and cheaply supplied. Scatter everywhere about 
your d, veiling sv.'eet and beautiful Flowers, to delight the 
eye and the senses, and bind the hcaits of your cliildren 
iiidisolubiy to the dear old homestead. Fill your Book 
shelves and centre tables, not only with tlie literature of 
.\gricuituie, but with all that may quicken the imagination 
and fancy, refine and elevate the sentiments, and improve 
the. heart; and thus let the wealth won by your enterpnze 
and skill, minister to the true enjoyment of life. 

THE VEGETABLE GARDEN. 

Sow early varieties of English Peas during the first fort- 
night in .lanuary, and continue to sow a succession every 
week daring tlie spring and early summer. Hoe and 
earth them up in dry, warm weather, and set a row of 
sticks to support the vines as soon as they require it. 

Where English Peas are wanted in large quantities for 
market, it wfill be found too laborious a task to stick them.. 


10 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


For that purpose they may be planted in single rows 2i 
to 3 feet apart, and left to ramble on the ground. Amongst 
the scores of varieties of English Peas the Extra Early is 
one of the best, yielding a fair crop of good sized pods. 
Dwarf Imperial, if planted at the same time, will succeed 
them, and Prussian Blue will come at last, and stand the 
heat better than most other Peas. 

Cabbages, Lettuce, RoAishes, Salsofy, Spinage, Po.r snips. 
Beet, &c., may now be sown on ground properly pre- 
pared. Choose a warm exposure — spade, manure, and 
pulverise your beds well, and do not plant your seed too 
deep. 

If you have Cabbage plants saved during autumn in a 
pit, recollect to give them full air, whenever the weather 
proves mild, that they may not become too weak. By 
doing this, you will have plants ready for transplanting 
during the month of February. Turnips should now be 
sowed for spring use. As they will stand a good deal of 
cold with a slight protection, the bed should be covered 
slightly with pine tops. The Flat white Dutch and Red 
Topped Dutch are the best varieties for early use. Colza 
or Rape should be sown now, and if the season proves 
favorable you will have a supply of excellent greens for 
table in the beginning of March. 

If Onions (black seed), have not been sown yet, it 
should be done at once. 

Irish Potatoes may now be planted for an early crop. 
Plant the sets 8 or 10 inches apart, on coarse litter, long 
manure or straw, in the bottom of deep trenches, 3 feet 
apart. Put a handful of manure on each set, and cover it 
with 5 or 6 inches of earth. Haul the earth well about 
the stems as they advance in growth, but do not cover the 
tops with dirt. 

Prepare all your garden implements' for use, this month; 
and get your ground spaded or plowed thoroughly, turn- 
ing deeply under all the manure or vegetable matter that 
you can obtain. Be sure never to stir the ground or plant 
any seed when the soil is wet. 

Hot Beds should be prepared the latter part of this 
month, in order that you may have a good supply of Cu- 
cumbers, Cabbage, Tomato and other plants for spring 
operations. 

THE ORCHARD. 

Plant out, immediately, all the finest varieties of Apples, 
Pears, Peaches, Plums, Api'icots, Nectarines, (Quinces, 
Pomegranates, Figs, Grapes, &c., giving the preference, 
in all cases, to trees and vines raised in the South. One 
tree set out now, is worth three set out a month hence. 
(See directions for planting trees in previous numbers.) 

Strawberry Beds may be planted any time before 
March, but the sooner the better. (See directions in 
previous numbers, last volume.) 

Orchards that have been allowed to grow up in grass 
and broomsedge during the fall and summer, should be 
cross plowed between the rows, leaving a space as far as 
the branches extend to be stirred up with the grubbing hoe. 
Be careful not to injure the roots by this working— dig in 
some well rotted manure, (muck, lime and ashes) — cut 
away all suckers, and leave a space around the tree open 
and mellow. As soon as warm weather approaches, this 


space may be mulched with saw-dust, pine straw, forest 
leaves, long manure, or any substance that will retain 
moisture. 

It your peach trees are suffering from the borer, now is 
a good time to apply scalding water. Bearing trees will 
require but little pruning, only taking out limbs, which 
are crowded or rubbing each other. Young trees should 
now be pruned, in order to give them a proper shape. 

MAKING FORAGE AND WINTERING STOCK. 

Dcring the winter months, when the husdandman sees 
his cattle and other animals pinched for food, he will be 
less unwilling than at other seasons of the year to listen 
to a few suggestions designed to aid him in the art o f 
making forage, and in wintering his stock. Information 
on this subject is not so general nor so thorough as the 
best interests of our readers demand. Sixty years ago 
Georgia exported considerable beef and other meat; and 
now her enterprising cultivators might, with the advan- 
tage of numerous railroads, and lines of ocean steamers, 
greatly extend the commercial interests of the State based 
on this department of productive industry. It is truly an 
inviting field for the employment of agricultural labor, 
skill and capital ; but all the processes appertaining to 
stock husbandry have to be studied as well as practiced 
before their defects and advantages can be weighed in an 
even balance. 

Our correspondent, ‘T. C. C.,” of Milldale, Miss., says 
he “can’t help pulling fodder,” although he regards it an 
unprofitable business. Others, doubtless experience diffi- 
culties similar to those which he has stated on page 309 
in our last volume, October number. Among other inter- 
esting statements, may be found the following : 

“I have tried cutting up corn and shocking it as I used 
to do at the North, but I cannot cure it one time in ten, as 
about that time "we have a shower every duy, and some 
times three or four of them. Provided we could cure 
stalk fodder it would not answer to feed horses and mules, 
as they could pick only a few blades off the front stalks in 
the rack and no more,” 

Our friend of Mill Dale will take no exceptions, we 
trust, if we remark that racks for holding hay and other 
forage for horses, are now discarded by all good managers 
who keep these animals. A tight box large enough to 
hold any forage that may he given them is far better, as it 
saves from getting under their feet the leaves of clover, pea 
vines, dry corn blades, or other fine and nutritious feed. 
In keeping domestic animals, the first lesson to be learned 
is economy in not permitting anything of value to be 
wasted, or turned to a less account than it is capable of. 
Not to study and practise economy in the management of 
stock is to set at naught the elementary principles of good 
husbandry. 

Rain every day, and sometimes two or three times in a 
day, would be as injurious to grass when being made in- 
to hay as to corn cut and put into shocks for making fod- 
der. The writer has had not a little experience in curing 
most of the green plants used at the North for wintering 
neat cattle and horses ; and he now has a frame barn 
over forty feet square on the ground, well filled with for- 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


11 


age made from corn grown in Georgia. Had it not been 
for the ravages of the “army worm,” early frost, and 
drouth, his hay crops, grown the first year of his South- 
ern farming on poor land near Athens, would have filled 
fwo barns of a liberal size for the State of New York. Poor 
land far from the sea coast, requires not only domestic 
manure in abundance, but that it be produced at the small- 
est possible cost. Now, if meat, the flesh of young mules 
and horses, and the wool and mutton of sheep will pay 
for their growth on the farm, it is clear that an indefinite 
quantity of stable manure may be had for nothing. 

Fixing our mind steadily on the great purpose of ascer- 
taining the best way to bring all the old fields of the 
planting States into fruitfulness and profit, we find the 
want of skill in the care of stock during the winter moi'ths 
to be the most serious impediment. Where millions of 
of cattle, horses, mules and sheep ought to be kept in a 
growing, or in a fattening condition, are seen animals 
badly fed, often dying before grass comes in spring, and 
almost universally w’asting their droppings — the loss of 
which makes the soil poorer for their subsistence thereon. 
To remove these defects in our present stock husbandry 
is an object of the first importance ; for it must precede 
the general improvement of the tilled lands of the South. 
We cannot afford to purchase foreign guano, or other fer- 
tilizers for that purpose. Science and experience alike 
teaches us that the subsoil and the atmosphere will yield 
the food of agricultural plants in sufficient quantity to en- 
rich the surface soil. Nor does the consumption of these 
plants by animals materially impair their value for mak- 
ing either rich mould or minerals at and near the surface 
of the ground for the nourishment of growing crops. If, 
however, the excrements of our animals, formed of ingre- 
dients taken from the soil, be not restored to it again, the 
land so treated must lose some of its fertility and value 
every year. But as plants can be made to draw largely 
on other sources than the surface soil for their aliments, to 
return to the latter all the manure that may be made from 
said plants is a sure process for increasing both the fruit- 
fulness and value of arated fields. This is entirely prac- 
ticable without the intervention of domesticated animals) 
but less profitable to one who knows how to make money 
by stock growing. For this purpose, fodder pulling is too 
expensive; and, fortunately, it is wholly unnecessary, 
Where one has hundreds of acres of corn, he can afford to 
lose a vast amount of nourishment for stock, by leaving 
four-fifths of it in his fields to be gathered in part by his 
cattle in winter. But so much alimentary matter as de- 
cays in his fields unconsumed, involves a loss, provided 
the flesh of mules, and neat stock is worth more than 
the cost of gathering and feeding to them food already 
grown. Believing that forage can be produced at a 
liberal profit from corn, peas and grass, and finding thus 
far no serious difficulty in curing the plants named, we 
give our practice for what it may be worth. 

To mature the ear or ears on each stalk, we leave all 
the blades below them, and cut off the stalk just above the 
ear at fodder-pulling time. At the North this practice is 
called “topping corn.” The stalks and leaves so cut are 


set up in small shocks till cured ; and they should not take 
the weather a day longer than is necessary to dry them 
for the barn or stack. Such is brifly our plan for making 
good forage from stout corn. If the plants are compara- 
tively small, we cut them at the ground, or below the ears 
— higher or lower according to the size of stalks. Even 
large corn stalks if c’.^t and c”if-^d at the proper time, con- 
tain more than twice the nutritive matter per 100 pounds 
that IS found in cc n cobs which are often ground and fed 
with meal. Our remarks on this point are based on per- 
sonal exp rience in f eding a dairy of fifty cows for weeks 
on known weights of steeped cobs with meal, and steeped 
cut corn stalks, expressly to learn whether the stalk or 
the cob was the better alimentary substance. After corn 
plants are ripe, the elements, rain, dew, sunshine, frost 
and atmospheric air remove all soluble and volatile ingre- 
dients from them much faster than many suppose, if they 
are permitted to stand out singly in the field. Thus de- 
prived of their nutritive matter, old and weathered stalks 
are little better than small sticks of wood for feeding cat- 
tle. These facts apply to the stems of all forage plants, 
and indicate the reason why we urge the propriety of cut- 
ting and cui'ing all plants of this character, and of house- 
ing them, before they part with any of their most valu- 
able ingredients. In short, our system gives us first-rate 
hay at a cost not exceeding two or three dollars a ton — 
about the home value, dry weight, of good manure. 

We have not as yet erected an apparatus for cutting 
up and steeping large corn stalks ; but if we do not find 
the new Sugar Cane better than our old favorite maize for 
feeding stock, we shall endeavor to grow and work up 
corn to the best possible advantage. Indigenous to this 
continent, corn is the king of all American plants. If any 
plant from China can beat it, we shall rejoice thereat, and 
adopt it for making hay as well as sweetning. In this 
connection we will state that we have recently seen a fine 
dairy of thirty cows in the District of Columbia kept al- 
most exclusively on the Chinese Sugar Cane. The forage 
had been housed some months and the hard stalks v/ere 
cut up on a block of wood with a hand axe before they 
were given to the cows. They were eaten so freely, and 
gave such returns in milk and flesh as prompted the writer 
to procure sufficient to plant some forty or fifty acres for 
his own use. As much more may be done with corn 
plants than is now generally practiced, we are by no 
means sanguine that any cereal is better for our climate 
and soil. 

If we have got one that is equal to maize in economic 
value, its introduction will mark a new era in American 
agriculture. However useful the sorghum saccharatum 
may ultimately prove, it is destined to be seriously dam- 
aged by the over-praiseof its visionary advocates. There 
are few trees more valuable than the Morns MuUicaulis ; 
and yet the enthusiasm of a popular epidemic killed it 
outright. 

Both corn stalks and those of the Chinese Sugar Cane 
are best cured in shocks standing on their butts, on dry 
ground. We have made ten acres of pea vine hay the 
past season, and found more difficulty in the process than 
we ever had in making hay from broadcast corn. Not to 
lose the leaves of the vines, we treat them as we do heavy 
clover in making it into hay — handle as little as possible, 
and that carefully. It is idle to think of making hay by 
the hundred tons, which is needed on a farm of three or 
four hundred acres by putting it when green upon poles, 
or fences, or on scaffolds in barns or sheds. 

It must be cured on the ground where the plants grow, 
with no needless labor. One who cannot do this, will 


12 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


find it wise to let his stock pick up most of their living in 
forests and corn-fields during the winter. They must 
range far and wide, and drop their manure where their 
owners will never find it, To avoid this, many farmers 
at the North make large stacks of corn stalks on their 
■poorest land wdiich being fed out to cattle they leave their 
dropping near the stacks and where manure is most need- 
ed. ^This arrangement saves ail the expense of hauling 
out dung in the spring when other v/ork presses hard for 
the toil of man and beast. To have as little outside hay 
to the weather as possible, we have seen sixty tons put 
into a single stack, which when fed was hauled on an ox 
sled and scattered over the poorest part of the meadow. 
It is bad economy to make little fodder stocks. If you can- 
not afford a barn for shelter, do not damage half your fod- 
der by exposing it on the surface of a dozen or more small 
slacks. Give all your cattle the benefit of at least a good 
shed to sleep under nights, and have that well covered 
with dry leaves to keep them warm. Cows should be 
stabled. L. 


HAY MAIONG IN THE SOUTH. 

A Brief Essay ^ read before ike '■'■Beech Islo.nd Farmers’’ 
Clubf at the October Meeting. 

To the Members of the Club : 

Gentlemen — As it is expected that each member of 
this Club shall make a report of some experiment, I take 
this opportunity to present the following, on Hay 
Making : 

About the first of May, I had a ten acre lot of good 
river-bottom land plowed up, with double plows, from 8 
to 10 inches deep ; the land was then well harrowed with 
a good two-horse iron-tooth harrow, across the plowing, 
and then rolled with a ca5t iron two- horse roller, in order 
to make the surface as smooth as possible. The land vras 
soon covered with crab-grass. In consequence of the hot 
dry weather, I had almost despaired of realizing a crop : 
but after the heavy rain which fell about the first of Sep- 
tember it revived and grew off rapidly, and continued to 
improve until the latter part of September, when it was 
from two to three feet high, at which time I cut it with 
scythes. The plan I adopted for curing, was, to have 
what was cut in the morning turned over and stacked up 
about four or five hours after it was cut, and that part of 
it that had from 4 to 6 hours sun on it was then pat into 
common size shocks, and remained until the next day 
about ten o’clock, or until the dew was entirely off, at 
which time they were again opened and the hay again 
spread, and remained so until evening, vr hen it was put 
into shocks again, and remained so until the dew wms off 
the next day, when they were were opened and spread 
as above stated ; in the afternoon, such as wms sufficiently 
cured I had packed in the barn. 

I measured one acre and obtained from that 7,675 lbs 
of well cured hay, which I sold for 75 cents per cwt., in 
Augusta ; it was v/eiglied at the City Scales, and at that 
low price amounted to S57 56. At per hundred, the 
amount would have been S’76 75; at ^1 25 per hundred, 
^95 93; and at 50 per hundred, $115 12. These 
prices are not unfrequently paid for an article in no way 
superior. I think there were three or four acres in the lot 
as good as the one I measured; the balance not more than 
two-thirds as good. At the rate sold, the Vi^hole lot would 
amout to $460 : and of course still higher at increased 
rates, as shown above. 

1 would simply call the attention of the members to the 
fact that this crop has been made under unfavorable sea- 
sons, and if sold at the average price that Northern hay 
commands in Augusta, which is about $T ■ 50, it would 
amount to $920. or $92 per acre. 

My impression is that two crops may be taken from the 


same land by commencing earlier in 'the season, and there 
is no crop more profitable with the same amount of 
labor. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

Jonathan M. Miller. 
Goodale^ near Avgusta, Ga., Oct., 1856. 


EEVEE CUETUKE— LETTER FROM COL. H. J. 

C'aimoii. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — Engagements of an 
I unyielding nature have, for some time past, and until 
very recently, prevented an earlier notice of the many 
communications received And the numerous articles read 
by me in relation to the System I do so earnestly and ar- 
dently advocate, as agriculhirally soiiQdi to this section of 
country ; that is, to run every row — every furrov: — (and 
were it practicable, I would say, every foot-path — every 
scratch made by a plow, in going to or returning from 
work — and every rut made by a wheel, regardless of 
length, upon a dead level. I can truly say '‘Eight yards 
of uneven ground is three score and ten miles with me” — 
in this connection at least. 

This, I find, has recently very generally been alluded 
to, as “Col. Cannon's plan of leveling land ;” “Col. C.’s 
system of level rov/s and culture,” &c. This is all wrong. 
While I am, and ever expect to be, ready, if not fully able, 
to defend it, no claim of creator is put up by me in re- 
gard to it. It is not mine, and for aught I know, it may 
date back to, and before, the days of Babylon, 

In theory, even here, I know it is not new, and, if any 
credit comes to me, connected with it, it can only be that 
I have, to some extent, simply performed the humble part 
of a pioneer, in proving its positive practicabitity, its easy 
accomplishment, and its admirable adaptation to the pre- 
sent condition, the urgent, daily increasing, and gulliedly- 
glaring wants of South Western Tennessee and Northern 
Mississippi. 

“The very head and front of my offending 
Hath this extent, no more ” — 

Ten years ago I met with the first and only man in this 
section of country who advocated level rows and culture. 
He was a plain man, and 1 do not know v/hether he knew 
what the horizon was. I am quite certain he did not in 
this connection. From daily seeing our soil washing away 
and sometimes even sloughing off from us, (and this pre- 
disposition is constantly inereasing) my attention was at- 
tracted and thought \vas aroused. It seemed to me, theo- 
retically and philosophically, that the plan was correct, 
But, like others are doing now, I doubted, for some time, 
its practicability, paving determined to try it, and being 
compelled to leave home I hired this man to “level a field,” 
as he called it, in contradistinction to “circling with a 
fall.” But whether from a doubt of his own theory, or 
w'ant of success in reducing it to practice, or from wdiat 
cause I cannot say, I found, upon my return home, he did 
all of my work with a decided and easyly detected fall. 
This, in many instances, was anything but an improve- 
ment on the old straight up-and-down hill mode of run- 
ning the rows. The worst washes I have ever seen, on 
land, have been met v/ith where a “little fair ' was given 
the rows. 

Thrown, thus, upon my own resources, I went to work, 
determined, fully and fairly, to test this system ; to prove 
its truth or demonstrate its fallacy, and you have the re- 
sult, so far as my experience at Melton is concerned, in a 
complete and triumphant success. 

With me it is a thing accomplished. Euclid contains 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


13 


no problem more si'isceptible of a clear and satisfactory 
demonstration. I have around me and everywhere about 
me, the daily, the hourly, the visible, tangible evidence 
before my eyes at every turn on my plantation, and 1 no 
longer enact the part of a doubting “Thomas.” Have I 
not a right to be earnest tlien '? 

Xo ghastly gullies glare upon me— no sicldy hues, the 
,sad premonitors of premature decay, arrest my sympa- 
thetic vision in any of my arable land. Sometimes, 1 see 
a “small break,” easily remedied, and, invariably, as soon 
asthelevel is applied a fall is detected; frequently of 
only a few feet in length, but always a fill. 

This is no fancy sketch. It is too positively, painfully 
true, where the remedy is not applied. And where this is 
done the land is reclaimed, certain. 

I have engaged in tins cause and write for no empty 
and ephemeral eclat. In fact, my frienda so charge and I 
frequently feel that I am too much disposed to avoid what 
is commonly called newspaper notoriety. Ofxtself, it has 
never been otherwise than distasteful to me, and the only 
thing that induces this communication is a sincere and 
unalloyed desire to do good. I have enjoyed the great 
advantages of this system myself and seeing the great 
need of its general adoption, I freely, though feebly, offer 
them to others. 

Allow me here to say, if anything of interest or profit 
enures from what I have said or shall indite in this article 
the public is certainly indebted to an earlier enjoyment of 
it, from my having just read in the November number of 
the CiiUivator, the very clever, condensed and sensible 
communication from your clear-headed Florida correspon- 
dent, signing himself “B. F, W., Jr.” 

I want to know him and request his address in full It 
reached me just at a time when I was at home enjoying a 
short respite from other long continued and arduous agri- 
cultural labors. It comes to me as a most opportune re- 
minder of a determination I formed of writing once more, 
and somewhat more in detail, upon level rows and level 
culture — side hill ditches— the character of the surface 
and soil of our section of country, and especially in 
answer to “ B. C of Texas, to give him my vhx'j 
sim'^X& viodusoperoAidi, in accomplishing the work; thus 
saving the soil from washing away and enabling me to 
manure to advantage every slope, with a positive certainty 
of a retentive and proftabla return. He says he is seeking 
information upon this ^'-vexala question What I have, he 
is certainly welcome to. No truth ever came to me in a 
iiiore unquestioned though, as I think, underrated shape 
than the one he utters when he says : “There is, in my 
humble opinion, at least a four fold greater loss of fertil- 
ity on broken lands, from this cause alone” (washing 
away of the soil) “than from the crops grown upon them.” 
He might have made it forty-fold, without any forfeiture 
of my confidence in his truthfulness. It certainly approxi- 
mates if it does not overreach, that proportion of difference 
here. 

“B. F. W., Jr.,”' says; “Col. Cannon’s remarks on 
leveling hilly lands have excited a good deal of attention, 
and if one may judge from the comments of his brother 
planters, his doct ines are not altogether Comon-icalP I 
believe, .'’sHr as I have seen, I have the weight of author- 
ity, as well as numbers, with me, tUeoreticoUu at least, 
since I have explained, as I did in your August number, 
that it was the rows and not the surface that must be, 
made upon a level. However, be this as it may, I take 
pleasure in saying to “B. F. W.” that I have recently been 
actively officiating as a priest at the agricultural altar, and 
I regard his articled of faith as so decidedly orthodox ; in- 
deed, I may say, as S'> pleasurably and positively CoMon- 
kal, that I will most willingly undertake the easy and 
agreeable task of shriving him, and promise now to im- 


pose a very light penance for wdiatever of a heretical na- 
ture may be found in his creed. 

I hope he will allow me to quote lus last parapraph. 
Speaking of having all the “rows perfectly level,” he 
says; “If, instead of leaving this whole matter in the 
hands of overseers, planters would give to it the thought 
and personal attention which its importance demands, it 
would not be difficult for each one to astertain the plan 
best adapted to Lis particular locality.” 

The single liead of that holy man , John tlie Baptist, had 
to be taken to Herod “in a charger,” and here we have 
this whole — all-important — life and clothing tmestion pre- 
sented in a nut-shell, stamped indelibly with the high 
impress of Truth itself It comes iiome to the honest heart 
of every one, and cannot be added to or taken from with- 
out weakening its force. 

So, also, when he says : “that a long steep hill side, of 
stiff clay, or stony land, avill require different manage- 
ment fi'om a short gentle slope, having a light poroius soil ” 
I am disposed to agree with him, as far as the character of 
the soil is concerned at least, 

I am glad to have the very efficient aid of your 
practical Utica correspondent, Mr. Harimon, so far as the 
“level rows” are in question. That is the main point ; 
the deep corner-stone foundation of this system of security 
to the agriculturist of our particular section, if not of the 
entire South. And I am truly sorry, in his earnest advo- 
cacy of “side hill ditches,” he has felt compelled to locate 
me in the “mountains.” During the past summer I feit 
called upon to define my position politically, and Mr. 
Harmon now forces me to do so geographically , by say- 
ing in eonnection with my “mountain” home : “Col. 
Cannon, I have no doubt, has saved bis plantation in the 
stiff lands of Tennessee, where they grow corn, clover, 
grass, wheat, &c., where they have, from absolute neces- 
sity, a regular rotation of crops ; bnt that does not prove 
that the planters on the light lands of Mississippi, Ala- 
bama, Georgia, and South Carolina can, by his modus 
operandi, (dispensing with hill side ditches) save theirs.” 

I do not live in the “mountains;” and while I try to 
grow a little moi’e corn, wheat, clover and grass than any 
of my very clever neighbors, I must say to him, he has 
not only located me wrong, but he has, unintentionally 
done injustice, not to me, but to my section and soil. I 
live in the important county of Fayette, Tennessee, afew' 
miles west of our county seat, Sommerville, (Melton, pro- 
bably leadiiig to the mistake, being merely the euphoni- 
ous name I gave my plantation,) and cultivate as liglu and 
as loose and as easily washel off soil as any I ever 
saw in any one of the States named. Cotton, that Croesus 
of plants, is king here too, probably to too great an 
extent. And whether to al] of us he has that magic of 
Midas, his despotism is supreme, and his subjects, though 
sometimes murmuring, are always loyal. It is due my 
adopted and prosperous county I should state tliat her 
cottons yearly come in successfu.l competition with the 
best bales in the New Orleans market ; and when well 
handled in the field simnly, and well ginned, have never 
failed to command the very highest price paid during a 
season, “I speak that I do know and testify of things I 
have seen.” 

And I will just whisker, Mr. Harmon, that I nave a 
very clever friend living and cultivating land of the 
same character and soil in Shelby county, Tenn., Col. 
John Pope, who has come twice in competition with 
the world, once in London and once in New York, 
and each time his cotton has triumphantly borne oft’ the 
premiums. No! no! just now I would almost as soon 
think of “taking a tree” as the “mountain” home assigned 
me. So much as to my geographical position. 

Further, as to the character of our soil, surface, 

Our surface, vegetable mold— of a dark g' ey, to a choco- 


14 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


late color— varies in depth from 2 to 6 inches ; does not 
pack or frost up to any great extent. Underneath this we 
come to a loose, quite porous stratum, from 2 to 5 feet 
thick, on ordinarily level land, of what is here commonly 
called “yellow dirt,” which by exposure becomes greatly 
changed in color, and, as is very generally contended, 
ameliorated and productive. We then encounter the clay 
proper, if there is any pure clay in this country, of an 
impacted, but, as I think, of a positively impervious char- 
acter, greatly varying in depth. This, too, becomes, pro- 
ductive by exposure and admixture. 

Our very eminent State Geologist has promised me a 
visit this winter, when I hope to get a reliable analysis of 
all three strata. 

The general surface of the country is of an undulating, 
or rolling character ; so much so, at times, as to be pro 
iperly called “broken.” 

Now, with this description of our county and soil, if 
Mr. H. finds his differing so much as to call upon 
him to make side hill ditches as a necessity or as an ad- 
ditional means of security, all I have to say is, that that is 
a question he and I must each determine for himself, after 
a full survey of all the points involved. There are doubt- 
less sections of country whose surface and soil may ren- 
der them necessary, and I was not aware of the extent of 
my innovations until reminded by Mr. Harmon when he 
says : 

“As to the utility and absolute necessity of hill side 
ditching there has, so far as 1 know, been but one opinon 
up to the time of Col. Cannon’s address. And there 
should be but one still, and with the planters of the cotton 
growing regions, there is or cannot be but one opinion, 
and that is, without it the country is ruined.” This 
sounds a little dogmatical, but doubtless Mr. Harmon 
meant simply to apply it to the “cotton growing regions,” 
thus shutting down upon our very clever corner of Ten- 
nessee. 

Here, however, with the very sliglrtest emphasis, I will 
just say, my experience, based upon practice, too, enables 
me to dispense safely and profitably with the time, labor 
and land devoted to them, and that I simply regard them 
as a mere temporary safe-guard against imperfect work 
in our part of the country. 

So much for the ditch itself. Another and much more 
serious difficulty presents itself to my mind, in the direc- 
tion Mr. Harmon would and does give them. I under- 
stand his plan to be to run his rows level and give his 
ditches a fall. Within my knowledge the strongest ob- 
jection ever urged against level rows and level culture, 
has been the gresd; number of short rows and short, turns it 
necessarily gives you in filling in between the unequal 
widths of your level guide rows. 

And I freely acknowledge that there is some force in the 
idea, so far as the quantity of land you can plow in any 
given length of time is concerned. The two single points 
I would particularly present as fully answering this ob- 
jection is, whether the improvement in your lands and the 
necessary increase in your crops upon even a smaller cul- 
tivated area would not well warrant this course of pre- 
paration and culture, in comparison with the wretched 
system of more rapidly running over a larger though con- 
stantly wasting and more impoverished surface, with 
straight rows up and down hill. And next, the great bene- 
fit of level culture, not only in retaining the very hasty 
and sometimes very heavy and washing summer showers, 
but also of keeping and returning to the soil every leaf, 
every boll, blade, twig and stalk that grows, and every 
atom, of manure that is put upon the land. With this sys- 
tem, my poor gullied hill sides are actually becoming my 
best land and especially so for wheat and clover. 

'^Vit^WeveTwns anos moutons.^^ I dislike parenthesis or 
digression, and do not usually indulge in either, But, 


writing rapidly and without revision, you must now ex- 
cuse me. 

Then I ask if Mr. Harmon’s plan of level rows and 
ditches with a fall, will not almost indefinitely if not un- 
necessarily, add to this the only forcible argument against 
the system we both advocate, of level rows and culture, 
by cutting them in two wherever the ditches do, as they 
must invariably cross them '? 

In ar, ,ver to “B.C.,” of Texas, I will say, so far as my 
plan of work is concerned, that nearly the whole of my 
plantation was laid off by the old fashioned common raft- 
er level and a plumb. 

I would recommend, however, the substitution of the 
spirit level for the string and plumb. Three pieces of 
timber, 2 for the two legs and 1 for the cross piece are all 
that are necessary. The size of the timber or plank as 
also the length of span to be selected to suit the taste, size 
and strength of the operator. Twelve feet span and plank 
3 by 1 inch are sufficient. I prefer the rafter level to the 
table system, as being more accurate, though pos.sibly 
somewhat slower. Each foot of ground passed over and 
each slight inequality ofsurface is, by that plan, seen by the 
person harrying the level, and advantage can be taken of 
each. Never span a break, no matter how small. When 
necessary, move the feet back and always let the front foot 
rest on its edge, on a dead level. No additional water is 
thus thrown into it, and it only has to dispose of what 
falls perpendicularly on it.- Never fail to level the entire 
field, and on no account trust anything to the eye. The 
spirit level is to be attached to the cross piece or the string 
and plumb to the apex, if you use the plumb. The num- 
ber of guide rows, to depend on the character of the land 
and surface ; more numerous, as it is most broken. I 
generally make a hand, with a plow, follow the level so as 
to make no mistake in the guide rows, then a small chap 
with sticks or a hoe to mark the row, will answer and 
save some time and the labor of the mule. One of the 
best levelers I have ever met with learned under me, and 
I know him to be as ordinarily gifted, mentally, as one in 
a hundred. It is painstaking particularly that ensures 
success in this system, and any man of common sense can 
accomplish it. 

With all the condensation I could hurriedly convey into 
this hastily written communication, its length admonish- 
es me to stop. The field I have had to go over has been 
a broad one and I feel and freely own it has had but a 
feeble gleaner in it. Much has been omitted it might have 
been proper to have put in. Among other points I was 
anxious to compare the fall of the streams around us and 
especially of the Ohio and Mississippi, with the fall we 
give our corn and cotton rows, and thus show that, mak- 
ing every hydraulic and hydrostatic allowance, the ex- 
pression I used in my address, that “a fall of 1 inch to 12 
feet (the least ever given here — many double it) gives a 
fall of 36 feet 8 inches to the mile. Over such a fall a 
thousand rills course along your cotton beds at a speed, 
compared with which the current of the mighty Missis- 
sippi would present the appearance of eddy water,” was 
not too strong, but too painfully true. 

For the purpose of directing attention to this point, and 
without going into details, I will here simply furnish a few 
facts, which, I have no doubt, will strike many with as- 
tonishment, as they did me. The three miles of fall, at 
Louisville, is but a fraction over 8 feet to the mile, and the 
Ohio, from Pittsburg to Cario — including falls at Louis- 
ville — has but a fraction over 4 inches to the mile, and 
from Evanville to Cairo, but a small fraction over 2 inches 
to tbe mile, and the entire “mighty Mississippi,” from its 
source to its mouth, has but a little over 6 inches fall per 
mile, and I have no idea that at Memphis the fall is over 
1| inches, if that. And yet hundreds here are cultivating 
land, even where they have, so they say, “taken a great 
deal of pains and put a heap of work on it to save it,” 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


15 


with that “little fall” of which they speak, ranging from 40 
to 100 feet per mile ! 

Will the Editors be so good as to furnish me the fall of 
the Merrimack river, if you have it, or can readily procure 
it for me 1 

With a sincere desire for the continued and increased 
success of your able journal, and an ardent hope that a 
new year may inaugurate a firm purpose on the part of 
planters to go to work and determine this all-important 
question, each for himself, I remain. 

Yours respectfully, 

H. J. C \NN0N. 

Melton, {Sommervillc P. O.) Tcnn., Nov., 185G. 
CHINESE SUGAR CANE — NORTH AND SOUTH. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — There seems to be 
considerable variation in the samples of stalk and seed 
exhibited by different growers of the Chinese Sugar Cane. 
At the late National Fair, specimens shown by Prince & 
Co., of Flushing, Long Island, and others whose names I 
do not now recollect, as well as those exhibited in some 
Seed Stores of Philadelphia, differed widely from each 
other and still more widely from that which I obtained from 
you under the same name. The stalk of the Northern 
samples ranges from 10 to 12 and even 14 feet in height, 
while mine rarely exceed 8 or 9 feet. The diameters vary 
also from the largest size corn-stalk (say 2 inches or more) 
to not more than three quarters of an inch in some samples. 
Theirs has a rind much like corn — thin and comparative- 
ly soft and yielding. They differ in the structure of the 
celular tissue also — approximating more to the pith of the 
corn stalk than to the firm, hard cell of the true Sugar 
Cane. Their pith is but little more sacharine than corn 
stalks, while ours is so sweet as to rival the true cane, I 
notice also in some of these samples a disposition to throw 
down rootlets from the lower joints into the earth like our 
corn, which I have never noticed in the plant I grow. 

In the seed, also, I find marked differences, The color 
varies from reddish brown to black in the chaff, and the 
inner envelope is lighter in its hue, while the size in dif- 
ferent samples varies from half to double that to which I 
- am accustomed to see it attain. The seed is placed much 
more compactly in the head than mine. 

These differences are probabh. dependent upon the ad- 
mixture of pollen from other varieties ; perhaps from the 
Dourah or Broom Corn. It is possible they may be dis- 
tinct species, though it is scarcely, I think, probable. 

Some of the Seedsmen, to whom I refer, supply field and 
garden seeds largely to the South, and will doubtless dis- 
seminate their Cane seed also. I draw the attention of 
your readers to the subject, that they may be on their 
guard in purchasing this seed for the production of syrup. 
Disappointment must necessarily await those who shall 
cultivate this tall corn stalk cane for the sacharine juice. 

' Many of the Northern farmers have grown crops from 
• such seed as I refer to for provender, and so far as I can 
learn, speak of it in the highest terms of praise. It is at- 
tracting general attention as a forage crop, and will be 
very largely planted the coming season for that purpose. 
\ aluable as the Northern variety doubtless is in this re- 
spect, it will not answer for syrup. R. Battey, 

Rome, Go.., Nov., 1856. 


A Good Horse. — According to Abd-el-Kadar a well- 
bred horse is one which has : 

1. Three things long — the ear, the chest and the fore- 
arm, 

2. Three things short— the bones of the tail, the hind 
legs and the back. 

3. Three things large — the face, the breast, and the 
croup. 


HYDRAUEIC, OR WATER RA3I — REPLY TO 
Hou. Gai’uett Andrews. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — Your correspondent, 
Hon. Garnett Andrews, wishes irformation in relation to 
this most useful and economical machine, and I am pleased 
to give him such data to work upon in selecting one as 
his limited description of the stream, elevation, &c'., will 
permit. As Mr. A. has not given sufiicient particulars 
lor me to base the true calculations upon, I give him the 
following rule, which will enable him to make nearly an 
accurate estimate of the amount of water he may expect to 
receive at his door, viz : 

First ascertain the quantity of water flowing per minute 
or hour trom the dam or head, as nearly as can be done. 
This, with a ten feet fall, will elevate one-seventh part of 
the volume fifty feet, or one fourteenth part of one hun- 
dred feet high, and carry it to the distance of 250 to 300 
yards. A stream furnishing less thau 3 or 4 quarts per 
minute would not be worth the expense of ram, &c., for 
his elevation. The greater the length of pipe, the more 
friction to be overcome — the larger should be the dis- 
charge pipe. The greater the elevation or pressure, the 
more strength is required for each pipe. 

For rams and more accurate information upon the sub- 
ject, write to Messrs, W. & B. Douglass, Middletown, 
Conn., who* can furnish the proper size for Mr. A.’s 
stream. Very respectfully, R. B. N. 

Huntsville, Ala., Dec., 1856. 


A SOUTHERN DAIRY— REPLY TO “E. G. P.” 

Editors Southern Cultivator — Your subscriber,5“E. 
G. P.,” in the November number of your truly valuable 
paper, asks for the best and most economical plan for 
building a “Southern Dairy” on a large scale, &c.,” and 
also “what system of feeding will preserve cows in good 
condition and abundance of milk I” 

I will answer the first by stating that I have a subter- 
ranean dairy, twenty-five feet (at the bottom) below the 
surface of the ground, 8 feet long, 4 feet wide, 7 feet high 
inside, with a 4 inch flue passing up from the back end of 
this little apartment, through the earth to the height of 3 
feet above its surface. This dairy is situated on the north- 
western slope of the hill upon which ray house stands and 
entered on the lower side. It was first dug out, and 
widened at the bottom for the logs, and constructed thus ; 
The room mentioned as being 8 by 4 by 7 is walled up on 
3 sides and covered with square hewed red cedar logs 
nicely fitted together, and the fourth side being open as an 
entrance, is faced up with the same, and holds the ends 
of the side logs, as well as the stair case logs, secure- 
ly. The stairway or sloping entrance is walled up and 
covered like the room below, and ends upon a landing 6 
feet below the surface of the ground. It is here secured 
from intruders by a latticed door, which admits a current 
of air in summer to pass down and up through the flue. 
This landing is protected from rain, &c., by a simple shed 
roof, and is latticed on the east and west and open on the 
north, and extends to the ground on the south. It is en- 
tered by an ordinary pair of steps. 

The cost of the lumber out of which this dairy was 
built was less than $30, the work being done by my 
own servants, under my supervision. Since I built 
it (1848) we have never had the first pan of sour milk 
from it, neither have we had from it soft butter to put upon 
our table. Fruit, meats and fish keep sweet until con- 
sumed by the family. It not only keeps everything put 
into it, at a low' temperature in summer, butprevents Ireez- 
ing in winter. I do not hesitate to say that it is the most 
useful dairy I have seen, and I have examined many in 
other States. As “E. G. P.” wishes one on a large scale, 
I would advise him to have one built of cedar, stone or 


16 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


brick of the proper size and to adopt this plan. Nothing 
can be better. About once a month a little lime should 
be spread upon the dirt floor, to prevent unpleasant odor 
from spoiled milk. No water stands in this dairy, and 
but rarely any dripping from above. The whole (except 
shed roof) is covered up with earth to the common level 
and is well set in blue grass and sliaded by fruit trees. 

Keeping cows in winter being a subject of practical ex- 
perience with me, and one which I have taken much 
pride in, I think I can give your subscriber such informa- 
tion as will enable him and every one else, who follows 
my plan, to keep fine fat and healthy cows, and to enjoy 
the comforts of a large yield of rich milk and butter from 
fall until spring. 

My plan is this : To plant early in spring an ample 
stock of long orange Carrots and Sugar Beets, and in 
summer a crop of Ruta Bagas, for the number of cows to 
be kept. In summer my cows run at large, but are fed at 
night and morning with vegetable parings from the kitchen 
with a little meal siftings, and such trimmings of vines, 
grass, &c., as are thrown out of my garden. This treat- 
continues until frost, when we begin to feed moi’e freely. 
Cut shucks, hay, fodder or oats, with a little meal or bran 
on them, are then given as a bulky or filling up food, with 
boiled vegetable scraps and a little meal, twice a day. 
When vegetation is entirely killed, we keep our cows in 
stalls in cold and wet weather, and give each one a half 
bushel in the morning, and the same at night, of Carrots, 
Beets, or Ruta Bagas (washed and sliced) boiled with a 
quart of meal, a little salt, and any vegetable scraps which 
may be kept about the kitchen. We give also as much 
shucks, hay, fodder (cut up, with a little meal upon them) 
as they will eat up readily.' We have found this system 
to pay most liberally for the outlay. We keep two cows, 
both fine ones (native stock) and manage to keep one in 
good milking condition when the other is dry. Last win 
ter, for instance, our brag cow had a calf in December. 
She supplied our family of seven whites and six servants 
with the richest milk from two to three times a day, and 
allowed my wife to sell from S2.75 to S3. 50 worth per week 
besides. The cost of meal and long food, which 1 always 
purchase, did not exceed 12 ^ cents a day for this cow, 
while the roots were not estimated, they being grown upon 
my own premises. 

Such results as the above should not be anticipated in 
many instances, as there are but few cows which give so 
much milk. In fact, if made known, the truth would not 
be received by many of your readers. This system, how- 
ever, cannot be denied ; a sufficiency of long and boiled 
food, warm and spacious stalls, exercise in good weather, 
an abundant supply of pure water, are the true secrets of 
a successfuldairyrnan. After such wintering, more especi 
ally when they have had the range of a rye or barley lot. 
your cows come out in spring fat, sleek, and strong enough 
to supply themselves with food in summer; and are en- 
abled to escape those fatal diseases ‘dmllow-horn” and 
‘ffiollow-tail,” which by many are called ‘‘murrain.” 

Let “E. G. P.” protect his cows from cold and wet 
weather in winter, and he will find his stabled cows will 
give more milk and keep in better health, than those run- 
ning out when feed on double the quantity of food. 

The long orange Carrot is most productive here. The 
Sugar Beet is always cut short by the potato, or “blister 
bug and Ruta Bagas uncertain on account of dry weath- 
er. 

As for milk pans, I think tin, glass and stone-ware 
equally good. But neither will do unless scalded and 
sunned frequently ; otherwise they will cause the milk to 
sour and spoil very rapidly. Very respectfully, 

R. B. N. 

Huntsville, Ala., December, 1856. 


POULTIiY— BREEDS. ]>IA>AGE3IENT, &c. 

Editors Southbrn Cultivator — The September num- 
ber of your valuable paper having failed to my address, I 
write 1 1 say that you will furnish it if possible, as I am 
not willing to forgo the information to be gleaned from a 
single number. 

I will further improve the present opportunity by ask- 
from yourselves or some of your numerous correspondents 
a few plain instructions with regard to the rearing and 
proper management of domestic fowls : 

1st. Which breeds of hens lay best at different seasons 
of the year '? 

2nd. What description and preparation of food is best 
calculated to secure fine fowls for the table, and a plentiful 
supply of fresh eggs'? 

3rd. What is the very best mode of treatment to be per- 
sued with young chickens and Turkeys'? 

4th. And above all, how may that arch-enemy of young 
poultry, the tcart, be prevented or cured 'I 

5th. I would be glad to know what author you con- 
sider most reliable upon the subject just mentioned^ 

A speedy answer to the foregoing questions will be very 
thankfully received by Mrs. M. B, W. 

Mobile, Ala., Dec., 1858. 

REPLY OF THE EDITORS. 

1 st. The best layers, for the winter months, when eggs 
are most valuable, are the short-legged, plump and well- 
bred Brahmas or Shanghais, A cross of the Game upon 
the Shanghai or Brahma, produces a fine table-fowl and a 
good layer — though the infusion of Game blood renders 
this cross somewhat quarrelsome. 

2nd. Mixed food such as corn, (cracked or soaked) 
wheat screenings, boiled potatoes, rough rice, Indian meal 
dough, or baked corn bread, (without salt) with a plenti- 
ful supply of gravel, old wall plaster or pulverized 03 'ster 
shells, and an abundance of water, will keep your fowls 
in the best condition. When put up to fatten, they 
should be fed 3 or 4 times a day with a dry dough made 
of sweet potatoes and meal, with a plentiful supply of 
water and pounded charcoal. Give them no gravel; keep 
their coop and feeding trough perfectly clean, and they 
will be fit for the table in about 10 or 15 days. If kept 
up longer, they begin to fall away in flesh, and are apt to 
become unhealthy. 

3rd. We have had little experience with Turkeys. 
Voung chickens should be fed on hard boiled egg and 
meal dough for the first day or two — afterwards, on boiled 
potatoes, meal dough, wheat screenings, &c. Finely- 
chopped fresh meat is also of great service in feeeding 
young chickens, supplying the place of insects, and mak- 
•ing them grow off vigorously. 

4th. If the fowl is particularly valuable, apply to the 
warts a weak solution of caustic, or cut the wart off and 
bathe the part with strong salt and water. It is a loathe- 
sorne disease and very difficult to cure, and we generally 
prefer to kill the fowl at once. As a preventive, keep 
your poultry-house perfectly and well ventilated — 

mix a little surphur in the food of your fowls from time to 
time, and keep a sunken tub full of fresh hard-wood ashes 
under cover, for them to dust themselves in. 

5th. Bement and Browne are our best American au- 
thors ; but the most perfect treatise on Poultry in ourpos- 


17 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


session is an English work entitled “The Povltry Boolc^'^ 
by Rev. W. Winfield and G. W. Johnson, Esq. It is 
beautifully illustrated with colored engravings from life. 

It may be ordered through C. M. Saxton & Co., of New 
York. PublisJied in London, by Wm. S. Okr & Co, 
Price, S5. 

[Since writng the above, we have received the nev: 
edition of Bement's “American Poulterer’s Companion. ’ 

It is greatly enlarged and improved, and in all respects a 
;apital work. See further notice, elsewhere.] 

ANGORA GOATS. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — As this class of do- 
mestic animals are occupying some space in the public 
consideration, and several gentlemen are aiding in giving 
information the on this very interesting subject, with your 
permission I will offer the following extract from Dr. 
Abraham Reese’s “ Cyclopedia or Universal Dictionary of 
Arts, Sciences onid Uiteraturef upon the authority of 
Hasselg, Buffon and Pennant. 

“The Angora Goat is, in general, of a beautiful niilk- 
u-hitc color, with short legs, and black, spreading, spirally 
twisted horns. The hair on the whole body is disposed 
in long pendant spiral ringlets ; its ears are pendulous, and 
theghorns of the female instead of divarcating, as in the 
male, turn backwards, and are much shorter in propor- 
tion. 

“In its native country this animal is highly valued, and 
with sufficient reason too, for it is a source of riches to 
its cultivators; the finest and most costly robes of the 
highest classes in Turkey, being fabricated of its silky 
fleece ; the price it bears is very great. Most of the Euro- 
pean nations have agents for purchasing the valuable wool 
of this animal, which, the Turks, it is reported, will not 
allow to be sent out of their Empire in a raw state, but in 
the form of thread, a multitude of the poorer orders obtain- 
ing a livelihood by spinning it. The most considerable 
manufactory of camblets, fabricated with this wool in 
Europe, appears to be those of Lisle and Ameins, in France. 
In order to preserve this beautiful hair in good condition, 
the goatherds of Angora are peculiarly careful of these 
flocks, washing and combing them with the greatest dili- 
gence ; and it is said that change of pa.sl.ure frequently 
makes them lose their beauty ; this variety being natur- 
ally confined to narrow bounds, and produced only in the 
tracts surrounding the towns of Angora and Bubazar, two 
places situated in a small District of Asia Minor, not far 
from Smyrna, and remarkable for producing a peculiar 
race oisheep, cats and rabbits, as well as goats, with hair 
of uncommon length and fineness.” 

In the plates of natural history in the same work may be 
found the likeness of an Angora male goat that will be 
found sufficiently resembling those of Mr Peters in the 
Southern Cultivator to identify the family appearance. 
I am, mysfelf, perfectly satisfied that Mr. Peters’ Goats 
are what the world knows as Angora; I can find no 
such goat as “Cashmere” in any work I have examined. 
Why not, then, drop this innovation, “Cashmere Goat,” 
and use the proper phrase, “Angora Goat I” and then the 
ballance of the intelligent world will know what we are 
talking about. 

These goats are, no doubt, very valuable in and about 
Angora. Whether their Angora gloss will be retained in 
our climate and pa'slure must be d termined by experi- 
ment. Whether the price of labor with us can justify 


vmshing and combing goats as the Angora goatherds do 
is another interesting problem. And also time and further 
experience, must settle the question whether the mixture 
of the Angora with our common goats, will be as valuable 
as some of our ardent people now think. And lastly, the 
proper mode of raanufactoring the Angora Goat hair to 
profit, is the crowning result necessary in order to estab- 
lish the true value of this family of goats in this country. 

Agricola. 

CHINESE SUGAR CANE IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Editors Southern CuLTiVATCtR — As out door oper- 
ations are suspended in consequence of rain, I will again 
trouble you with a few inquiries; not on Bees, however, 
or the production of honey, baton a producer of another 
one of the sweets of domesfic life, to wit: the Chinese 
Sugar Cane, or Sorgho Sucre. 

We received a few seeds late in June last, and although 
we thought it a humbug, we planted them about *he 1st 
of July, tlie stalks grew 10 to 14 feet high, matured to the 
very top, yielding a fine crop of seed, w’hich were duly 
taken care of, more for the novelty of the thing than any 
thing else. But opportunely, Mr. R. Peters hasgiven us 
the results of liis experiments, which proves that there is 
money in it, and in order to test the matter fairly, I wish 
to know the cost of Mr. Peters’ Mill, also the number of 
kettles necessary. I shall plant one to twm acres of the 
Cane next spring. Any information relative to its man- 
agement and culture will be thankfully received. Many 
thanks to Messrs. LaTaste and F. T. for their responses 
to my inquiries on Bees ; I siiall profit by their advice. 

A. T. Sherrill. 

Charleston, Miss., Dec., 185G. 

Remarks. — The iron work of the Mill used by Mr. 
Peters cost S'L’), in Atlanta, Ga. The wood work can 
be made cheaply by any good negro carpenter. You will 
find the information respecting kettles, &c., in the pamph- 
let which we sent you per mail. — Eds. 

FGHOEli FEANTS. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — “W. H. R..”of Madi- 
son county, asks for something from which he can make 
fodder and not interfere with cotton picking. Having 
tried many things, so as to dispense wdth fodder pulling 
on account of the labor, as well as the loss to corn, it may 
be that I am able to aid him. 

Millet grass, seed usucdly for sale by D.aniei. Swett, in 
Vicksburg if sown about the 10th or 15th of April, on 
good land, well plowed and harrowed, then harrowed in, 
will be fit to cut when first the heads begin to change 
color, say the 20th July to 1st August; do not delay cut- 
ting for any seed to ripen, save a part of field for seed. On 
the ricli land in Tennessee I have known 1^ to 2 bushels 
sown per acre. I sow 1 bushel on good land, and have 
cut fully 2 ton per acre. The richer the land the more seed 
is required to make the stalk small and less woody. 

The Guinea grass you call, sucii as I saw at Col. R. 
Peters, and at the Beech Island Farmers’ Club, planted 
about 3 by 2 and cultivated the first year, on rich land has 
made, the second year, 6,000 lbs. of hay, weighed. It is 
preferred by horses to fodder. 

The Pea sown in drills, say 15th of March, .worked well, 
will be fit to cut with a sharp “briar hook” (a short stiff 
scythe blade) when in bh)om and a few ^ grown peas are 
formed. Make a rail pen and floor it; put in about 2 
feet of vines on a diy, clear day ; then a layer of rail, and 
anotUer layer of vines and so on ; cover with boards to ex- 


18 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


dude rain; as they wilt and settle down, there is air 
enough to cure. No better food is needed. 

Egyptian Millet, step-dropped in Si feet rows (rich 
land) 10 to 15 seed 2 feet apart, will bear several cuttings, 
and when you can spare the time. 

Bermuda Grass, planted on a rich, rather moist low 
ground and kept rich, will give full 2 tons of hay per acre. 
It has given more o« rich land. 

Clover can be grown in Madison county; sow 1 bush- 
el to 8 or 10 acres, with | bushel of oats, say in September 
or October, in a cotton field — the picking of cotton will 
cover the seed. I have made 2 cuttings a year. 

I have now for planting, Muticole Rye, Clover, Blue, 
Orchard, Timothy and Red Top or Herds, Stanford’s Wild 
Oat and Rescue Grasses. Intending to test all, but mostly 
as grazing grasses. 

By the way, I forgot Gama grass. I brought it here in 
1834, not knowing it waS indigenous and pressed it for- 
ward until the demand for cotton land encroached on my 
Gama patch. I have watched it for days and weeks, and 
can safely say that it grew here 1 to 1^ inches per day, 
and was cut three or four times per year, yielding a good 
feed. Some aver it is coarse, but not too much so for 
stock to destroy it ; if permitted to run on it they keep it 
eaten down to the earth. I admit, like too many others, T 
run after new things, for I do not see what we can have 
to desire over and above the articles I now name as for- 
age plants. 

The Patent Office sent me, years ago, a few seed of the 
Multicole Rye ; it was sown too late to make any grain, 
and from the immense quantity of grass I have been in- 
duced to oi'der a bushel, from Pitkin & Brothers, in 
Louisville, Ky., price $1.75, with a view of testing it fully 
on pine land, drilled and on rich land sown broadcast, 
and to be cut as a forage. 

I think we need pasture for winter more than anything 
else. If we had pastures our hogs would cost nothing but 
to harden meat as is thought needful, and our work ani- 
mals and cows would fare better. 

The Rescue, with me, (I am very certain I have had it 
10 years,) does not make grass enough. I have not had 
enough growing to test satisfactorily and hope, “by your 
assistance,” to do so the coming year. I say above I have 
had the Rescue — a friend sent me, from Texas, about 1844 
a seed he called a variety of the Musquite. I planted it in 
a corner of the flower garden and, when absent, a servant 
cleanedit up-, I only got one bunch, those I saved and put 
away so carefully that I have never seen them since. But 
I cannot be mistaken in the plant I think. To think I 
lost so profitable a seed— $20 per bushel— think of it. 
Shanghais and Rescue ! Yours truly, 

M. W. Philips. 

Hinds County, Miss., 1856. 


COfVCRETE BUIEDINGS — MR. SAXTON’S 
Octagon House, its Cost, 4fec. 

D. Redmond — Dear Sir: Yesterday I received the en- 
closed letter from Mr. Saxon, near Adairsville. I send it 
to you, thinking It might answer a valuable purpose in 
connection with my former letter on the subject of con- 
crete. Mr. Saxon’s house is very much admired by all 
who have seen it. It is certainly a striking fact that so 
large and handsome a house could be built at an expense 
of $1100, not including the labor of eight farm negroes, 
at spare times from the crop. 

If you are not wearied with the subject, permit me to 
add one or two extracts from Lieut. Wright’s work on 
the subject of concrete, in addition to those previously 
set you : 

“In England, concrete, as a substratum, especially on 
dangerous soils, is fast superceding every other material 
at the present time. The materials usually employed in 


the manufacture of concrete by the English, are hydrau- 
lic lime, sand and some other material like coarse gravel, 
or stone or brick fragments. 

“The lime, fresh from the kiln, is first ground to pow- 
der, then mingled with the other ingredients, properly 
proportioned, and the whole well blended in the dry state, 
in order that the slaking of the lime may be delayed to 
the last possible moment. When the materials have been 
thoroughly incorporated, water is added in sufficient quan- 
tity to bring the mixture to the consistency of good mor- 
tar, and the mass again turned over with the shovel once 
or twice, with all practicable expedition. 

“The foundations of some of the most important struc- 
tures in England have been built entirely of this kind of 
concrete, and constructors of that country unite in 
giving it an excellent character. 

“Concrete admits of a great variety of applications. 
Arches, and indeed entire buildings, have been construct- 
ed of this kind of material alone, and it furnishes an easy 
and cheap means of forming the shafts of columns, the 
ornanamental work connected there with it, and many 
kinds of artificial stones.” 

It may interest you to know the cost of a cubic yard of 
concrete, as used for the foundation of the sea wall at Fort 
Warren : 

Mortar— ) Cement, 286.37 lbs— 3 cub. ft. paste, $1 28 


8.17 cub. fl. 5 Sand, 674 lbs.— 6 1-2 cub. ft. dense, 17 

Gravel, 25.13 cub. ft 24 

Making mortar, 0.064") 

Making cement, 0.109 t noc j oi 

Transporting do. 0.051 ,!■ 0 06 • 31 

Paoding do, 0.031 J 
Tools’ &c 11 


Cost pr cub. y’d, concrete foundation, $2 11 
Analysis of cost per cubic yard of common roofing con- 
crete : 

Lime, . 28 cask, at 70 cents - - - $0 19 

Cement, 180 lbs., at 1-2 cent - - - 50 

Sand, .54 ton, at 50 cents - - - - 27 

Granite fragments, .57 yard, at 70 cents - 40 

Gravel, . 54 ton, at 50 cents - - - - 27 

Making mortar, 138 yard, at 39 cents - - 14 3-4 

Making cement, &c., _____ 59 


Cost per cubic yard - - - - $2 76 3-4 

The same cement would cost more at Augusta than the 
above estimate, but this difference would be more than 
made up by the greater cheapness of the other materials 
and of slave labor. A smoke-house built and arched with 
concrete would be inaccessible to vermin, and indestruct- 
ible by fire. A spring-house built and arched overhead 
with concrete, would be exceedingly cool in summer. If 
an estimate of the cost of a neat paling of wood be made, 
it will be found to exceed the cost of a congrete wall ; the 
latter will be more ornamental and vastly more perma- 
nent. The coping should be made of cement concrete. 

I will endeavor to obtain from a Mr. Rogers, of this 
county, estimates of cost of a very large three-story con- 
crete house, which he has just built, and will send it to 
you when I obtain it. I am yours, truly. 

C. W. Howard. 

Spring Bank, near Kingston, Ga., Sept., 1856. 

Rev. C. W. Howard — Dear Sir: Your favor of the 
— ult., requesting a description and estimate of my con- 
crete building, was received, and Contents duly noted. 
Several considerations seem to forbid my answering yours, 
as I would wish. The pressure of business denies me the 
privilege of writing by daylight. I have been very care- 
ful to item all my moneyed expenses, and to some extent 
the amount of labor. To collect all the memoranda, and 
make a faithful exhibit, would require more ti,me than I 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


19 


can possibly command, I will give you an outline, how- 
ever, and at a future time, if necessary, give you a full 
report. The figure of the house I have now in progress is 
an octagon, of 19 feet to the side, two stories high. First 
story, 11 feet from floor to ceiling; second, 10 feet 
There are four rooms, each, above and below, of an aver- 
age of 330 square feet. These rooms, from the necessity 
of the case, are irregular hexagons, all having fire-places 
in a common centre. Besides these eight rooms, there 
are eight triangular ones, as per exhibit herewith sent. 
The chimney occupies the centre, being eight feet square. 
The roof has 2 1-2- inches rise to the perpendicular foot, 
and projects 5 1-2 feet on all sides. The roof is of can- 
vass, with three coats of Croton lead and one of sand. 
There are 22 windows and 19 doors. 

I estimate gravel at 5,000 bushels, and rock at the same. 
I will give you my expenses up to the present lime; 

Paid laborers at different times and for various 


purposes, - - ' - - - - SlOO 00 

Paid carpenters 200 00 

Cost of roofing, including lumber, canvass, 

paint, &c., - - - - - -150 00 

Lumber in the aggregate - - - - 175 00 

Paid brick masons, 8 00 

Paid for brick, (4,600,) 30 00 

Contract for plastering 200 00 

Carpenters’ work on hand, - - - - 30 00 

Painting yet to be done, - - - - 50 00 


Total amount of moneyed expense, - - S942 00 


This is exclusive of nails and implements used in opera- 
ting. 

The amount of labor done by my own hands, (8 in num- 
ber,) would probably be worth 8 or S900. This labor, 
however was done at times when hands and teams were 
not essentially needed on the farm. In fact, I have never 
made a better crop than last year. I will say, cover- 
ing all contingencies, the house will not exceed ^1,100; 
and when completed, will be worth ^$.3000. Had I time, 
I could give you ray plan of operation, and my reasons 
for it. Like all new projects, were I to build again, I 
should vary in some things greatly, viz : I should use 
more lime in proportion to sand and gravel, but less mor- 
tar in proportion to rock. The cement should be rich. 
To obviate the expense, I would then break my stone and 
beat them into the mortar ; compression being an essen- 
tial item of a strong wall. The foundation should be o 
stone for two feet above the surface of the ground. 

Yours, truly, R. C. Saxon. 

Pleasant Hill, Ga., Sept., 1856. 

TO CURE FOOT EVIL — BACON. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — I notice the inquiry 
of “Felix,” in the September number, for a “Sovereign 
Remedy for Foot Evil.” I have suffered some loss among 
my own stock from this disease, and believe, from the 
trials I have made myself and the results of the experience 
of others, that the following is a sure remedy, viz: As 
soon as you discover any lameness in the anim.al, exam- 
ine the foot, and you will generally find considerable 
tenderness, just at the edge of the hoof and hair. Wash 
the foot well with warm water and soap, dry it, have 
ready a strong solution of sulphate of copper, (blue 
stone,) and with a swab, made by tying a rag to a small 
stick, rub the solution well in, round the edge of the hair, 
where it appears to be affected ; next morning grease it 
with fresh lard or oil, to stop the action of the blue-stone; 
at night wash again and apply the solution, and thus con- 
tinue until the disease is stopped, which seldom requires 
more than three applications. Then tie a {fiece of cloth 
round it, to keep the horse from gnawing his foot, and let 
him rest until well. If applied in time, this will, I be- 


lieve, in most cases, prevent the loss of any portion of the 
hoof. 

To Preserve Bacon. — I noticed, also, the article on 
“Hogs, Pork and Bacon,” which has induced me to give 
you my experience in preserving Bacon from the skipper. 
The plan is simple and efficacious. When your meat is 
fully dry, have some oak bark ground, (the same as pre- 
pared by tanners,) and pack the meat away in it, being 
careful not to let the pieces touch each other. In this 
manner meat may be kept bright and sweet, free from 
skippers, for two years, and how much longer I cannot 
tell, as two years is the extent of my experience. I thought, 
and also those who eat of it, that the meat was as good as 
any that we had ever tasted. There is no unpleasant taste 
imparted to the meat. M. 

Dahlonega, Go,., Sept., 1856. 


BUIIiDINCf CEMENT CISTERNS. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — As I think the month 
of October one of the best for cistern building, I hand you 
the latest improved plan, viz : Let the cistern go down 
perpendicular to thi-ee feet of the bottom, which should then 
have the shape of the larger and of a hen’s egg. The 
next improvement is in having the cistern twenty or 
twenty-five feet deep, which enables you the more easily 
to keep the water cool. The next is not to fill the cistern 
nearer than eight feet of the top, and the last to cover the 
cistern with charcoal or saw dust, as they are non-conduc- 
tors of heat. 

Permit me to suggest the use of cement to make troughs 
for keeping milk cool during the summer. Say for shal- 
low vessels, as butter plates, &c., two inches, then the 
next four inches, the next six, the next eight, &c., increas- 
ing by two inches. 

_ . 

~ T4 

|6 

]8 


The value of the cemented trough is that, however, long 
it may be without water it never leaks and then two 
hours is ample time (if it would dry) to make half a dozen. 
The same way a bathing establishment can be made say 
six feet wide and twenty-five yards long, five feet deep for 
caching children and ladies to swim, with double can- 
vass around to protect them from the sun, &c., with suit- 
able dress for each sex. Let the South teach all how to 
swim, without regard to age or sex. It should be done, 
for I have known the necessity a time or two, and have 
long been a great advocate of teaching each sex the art 
of swimming. 

Can any one of your numerous, readers suggest a more 
suitable plan than the one I have mentioned'? How easily 
one of these could be attached to the artesian wells of 
South Alabama or to any one of the many springs in the 
Southern country. If the water is too cool, convey it some 
distance in flat troughs through the sun. In w’inter let 
there b*e no water in them lest they are broken (being im- 
pectly made) during cold weather. The water in cisterns 
is rarely frozen, being so deep in the earth and covered 
over carefully. 

I was glad to see that Col. R. M. Johnston, of your 
State, favors the idea of teaching ladies to swim, &c., &c. 
I am greatly pleased with the Address. G. L. J. 

Cmnming, Ark., 1855. 

Our Government lands cost Si an acre on an aver- 
age, and champagne S2 a bottle. How many a man dies 
landless, who, during his life, has swallowed a town- 
ship, trees and all ! 


20 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


c 



DEVON COW, HELENA. 

Calved June Sth, 1851. Bred by and the property of C. S. Wainwright, The Meadows, near 

RMnebeck, N. V. 


COTTON-=.CUT-WOIlM— UUST-.^llOT. 

The Cotton crop of this State will be unusually short. 
The long drought of the summer caused the weeds to be 
small and the forms to shed, and the cut- worm in the 
spring, the army or grass-worm of the summer, and the 
rot in the fail have materially diminished the crop of this 
year as compared with the last. 

Prominent among the ills the cotton plant is heir to, is 
the cut worm. It is the same worm that annoys the gar- 
dens. Last year it destroyed about one third of my cot 
ton crop, and was equally attentive to that of a friend and 
neighbor, on an adjoining plantation. No one else in the 
neighborhood has been sensibly injured by it, I then se- 
lected a dozen of those worms and fed them in a glass jar; 
they ate voraciously, and after attaining their full size, 
and being thoroughly gorged, they lay stupid and passive, 
under the process of transformation to the chrysalis state, 
in which they are incapable of locomotion. After re- 
maining in this state some two or three weeks, they came 
out moths or butterflies; then laid their eggs in great 
quantities on the under side of thecotton leaf, and died. 
The eggs hatched a day or two after they were laid, and 
the young brood commenced a vigorous attack on the leaf 
which nursed them. The cycle of their lives, from the 
egg to the moth, is about six weeks, varying a few days, 
according to circumstances, such as the weather and 
food. 

This year, these worms commenced their work of de- 
struction on my ph^ntation and in my immediate neigh- 
borhocd about the last of April, when the stand of cotton 
was fairly up ; and from the quantity, then to be found 
around the young plant, threatened, in a very short time, 
utterly to destroy the stand. In consultation with my 
friend and fellow-sufferer of the last year, we agreed that, 
as we had then failed by the use of the hoe and plow to 
check their progress, the only effective mode of protecting 


our crops was to hunt the vwrms and kill them. My hands 
engaged in this work for a few mornings, but as the 
worms appeared to be doing but little injury, we quit it. 
They were grown, and going into the chrysalis state. 
Having gained some knowledge of their habits, and fully 
believing that we were to have another swarm dui’ingthe 
season, I had the fields infested with them cut out to a 
stand, and the cotton put in first rate condition for grow- 
ing off rapidly, so as to be beyond the reach of injury 
from the coming generation. Thousands of the chrysalis 
were exposed by the scraper and hoe at the depth of about 
two inches from the surface, and the hands in working 
were directed to destroy them. 

A little more than a month after, the worms appeared in 
great force, but most abundantly in cuts where they had 
not been before noticed or hunted. All hands were at 
once set to work in gathering them, and kept at it from 
early dawn until breakfast every day for three weeks. 
The process was very simple. Before sunrise the worms 
were on the cotton, and easily caught and bagged in tin 
cups and gourds ; as the day advanced, they hid in the 
earth at the roots, leaving unmistakeable signs of their 
presence on the young plant; and thus directed, the hands 
caught them by merely grabbling in the loose earth. Im- 
mense numbers were destroyed in this way ; I am right 
sure not less than ten bushels from first to la.st. At the 
end of our labors, their numbers w^ere so diminished that 
I felt no further uneasiness about them. The places cut 
down by them were replanted about the lOih of June, and 
J have now a pretty fair average crop from the seed then 
planted. I am quite sure that by persevering in this 
course of extermination, I saved my crop from almost total 
destruction. 

So much for my'experience with the cut worm. I have 
given it to you in the hope that it might be somewhat ’ i- 
teresting to some of your readers, but more especially to 


21 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


request for my own and the benefit of the planting com- 
munity in general, that you or some of your correspond- 
ents would give us a full history of this iusent, stating its 
habits, and particularly in what condition it hybernates, 
whether in the egg or the chrysalis; what mode of oul 
ture is the best to prevent these worms from coming, or 
after they are on us, what can s'ay their ravages 1 Al- 
though too late to profit by such knowledge this season, 
we could treasure it up for the next. 

The rust is another pest of the cotton planter. Com- 
mencing in spots, it rapidly enlarges its circles, until the 
whole field is embraced in them Every cotton planter is 
familiar with its appearance and effects. WHiat will 
prevent it 1 and- what will destroy it after its advent. 

It is a question among planters wdiether the rot or 
blight of the cotton boll is caused by an insect, or is a 
disease of the plant. Will some of your correspondents 
slate their experience on this point, and give some opinion 
as to the remedy ? 

Is the cotton louse and the small ant we see about the 
young cotton, the same insect in different stages of its 
existence! , H. 

Yazoo County, Miss. 

Li3iE — ITS VAIiUE TO AGlilCUETUEE. 

Editors Socthern Cultivator — aluch has been said 
in regard to the above caption, but I shall offer a few re- 
marks which I have not had the pleasure of seeing in any 
printed form, and should they suit your views you can 
give them a space in your paper. 

Liine has a two-fold tendency, one to do direct service 
to growing vegetation, tlie other indirect. Lime offers 
carbon on its own account by its superior affinity for it; 
it speedily decays vegetable fibre and thi’ows an addition- 
al supply to aid their wants by its changing their con- 
dition into humus. Vegetable substances thus suddenly 
changed, not only offer carbon, but produce moisture by 
loss of their elementary condition. It coagulates alumina 
and renders the soil friable and easy of culture. We con- 
sider lime as a special generator or a reservoir for carbon 
to nascent plants. 

Plants have an innate power of robbing from air and 
soil food to supply their v/ants. The leaves of plants 
have galvanic force in drawung, from atmosphere, carbon, 
roots, &c., on glass, and why not the rootlets drain from 
lim.e its elementary condition in this particular ! It un- 
questionably does. Lime being thus suddenly deprived 
of its purity goes steadily to regain its supply which is 
again converted into use by plants, and thus continues as 
long as an uninterrupted state of affairs exist. 

When we analize our grain crops we find lime an indis- 
pensible article in their composition — they do not mature 
without it. hi an needs this substance for the develop- 
ment of his bones — in bones and grain it exists.in a phos- 
phate. We do not condemn special manures, but when 
we consider the great influence the vegetable kingdom 
possesses in the conversion of elementary substances 
into digestible food for their wants, we almost feel 
disposed to be incredulous on the subject. Natuiehas 
strange ways Oi its own. The Datura Stramoni culls its 
deadly drug from the same soil that the rose would fill our 
olfactories with rarest of perfumes or furnish our table; 
with the daintiest morsel to allay our hunger. Each genus 
seems to have its own road to travel, and change.s constit 
uents to its own liking and adaptation. We do not mean 
by this that lime would be formed from silica, or potash 
from alumina, i ut we are disposed to the opinion ihtt 
where lime or sibfa orpota.->h is present the plant changes 
it to suit its adaptation for its civil wants in that particu- 
lar. ^ 

''Ve have always considered fresh burnt (calcined) lime 
as best adapted to agricultural purposes. In this condition 


it is sparingly soluble in water and enters into combina- 
tion with tlie soil more thorouglily, neutralizing acidity 
and furnishing a greater scope for the rootlets of plants to 
feed upon. 

Plaster to grass crops is said to be more efficient, but 
we do not see the philosophy of this. It is, however, 
more permanent from i's insolubility as a sulphate, and 
would render good service to succeeding crops. 

Lime is soluble in carbonic acid gas, and should always 
have topical application no matter in what form it may be 
applied. This gas is generated by the decay of vegetable 
matter and renders it always susceptible to (he wants of 
vegetation whenever moisture is present. When plowed 
into the soil too deep it may go beyond the reach of the 
roots and to be of no service to the growing crop. This 
illustration is plainly proved by the stalactites in caverns, 
and the petrifying of wood and human bodies in certain 
lime districts where exposed to these influences. 

Pomona. 

Mississippi, November, 185G. 

AGRICUETUKAE BOTAAA"— CHINESE 
Sugar Caue.’’ 

Richard Peters, of Atlanta, Ga., has experimented suf- 
ficiently with the Chinese Sugar Cane to satisfy himself 
that it will be of immense value to this country for mak- 
ing syrup. He first planted it in the spring of 1855, re- 
garding it, as he said, •'•'a humbug,'’ until his children dis- 
covered toward autumn that it was as sweet to their taste 
as the real sugar-cane. 

He planted it again last spring on land that would pro- 
duce in an ordinary season, 40 bushels of Indian corn per 
acre. The seeds were sown in drills about 3 feet apart, 
plowed twice and hoed once. 

When the seed was fully ripe, he had the stalks pulled 
and the seed seed-panicles cut off. The yield of seed per 
acre was 2.5 bushels, weighing 36 lbs. per bushel, and 
1,20G lbs. of fodder. He procured a horse power mill, with 
iron rollers, worked by 2 mules, crushing out juice at the 
rate 8 gallons of syrup per hour, for experimenting. At 
the first trial of the mill, 70 average stalks passed through 
the mill gave 38 gallons and 1 quart of juice ; two gallons 
more of juice were obtained by passing them through the 
second time. The 40 gallons and 1 quart made 8 gallons 
of thick syrup. 

From an eighth of an acre, the yield of syrup was 685 
gallons— being at the rate of 468 gallons per acre. Thirty 
selected canes weighed 49| lbs.; the weight of the juice, 
pressed out was 25^ lbs.; of crushed cane, 23 lbs ; loss in 
crushing, | lb.; and of crushed cane dried in the sun there 
were Oi lbs. 

This unexpected result led Mr. Peters to make an ex- 
periment on 30 stalks of Indian corn one week beyond the 
‘‘roasting ear stage.” The 30 stalks weighed 351 lbs.; 
juice, 15i lbs.; crushed stalks, IO2 lbs.; loss in crushing, 
i lb.; yield of syrup, I5 pints; and it was of a very dis- 
agreeable taste, rendering it entirely unfit for the table. 

Dr. Bobert Battey, of Rome, Ga., made the following 
tests of the Chinese Sugar Cane juice and syrup at the 
mill: specific gravity of the juice, 1 085; syrup, 1.355; 
New Orleans syrup, 1.321 ; thermometer applied to syrup 
indicated 77 degs.; to the juice, 70 degs.; saccharoraeter, 
252 degs. 

The juice should immediately after being extracted, be 
placed in boilers, and boiled slowly until the green scum 
ceeses to rise; then stir in a teaspoonful of air slaked lime 
to every five gallons of juice; ; continue boiling and skim- 
ming until the syrup thickens and hangs down in flakes 
on the rim of the dipper, when immersed and removed. 

The cost of making in upper Georgia, will not, says 
Mr. P., exceed 15 cents per gallon, He proposes to plant 
50 acres next year. He remarks that he is satisfied that 


22 


SOUTHEHN CULTIVATOR 


this plant will enable every farmer in the Southern States 
to make all the syrup required for home consumption. He 
also adds, that the chemists, in in his opinion, will be 
able to discover a method of converting it into sugar for 
export, thus rendering the Chinese Sugar Cane a staple 
production of the Southern States. 

Thus much for Richard Peters’ experimenting. He will 
probably find, by experimenting further, that the cane 
will yield more syrup, if the plant be not allowed to blos- 
som and bear seed. 

This matter was referred to in a former article on this 
subject, to which the readers’s attention is directed. 

This plant was introduced into France in 1851 with the 
expectation that it would supersede the use of the sugar- 
beet in the manufacture of sugar and alcohol. It is called 
there Sorgho Saccharatus or Holms Saccharatus, and was 
obtained from China, known as “ the Sugar Cane of 
North China.” It is said to be one of the richest plants in 
Saccharine property known. 

The sugar beet yields from 8 to 10 per cent, of sugar ; 
the Sorgho from 16 to 20 per cent., from which 8 or 10 
per cent, of pure alcohol can be produced ; and the refuse 
is good feed for cattle. It is said that the Chinese make 
large quantities of sugar from it. If this latter statement 
be true, then it would seem that the art of crystallization 
is understood by the Chinamen. M. "Vilmorin has made 
cider from it, demonstrating that 2,400 gallons of cider 
may be produced per acre from Sorgho. Mr. Wray, 
quoted in a former article on this subject, further states 
this plant will grow wherever Indian Corn will ripen, 
through it matures better in hot climates ; also that two 
crops a year may be raised in the cotton producing States, 
and one anywhere south of 45 degs.; that it does not re- 
quire re planting oftener than the hop ; and that it will 
produce from 3,000 to 4,000 lbs. of choice sugar per acre, 
at each harvest. 

Mr. Wilder, of South Africa, a missionary of the Ame- 
rican Board, writes to the Journal of Commerce, confirm- 
ing Mr. Wray’s statements, and adds, that the plant while 
growing, resembles broom corn. The natives of Natal 
cultivate it for its saccharine juice, of which it yields a 
larger quantity than the common sugar cane, but not as 
rich in quality. 

He remarks that the juice produces from one-half to 
three-fourths as much sugar as the real sugar cane. The 
advantage it has over the sugar cane is, that it grows well 
wherever Indian corn does, and may be raised from the 
seed in four months, ready for making sugar. It will 
grow as well on high land as low, and yields an abun- 
dance of seed which makes good feed for horses. 

Notwithstanding all that has been said of this plant, a 
writer in the Florist, published in Philadelphia, maintains 
that Sorgho, or “Imfy,” is only a variety of broom corn, 
“turned up in a foreign land.” 

The plant under cultivation in New England will, un- 
doubtedly degenerate, i. e , lose its saccharine qualities. 
Hence, it will be necessary in experimenting to procure 
seed from a more Southern clime every year in order to 
retain, or secure the greatest possible amount of sacchar- 
ine juice. 

Many feel inclined to try the plant another season in 
order to satisfy themselves whether or not, syrup, rich and 
palatable, can be produced ; for, say they, if we can make 
a good substitute for molassses, from the product of our 
own farms, though we do not succeed in making sugar, 
much will, however, be gained. 

Richard Peters is sanguine that it will succeed well at 
the South. It will be cultivated there with greater profit 
than in more northern climes. Whatever shall be the re- 
sult in sugar and syrup making, it will, it is thought by 
some, be found a good product for soiling cattle. It is 
hoped that farmers will test if for this purpose. 


As Mr. Peters proposes to plant fifty acres of it next 
year, it is hoped that he will test the saccharine qualities 
of the plant at different stages of the growth of it ; 
also whether the blossoming and bearing seed do 
not materially diminish the saccharine richness. It is be- 
lieved and maintained by some, that the amount of sacchar- 
ine is increased by removing the panicles before it flowers. 
This is, undoubtedly, true. Experimenting can easily 
confirm or overthrow this now quite probable inference. 

In experimenting, farmers must be careful that they are 
not deceived in purchasing seed ; for there are several 
species, and a great number of varieties of Sorghum, Hol- 
cus, and millet near relatives of the botanical family to 
which they all belong, that are of no agricultural value in 
New England, and of little where indigenous. 

Rural Observer, 

{in Massachusetts Ploughman. 


IMPROVEMENT OUR WATCHWORD. 

Editors Southern Cultivator— Having been a sub- 
scriber to your valuable journal for the last six years, I 
have perused its contents with the utmost pleasure, and 
always found its pages replete with entertaining and in- 
structive matter. As I did not deem myself capacitated 
to contribute to its columns, I have never before ventured 
to intrude upon you and the patience of your readers. It 
was not, however, for want of disposition on my part, but 
from my sense of inadequacy for the performance of such 
duty. Were it otherwise, I would not only now, but time 
and again contribute my mite to yours, as well as others 
of my favorite' periodicals devoted to agriculture, and to 
the best of my ability advance ihe farming coMse. Now, 
that it is my adopted pursuit, I am a warm advocate for 
progressive improvement. While I yet highly appreciate 
my former profession, and heartily sympathize with the 
old fraternity, my greatest interest and warmest enthu- 
siasm are with my adopted brethren. Were it my p^-o- 
vince, fain would I tread some, as yet, untrodden track, 
draw upon some unexhausted fund of language and mat- 
ter, and adduce some unstale argument, to arouse our 
brotherhood from their lethargy in the cause most dear to 
us, and upon which the whole train of business pursuits 
depend. It is the mainspring, the lever, by while is moved, 
and upon its success depends the prosperity of all. 

Earnestly would I urge that we adopt Improvement 
as our watchword, not only in the tillage of our fields and 
culture of the various growing crops, but in the preserva- 
tion and improve condition of our soil, by an elevated 
standard and system of farming in every respect. I look 
forward with the most pleasing anticipation to the time 
when the old systems shall have been forgotten, and new 
and improved plans prevail throughout our Southern land 
— when we shall be indepentent of the North for agricul- 
tural implements, improved breeds of stock, poultry, &c., 
and would that I could add of her manufactories, mer- 
chandize and all. But, credit to whom it is due. The 
agricultural sun, which long since rose in the East has 
been rising higher and higher, until it has well nigh reach- 
ed its zenith in our Southern land, and ere it has fully 
reached the more distant West, may not our beloved coun- 
try teem with the most promising and prosperous results '? 
But how is all this to be accomplished % Through the 
medium af agricultural journals, developing practical ex- 
perience and scientific research, and disseminating knowl- 
edge, interesting and instructive to all classes. And, 
“last, though not least,” I would inculcate the principle, 
love the old home I Cherish its memory — cling to the old 
associations — embellish its walks and improve its grounds 
— for it was the home of your fathers. Those hallowed in- 
fluences will be ever present to cheer you in the monoto- 
nous tedium of your routine calling, ever proving a con- 
stant source of emulation. 


23 


SOUTHERN C 


Excuse the wanderings of my pen. I had a particular 
object in view in the outset, but as I have already occu- 
pied more space than I intended to, I shall close without 
reaching it at present. With the best wishes for the con- 
tinued success of your time- tried paper, as well as your 
neighbor, the Soil of the South , onx: State journal, the 

American Cotton Planter^ I am, very respectfully. 

Homestead. 

Pleasant Hill, Ala. 

BOYS. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — May I not hold up to 
your youthful readers some of the characteristics of a 
farmer, with whom I am acquainted, who is now in the 
eighty-first year of his age, and urge upon them to imitate 
him. He was ever an early riser in the morning. The 
sun rarely ever caught him in bed. His languuge to his 
boys was : 

“He that would thrive 
Must rise by five.” 

He was ever temperate in eating and drinking, and as a 
consequence was uniformly cheerful. Often his family 
awoke by the soothing sound of his cheerful morning 
song. 

He always kept his “farm enclosed with a good fence,” 
which saved him from being annoyed by stock breaking 
into his fields. 0, the vexation and loss which some men 
are subjected to by keeping bad fences, and, unhappily, 
sometimes their neighbors have to shai'e with them. 

This aged farmer ever kept out of debt — he almost made 
it a rule to “owe no man.” 

“ To Creditor or Bank he’d never to run. 

He feared neither Constable, Sheriflf or dun.” 

He raised his own horses, mules and oxen, and always 
superintended breaking them, and on such occasions em- 
ployed none but gentle means, acting on the principle 
that “a gentle hand will lead an elephant by a hair.” It 
was remarkable that his animals were always “true pull- 
ers.” 

When driving his horse to the plow, or his team on the 
road you would never hear his voice above a “Mezzo 
Tone.” How different this from many. I know some 
boys, ah ! and men too, who, when plowing can be dis- 
tinctly heard a half mile. Such seem to practice the high- 
er department of dynamics. They strike, “Torte,” and 
from which proceed with a rapid “Crescendo,” until their 
power to produce sound is exhausted. I often hear “gee 
and haw” in the “explosive tone.” Of course this plan of 
driving horses is not musical. 

Now I would say to young plowmen, be calm, be gentle, 
but “ onward move.” The horse you drive is a noble 
animal ; treat him kindly, he can appreciate it and will 
reciprocate your kindness. Filius. 

Rough and Ready, Ga., 1856. 

LETTER FRO^l TEXAS. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — This section of coun- 
try is yet new in cultivation ; but die rich soil and de- 
lightful climate are inviting rapid improvements. 

As to soil, it is not inferior to the Mississippi bottom, 
and you have no idea or conception of the beauty of our 
prairies in flowering time. 

I send you a lew seed of a beautiful shrub tree, called 
“The Free -ho-lee-ah,” which I have never seen growing 
anywhere but in Texas. It is an evergreen: growsfrom 3 to 
8 ft. high; leaf green and resembling the Kalviia of Virginia; 
the flower is purple and in bunches, similar to the Locust 
flower ; the perils similar to and forming a flower like the 
pea. It blooms about the 2lst of March, and the seed are 
enclosed in a pod of the ground pea appearance, and 
generally two in a pod. 


ULTIVATOR. 



I feel confideut, if this can be raised in your section, it 
would be the delight and admiration of the ladies, as also 
other lovers of floral beauty. 

I send you a sample of Mexican Onion seed, which I 
procured fresh from Mexico. This onion is highly prized 
by the lovers of that succulent vegetable. It is without 
the strength of the common onion, being so mild you 
may eat it as you do an apple. I have seen it as large as 
a common saucer, and when sliced it looks as though it 
had been iced. 

I am told they do not grow to that perfection North as here. 
It may be so, but “they say” has injured more crops than 
ever did deep plowing. 

I want to raise the ground pea, but know nothing of 
the mode of culture. Will you please, by letter or through 
the Cultivator, give me, minutely, the mode of preparing 
ground, planting, and after-culture'? My soil is “black 
sandy loam,” 4 to 5 feet deep, based on a stratum of clay, 
lime and sand. 

Did you ever hear of the Salt Lakes of Texas '? Do you 
want to I Last month I could have taken you to fifty 
places within 30 miles of me and have shown you millions 
of bushels formed by solar evaporation, and all you had 
to do was, back your cart and pitch in. You may judge 
of the quantity and quality, when I tell you I think there 
is enough (if salt would do it) to save all the Black Re- 
publicans in this Union ; that would require a large quan- 
tity and great curative powers. 

On the 23rd of February I set ont 9 orange trees, and 
after the spring rains I mulched with chips and trash from 
wood yard, as directed in the Cultivator, and until the 
21st of September they had no rain for 4 months (and a 
scorching hot summer). They are all safe and doing well 
— credit to the Cultivator. 

I think this section is going to produce fine Sea Island 
Cotton. A small sample was tried last year at Corpus 
Christi, and received the highest encomium from judges 
in New Orleans. It will be fairly tested next year. 

With respect, F. B. 

Rancho, 'near Corpus Christi, Texas, Oct., 1856. 

CHINESE SUGAR CANE IN TEXAS 

A subscriber, (E. B.) writes us from Gonzales, Texas, 
as follows : 

I have tried the Chinese Sugar Cane here and find it an 
important acquisition to our agricultural resources. It 
stands drouth better than any other plant that I am ac- 
quainted with. It seems admirably adapted to our cli- 
mate here. Its introduction into this country must pro- 
duce an entire revolution in our rural operations. Its cul- 
ture will supercede that of Indian corn and other forage 
crops to a considerable extent, and the monopoly of 
sugar will no longer be restricted to the State of Louisiana ; 
it will afford ample opportunity of raising poultry, making 
butter, cheese, pork, lard and bacon, and be the means of 
producing a quantity of manure where that is needed. I 
doubt whether it will answer as well on poor land as has 
been represented by some writers ; except, probably when 
sown broadcast for forage. I find it easily affected by 
frost. In every other respect the accounts which I have 
seen are entirely within the bounds of truth. 

I planted the Sorgho on the 14th of April, plowed it once 
and subsoiled and hoed once. We had no rain after the 
1 3th of May. The grain matured about the middle of 
July and produced at the rate of 50 bushels to the acre 
as to the land planted, but from depredations ofbugs and 
poultry there was not half a stand. After the grain was 
gathered the stock was burned in the field and I had no 
opportunity of ascertaining what a second crop would 
have produced. The stubble is now green, the sprouts 
have been destroyed from time to time as they have ap- 
peared by stock, and recently by the frosts. E. B. 


24 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 



AUGUSTA, GA: 


VOI.. XV. KO. 1 JANUARY, 1S57. 

We most cordially tender the “compliments of the 
season” to all our subscribers, readers, correspondents 
and contemporaries ; and hope our united efforts in the 
glorious cause of Agricultural Improvement may be pro- 
ductive of the best results, during the year upon which 
we are just entering. 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Syrup Making — W. M. — The pamphlet noticed in our 
last will give you the desired information. D. B. Plumb 
& Co., of this city, will send it if you wish it. 

Osage Orange. — Subscriber. — Of course, it will “thrive 
in the Mississippi bottom;” it is its “native home.” Set 
your plants 6 or 8 inches apart in a single row — cut them 
off close to the ground when you plant, and clip them 3 
or 4 times per year afterwards, for the first few years. We 
do not know of any plow “made expressly mtear up cane 
roots.” Can our readers give us any light on such an 
implement 1 

Gang Plows. — W. W., M. D. — We cannot recommend 
these Plows for the South. It costs too much to keep 
thecm in repair, and they are not adapted to our systems 
of culture. 

New Plow. — A, R. C. — V/e cannot advise you in re- 
gard to the Plow unless you send us a model ; but if it will 
do the work mentioned, it is certainly an acquisition. 

Rowe’s Crusher (G. B. A.) is an excellent machine for 
heavy work. We cannot state the difference in power 
between it and the “Litfle Giant.” 

Evergreen Seed.— D. D. H. — These will have to be 
imported. Mr. Nelson will write you. 

Grape Cuttings, &c. — T. R. — State the number yot 
desire, and we will furnish them. 

Feeding off Wheat Fields. — J. McM. — We have 
never approved of the practice, particularly on stiff lands. 
Better keep your stock off. 

Sugar Mill. — J. C. A. — You will find your inquiry 
answered on another page. 

Youatt on the Horse. — J. L. — Send ^1.50 to C. M. 
Saxton & Co., 140 Fulton street. New York, and they 
wdl send you the work per mail, frepaid. 

Sumac. — B. McK, — Wm. R. Prince, of Flushing, New 
York, proposes to furnish the true Dyers’ or Tanners’ Su- 
mac. 

Asparagus Beds. — A. A. P. — Never allow your plants 
to go to seed — cut them down when hylf grown, and 
cover the ground with a thick mulch of leaves, &c. 


PEABODY’S NEW STRAWBERRY. 

We are in receipt of the following letters from Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, the head-quarters of the Strawberry in Ameri- 
ca; and can only remark, in reply , to our correspon- 
dent, that we have no further information on the subject 
than Mr. Peabody and his neighbors have furnished. 
With every desire that it should have a fair and impartial 
trial, we r.egret that the plant should not have been 
placed in the hands of a committee of disinlerested gentle- 
men, whose report would, of course, have been satisfactory 
We cannot think that Mr. Peabody would peril his reputa- 
tion for the sake of a few paltry dollars; and yet, those seven 
inch Strawberries, with all the perfection of long keeping, 
exquisite flavor, etc., seem almost “too good to believe.” 
That berries of this size and even larger, have been raised, 
however, we are quite confident ; and that Mr. Peabody’s 
new fruit is all he claims for it, we are willing to concede, 
until convinced of the contrary. We, therefore, submit the 
matter and con to our readers: 

Cincinnati, Ohio, Nov. 14, 1856. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — You have published 
the article of Mr. Peabody in relation to his Seedling 
Strawberry, v/hich he claims to be superior to all others, 
but of which he will let us know nothing, till we send 
him $5000. Can any Strawberry be of A-alue, that can 
be carried 1200 miles by a wagon, railroad and steam- 
boat without mashing I Does not the article bear a char- 
acter more than suspicious! We rely on you Editors 
for information, and deem it a duty you will cheerfully 
perform. Have you seen it bearing and tasted the fruit 1 
If not, has any reliable person who has, slated to you its 
quality! What is your opinions of it from what you 
know or the peculiar demand before he will sell ! Ans- 
wer and oblige many besides a subscriber. If you will 
vouch for the truth of the statement, orders from here will 
be numerous, if the price was four times the present charge. 

A Subscriber. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, Afov. 1, 1856. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — We feel a deep inter- 
est in the Strawberry. Mr. Peabody’s advertisement is 
singular and wants confirmation. He wants $5000 for 
plants before he will sell one, of a plant that it does not 
appear has ever been seen in bearing. If seen in bearing, 
and the fruit equal to his statement, he would have 20,000 
calls. Can any Strawberry be a good table fruit that can 
be sent 1,200 miles by wagon, railroad and steamboat 
without mashing ! Our best strawberries require a spring 
cart to carry them even in small baskets a mile or more 
to market. If you know the value of this, .plant is equal 
to its character, advise us. If its value is not known, we 
deem it the duty of Editors of a Horticultural paper so to 
state. If its quality is not known with you, we should 
deem it worthless. We rely on Horticultmal papers for 
information of the quality and value of plants. .In your 
report we shall have full confidence. 

A Horticulturist. 

As the only reply to the above which we can give, and 
in justice to Mr. Peabody, we cheerfully copy the follow- 
ing from the Soil of the South for December: 

Our New Seedling Strawberry. — We are happy to 
inform our readers that the subscription list comes bravely 
on, and that we shall be able to send out the plants before 
spring. 

The following letter from the Rev. Dr.^iiggins, a gen- 
tleman of refined taste and an extensive traveller, ’ c h i 
Europe and America, will show his appreeiation oi i: 
fruit, and the fidelity of the painting: 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


25 


Columbus, Ga., Nov. Gth., 1858. 

Charles A. Peabody, Esq. — Dear Sir — I accept, with 
great pleasure the painting of your new Seedling Straw- 
berry. Mrs. Torrey has truly made a beautiful picture, 
and yet has done but simple justice to the fruit. I retain 
a very vivid recollection of my examination of the plant a 
few months since, and am greatly struck with the fidelity 
of the drawing now lying before me. 

As to the fruit itself, I must beg to repeat what I said 
then — that for size, beauty, flavor and lu.'curiance of plant, 

I have never seen a strawberry to compare with your 
Hautbois Seedling. You may safely stake your reputa- 
tion upon its success. I shall indeed be greatly disappoint- 
ed if your fellow-citizens, both North’ and South, do not 
fully appreciate this latest triumph of your genius in this 
department of Horticultural enterprise. 

I have great pleasure in subscribing myself, dear sir, 
very truly yours, Samuel H. Higgins, D.D. 

THE WINE TEST OF MR. AXT. 

Mr. Chas. Axt, of Crawfordville, Ga., already favor- 
ably known in this State as a Grape Grower, recently ex- 
hibited some specimens of wine in this city, made by him 
from the Catawba Grape, which were grown at his place 
during the years 1855 and 1858. There were two samples 
of the vintage of 1856 and one of 1855, known as dry 
Catawba. These wines bore the test triumphantly and 
were pronounced of good body and fruity taste. The 
wine of 1855 was considered the best, having improved 
by time. JMr. Axt (sa 37 s the Constitutionalist) has 
achieved for himself and for the South a great result in 
the succ essful introduction of this important branch of in- 
dustry into this State. His wine we would place in the 
front rank of American wines of the same class, equal to 
the best dry Catawba from Longworth’s or Week's cel- 
lars. 

CHINE.SE PROEIFIC PEA. 

Messrs. D. B. Plumb & Co. (the Agents) as well as 
ourselves, have received a large number of orders for this 
new and remarkable Pea, all of which are duly entered, 
and the Peas will be sent out about the first of February. 
We are authorized by the gentleman who raised these Peas 
to vw.rrant them fully up to his representations in all re- 
spects; and the concurrent testimony of his neighbors 
leaves no doubt of their great value. The quantity of 
seed on hand is quite limited, and early orders are there- 
fore advisable. 

Consolidation. — The Aniericna Cotton Planter and 
Soil of the South have been united, and will be hereafter 
published in the city of Montgomery, under the editorial 
charge of Dr. Cloud and CuAs. A. Peabody, Esq. Both 
these gentlemen possess excellent qualifications for their 
work, and will, doubtless, produce a first class Agricultur- j 
al Journal. Terms Si per annum. Address Dr. N. B 
Cloud, iMontgomery, Ala. • 

GARHEN SEED. 

Our friends, D. B. Plumb & Co., have now the largest 
and best assortment of Garden Seeds we have ever seen in 
this market. They will send Catalogues by mail and fill 
all orders promptly and with care. (See advertisement.) 


OUR BOOK TABEE. 

The American Poulterer’s Companion. — A Practical 
Treatise on the Breeding, Rearing and General JManage- 
ment of various species of Domestic Poultry, Illustrat- 
ed with portraits of fowls, mostly taken fi-om life ; Poul- 
try-Houses, Coops, Nests, Feeding-Hoppers, &c., &c. 
A new edition, enlarged, and improved. By C. 'N. 
Bement. With 120 illU'trations on wood and stone. 
New York : Harper & Bros. 

The “rage” for high-priced “model” Shanghais, and 
other aristocratic denizens of the poultry -yard, has passed 
away; but the taste for ornamental fowls is too natural 
and the luxurj'^ and economy of a well-kept Poultry Yard 
too generally appreciated, for country resident at least, 
ever to become indiflerent to the subject. We, therefore, 
hail with pleasure the appearance of our old favorite, 
Bement, so greatly “enlarged snd improved,” that we 
find it impossible to recognize in it the humble and unpre- 
tending volume over which we pored so eagerly some ten 
or a dozen years ago ; and from which we probably im- 
bibed a good share of that once wide-spread mania known 
as the “hen fever.” The present volume contains a vast 
amount of new matter ; about 100 finely-executed wood 
cuts, and some 20 colared lithographs, many of them of 
great fidelity and beauty, and is altogether superior in 
character and execution to any work of the kind yet pub- 
lished in this country. It wdil be found a useful and orna- 
mental addition to the library of any of our readers. 

For sale by Geo. A. Oates & Bro., Augusta, Ga. 

Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the year 
1 855. As^ricuUure. 

The Volume of Patent Office Reports for 1855 is of more 
than usual interest. It is embellished with three colored 
portraits of noted English Devons, and fine wood cuts o 
the Cashmere Goats of Mr. Peters, of Atlanta — also, pic- 
tures of various insects injurious to vegetation, outlines of 
Haarlem Lake, drained and undrained, &c., &c. Among 
the subjects treated of at length, we notice the following ; 
Animals (Domestic), Apples, Almonds, Apricots, Bees 
Cabbage, Cattle, Chineise Sugar Cane, Chinese Yam 
Climatology, Colza, Corn, Cotton, Crops, Dairies, Devon 
Cattle, Eggs, Exports, Fences, Fertilizers, Fodder, Forage 
Plants, Gardening, Goats, Grape Culture, Grass, Guano, 
Hay, Honey, Horses, Improvement of Land, Indian Corn, 
Insects frequenting the Cotton Plant, Lightning, Liquor- 
ice, Madder, Manure, iMeieorology, Milk, 3Iillet, Mules, 
Oats, Oil, Olives, Onions, Orange Trees, Oris Root, Palma 
Christi, Peas, Peaches, Pears, Pepper, Plums, Potatoes, 
Poultry, Raisens, Rice, Rye, Salt, Sheep, Sorgho Sucre, 
Sugar and Sugar Cane, Swine, Tamarind I Tea in the 
United States, Timothy, Tobacco, Turnips, Vanilla Plant, 
Walnut, Wheat, Wine, Wool, Yams, &c., (S:c. 

It may be obtained from the member of Congress from 
your District, and is well worth writing for. 

To Correspondents. — -Communications bearing the 
following signatures have been received, and are on file for 
examination and insertion: — J. 0. — -G. D. H.— John 
I Roberts — Parke Jones — E. J. Taylor— W". A. T. — W. N • 
! W.— J. H. V.— J. D. F.-R. B. N.-E. R. K — Dr, M. W. 
P. — Georgian — E. J. C. Vf.-— L. C. Gaines — J. B. H. — S. 
Heard-F. M. A.-J. F. E.-J. S. R.— F. B — W. H. S. 
— J PI J.— Rusticus-L. S. G.— W. H.— .S. R., dc. 


26 


SOU3THERN CI)LTIVAT0:R. 


The Home JournaLdAwQ.y'& has been, and no doubt 
always will be, while under the editorial care of Morkis 
and Willis, one of the most refined family newspa- 
pers extant. The series for 1857 will contain new attrac- 
tions, new features, and new type. The editors will con- 
tinue to devofe their time and abilities to the work N. 
P. Willis proposes, in addition to his usual picturings of 
home-life, and rural family sympathies and interests, out- 
doors-and-in, to give more of his valuable “Letters on 
Health,” which his experience enables him to write, and 
which have been so widely quoted, both at home and 
abroad, and also “a series of Portraits of Living charac- 
ter.” General Morris, besides his usual constant labors 
upon the several departments of the paper, will make it 
the woof on which to broider first the new sketches, songs, 
ballads, etc., suggested by the history and events of the 
passing time. T. B. Aldrich, the gifted young poet, 
whose productions have recently created such a sensation 
in literary circles, has prepared an original prose poem, 
entitledkhe “Rose of Glen Lodge,” which will be publish- 
ed in numbers, from week to week. Genio C. Scott will 
continue h.\& piquant and popular papers onfashion,gossip, 
romance, etc., which have proved so “interesting to la- 
dies.” Besides these constant writers, the Home Journal 
has a corps of correspondents, wholly unsurpassed, in the 
society of New York, and through these gifted and refined 
“mediums,” its readers are kept apprised of all that occurs 
new, charming and instructive, in the brilliant circles of 
city. For the health, and moral improvement, and the 
religious culture of families, the editors watchfully gather 
every new suggestion, and carefully chronicle all signs of 
progress and utility. By unceasing vigilance and indus- 
ry, and by skill, acquired by long and successful practice, 
they will, undoubtedly, still keep the Home Journal in 
the front rank of family newspapers. The terms are two 
dollars a year in advance. Address Morris & Willis, 
New York. 

Agricultural Statistics. — The following valuable sta- 
tistics, which we take from Hwnis- Merchant's Magazine^ 
give the nearest attainable approximation to the number 
of acres cultivated in each crop: 


Land actually cultivated in the several crops of the United 



Slates, in 

]849-'50. 


Product. 

Acres. 

Prod.uct. 

Acres. 

Indian Corn 

.31,000,000 

Sugar 

.. ..400,000 

Meadow or Pas- 


Barley. ..... 

. . . . 300,000 

ture exclusive of 

Rice 


Hay crop 

.20,000,000 

Plemp 

....110,000 

Hay 

,13,000,000 

Flax 

....100,000 

Wheat 

,11,000,000 

Orchards .... 

....500,000 

Oats 

. 7,500,000 

Gardens 

....500,000 

Cotton 

, 5,000,000 

Vineyards 

. .. .250,000 

Rye 

1,200,000 

Otherproducts 

.. 1,000,000 

Peas and Beans . . 

1,000,000 

Improved but not 

Irish Potatoes. . . 

1,000,000 

in actual culti- 

Sweet Potatoes. , . 
Buckwheat 

750.000 

600.000 
. 400,000 

vation 

. 17,247,614 

Tobacco 

Total 

113,033,610 


lap'll is stated that the stalks of sunflowers may be 
profitably used in making paper, the fibrous nature of the 
plant being well calculated to furnish materials for fine 
writing and printing paper, as well as fine and coarse 
paper hangings. 


COTTON SEED EXPOilTED. 

Our commercial report of this morning notices the en- 
gagement of a ship of 800 tons to take a full cargo of cot- 
ton seed to Providence, R. I, where the articles is to be 
turned into oil cake. 

An extensive factory for extracting oil from the seed of 
cotton is already in operation in Rhode Island, and we 
understand that one or two companies are forming in Bos- 
ton with the object of getting up similar establishments 
there. 

This is an enterprise in which the South is deeply in- 
terested, promising, as it does, to convert an article hither- 
to almost worse than useless into one of great commercial 
value. — N. O. Picayune. 

[How much more sensible it would be for us to get up 
these oil-mills at home, and secure to ourselves the profits 
of manufacture. — Eds.] 

Important Invention for Cotton Planters. — Mr. 
Geo. G. Henry, a merchant of Mobile, has obtained a 
patent for an arrangement and conibination of machinery 
which is expected to create quite a revolution in the indus- 
try of the South. By its means the seed cotton will be 
converted on the plantation, by one contiuous process, 
into merchantable yarn, and this without a greatly increas- 
ed outlay of capital, and with the ordinary labor of the 
plantation. We shall have more to say respecting this 
invention, hereafter. 

Vanilla. — The Vanilla Bean, which is now much used 
in flavoring puddings, jellies, ices, etc., grows in Mexico, 
near Vera Cruz, and has become very profitable to the 
cultivators. The Bureau has information that last year’s 
importation of, and consumption in the United States, of 
this article, amounted to 5,000 lbs., at a cost ofS20 per 
pound, or $100, 000, paying the United States a duty of 20 
per cent., of $20,000. At the present time the Vanilla 
Bean is selling at $30 to $40 per pound. 

[Has the culture of the Vanilla Bean ever been attempted 
in our Souuthern States 'I We have an idea that it migh^ 
be raised here, and shall endeavor to procure some of the 
seed for trial. — Eds ] 

1^” The “ Va7i Derveer Cottoid' is said to be a new 
variety of superior excellence. The seed is for sale in 
Savannah, by Messrs. Lockktt & Snellings. Farley, 
JuREY & Co., of New Orleans, make the following state- 
ment respecting it ; 

New Orleans, Oct., 1856. 

We have sold Mr. Van Derveer’s two last crops, and 
from the excellence of his cotton, have obtained for it 2 to 
4 cents per pound more than other kinds of cotton will 
command. Farley, Jurey & Co. 

This is all we know of its merits. It is probably worthy 
of a trial. 

A Great Honey Crop. — Mr. M. Quinsy, of St. Johns- 
ville, Montgomery county. New York, has sold this year 
upwards of 20,000 pounds of honey, principally produced 
by himself, and the temainder by a few neighbors who 
have followed his example. Himself and son make the 
production of honey a business, and undoubtedly a very 
profitable one. The honey is deposited by the bees in 
small, cheap boxes, with glass sides and ends, and sold in 
the same by weight, including the weight of boxes. 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


27 


Sale of Brood Mares. — The Bardstown (Ky.) Gaz- 
ette says that Messrs, F. G. Murphy & Co., of that vicin- 
ity, have sold to R. A. Alexander, of Woodford, Ky., tha 
following brood iriares, at the prices annexed; Motto, 
Si, 000; Sally Ann, Si, 000; Betty Lewis. STjOOO ; Kate 
Quinn, S500, 

Great Yield. — Mr. Williamson Page, of this county, 
says the Raleigh Standard, raised the following crops on 
one acre of land, viz : In September, 1855, he sowed one 
bushel of wheat mixed with turnip seed, from which he 
raised 45 bushels of wheat and about 800 bushels of tur- 
nips. In June, 1856, he planted the same ground in corn 
and peas, and has harvested 51 bushels of corn and 64 
bushels of peas. The only fertilizer used was stable ma- 
nure. 

Matticultntal Dtpariment. 


FLOWERS FOR THE SOUTH. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — Though we of ‘‘The 
Sunny South,” are blessed with a beautiful climate, still 
our friends from the North feel somewhat disappointed in 
examining our gardens, for, with the exception, of a few 
dreary-looking arbor vitae and some unsightly rose bushes, 
very few ornamental plants are to be found ; in fact, we 
want diversity of flowers. I will, therefore, here give a 
short list of such kinds of flowers, as will thrive in our 
latitude, and will at some future time make additions to 
this list. The seeds of them should be sown in the fall or 
early in the spring : 

Adonis astivalis, Pheasants eye, with a deep scarlet 
flower and feathery foliage. 

Ageratum cceruleum, a beautiful blue annual, recently 
introduced from Mexico. 

Araaranthus tricolor, well known under the name of 
Joseph’s coat. 

Althea rosea. Hollyhock, a well known perennial, 
which of late has been highly improved. 

Althea Chinensis, Chinese Hollyhock, in many double 
varieties, introduced from China. 

Ammobium Alatum, an everlasting little white flov/er 
from Australia. 

Antirrhinum Majus, Snapdragon, in great variety of 
colors. 

Aster Chinensis, German Asters. More than 30 double 
varieties of this beautiful flower are offered by florists. 

Calendula Crista Galli, a well known annual. 

Callispsis Bicolor, yellow, with a dark brown centre. 

Carthamus Tinctorius, with an orange colored flower 
and a thistle-like appearance. 

CoioMauche Coerulca and 

Catanauche Bicolor, with handsome everlasting flowers, 
natives of Turkey. 

Celosia Cristata, Cockscombe, in great variety of 
shades, one of our very best annuals. 

Celosia Indica, Slender Cockscomb, at first deep pink, 
changes to silvery white. 

Centaunea Cyanus, blue. 

Cento.unea moschata. Sweet Sultan, lilac colored. 

Centmerea svaveoleiis , Yellow Sultan. 

Delphinium, Larkspur, in many varieties, the hyacinth- 
like flowering are the finest. 


Delphinium Chinensis, di beautiful perennial Larkspur of 
several colors, from China. 

DioMthus Caryophyllus, Double Carnations. This is an 
old and highly esteemed flosver, still seldom to be met 
with in our gardens. Must be increased by layers every 
year, as the old plants are very apt to die out. 

Dianthus Chinensis, Chinese Pink of an almost endless 
diversity of shades, single as well as double. 

Dianthus Imperialis Plenissima, a new and splendid 
variety, just introduced. 

Dracocephalum Aloldo.vicum, Blue Dragons Head, from 
Turkey. 

Double Balsorns, in many colors. 

Elicrysium Lucindum, yellow, and 

Elicrysium Alacranthurn, white or pink, both very valu- 
able flowers, from Australia, They are everlasting flow- 
ers, and will, when put in a drawer, keep fresh for many 
years. 

Ernilea Flammea, a small scarlet annual, 

Gilia 'Tricolor, three colored Gilia. 

Gomphrena Globosa, Batchelors’ Button, either crimson, 
white, or orange colored. 

Heliotropium Perutianum. — This flower, so highly es- 
teemed for its delicious vanilla fragrance, will, when 
covered over in the autumn with earth, stand our winters 
south of latitude 33°. 

Hesperis Tristis, Dark Rocket, and 

Hesperis Alatronalis, White Rocket, both biennials, are 
very fragrant after sunset, 

Iberis Speciosa, Purple Candytuft. 

Ipomoea Quamoclit, Cypress Vine, from Mexico, the 
most graceful and fairy-like climbers, when trained as an 
arbor or screen, 

Lavatera Trimestris, a pink flower, from the south of 
Europe, 

Papaver somniferum. Double Poppy, in a great many 
colors, 

Pojpaver AJurselli, Splendid Poppy, 

Pharbilis Limbata. — This beautiful “Morning Glory,” 
of recent introduction, has a dark purple flower, distinctly 
edged with pure white, in beautiful contrast. 

Phlox Drummondi, in great variety of colors. 

Polygonum Teretlfolium, an exceedingly graceful South- 
ern perennial, described in the February number (1856) 
of the Southern Cultivator. 

Portidacca Thellusoni, Scarlet Portulacca, blooms all 
summer, but only in the forenoon. 

Potcrium Sangvisorba, is excellent for edging flower- 
beds; perennial. 

Reseda Odorata, Mignonette ; this very fragrant little 
flower, from Egypt, will continue blooming for a long 
time, if constantly cut off, and not suffered to produce 
seed, 

Rhodanthe Manglessii, from Swan River, in Australia, 
Of all the everlasting flowers this is certainly the most 
beautiful, the drooping, pink colored flowers have an ex- 
ceedingly graceful appearance. 

Salpiglossis Variabilis, Petunia, from Buenos Ayres, in 
many different colors ; will stand our winters under a 
slight protection. 

Scabiosa Atropurpurea, Mourning Bride, in several 
shades. 

Scnecio Elegans, Double Purple Jacoboa. 

Tagetes Erecta,, Double Yellow, African Marygold. 

Tagetes Patula, Double French Marygold. 

Verbena Alelindris. — It is but a few years since this 


28 


SOUTHERN CULTIYATOR. 


plant was inti'oduceefroin Buenos Ayies; varieties of the 
greatest divevsity of colors have sprung from the origi))nl 
scarlet flower ; and now it is considered indispensable in 
any garde: n 

Viola fragrant violet ; perennial. 

Xeranthemnni Auunum, a purple eternal annual. 

Zinnia Elcgans, in many varieties, of which the scar- 
let is one of the finest. 

The Gillyflowers and Ten Weeks Stock have been des- 
cribed in the December number of the Southern Cultivator. 

Wallfooioers, double. in different shades, are biennial, and 
will not, therefore, bloom before the second year. 

IvOBRRT Nelson. 

Avgnzta, Ga., Dec., 1850. 

tme' pear— its cueture in the south. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — Our ideas about hap- 
piness and contentment in this world are as different, as 
opposite, as human minds and orgmiizations are. But 
there are some subjects about which most ail of us have 
some convictions, and which indeed constitute the basis 
ofh’aman happiness. 

Among those are health and the comforts of life. 
Health is sometimes independent of our will and exertions ; 
but the comforts of life can almost always be realized to a 
greater or less extent, when we make those consist in 
things really useful, easily attainable and promoting 
health and cheerfulness- of disposiiion. Our diet or daily- 
food, of course, is among these, and is certainly worthy of 
great consideration. 

Every one of ns cannot select a locality of his choice, 
but scarcely any locality, fitted for the abode of men is to 
be found, where industry and skill cannot make the soil 
produce crops, fruits and fiowers, adapted to the climate, 
and which add so much to the comforts of civilized life. 

It is natural, therefore, that the inhabitants of such a cli- 
mate a.s yours, where few natural tVuits grow spontaneous- 
ly, (1) should endeavor to increase those luxuries suited to 
the locality-. As fur fromthe oranges of Cuba as you are 
from the choice productions of the East, (the eastern and 
northwestern Apples and Cherries,) it must be your ob- 
ject to iuiprnve every fruit which your soil can produce. 
What may be considered barely as a luxury in a colder 
climate, becoixie.s a necessUy for you. The constant use 
of good fruit is one of the means best calculated to coun- 
teract obstructions and biliious diseases, the result of a diet 
founded on careless habit ; hut not well adapted to such 
warm laiitudt-s. 

The SouMi is already comparatively rich in native varie- 
ties of Ap[)!es and Peaches; but the Pear has been much 
neglected, although well adapted to your climate. 

Let the Apple remain where it was in the fir.st days of 
Creation, perhaps -at the top of the li-^t of the useful fruits; 
but let the Pear not be overlooked. Itis a luscious, healtliy 
fruit, a constant liearer, and. under good management, a 
hardy?- and thriving tree. All depends upon a selection of 
such varieties ;is are suited to ^ onr climate, anii ihe stock 
■which is be>t suited to the different soils and locrdicies. 
Mach has been saiii about the [ireference to be given to 
the Pe<ir or to the Quince stock; both are good, but 
require ditierent treatment. All that is wanted is 
tile proper knowledge of xheir different habits and re- 
quisites. A good soil, rather dry than wet, and never shal- 
low ; proper attention paid to remove ill weeds, and to 
restore the ennsiiiucnts of the soil, if exhausted ; a regular 
prui'ing to remove useless or crowded bratiches and slioots, 
is all that is required. 


varieties which never do well on the quince,* or old Pear 
root-grafted varieties offeeole iiabits and indilTerent quali- 
ties'. ■ It is more than time that we suppress and reject all 
those wortiiless varieties from the old catalogues, in the in- 
fancy of Paar culture. New, hardy, fine varietie.s, either 
native or foreign, jiave been tested and are now generally 
superseding the old stock of Laquinthiye and l3uhamel. 
Therefore 1 would advise my Southern friends to give 
these new varieties a fair trial. Some, undoubtedly, will 
prove admirably suited to their clinmte. It is a known 
fact that generally^ the Pears are better in the middle States 
than they are in the East or in the A^orth ; and from all I 
have seen the Pear tree will not suffer by far so much 
under a temperature iiO'^ aoove, as by 8 or 10^ below 
zero. 

The only?' objection against the Pear in the South is, 
that late or v^inter varieties do not prove to be late, but 
ripen in October and November, and of course that you 
have most all our latest ripening varieties, about the 
same time. But you are also earlier— I have received 
ripe Pears from Georgia when in Jersey and Pennsylvania 
there was no such thing as the appearance of a ripening 
Pear. 

However, this does not seem to be a serious objection, 
since we must consider a fruit best when most "useful, and 
that is undoubtedly during the heat of the summer. — 
Through pait of the month of June, till November at least, 
you can and must have a succession of good Pears. And 
i believe I am not far from the truth when I think that 
winter Pears, comparatively valueless here as table 
Pears, will prove actue.l desideratums for the South. 
Such are;— Leon Leclerc (de Laval); Poire Prevok; 
Beurre Bretonneau, Passetardive, Souverainede Printems 
and others. Among the last new foreign varieties we 
have many winter fruits. As far as tested the trees of 
some of those varieties have proved hardy and sound 
through a winter 8° below zero, and a summer of 100° in 
the shade. A fair trial indeed for the first year of their 
introduction. 

And this is a good promise of their future success. For, 
when a variety is not suited to the climate it is first shown 
by the weakness, cracking and blistering of the tree, and 
no cultivation, care or manuring can infuse health and 
vigor in a plant not destined by nature to grow in extremes 
of heat, drouth or cold. 

If I was not afraid of my remarks extending so far, I 
would like to impress every amateur or planter with the 
necessity of paying due attention to the planting of the 
tree and the selection of the variety. A tree destined to 
yield crops anti to remain in the same place for halt a 
century or more is well worth one hour of labor and at- 
tention. One hour’s labor willlning the soil to the proper 
depth, the tree to its equilibrium between branches and 
roots, and have it placed in the. nest condiiion, (with the 
extension of all its sound roofs,) wlitre it lias to grow, 
aud remunerate the skillful planter, 

ii'iie next thing I would recommen:! is protection.— 
If the, tree suckers and lingers the first season, it is often 
lost and alway-s injured to a great extent. It will never 
do as well as a tree starting fairly after its removal and its 
un.ivoidaiiie mutilations. The first season after planting 
is a season of great trial. After that a tree will take better 
care of itself, with the aid of a good irUclligeut pruning- 
knife 

But the all important thing is tlie selection ot thriftyr 
growers. I\L ns sana in corpore sano can applied to 
fruit trees also — a good healthy fruit Ujion a sound vigor- 
ous tree. Such a tree will stand the climate, neglect and 
ill treatment and still yield sound and good fruit, when a 


Many persons have been disgusted with the cultivation ■ , ^ 

ofth« P.^sr because tlipv IvM nn- the if.-ifiv nrohfi- aud ! AVcdor.ot qiiiTcirndcrstandthisAmLoiyoWiging corrcspoiuanit 
Oi in., r.ai , oecau^e t.-ey nacl no. the tii.ihy, pionli.. a.ia ^ probablv, expl.aia liis meauuig iu future commumcati-ius 
hardy varieties, or because they receive Quince budded [ -wiKcb, we avehappy to say, behas yromUedus.— Eis. 


■29 


SOUTHERN 



feeble vavifely. uoder the same eircumstances, will dwindle 
to nothing and never produce a perfect fruit. 

If desired, sirs, I can send you a list ol varieties which 
I have no doubt will all do well in your ciiniite, and send 
you the gralts of the new or untested ones tor further trial 
You will soon find out, in your happy ciirnate, which are 
the most pro'ihsing varieties. Let us aiwr.ys bear in mind 
that the excellency of a fruit does not entitle it to be on 
the list of the very best unless every body can grow it 
under ordinary circumstances, and that depends altogther 
upon the vigor of the tree. For myself, 1 prefer a fruit of 
very good quality to a best one, if the fii st be more prolific, 
more thriving, more hardy, and bettersuited to all kinds of 
soil. This is what I should call market • varieties. Al- 
though the market now is very poor in such fruit, it is as 
easily to be obtained, however, as many w'orthless 
cider fruit. Perhaps I shall not see it, but I hope the. day 
may soon come when every laborev,as well as the wealthy, 
shall be able to consume good Pears. 

In taking up the Pear Culture much later than the 
Eastern States, you at least possess one great advantage 
over these. You will not have to go through endless, dis- 
couraging trials, to reject worthless things, find out sy- 
nonymes, &c., Ac. You can start with a stock of tested, or 
at least very promising and vigorous varieties. I have 
not the least doubt some varieties will prove superior 
in quality, and most suited to your climate. You have 
fine soils, plenty of elbow room, and enterprizing rn-m who 
soon will make the Pear a popular fruit for the South. 

L E B. 

Xeic Jersey, Z)sc.,l856. 



(xKAPE GKOVfI>G AM> 

Editors Southern Cultivator — I w'as pleased to see, 
in your September number, by iMr. Buchanan and your 
Carolina correspondent, the rebuke given to extravagant 
estimates of grape culture. For, though Mr. Axt, in your 
October number, vindicates his calculations by good au- 
thority, yet I think it is “too soon to hallo, for we are 
not yet out of the woods’.” It is true, the experiments in 
Georgia have been very encouraging, so far ; but they 
have been too few in numbers and years to rely on. Be- 
sides, we have not yet made wine. We have reason to 
apprehend difficulties on that score. Our grapes ripen in 
the hot season, say 1st September, and I doubt that the 
temperature may be found too high for making good wine 
If we succeed according to Mr. Axt’s estimates, our slave 
labor will soon glut the market so as to bring down the 
the price as it is in Europe. Cheap wines can often be 
had there, I believe, for 2U or 25 cents per gallon, perhaps 
less. 

I am planting the vine, but not with an expeefation of 
averaging over half of iMr. Axt’s estimates. I shall be 
well satisfied to make half, and write this to warn others 
to be moderate in their views, so as nat to be crying hum- 
bug if they should not have their estimated success. 

Caction. 

dSIiddle Georgia, 185G. 

THE .HOST EXTRAORDINARY COTTON IN 
the World: 

Editors Southern Cultivator — T have, accid'jiiially, 
the most extraordinary stalk of cotton in the world, say 
two hundred open bolls before the early frost In oeptein- 
ber, J85G. This stalk is about six feet high a; d at each 
joint on the main stalk from two to three lirnlis put forth, 
and at each joint on the limb a boll and limb with iron, 
two to three bolls each on this last limb, making common- 
ly from three to four bolls at a joint. At one limb joint I 
have three bolls, and turn limbs with each three b‘d!s, 
making nine bolls to the joints. One limb has matured 


ULTIV ATOK. 


and opened twenty bolls by the Istday of October, and 
ail large and sound. With this seed I am of the opinion 
cotton can be raised much fiirthev North and South, as it 
matures so early and is thouttht to be the cotton for South 
Louisiana and Texas, to avoid the boll worm ; and also for 
Tennessee, North Carolina and Indiana Territory west 
and northwest of Arkansas, to avoid early frost, and the 
otlier Southern States, for an extra early crop. I am in 
latitude J. L. Gol.ee, M.D. 

South Bend, Arh., 185G. 

P. S. — Should you or any of our frien<ds desire to hear 
more about this cotton privately, you can do so by ad- 
dressing R. H. Douglass, South Bend, or Wm. Waldron, 
Cummins, as also Ales. Donelson. 

[See advertisement and certificates on another page, in 
present number.] . 

P03IOEOGICAE SOCIETY^ OF GEORGIA. 

CONSTITUTION. 

Art. 1st. This Association shall be named the Porno- 
logical Society of Georgia. 

Art. 2nd. Its object shall be the advancement of Fruit 
Culture and the science of Pomology generally. 

Art. 3nd. Any person may become a member of this 
society by paying into the treasury the sum of one dollar 
annually. The payment often dollars or more will con- 
stitute a life membership thereof. 

Art. 4th. The officers of the Society shall consist of 
a President, Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer, to 
be elected by ballot at each annual meeting. These shall 
constitute the Executive Commhtee, who shall have the 
general management of the affairs of the Society during its 
recess. ^ 

Art. 5th. There shall be an ad -interim committee of five 
also appointed by ballot to examine and leport on any 
specimens of fruit v/orthy of notice submitted to them in 
the intervals between the meetings of the society. 

Art. Gth. The Constitution may be amended at any 
Regular hleeting of the Society, notice of the proposed 
amendment having been previously given. 

BY LAWS. 

Olst. The Annual iMeetingof the Society shall be held 
at Athens on the Tuesday of the commencement week of 
the Universiiy. Another meeting shall be held yearly in 
connection with the Southern Central Agricultural Society, 
on the .second day of its annual Fair, at each of which times 
an exhibition ana discussion of fruits shall take place and 
other business be transacted. 

2nd. No member in arrears for dues shall be eligible to 
any office, and for continued neglect shall cease- to enjoy 
tiie privileges of membership. 

I'rd. Distinguished Pomologists beyond the limits of 
the Stale may, from time to time, tie elected honorary and 
corre.s|)ondii)g members thereof, and enjoy tl.e privileges 
of rneriibersliip without the payment of the annual fee. 

Wm, N. White, Secretary, Athens, Ga. 


TIIE GRAPE CROP OF lg56. 

We have received, says the Journal of Coinmerce, the 
following statement from one of the most eminent vine 
grower.s of the Ohio valley. His remarks with l ePrence 
to the- vintage of this year, and especially the adaptation 
of our Southern States to grape growing, will be read with 
interest: 

The grape crop in the Ohio val’iey this year was a very 
small out — probably not more than an average of 80 to 
iOO gallons to the acre. The severe winter injur* d many 
of tlie vineyards seriously. Some of the vii es were killed 
down to the ground, and about half the buds in others 


30 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


were destroyed. The “rot” or mildew also injured some 
of the vineyards much. But a bad season with the grape, 
like other fl’uits must be expected to occur occasionally. 
Our experience thus far has proved that the grape is about 
as reliable a crop as the apple, and perhaps more so. 

A fair average crop for a series of years is found to be 
260 to 300 gallons to the acre, in well cultivated vineyards 
in the Ohio valley. The cost of producing this crop will 
not exceed S50 to S60 per acre, and less with proper 
economy. We plant the vines usually 3 by G feet apart 
in the rows, and an acre will contain 2,420 vines. Warm 
hill sides, or the tops of hills, are generally selected for 
vineyards. Any undulating land is preferable to level, 
as it affords better drainage. The grape wants porous 
soil, with good under-drainage. A tenacious, wet sub- 
soil, or blue clay, or hard pan, will cause mildew and rot 
after the fourth or fifth year, and should be avoided. 

This cultivation is largely on the increase all over the 
west and southwest, wherever the conditions are supposed 
to be favorable, and the consumption of the wine is fully 
equal to the production. 

Thirteen years ago, when the writer commenced plant- 
ing, the price of wine was lower than it is now. It was 
also inferior in quality to that made since, and but little 
known. Now the character of our native wines is well 
established, and those who have acquired a taste for them 
will use no others. Their cheapness and their purity 
have helped to introduce them into general use in some 
sections of the country, and the failure of the grape crops 
in Europe will add to the demand for them. Viewed in 
every aspect — moral and economical — our native wines 
may be considered a most valuable addition to the agricul- 
tural products of our country. 

It is now estimated that there is in vineyard culture 
over 4000 acres in the Ohio valley. About half this 
quantity is in the vicinity of Cincinnati, and probably 
three-fourths are now bearing. In the Missouri Valley 
there are 700 to 800 acres ; and in the Upper Mississippi 
Valley 500 to 600 acres, 

In Tennessee, Alabama, South Carolina and Georgia, 
several vineyards of the Catawba grape have lately been 
planted, with flattering prospects, thus far, of producing 
far better crops than those of the Ohio Valley. How they 
will hold out, has yet to be tested. The mildew and rot, 
our great enemies in vineyard culture, seldom trouble the 
first two or three crops, but I have little doubt that the 
uplands of North Carolina and Georgia will be found more 
favorable to the cultivation of the Catawba grape than any 
section of the United Statet. 


FRUIT €4ROWINGf IN THE SOUTH, 

Editors Southern Cultivator — In looking over the 
back numbers of your valuable paper I noticed two ar- 
ticles which I cannot refrain from answering, although as 
far back as the Tenth and Eleventh Volumes; butbelieving 
there is a large portion who keep the Cultivator as a 
reference upon subjects pertaining to Agriculture 
and Horticulture ; and knowing if any one follows after 
the precepts advocated in those articles they will experi- 
ence a fruitless disapointment. I also want it strictly 
understood that it is no self-interest which prompts me to 
write this article, neither do I wish to enter in a quarrel 
with any of the correspondents of a paper I so devotedly 
love, as I do the Southern Cultivator. 

The article in the Tenth volume is headed “Fruit Cul- 
ture,” and signed M. W, Philips, in which he says : “the 
impression has long gone abroad, that fruit trees worked 
at the North, will not do hei’e, neither will they bear or 
live long. A parcel of stuff about naturalizing or accli- 
matizing, or some other intangible matter. This is all flum- 
mery.” 

Let us look into this matter and see if this is “ all flum- 


mery” or not. I will first mention that I have devoted a 
large portion of this season to visiting orchards in this vi- 
cinity, making observations upon this subject, and as 
there has been vast quantities of Northern trees sold in 
this and the adjoining parishes within the last few years, 
it has afforded me opportunities for making many obser- 
vations, and in not one case have I yet found the North- 
ern tree one half so sure to bear as the Southern raised 
tree, when worked with a variety of peach of Southern 
origin. 

A few weeks ago I visited a peach orchard which cover- 
ed 100 acres of land, the proprietor having two years ago 
cleared 200 acres, which was also covered with peach 
trees. This orchard when at its heighth, consisted of 
5,500 trees, and covered 300 acres of land. I asked the 
gentleman who resided upon the place, why the trees were 
cut down. He informed me that there nad been only two 
crops gathered in ten years. I then asked him where he 
procured the varieties of peaehes. He said they were the 
choicest varieties the North could produce, worked upon 
Southern stocks. 

I travelled in every portion of the orchard, examined the 
trees, tasted the fruit, and in six among eight I found a 
worm, and a large portion far inferior to the same varie- 
ties when grov/n at the North. Many of the trees were dead, 
the remainder had a sickly appearance and were evidently 
following the same road, while in the same orchard a por- 
tion of trees which were worked with varieties of South- 
ern origin, looked thrifty and sound, and the gentleman 
informed me they would mature their fruit, when the 
Northern varieties would, when they did blossom, drop 
every one. 

Two miles from this“orchard is another which I visited; 
it covered five acres, the varieties all Southern origin. The 
land appears the same, and no better protected in any way, 
shape or manner. The proprietor informed me that the 
trees produce a good crop nearly every year. The trees 
were large, thrifty, sound and completely covered with 
fruit free from worms, beautiful in appearance, and equal 
in flavor to either of the Crawfords, the President, George 
the Fourth or Buckeye, (the three last were three among 
seven varieties, which took the premium at the Ohio State 
Fair in 1855, as being the best in cultivation.) 

About one mile from this last named orchard is another, 
which covered 25 acres of land, the varieties nearly all 
Northern, the buds having been cut from the trees of the 
first named orchard. The trees will not compare at all 
with those in the second named orchard, in size or sound- 
ness, and the proprietor informed me that they produced 
a crop once in five or six years. 

I also visited two more orchards situated one and two 
miles from the last mentioned one. The varieties all of 
Southern origin. One covei’ed seven and the other eight 
acres. The proprietor said the trees produced a crop 
every year, but some years more than others, that they 
always had peaches enough for their own use, marketed 
some, and fattened pigs enough on the peaches which 
dropped off the trees to pay for cultivating them. 

Let us see what Mr. Longworth, of Cincinnati, says 
about foreign varieties of grapes, for if the change of cli- 
mate affects grapes, I certainly do not see why it will not 
affect other varieties of fruit. He says: — “I have expend- 
ed $10,000 for foreign varieties of vines, have received 
them from nearly all the wine-producing districts of Eu- 
rope, and have not in one instance yet found a variety 
adapted to our soil and climate. I consider them utterly 
worthless.” 

If the difference between the soil and climate of Ohio 
compared with that of Europe, exercises such marked in- 
fluence upon fruit brought from Europe to Ohio, it seems 
very strange to me, if the difference between the North- 
ern and Southern climate does not exercise as much, if not 


SOUTHERN CULT IV AT OR. 


31 


greater influence upon fruit trees which are brought 600, 
800 or 1000 miles nearer the equator. 

The article in the Eleventh volume of Southern Cultiva- 
tor, which I refer to, is headed “Acclimated Fruit Trees, 
&c.,” and signed “Plebs,” in which the writer says : — 
“After an experience with trees in the South for 20 years, 
of those brought from Baltimore and north of it, and after 
being conversant, in a limited degree, with fruits for 35 
years, I am unwilling to see my friends and neighbors pay 
two prices to any man, on a flimsy pretence of acclima- 
tion” 

As far as the honesty of Southern nurserymen is con- 
cerned, I will only say: f think them just as honest in their 
dealings as Northern nurserymen are ; they might in 
former years have asked rather high prices for their trees, 
hut those wishing to buy trees can find plenty ofnui-sery- 
men in the South, who will sell better trees, at as low 
prices, as well packed, and in far better condition when 
delivered than any Northern nurseryman can possibly do; 
but there is one thing the public must learn, viz: the man 
who has made the fruit business his study for years, read 
volumes after volumes of works devoted exclusively to 
horticulture, and edited by the most eminent writers on 
both sides of the Atlantic, and learned how to perform the 
many scientific operations upon fruit trees, who has serv- 
ed a number of years as apprentice to the nursery busi- 
ness, and can join the scientific with the practical, got 
only by experience and observation, I say, when Plan- 
ters, Lawyers or Doctors learn that they do not know as 
much about the cultivation, and management of fruit trees 
as a thorough bi'ed nurseryman, then there will 
cease to be such a difference of opinion on this important 
question. 

The days the writer of this article has lived will not 
number as many as those of Mr. Plebs’ experience, but he 
has devoted a large portion of them to the study of horti- 
culture, besides performing many a hard day’s work in 
different nurseries ; he does not presume to be perfect, for 
the more he learns the more he sees there is to learn, but 
he fancies he has learned one thing, viz: if the differ- 
ence between the climate where a certain variety offruit 
originated and the climate to which that fruit tree is taken, 
does not exercise any perceptible influence upon that tree, 
it certainly does exercise a marked influence upon the 
fruitfulness of that tree and the quality of that fruit. It is 
the fruit more than the tree which has to become adapted 
to a different climate. Every year’s experience teaches 
us that no fruit can be grown as near perfection out of the 
latitude as it can in the latitude where it originated. Mr. 
Plebs says: “he shall require the say-so of more than one, 
or one dozen who are interested.” 

Permit me to quote a few lines from Mr. P. Barry’s ad- 
dress delivered to the Fruit Growers’ Association, Burling- 
ton, Iowa. Mr. B. is well known among the Horticultur- 
al community, and is considered as good authority as we 
have in America, having been engaged in the nursery 
business for the last 19 years at Rochester, N. Y. He says: 

“My advice to you, here in the West, is to sow every 
good seed you can get. I mean the seed «of* those fruit 
which succeed best here.” 

Again in the same address he says: — “No other fact 
connected with fruit culture is more fully substantiated 
by every days experience than this, viz: To insure success- 
ful cultivation we must have varieties that are adapted to 
the peculiarities of our soil and climate. Many of your 
most valuable apples for this country prove utterly 
worthless with us, while many of our best fruits fail en- 
tirely with you. This Society and others of similar char- 
acter are collecting information on this subject of the 
highest value. The fact is well established that the fruit 
which succeeds best in particular localities are those 
which originated there, or in others slightly different. I 


believe the Baldwin, Hubbardson Nonsuch, and Porter 
apples are nowhere quite so good as in New England, 
The Newtown Pippin, Swaar, Esopus, Spitzenburg, and 
Northern Spy, are scarcely anywhere so good as in New 
York. Our Northern Apples are of little value in the 
South, and the very finest Southern Apples are utterly 
worthless in the North.” 

The above coincides with observations I have made in 
the Eastern, Northern and Western States. The Rambo 
grows nearer perfection in Pennsylvania than in Ohio, 
while the Northern Spy is a very uncertain apple in 
Vermont and New Hampshire. 

I believe the South would have been far in advance of 
the North in raising fruits, at the present day, if the in- 
habitants of the South had given the attention the import- 
ance of this question merits and demands; but it is pleas- 
ing to witness the spirit which has been awakened within 
the last four years. The reformation has commenced — 
the South is beginning to see the advantage gained in 
planting Southern raised trees. Pomological Societies have 
been formed and are still forming ; search has been made 
over some portions of the South and the labor rewarded 
by some of as choice varieties of Apples as the North have 
produced. The dawning of these good days is already 
perceptible; several bright stars are already glittering in 
the catalogues of the different Southern nurserymen. The 
South can now unfurl its banner to the breeze and show 
a large number of as choice varieties of Apples and Peach- 
es, also, a few Pears and Plums, as the North has ever pro- 
duced. 

Some might say the varieties are numerous enough. 
To those I would say, the South covers a broad area and 
will, therefore, require an extensive Catalogue to suit the 
different soils and situations. Let not the good work stop. 

I would advise the lovers of good fruit to plant every 
good fruit seed they can get, and in the fall before the leaves 
drop select every “sport” which can be very easily dis- 
tinguished by the thick velvety and glossy foliage. You 
can drive a stick by them and in winter graft them upon 
bearing trees. In two or three years you can test the 
quality of fruit. We have a seed bed containing several 
thousand seedlings in which I have selected every “sport.” 
We might not get one good variety, but we can reason- 
ably expect several. If they prove good, Messrs. Editors, 
it will afford me the greatest pleasure to send you a box 
of choice Southern Seedling Apples. If there are any at 
the present day who believes the Northern tree will grow 
as well, live as long, and bear as well as the Southern 
raised tree, I invite them to pay me a visit, and I will show 
them the Northern and Southern trees standing side by 
side. Yours respectfully, J. W. Fjslt. 

Bayou Sara, La., 1856. 

SOUTHERN VINEYAKD.S. 

Editors Souturrn Cui tivator — I am greatly pleased 
to see that Southern Pomologists are beginning to take 
more interest in the vine. If I am not greatly misinformed 
in relation to the soil and climate of South Carolina, 
North Carolina and Georgia, &c., particularly on the more 
elevated parts of those States, they ought and I trust soon 
will produce wine equal to any country and far superior 
to the best of the imported. 

There are undoubtedly many wild varieties of grapes 
yet to be discovered, or at least brought into cultivation, 
that will rival and surpass any we yet know of native 
kinds, and it is useless to cumber the grounds with the 
foreign grape, as they have been fully tested and in all 
cases found unsuitable — mildew ruins them. 

I am experimenting with raising seedlings, and am try- 
ing to procure seeds of all the natives that are promising. 

J. B. G. 

Columbia, Pa., 1856. 


32 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


DWARF PEARS. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — Dv/arf Pears are not j 
what the name indicates. The tree only is dvv^arf in its 
liabit. The fruit suffers no diminution in size, but on the 
contrary many kinds of Pears are much improved by 
budding or grafting on the Quince. The habit of the tree 
is diminished in size and brought into earlier bearing 
budded or grafted on the Thorn, Mountain Ash or Quince. 
The latter, however, has been found most desirable and 
better adapted on account of its thrifty habit, and is now 
the only one used to any extent for this purpose. 

The ordinary Quince now generally in use in our gar- 
dens does not answer for this purpose, and when used 
gives but poor satisfaction from its slow growth and in- 
ferior fruit, and is never used by nurserymen of any repu- 
tation. 

The kind used is a hybrid called Angers, fro‘m France, 
and also one called Orleans, both having large roots and 
growing rapidly and to a good size and fully adapted for this 
purpose, and are'the only ones that v/ill fully repay the 
amateur for his experiments. These trees from their di- 
rninitive size are most admirably adapted to gardens and 
other small spaces too limited for the ordinary Standard 
Apple and Pear, and when fully grown will measure fif- 
teen feet high and bear from 3 to 5 bushels of fruit annual- 
ly. The finest Pear sent into the Eastern fairs are said to 
have been grown on these trees The tree as an orna- 
ment may be trimmed or trained quenouille, pyramid or 
half standard, or in any form almost the fancy may dictate, 
at very slight . expense of time or labor. In our estimation 
we know not of a more magnificent or imposing sight 
than one of these trees neatly trimmed and in full bloom 
or fruit. We have had the pleasure during the past sea- 
son of I’egaling ourselves by plucking from the trees in 
question some excellent Madeleines, Bartletts, de Angou- 
lemes, Diels, &c., and we must admit that we now con- 
sider their presence indispensable among our collection. 
We had often, in looking over Downing and others, seen 
Pears designated as melting, juicy, buttery, &c , all of 
which we read with credulity until the past summer; and 
would then, we think, have added a few more words of 
praise had we written the book and had a dish of the fruit 
to have discussed over during the operation. 

Pomona. 

Mississippi, Nov., 

FRUITS FOR THE SOUTH. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — I enclose you descrip- 
tions of a few choice fruits tested by me last season : 

Tke Champagne Gra.pe . — This is unquestionably one 
of the finest table-grapes, and is for that purpose cultiva- 
ted largely about Pans, in France. It is one of the few 
European grapes which I can recommend for the South, 
as it for the last six years has succeeded admirably, and 
produced finely here with me. Bunches of middling size, 
shouldered ; berries round, not very close set ; skin green, 
turning yellow, and half transparent when fully ripe. Ri- 
pens here by July 15th. 

Frankenthal is another European grape, a native of 
the “Rhine,” and perfectly adapted to our climate. Bunch- 
es close, berries round, skin deep plack, covered with a 
blue bloom ; very sweet, juicy, and high flavored. 

Both of these varieties are very productive, and satis- 
fied with any treatment. They prefer a good rich loam, 
and not to be exposed to the sun. The Frankenthal is 
often considered identical with the “Black Flambufgh,” 
but is entirel3v different from it, and much better suited to 
our climate. Ripe middle of July. I confidently can re- 
commend the above kinds as a decided acquisition to 
Southern agriculture. 

Canary . — This delicious peach originated here from 
the seed of the “Yellow Rareripe,” impregnated with the 


pollen of the “Red Rareripe,” and the “Moorpark” apri- 
cot. It produced fruit last summer for the first time, and 
I expect you will agree with me in calling it a delicious 
fruit, though you would find it much finer, if you could 
pull it, perfectly ripe, . from the tree. Fruit medium size, 
very regular oblong, with a small but acute projecting 
point, and a very slight suture. Skin beautiful canary 
yellow, very thin, and rarely tinged with a faint blush on 
the. sunny side. Flesh exceedingly juicy, with a high vi- 
nous and peculiar flavor, resembling the flavor of a rich 
apricot. Ripe by the middle of July. Freestone. Rath- 
er delicate for market. 

Early Green Ccitkrorine . — Entirely different from the 
well known CatJuirine Cling peach. Fruit round, very 
little inclined to oval, skin creamy white, slightly tinged 
with carmine on the sunny side. Flesh white, luscious 
and sweet, and rather firm, which makes it a very desira- 
ble variety for market. 

Plums were splendid last season, as you saw by 
the samples sent. Washington, Jefferson, Duane’s 
Purple, Columbia, Imperial Gage, and many others, have 
been superior, and generally admired. 

Notwithstanding that the season was unfavorable 
to the perfect development of peaches, you will probably 
admit that the “Flewellen” peach is a first rate variety. 

Robert Nelson. 

Avgusta, Geo., Dec., 1S56. 

SAVINCf PEA TINE HAT" — THE CHINA 
Proliac Pea. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — In the October num- 
ber of the Cultivator, I notice a communicated from “T. 
C. C.” in which he complains that he can find no suitable 
substitute for fodder, much as he objects to the loss of 
time and corn involved in pulling it. Ke says he has found 
it impossible to gather and cure pea-hay so that his horses 
would 'eat it, even after several days sqnning. I think he 
would find it an advantage to pursue a plan introduced 
into our neighborhood by Dr. Goree, which is, to plant 
the peas in ridges four or five feet apart, after he has taken 
off his oat crop. Just before frost he has the vines pulled 
up and thrown into “win rows.” After it has taken one 
day’s sun, and before the leaves get dry enough to crum- 
ble he has the rows chopped in two every ten or twenty 
feet (depending upon the amount of vine) then loaded on 
a wmgon, and driven to a convenient place for stacks, 
which are made by setting up posts fifteen or twenty feet 
in height, well imbedded, and having holes bored with 
a two inchaugar every two feet, through which are thrust 
strong poles extending five or six feet on each side. On 
these are hung the vines, from bottom to top. The stock 
should be thatched wdth oat or other straw, and suffered 
to remain untouched for a month ; when he will find a 
rich; sweet food that will keep his horses and mules (un- 
less at work) perfectly fat without the asssistance of other 
food. 

Another plan which we find seccessful is to put the 
vines- in ra'il pens, having after each load two or three rails 
thrust through from one side to the other, so that the next 
load may partially rest upon them ; in this way, admit- 
ting a free circulaiion of air. “T. C. C.” will find by 
adopting this plan that his most fastidious horses will 
willingly eat pea hay. 

Mr. Wm. F. Douglass, of this county, is this year 
planting “China pea,” which I think should supersede 
the use of every other. I have noticed Ins crop from time 
to time during the season, and must say I have never seen 
anything to equal it. I shall plant no other nex;.year. so 
well satisfied am I of its superiority. Y'f R 

South Bend , Ark., Oct., 1850. 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


33 


We copy the following from the new work on Morgan Horses, just published by C. M. Saxton & Co., and 
noticed in our December number, last volume, page 375 : 



North Star was foaled the property of David Lincoln, of 
Greenwich, 3iass. Sired by. Morgan Emperor, g. sire. 
Bulrush, g. g. sire, Justin Morgan. Dam, a bay. He took 
the second premium at the National Fair at Springfield, 


Mass., 1854. He is a bright bay; weighs 1,0G0 lbs.; 
black and curly mane and tail. He is a very symmetri- 
cal, well- shaped horse, with fine bold style and excellent 
action; and is now owned by Henry Olmstead, East Hart- 
ford, Conn, 



GREBN MOUNTAIN 2d 


Green Mountain 2d was foaled in 1834, the property of 
George Bundy, Sired by Gilford, g. sire Woodbury, g. g. 
sire Justin Morgan. Dam sired by Woodbury, a dark 
bay mare of great beauty and action. This horse is 142 
hands high, and weighs 1,100 lbs.; color deep bay. Mr- 


Bundy sold him, when four months old, to Daniel Gay. of 
Stockbridge, Vt., who kept him till he was four years old, 
and sold him to Hii’am Twitchell, of Bethel, Vt., and he 
sold him the same year to John Woodbury, of Bethel, Vt. 
Mr, Woodbury sold him to Silas Hale, of South Royalston, 


f. r 




34 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


Mass,, who kept him till 1855, when he sold him to a 
stock company in Williamstown, Vt., where he is now 
owned. Mr. Hale took him West in 1853, and he received 
first premiums at the several State Fairs of Kentucky, 
Ohio and Michigan, and in 1854 he received the first 
premium at the Vermont State Fair, at Brattleboro.’ He 
has also taken several other premiums. He is a horse of 
great muscular development, and remarkably nervous, 
spirited action. 

TALL. COTTON PICKING. 

Tha Vicksburg (Miss.) Whig, of a late date has the 
following : 

Villa Vista Plantation, Nov. 24, 1756. 

Mr. Editor — Beat this who can ! Four negro men and 
two girls picked, on Wm. Hawes Harris’ plantation, 7,750 
lbs , of cotton, commencing at daylight and quitting at sun- 
set. L. Henry, 1,560 lbs.; Arthur, 1,235 lbs.; George, 
1,200 lbs.; Abner, 1,415 lbs.: Eleanor, 1,150 lbs., and L, 
Betsey, 1,190 lbs. They have been picking at this rate 
for the last ten days. L. J. Philips, 

Manager of V. V. Plantation. 


“ THE ART AND PRINCIPLES OF SOAP 
Making.” 

Editors Southern Cultivator: In your remarks un- 
der the above head, May No . 1856, page 163, I think the 
minds of your readers are liable to be misled. If I am 
wrong, I shall be giad to get light. 

You say, “water slowly decomposes soap.” Is it not 
the lime and salts in the water which decompose the 
soap I My daily experience shows me that one pound of 
hard white soda soap, combined with ten pints of water, 
(free from lime and salts,) keeps for a length of time with- 
out at all losing its solubility. All soaps contain water in 
greater or less amount, and keep for years without appre- 
ciable deterioration in quality. It is foreign matters 
in the water, then, which decompose the soap, and not 
water itself. 

You say, “because the oil or grease seems to neutral- 
ize, in the first place, and mask in the second, the too in- 
tense causticity of the alkalies named-” Does not carbon- 
ic acid fulfill amply the two indications named, (neutralize 
and mask the causticity,) as well as the fat % Why remove, 
with so much care, the carbonic acid from the alkali, and 
supply its place with the fatty acids'? Soap is certainly 
something more than a caustic alkali deprived of its caus- 
ticity. Nor is it simply grease deprived of its greasiness. 
It is a true chemical compound, having, sui generis, posi- 
tive detergent properties, wholly distinct from those of 
its constituents. The property, when in dilute solution, 
of uniting readily with greases, constitutes its chief value. 
This property is not at all characteristic of either caustic 
or carbonated alkalies, else we should find no difficulty 
in the very ready manufacture of soap under almost any 
conditions. The alkalies, to unite properly with grease, 
must be concentrated, and hence do violence to the cloth 
as well as to the hands of the laundress. 

You say, “But since commercial soaps are so shame- 
lessly adulterated.” Adulterated with what'? Pereira 
says, “with excess of water, lime, gypsum or pipe-clay.” 
Water is the only adulteration I have ever met with — and 
this in no wise injures the quality of the article as a deter- 
gent. 

You say, “We never saw any one weigh either potash, 
ley, grease or oil, in making soap.” Surely, it is a very 
rational proceeding with a new beginner,, especially if 
potash is used. 

You say, “Adding a saturated solution of caustic lime, 
as long as any precipitate falls in the ley.” It seems a 
needless waste of time and fuel to add so large a quantity 


of water as would be required to dissolve the requisite 
amount of lime. If the potash be in the state of proto- 
carbonate, every ten pounds will require at least six pounds 
of lime in a caustic state. The U. S. Dispensatory in- 
forms us that one pint of water at 60° dissolves 9 7-10 
grainsof lime. PemVa says 11 6-10. Now, if we assume 
11 grains, we shall require four hundred and seventy-one 
gallons of lime-water to render caustic ten pounds of pot- 
ash. A bulk altogether too large to be evaporated for the 
recovery of so small a quantity of alkali. Your previous 
remark, “unless you prefer to throw it away,” is well put 
in. 

You say, “Hence, the simple addition of salt will often 
solidify soap, (forming, in part, a soda soap, j ’ &c. Does 
not the addition of salt in sufficient quantity, to potash 
soap, such as you describe, alvooAjs solidify soap '? And 
does it not form in toio a soda soap % So say the authorities. 

You say, “One pound of such soap is worth many 
pounds of the insoluble, filthy, resinous stuff sold for 
washing purposes.” If reference is had to the brown tur- 
pentine soap usually sold, I must differ with the opinion 
expressed. My own observation is, that good turpentine 
soap is a most excellent detergent. • It unites with grease 
with remarkable facility, and by the friction which it in- 
duces, greatly promotes the cleansing of cloth, while a 
pure tallow or oil soap causes the folds of cloth to glide 
smoothly and quickly over each other, so that little or no 
motion takes place in the fibres of the cloth, and the remo- 
val of dirt from the interstices is thus retarded. Good 
house-wives always add rosin or turpentine in their soap- 
boiling, for the improved quality of the soap thus yielded. 
You certainly, Messrs. Editors, have not had much practi- 
cal experience at the wash-tub, or you would not speak so 
harshly of rosin soap. 

You say, “Neither rosin nor any ©fits feble acids ever 
become rancid ; and therefore, says Knapp,” &c. I think 
you certainly mistake the ground upon which Knapp 
makes his assertion, and I apprehend he is in error, as the 
weight of chemical authority is against him. Indeed, he 
says himself, on the very next page, “rosin, in combina- 
tion with either soda or potash, forms by itself a soft 
soap'^ The technical point aside, every house-keeper 
knov/s practically that rosin does make soap, and a first 
rate washing soap can’t be made without it. I remark, in 
conclusion, rosin is one of the constituents of the “Eng- 
lish Honey Soap,” so celebrated for toilet use, which took 
the medal at the London Exhibition. 

R. B. 

[The strictures of our correspondent refer to an article 
published in our last volume, page 163. The senior Edi- 
tor (who wrote that article) will reply in good time.] 

Hair Oil for FIorses. — Immense fortunes have been 
realized in the manufacture of Hair Oil for the Lords and 
Laities of creation. But here i-s a recipe for the manfac- 
ture of hair oil, said to be successful in promoting the 
growth of horse hair, rendering \i pliable and glossy. We 
give the technical formulae of the prescription : 

R. — Take 

Brushus et currycomus ad libitum. 


Elbow greasus quantum suff. 

Blanketisus firstratus. 

Stablus warmus. 

Fodderus never say diet-us but meal us et oatus. 

Exercisus non compromisus. 


The effect of the above is truly wonderful. It results 
in — 

Coatus shinitus, 

Appetitus wolfitus, 

Muscularitus, two-forty-itus. 
Horse Latinus. 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


35 


Sbufitistmtnts. 

AUGUSTA SEED STORE. 

{Nearly opposite the United States and Globe Hotels.) 

he Subscriber has received and will continue to receive 
X throughout the season, his stock of genuine and fresh GAR- 
DEN SEEDS — crop of 1865. The usual deductions made to coun- 
try Merchants. J. H. SERVICE. 

GIANT ASPARAGUS ROOTS, White and Red ONION SETS, 
White and Red CLOVER, LUCERNE, BLUE GRASS, &c., <fcc. 

J an57 — 3t 

A. LONGETT, 

fAEALER in FERTILIZERS, No. 34 Clitf street. New York. 

I 7 PERUVIAN GUANO No. 1 — Government brand and wmight 
on each bag. COLUMBIAN GUANO, imported by the Philadel- 
phia Guano Company. SUPERPHOSPHATE OF LIME and 
BONE DUST. Jan57— 3t 

XMPROVED SUPERPHOSPHATE OF LIME, of the best 
i brands, for sale by A. LONGETT, 

Jan57 — 3t 34 Cliff street. New York. 

CHERRIES !— AMERICAN VARIETIES. 

TX/ E can furnish a limited number of nearly all the new Ameri- 
Y V can varieties of CHERRIES, worked on the Mahaleb stock 
and especially suited to the South. Also, all the old approved 
kinds. Price, 50 cents each or $40 per hundred. Address : 

Dec56 — tf D. REDMOND, Augusta, Ga. 

/COLUMBIAN GUANO, imported by the Philadelphia Guano 
Company. A. LONGETT, A^nt, 

Jan57 — :3t New York. 


GLOVER’S PATENT COTTON PRESS. 



ir 

I 


Patented July 3rd, 1855. 

rpHE above Press is designed for plantation use, and is the only one known that can be effectively worked hiside the Gin House or 
_L Shed added thereto. As will be seen, it is a vertical Press and combines simplicity, durability and quickness of action. Being 
inside of the Gin-House, all handling of the Cotton is saved ; the top of the box is a hole in the floor and the cotton is raked from the 
lint room and taken out down stairs a bale. Being above ground and under shelter it is not liable to decay. Its diirability considered, 
the Press is much cheaper than the screw. One of these Presses has been in operation on my own Plantation for 3 years, giving gen- 
eral satisfaction. I also have one erected at the Foundry of Messrs. Ewan & Bro., Columbus and Nassau streets, Charleston, S. C., 
who will give any particular information wanted, and furnish single Presses promptly, whom please address. These Presses can be 
worked either by hand, horse and the power that drives the Gin. 

Patent Right to States n,nd Counties for sale. For purchase of Patent Rights address A. M. Glover, care of Moore & Glover, 
Charleston, S. C. For purchase of Single Presses address Messrs. Ewan & Bro., as above. Jan57— 2t. 


36 


SOUTH^ERN CULTIVATOR 


PATSNT BUCKLE. 


^ , — s: 


Ut 1 

:i i 

f“*Tl 1 


Ui I 

Li 

pi 

n 


j 


I DESIRE to sell the Ei^lit of making and selling the new 
DOUBLE-JOIETED PATEET BUCKLE, and will thank- 
fully receive offers for it until the 1st day of June next. The 
■Buckle is the best that has yet been invented, one answering for 
the w’hole ward robe and should be made of gold or silver. The 
Right of one State is worth a fortune. I will sell the Right of 
one or all the States together. ' WM. SLADE. 

Gum Creek, Dooly Co., Ga., Nov. 24, 1856. Jan57 — 5t 


WHITE’S GAHDEKITIG PGR THE SOUTH. 

A new Work by W. N. White, of Athens, Ga., containing di- 
rections for cultivating the Kitchen and Fruit Garden, with 
large and valuable lists of fruits and vegetables adapted to the 
Southern States, with Gardening Callauders for the same.. 

Price $1.25, sent by mail, post paid, on receipt of Price. 

C. M. SAXTON & CO., 

Agricultural Book Pirblishers, 140 Eulton-st., New York. 
Jau57 — ^2t 

DIOSCOREA BATATAS— TTBW CHINESE 
Potato — or If am. 

rr^ HE experience pf another season in the cultivation of this new 
X esculent, warrants us in conSrming all we' said in relation to it 
last year. Wherever it fe.ll'on into the hands of judicious cul- 
tivators, and received th§^ care necessary to its full development, 
the result has b( (. n er i , \ sn' ctory in all respects ; and it may 
confidently be rcc miAli cict 1 1 the esculents proposed as sub- 
stitutes for the d '-Ct . )> lo the Dioscorea Batatas is certainly 
the only important one. tS c cu)i i'.ow snpxily small roots from 4 to 
9 inches long, carefuiiy packe i fur transport at $3 per dozen; and 
small seed tubers (such as we sold last year) at $i per dozen to 
$7 per hundred ; these latter can be sent by mail. Description 
and directions for culture furnished with each package. WTiere 
practicable, parties are invited to examine the roots before purchas- 
ing, as we have them constantly on view. 

NEW CHINESE NORTHERN SUGAR CANE.— Seed of this 
celebrated and invaluable plant in packets at 12j cents each 
(prepaid by mail 25 cts.) 75 cents a pound. 

CHUFAS or EARTH ALZvIOND— $1 per 100. 

JAPAN PEAS, 50 cts. a quart. NEW ORANGE WATER 
•MELON (true), CHRISTIANA MUSK MELON ; KING PHILIP 
CORN ; SWEET GERMAN TURNIP, etc., etc., wfith the largest 
and most comprehensive assortment of VEGETABLE, FLOWER 
and FIELD SEEDS to be found in the United States. 

Catalogues on application. 

JAS. M. THORBURN & CO., 
Jan57 — 2t Seedsmen, &c., 15 John st., New York. 

THE MOST EXTRAORDINAHlf COTTON IN 
the W’oiid. 

I HAVE for sale the earliest COTTON in the world,and will sell 
the seed at $1 each or six seed for $5. or the seed of the stalk 
now on hand say thi’ee thousand, for $2,000. J. L. GORES, 
South Bend, Ark., 1856. 

CERTIFICATES. 

I certify that I am doing business for Dr. Goree and have seen 
his communication of the 28th of November, and cheerfully certify 
that it is correct and not the least exaggerated. The cotton is 
either a new one or one I have never seen before, as I am very 
well acquainted with most of the new cottons of the present day. 
I believe this seed will open as early in latitude 34 as any seed I 
know will in latitude 32. ALEX. DAVIDSON. 

I certify that I have seenDf. Goree’s stalk of Cotton, and that it 
is all he describes it to be. It differs from the fine cotton of the pre- 
sent day by branching much more and every branch fiUed with 
bolls. I consider it an entue new cotton, and, far more valuable 
than the best I have ever seen, and fully a month earlier than our 
earliest cotton and well suited, I should think, to the latitude of 
Tennessee and perhaps of Kentucky. It would not surprize me if 
this cotton does not more effectually than any thing else settle the 
stomachs of the Abolitionists. It certainly is a very extraordinary 
stalk, maturing sojearly so many bolls. 

WILLIAM WALDRON. 

At the»request of our neighbor, Dr. Goree, we have examined 
the stalk of cotton described by him in a communication to the 
Southern Cultivator, and do cheerfully testify to the correctness of 
the general facts of his description, and believe them all to be 
correct. ROBT. H. DOUGLASS. 

[Mr. Douglass did not see the cotton for two months, and it hav- 
ing been so long in the house, the childi'en had pulled many bolls 
off ami on the 'twenty boll limb it only had nineteen, -.inuthat is why 
he worded it as he did. The others saw it the next day after pull- 
ing. J. L. GOREE.] 

[Jan57— 2tl 


PE ABOUT’ 3 NEVv’^ SEEDLING STP-A\V- 
berry. 

SUBSCRIBER has originated a new Seedlmg STRAW- 
X BERRY, which combines more good qualities to maxe up a 
jjerfect berry than any ever yet introduced, viz ; It is of ihe largest 
nze. measuring six and seven inches in circumference ; it is of 
beautiful form, attacl'.edto tbe caylx by a polished coral-like ne^ 
without seeds : rich, deep crimson color ; fruit borne on tall 
stalks, of the most exquisite pine flavor; fie.sh fiim, melliog and 
juicy ; and bears transportation better than any StrawbejTj’- ever 
cnlrivated (See engraving and description of the plant in the 
November No., last volume.) 

I will be prepared to send the plant out, whenever the following 
terms are complied with. Not a plant of this variecy hr-' ever left 
my grounds, nor ever will, until the propositions below are .sub- 
scribed to. I propose to get one thousand sub.scriptions at $5 per 
djfcen plants, throughout the whole country. Subscribers on for- 
warding their names, and j)ostofliee addre.ss, with the number of 
dozen desired, will receive by retnim mail a berartiful colored plate 
of the vine and fi n't, di awn from nature: aud as soon as the thou- 
sand subscriptions are made up, I will notify each subscriber, when 
the money may be mailed to me., and I will prrt the plant.s up in 
moss, envelope them in oil silk, aud forward them by mail. By 
this method they can be sent to any part of the Union with safety 
and de.spatch. I have sent package.' of 100 of the eommoji Straw- 
berry 1.000 miles by mail, without the loss of a plant. Packages 
of one dozen wUl go through the mail as certainly as a letter. 

Subscribers, on receSving” the colored plates will please .show 
their friends, that it may hasten the completion of the list. From 
one dozen plants, one thousand may be produced the first year. — 
This plant is the hermaphrodite, always bearing perfect crops of 
fruit, without any impregnator. 

Direction.s for the culture of this plant will be sent with each 
colored plate. CHARLES A. PEABODY. 

Cohimbus, Ca., Oct. 1, 1856. 

As a proof of the keeping qualities of this new Strawberry, on 
tbe morning of tbe 9th of May last, [Frida,y,] I picked a case of 
the berries, took them to Columbus, six miles, in my buggy, sent 
them from Columbus to Savannah, three hnndi’ed miles by Rail- 
road, aud from Savannah to New York, nine hundred miles by 
steamer to my friends, Me.ssr3. J. M. Tborbum & Co. The follow- 
ing extract from Messrs. Thorburn & Co.’s letter, will show the 
condition of the berries just one week after they were picked. 

C. A. P. 

New York, May 16th, 1856. 

Mr. Charles A. Peabody— Dear Sir.— The Strawberries 
came to hand on the a,fternoon of Tuesday, sound and in very good 
condition, retaining an unnsually strong Strawberry aroma. * * 
The berries have wilted down only a very little, up to this time, 
Friday morning, May 16th. Yours truly, 

Jan57— tf J. M. THORBURN & CO 


TTFY'ANDOT CORN. — Persons wishing to procure Seed of 
t f this new and most productive variety of Com can be sup- 
plied by early application to D. B. PLUMB X CO. 

Jan57 — It 


“FKUITLAND NURSBRT,” AUGUSTA, GA. 

Fruits and Flowers for tlie 5?outh ! 
ifJHE Subscriber has just issued a NEYf CATALOGUE OF 
X FRUITS FOR THE SOUTH, in which all the BEST and 
most desirable NATIVE and FOREIGN varieties (sititable to our 
climate) are fully described ; with special directions for the trans- 
planting and management of Trees, Shrubs, Vines, Ac. Also, a 
selected list aud description of the rarest and most beautiful 
ROSES, EVERGREENS, etc., etc.; forming a familiar treatise 
for amateurs and those who desire to add to the comfort and adorn- 
ment of their- homes. 

This Catalogue will be sent to aU applicants perinr.il. FREE OF 
POSTAGE, bv addi-ossing D. REDMOND. Augu- .a. Ga. 

Dec56-^tf 


SOUTH DOWN SHEEP. 

I AM williug to dispose of a few very fine yearling SOUTH 
DOAVN E'WES, in iamb; also, fom-fine yearling BUCKS, 
not related to the Ewes. 

Persons wishing to make trial of this celebrated variety of North- 
ern Sheep would do well to avail themselves of this opportunity 
to obtain a small flock of undoubted purity. 

I w ill sell a Buck and three Ewes for 100, if applied for prior to 
the 1.4t of January next. RICHARD PETERS, 

Dec56-^tf Atlanta, Ga- 


PUHB AND VALUABLE BBdD',. 

H aving experienced the great difficulty in obiauiing reliable 
FLOWER SEEDS, suitable to the South, IJui- raised a 
small quantity, which i have placed m the hand.- of D. B. Piuiuh & 
Go., Druggists, in this city, for retailing. I wouU.. pn. i'c.'larij- draw 
the attention of the ladies to the sxrlendi;! collection of Sf ck Gilly 
Flowers, Ten Weeks Stocks, Double Wall Flov .a-.', a-'V'i German 
Asters. ROBERT NEL>ON. 

Dec56 — tf Augusta. Ga. 


3LAG A ESSEX HOGS. 

F or SALE, a -few : ■ of three to four months oM, a: s-IO per 
pair. For Lo ' • . Iconsidci- this breed s;.p: -i'!r to any 

other — they cannu io to take the mange, and .-u i free fvoin 

cutaneous errn, -I' ■. -aisease of the lungs, to whhi'. bogs are 

so liable when i, . A dry pens in a Southorn clir. r.h .\:'<lross 
Nov55— tf R. PETERS, A;I '.h.r. La. 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


37 


THB CHIHKSB PBA. 

HE most PROLIFIC PEA known ; well adapted to poor lands 
I and yieldiug more to the amouat planted .aud the acre than 
an}' other, by an him'di'ed per cent. One pea planted yielding a had 
gallon, if allowed proper distance to spread. The p-eas growing in 
bunches, save great labor in gathering. The vines are eaten greedi- 
ly by stock, and the pea is unsurpassed for the table in delicacy and 
richness of flavor. _ , 

Any one wisliing them can have a package containing han a 
irint (from 6 to 7 ounces) ^ent per mail, postage paid, by remitting 
us $1 30 — ($1 iu current funds and 30 cents in postage stamps.) Any, 
one not perfectly satistied with the Pea will have his money re- 
turned. Address D. B. PLUMB A CO., Augusta, Oa. 

l^^'For ebstaut Agencies, addi-ess D. EEDMOAD, 

Koy. 56 — 5t Augusta. Ga. 

R. B. NORVELL, 

A UCTIOX AHD COMMISSION MERCHANT, AND DEAL- 
ER IN MACHINERY AND AGRICULTURAL UIPLE- 
MENTS, Huntsville, Ala Decoh— 

FRESH G-ARDSIT SE.EDB. 

"^X^E are now receiving our supply of choice GARDEN SEEDS, 
YV Avhich we warrant to be GENUINK and of the crop of 1856. 
Those who purchase our seed may rely upon getting a fresh article 
as we keep no OLD seed on hand. 
pTfS^Merchamts supplied at a liberal discount. 

D. B. PLUMB A CO., 

Kov 56 — 4t Broad-st., Augusta, Ga. 

EVERGREEITS AND ORNAMENTAL TREES 
for the South. 

A PEWrareandbaautiful EVERGREENS Trees and Shrubs 
of the proper size for transplanting maj^ now be obtained 
from tbe subscriber. The collections embraces the Deodar Cedar, 


AUGUSTA IQ-URSSRy. 

Extensive Collectic-n of Selected Roses and 
Bouthern Raised Fruit Trees. 

F a. MAUGE would respectfully inform the amateurs of 
o Roso.s, that he has now a superb collection of new and rare 
varieties, which be will be happy to supply such as may desire 
them- His prices to Nurserymen will be as low as those of any 
Nursery at the North, and his Rose Bushes ivill be generally of a 
larger size. He has also made recent additions to his stock of 
FRUIT TREES, and can now supply tine sorts of the following 
varieties : Apples, Pears, Quinces, Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots, 
Plums, Cherries, Soft Shell Almonds, English "vValnuts, and Ha- 
zle-nuts. 

Also, GREEN-HOUSE PLANTS, such as Camelia Japonica, 
Orange and Lemon Trees, Ac., and hardy Flowering and Orna- 
mental Shrubs. Orders from the country uill be promptly attend- 
ed to, and Trees and Shrubs carefully packed aud directed, 
r Osage Ora ge Fruit for sale at tpl per dozen. 

Catalogues of Roses and Fruit 'J’rees will be sent gi-atis, to all 
post-paid letters. Addi'ess F. A. MAUGE, Augusta, Ga. 
Doc56— 4t 


Pyramidal , . . 

Vitie ; Cedar of Lebanon, Magnolia Grandiflova, “Mock Orange, ’ 
Pittosporum, Ac., Ac. ; iu short: all the most desirable Evergreen 
Trees and Shrubs that fiotmsh in this latitude, DECIDUOUS 
SHRUBS and TREES, of many varities can also be supplied in 
quantity. (See Descriptive Catalogue sent per 'mail.) Ad- 

di-ess [Dec.56— tf] D. F>.EDMOND. Augusta, Ga. 

SELECT APPLES— BOUTHBRIST SEEDLING. 

A CHOICE collection of Summer, Autumn and Winter APPLES 
—mostly Southern Seedlings, and all perfectly adapted to this 
climate for sale by the subscriber at 25 cents eacit, or $20 per hun- 
dred. Address D. RELMOND, 

Augusta, Ga. 

Descriptive Catalogues sent, '^GvmSiWJree of postage. 

Dec5b‘ — tf 

PEACHES !— SOUTHERN SEEDLINGS. 

HE very finest collection of PE ACH TREES ever offered in 
1 the South, may now he obtained from “Fruitlaud.’’ In addition 
to the well known and approved varieties of Europe and the North 
we have many knew and exceedingly valuable Southern Seedlings 
found iu no other collection, and furnishing a saccessionai crop of 
fruit from the first of June until November. Price, 25 cents each, 
or $20 per hundred. Descriptive Catalogues sent gratis per mail. 
Address D. REDMOND, Augusta, Ga. 

Dec56 — tf 


PEARS FOR Tm SOUTH i 

S TANDARD and DWARF PEAR'S, of the most approved 
varieties, finely rooted and well grown. Price 50 cents each, 
cr $40 per hundred. 

The Pear, under proper cultivation, is much larger and finer here 
than at the North or in Europe, and the kinds I offer are among 
the very best. Descriptive Catalogues sent free of postage. 

Dec56 — tf Address: D. REDMOND, Augusta, Ga. 


HEDGE PLANTS, BASKET WILLOWS, &c 

O SAGE Orange, Macartney, Cherokee and other running 
ROSES for defensive and protective Hedges. Also, the 
Enonymus, Cape Jasmin, “Mock Orange,” English Laurel and 
other beautiful Evergreens for Ornamental Hedges. Osier or Bas- 
ket Willow cuttings, of flie best vai-ietie.s. Catalogues sent, 
gratis. Ad(b-ess. D. REDMOND, Augusta, Ga. 

Dec56 — tf 

GRAPES, STRAWBERRIES, LIULBBPUIIES, 
&c,, £cc. 

A ll the finer varieties of native send foreign GRAPES — some of 
the former, for Yinejvards, on reasonal)Ie terms the quan 
tity. Also, the finest collection of Strawbemes in "the Sourli; 
Rochelle or La-udon BLACKBERRIES ; varieties of the RASP- 
BERRY, MULBERRA". &c., <fcc. SeeDescriptive Catalogrie, sent 
/ree o/ ^osfao^e to all applicants. Addi’ess: D. REDMOND, 
Dec56 — tf Augusta. Ga. 

GRADE CASHMERE GOATS. 

F or SALE, a few half blood BUCKS at $30 each. Address 
INov.^. 5— tf1 R. PETERS. Atlanta. Ga. 

PLUMBS !— FRUTTLAND NURSERY ! 

A ll the most approved varieties of the PLUIW on native seed- 
ling stock.s, furnished to order. Also, frll Gaialogues of 
“Fruitland Nursery” mailed to applicant.s. jPne of postage.' 
Dec.5G— tf Address: D. REDMOND, Augusta, ,Ga. 


COTTON SEED. 

1 |QAA BUSHELS — Olive — very pure. Price fifty cents a 
• U W w bushel at my gin, or forwarded to cash orders at fifty 
cents per sack extra. Also, 1,000 bushels “Crowder,” equally pure 
and very productive, an early opener, growing and making till late. 
The voung bolls do not dry up on the stalk, nor does it shed as other 
varieties do. Address DR. A. W. WASHBURN, 

Nov56 — 6t - Yazoo City, Mississippi. 


BOYD’S EXTRA PROLIFIC COTTON SEED. 
bushels of BOYD’S EXTRA PROLIFIC COTTON 
SEED for sale in sacks fi’om 1 to 5 bushels in a sack. 
Price $1 per bushel JOHN M. TURNER. 

Nov.56 — 4t Augusta G.a. 


CARMICHAEL 8c BEAN, 

I 'jEALT'PS IN HARDWARE, CUTLERY, and AGRICUL- 
I J TURAL IMPELMENTS, Ai i.nsta, Ga. 

Vv’' e are, also, Agents for the fo • 'wing articles : — SALAMAN- 
DER SAFES, made bv Staarns A . larvin. New York ; LITTLE 
GIANT CORN AND "COB MILLS; Indian Rubber BELTING, 
PACKING and HOSE, made by Boston Belting Company; AT- 
KINS' SELF RAKING REAPER ; CIRCULAR SAWS, made 
by Hoe A Co., aud Welch A Grifilth’s HORSE POWERS ; FAN 
MILLS, THRESHERS and SMUT MACHINES, 

CARMICHAEL A BEAN, 

ApriloG— Cly Augusta, Ga. 


THOROUGH BRED NORTH DEVON AND 
Ayrshire Bulls. 

I OFFER for* sale a few choice young BULLS, bred from supe- 
rior Stock, with full pedigrees. For particulars, address me at 
No. 23 Fulton street. New York City A. M. TREDWELL, 
Importer, Breeder and Dealer iu North Devon aud Ayrshire Cattle. 
Residence Madison, Morris county, New York. 

Dec56 — 3mo 


“ SPEED THE PLOW.” 

I T is admitted by the best judges- that WARLICKS’ IMPROV- 
ED PLOW is the best implement of the kind now in use. It 
is a Southern invention, and is pecularly adapted to agricultural 
purposes iu the South. The best farmers of Alabama, Georgia 
aud Soutli Carolina, say it is the very thmg they need. Its ex- 
cellencies consist mainij'- in the following particulars : 

1. It is the cheapest and most ecomical plow that can be used 

2. It is acknowledged to be the plow for snbsoiling clay lands. 

3. It is of lighter draft, and more easily managed bj’ the hand 
than any other plow. 

4. All the plows used in the So'uth maybe attached to ike stock, 
and it is equally useful both for breakiug"np lun;l .'.nd cnitivatiug a 
crop. 

5. It is not liable to choke iu gra-^sy or rough ■. 

Premiums were awarded to this plow at Ag-icul'iiral Fairs in 
four Southern States in 1855. Certificates of the most fia'. ieriug 
Idnd could bo' appended if necessary. The best way, hcxvevor, tu 
test the truth of the above statements, is to try th.o plow. 

Those wishing topurch.ase plows cr to obtain plows cu trial, or 
to obtain any information concemiug it, will i4ease address the 
•subscriber, at Atlanta, Ga. For plowing in whe-f in grassy lands 
this plow is far superior to all others. I’. . V,’ J CLIAMS. 

ATlauta. Ga.. . July 3. 1856. A\ . c: ■ — 6t 

NECTARINES, APRICOTS, Fl^rC", 8cc. 

A ll the choicest varieties of tbe above ; also. Pomegranates, 
Almouds, English AValnuts, Ac.. Ac. Addrc.-:.s : 

Dec.56— tf 1). EEDIMOND, Augusta. Ga. 


EVERBLOOMING ROSES. 

E mbracing all the leading .sorts of China, Tea, Bourbon, 
Noisette, H_^, brid Perpetuals, Ac. Also, a great variety of 
Spi’ing Roses, Mo.ss Roses, Banksiau Roses, CJimhers, Ac., Ac. 
All select, strong plants, grown on their own roots. Price 50 cents, 
or $-5 per dozen. Catalogues sent /res of postage. Address; 
Dec56 — tf D. REDMOND, Augusta, G a. 

SHEEP FOR &ALR 

O NE very five half French aud half Spanish MERINO BUCK, 
one vear old. Also, two superior pure breed yearling SOUTH 
DOWN BUCKS, of the WUbb .stock. 

Jimeoo— tf RICHARD PETERS, Atlanta, Ga, 


38 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


SCOTT’S LITTLE GIANT CORN AND COB 
MiU. 



(PATENTED MAY 16, 1854.) 

Manufactured of the best materiils, by jOOTr, MOCK- 
BEE & Co., under the ii mediate supervision 
of the Patentee. 


pelled and best Crushers Tve have ever seen, and by the use of 
which we believe a saving of one-third is made : 

NATHAN CRAWFORD, Columbia County, Ga. 

(Dr. Crawford has two Mills in use.) 

A. J. RAMBO, Edgefield District, 8. C. 

(Mr. Rambo has three Mills at different places.) 

J. PRINTUP, Warren County, Ga. 

JOHN B, WHITEHEAD, Burke County, Ga. 

T. J. SMITH, Hancock County, Ga, 

DAVID C. BARROW, Oglethorpe County, Ga. 

(Mr. Barrow has two mills.) 
GEOPGE SCHLEY, Augusta, Ga. 

WM J. EVE, Richmond County, Ga. 

GO >DE BRY,\N, Richmond County, Ga. 

Wiu. J. MIMS, Richmond County, Ga. 

V. A. HATCHER, Jefferson County, Ga. 

JOHN G. MERCK, Hall County, Ga. 

JAMES M. HARRIS, Hancock County, Ga. 

A. H. COLLINS, Columbia Count5", Ga. 

HENRY ,T. SCHLEY, Burke County, Ga. 

(Ml'. Schley is using two Mills.) 
PORTER FLEMING, Augusta, Ga. 

JAMES TORRYE, Lexington, Miss. nov5G — 3t 


CAKMICHAEL & BEAN, GENERZ L AGENTS, AU- 
GUSTA, G'^ORGIA. 

T he attention of PLANTFUS and stock Feeders 
is respectfully called to this Mill, as cembining in a remarka- 
ble degree, portability and power, simplicity of construction and 
arrangement, durability, and lightness of draught. 

In setting these Mills, no mechanical work is required, it being 
only necessary to fasten them down to a floor or platform, and for 
this purpose the requisite screws and a printed card of directions 
will ^company each Mill. 

It has been proved by actual experiment, that Stock fed on 
Corn and Cob Meal are capable of doing more work, and are less 
liable to injury from being over-heated, over-feeding and drinking, 
and will always keep in better condition than when fed on Corn 
alone; and in addition to this, it is conceded by all who have made 
the trial, that a saving of at least one-fourth is made by feeding 
Com and Cob Meal. 

Caution. — The Little Giant has always taken the first premium 
wherever exhibited, and we confidently assert that in all respects 
it is unequalled. It is the product of genius, experience and perse- 
verance, and such has been its success, and such the celebrity 
which it has gained during the two years of its existence, that 
several imitations and counterfeits have recently made their ap- 
pearance, with the vain hope that by assuming high-sounding 
names and stealing some of the Little Giant's thunder, they may be 
able to follow in its footsteps and share its fame. These Mills are 
guaranteed against defects or breakage, when used according to 
the directions, and as evidence of their durability, a No. 2 Mill 
which has ground nine thousand bushels, and a No. 3 Mill which 
hes ground fifteen thousand bushels, are still doing good service. 
The smallest size. No. 1, will grind, five bushels per hour with a 
small horse, and is offered at the low price of $35, all complete 
and ready for attaching the horse. No. 2 will grind from eight to 
ten bushels per hour with one horse, and is sold for $50. No. 3 re- 
quires two horses, will grind fifteen bushels per horn', and sells 
for $60. 

We append a few of the many certificates which we have re- 
ceived, and we have in our possession official written and printed 
testimonia's which will gladly exhibit t(^ persons wanting Mills, 
showing and proving the superiority of the Little Giant over all 
others : 

TESTIMONIALS. 

Augusta, Ga., April 3d, 18.55. 

I have been running one of SCOTT’S LITTLE GIANT CORN 
AND COB MILLS, No. 4, for the last five weeks, and it per- 
forms to my entire satisfaction. It Avas warranted to grind twenty 
bushels per hour, but I ha^-e ground over thirty-five bushels in an 
hour and a half, or equal to twenty-three and a half bushels per 
hour. In feeding thirty horses, I save at least one hundred bush- 
els of Corn per month, it now requiring only two hundred bushels 
of Corn with the Cob, where i formerly fed three hundred. I con- 
sider it decidedly the best kind of Crusher ever got up, and if I 
could not replace mine, I would not sell it for five hundred dollars. 

I. D. MATHEWS, 
Proprietor of the Augvsta Omnibuses. 
Augusta, G -., Oct. 1, 1856. 

Messrs. Carmichael & Bean — Gent .- — After having used the 
LITTLE GIANT constantly for nineteen months, I cheerfully 
confirm every statement made in my certificate of the 3d of 
April, 1855. I. D. MATTHEWS. 

Beech Island, S. C. Oct. 1, 1856. 
Messrs. Carmichael & Bean, Augusta, G&.—Gent I have 
had a No. 3 LITTLE GIANT in constant 'use for the last nine- 
teen months, and have fed my stock entirely on Corn and Cob 
Meal. I have never worked my horses and mules harder than du- 
ring the past summer, and they have never before, at this season 
of the year, been in as good condition as they are now. Two 
horses will grind fifteen bushels per hour easily, and I feel confi- 
dent that I save fully 30 per cent, by using the Mill. I am ac- 
quainted with several kinds of Crashers, but consider the LITTLE 
GIANT far superior to any I have ever seen. 

Yours respectfully, THOMAS S. MILLER. 

Messrs. Carmichael &. Bean — Gent : — We are using the 
LITTLE GIANT CORN AND COB MILLS, which we 
bought from you, and hereby recommend them to Planters and 
Stock Feeders as the most simple and durable, the most easily pro- 


CORN AND COB MILLS. 



rilHE undersigned have now in store and offer for sale the follow- 
JL ing CORN AND COB MILLS : 

LEAVITT’S “YOUNG AMERICA,” and 
MAYNORD’S “CHAMPION.” 

The Manufacturers of the “Young America” claim for this MiU: 

1st. That it will crush Corn and Cob ; also, gi'ind fine Meal. 

2nd. That the entire grinding surface can easily be replaced at a 
small cost. 

.3rd. That it has an extra set of fine and coarse plates. 

4th. That it deposits meal in a box or bag. 

5th. That it has taken the premium over both the “Little Giant” 
and “Star Mills,” at the Ohio State Fair for 1855. 

6th. They submit the following table, showing the time occupied 
and number of revolutions made by each of the Mills on exhibition 
at the Fair of the Maryland Agricultural Society for 1855, in grind- 
ing half of a bushel of Corn and Cob : 

Time. Revolutions. 


“Young America” 


10. 

“Little Giant” 

....4+ 

15. 

“Maynor’s Champion.. . 

....5 

20. 

“Collmrn’s Mill” 

....7.1 

32. 


The Manufacturers of “Maynor’s Champion” claim that it is the 
simplest in construction, strong and durable, its grinding parts last- 
ing, (not being made on the coffee mill principle) and that for long 
and steady work it is the best Corn and Cob Crasher in use. 

Nov56— tf H. & J. MOORE & CO. 


B. S. WELLER, 

Seed and Agricultural Store, No, 57 Market 
street, Nashville, Tenn. 

H aving established a general Agricultural Depot at the 
above place, I desire al) my old and trixe friends, and the 
public at large, to call and see me, and examine my stock in trade. 

THRESHERS, MOWERS, REAPERS, Barahill’s mirivalled 
CORN AND COTTON DRILL, &c., &c. GARDEN SEEDS, 
from the celebrated establishments of Landreth & Son, Phila., and 
Robeit St. Clair, Baltimore. Also, Clover, Timothy, Blue Grass, 
Canary, Hemp and Rape SEED, BUCKWHEAT and BARLEY, 
constantly on hand and for sale. 

All kinds of Copper, Tin, Brass and Sheet Iron WARE still 
manufactured, and STOVES, GRATES, &c., for sale. Agricul- 
tural Implements not on hand, ordered and solo at the manufactur- 
er’s price and transportation. Also, TINNERS’ MACHINES and 
HAND TOOLS from Peck, Smith & Co.’s Manufactory, South- 
ington, Conn. Also, all kinds of HORTICULTURAL IMPLE- 
MENTS, and a fine stock of FANCY POULTRY, always on hand. 
Nov.56 — 3t 

A FARM WANTED. 

I WISH to purchase a FARM in Southern Georgia of from 1000 
to 5000 acres of land, near the Florida line and lying in the 
Southern part of Charlton county preferred. Persons having land 
in that neighborhood to dispose of will please address me at No. 
162 I street, Washington, D. C., giving a description of the land_and 
the very least money and best terms that will buy it. 

MILTON GARRETT. 
Reference— Dr. D. Lee, Athens, Ga. Noy 56— tf 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


39 


PEABODY’S PROLIFIC CORN. 


T he Subscriber is now prepared to furnish SEED of this invaluable variety of grain. I will put it up in sacks of one bushel, half 
bushel, peck, and quart, and furnish it at the following rates : For sacks of one bushel $10, half bushel $5, peck $3, or (piart 50 
cents. This Com grows like the Wyandot, but is altogether superior for Southern culture, both as a stock corn and for bread, weighuig 
near as much again as the Wyandot, each seed producing from two to seven tillers, each tiller producing ears like the main stalk, one 
grain often producing twenty ears of com. The ears are full and large, with a heavy firm grain, weighing, when shelled, over sixty 
pounds to the bushel. It is a first rate stock corn, and unrivalled for bread, as it makes a meal as white as flour. The seed that Inow 
offer is perfectly pure, as I aid not jjlant a grain of any other com the past season. Lands that will produce forty to fifty bushels of 
our common corn to the acre, will produce one hundred and fifty of this. My laud is common pine land, never having produced over 
fifteen bushels to the acre, with the best culture that I could give it. The past season, I manured a few acres with a single sack of 
guano to the acre. I have gathered and measured two acres, and notwithstanding the di'outh has cvit oft' at least one-fourth of the crop, 
the two acres turned me out oneliundred and cightxj bushels of shelled corn. This is the second year thatl have planted this com, and 
it not only holds out its astonishing productive qualities, but has increased in weight. Did it not produce a grain of corn, it is worth 
its price for the immense amount of fodder that it produces. A field of it growing looks like a field of mammoth wheat, so many tillers 
it produces. The tillers or suckers should not be removed, as they produce like the main stalk. One bushel o: seed will go as far as 
two of the common corn in planting, as it requires a greater distance. 

Orders may be addressed me at Columbus, Ga.; or, to my agents, Messsrs. King Sc Sorsby, Columbus, Ga.; and Messrs. J. A. Mor 
ton & Co., 40 New Levee, New Orleans ; Ruse, Davis Sc Long, Savannah, Ga.; Lee Sc Norton,' Montgomery, Alabama. 

As a supplj"^ of this most invaluable grain is quite limited, planters would do well to send in their orders early. 

CHARLES A. PEABODY. 

Columbus, Ga.. Oct. 1, 1856. 


THE PEABODY CORN. 

At the solicitation of Mr. C. A. Peabody, the undersigned accepted an invitation to visit his farm about the middle of July, when they 
were shown this extraordinary and very remarkable com. 

Its singular peculiarity consists in throwing out fruitful tillers, or suckers — all emanating from the roots, as is natural to rye or 
wheat. Upon two acres, said to have been manured with 148 and 1.52 pounds of guano, it was not uncommon to see, from one grain 
planted, as many as fom- and sometimes five stalks, besides the parent one, the greater proportion contaming three. These tillers were 
in size and height nearly equal to the origmal stalk ; on each of which we observed from two to four ears of medium, or respectable 
size, and all rapidly progressing to matmity. For some days previous, and after the period of our visit, the country was suffering under 
the influence of a severe drouth. 

The crop consisted of about forty acres, planted in rows five by four feet, one grain in a hUl. With the exception of the two acres 
above alluded to, no manure had been applied the present year, as informed by Mr. Peabody. The unmauured part did not promise so 
well, yet it was far superior to any we had ever seen on the same character of land. 

The entire farm is pine land, natm'aUy thin, and without the aid of some fertilizer, would not produce over ten or twelve bushels 
of the ordinary variety of corn, with propitious seasons. 

Should this com not deteriorate in after culture, from its being a Northern variety, it must prove a valuable acquisition to the farm- 
er and country. 

We submit this article as the means of suspending public sentiment until its merits or demerits can be more fully tested and known. 

B. A. SORSBY, 

JAS. M. CHAMBERS, 
WM. H. MITCHELL, 

WM. H. CHAMBERS, 

Columius, Ga., Sept. 18, 1856. J. C. COOK. 


COLUMBUS, Ga., September, 18, 1856. 

This is to certify that we, this day saw weighed on a pair of patent ballance scales, a half bushel of the Peabody com, the measure 
being sUghtly rounding, which we allowed for shrinking — and the weight was thirty-fom- pounds — equal to 68 pounds per bushel. 

A ’ B. A. SORSBY, 

Nov56— .3t JOEL E. HURT. 


CHINESE SUGAR CANE, OR SORGHO 
Sucre ! ! — Pure Seed ! ! ! 


|_LANDS IN SOUTH WESTERN GEORGIA 
For Sale. 

T he Subscriber offers for sale six improved PLANTATIONS, 
containiag fmm 750 to 2,000 acres each. Land fresh and in 
cultivation. 

Also 35,000 acres unimproved LANDS, situated in Dougherty 
and Baker counties. 

The whole of these lands were carefully selected, and cannot 
be surpassed for certainty of crops and durability. Teims easy. 

The Radroad from Macon will be completed to Albany . y 1st 
Sept, next ; thus giving easy a,ccess to all of the above named 
lands. Old settled plantations situated in Georgia or Alabama, 
within ten miles of a I’aUroad, will be taken in exchange, if desired, 
at their market value. W. W. CHEEVER, 

Albany, Ga., Oct. 10th. 1856. Nov56 — tf 

HOPEWELL NURSERY, FRSDERICKBURG, 
Virginia. 

T he Pi-oprietor of these Niu'series calls the attention of Tree 
Planters to his large stock of FRUIT and ORNAMENTAL 
TREES, <fcc., for fall planting. The propitious season has produc- 
ed finer gi'own trees than he has ever before offered. He would 
call especial attention to his list of Southern Apples, which.he 
grows in large quantities — his present stock is about 90,000 — em- 
bi'acing a large number of Virginia and North Carolina sorts, koep- 
ing the whole winter, and equal in size and quality to the most 
popular Northern sorts, w’hich ripen here, with few exceptions in 
he fall. 

Also a large stock of Standard and Dwarf PEARS, PEACHES, 
APRICOTS, NECTARINES, QUINCES, GRAPES, STR.A.W- 
BERRIES. ASPARAGUS ROOTS, ORNAMEN'^AL TREES 
and SHRUBS, EVERGREENS, ROSES, GREENHOUSE 
PLANTS, &c. 

E^^The facilities for shipping are equal to any in the country. 
*x*A new Catalogue just issued, and sent to all applicants. 
Nov56— 3t H. R. ROBEY. 

SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR FOR 1854. 

B ound volumes of the SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR for 1854 
may now be obtained at this office. Price, $1.50. Or we 
i win send it by maU, post-paid at $1 . 80. Address 

- Wlft. S. JONES, Augusta, Ga. 

, GARDENING FOR THE SOUTH 

I rp HE work, securely enveloped, w’ill be sent by mail (pre paid) to 
I JL any person remitting at the rate of one dollar and twenty-five 
1 cents per copy in postage stamps, or in the bills of any specie pay 
\ ing Banks. Address WM. N. WHITE, 

I May56— tf Athens, Ga. 


T he subscribers take great pleasui'e in infoiming the Planters, 
Farmers and Gardenei’s of the South, that they have secimed 
from the most reliable sources a limited supply of FRESH SEED, 
of this very valuable plant, the properties of which may be briefly 
summed up as follows : 

1st. One acre of the stalks, properly cultivated, wiU 5 deld from 
400 to 500 gallons of fine syrup, equal to the best New Orleans ; and 
from the same roots, a second crop of excellent fodder. 

2d. Sown broadcast or in close di-ills, on land deeply plowed 
and highly manured, it will yield from thirty to fifty thousand 
pounds of superior fodder to the acre. 

3d. It surpasses all other plants for soiling (feeding gi'een) and 
fodder, on account of the gveat abimdance of sugary juice which 
it contains ; and is gi-eedily eaten by stock of all kinds. 

4th. It bears repeated cuttings, like Egyptian Millet, gro'wing 
off freely and rapidl}', after each cutting. 

5tb. It stands drouth much better than common corn, retaining 
its gi-een color and juiciness even after the seed matures- 
6th. The seed is excellent for human food, whe; ' ground into 
meal, and fattens domestic animals very speedUy. From twenty- 
five to seventy-five bushels can be raised on an acre. 

7th. It is so certain and prolific a crop that planters maybe .sure 
of succeeding with it as a Sugar plant anywhere South af Mary- 
land and North of IMexico. If planted earl}* in the Southeni States 
the seed will mattire and produce another crop the same season. 

The seed, which has been very carefully kept pure, from 
the original importation, w ill be ofiered in cloth packages, each 
containing enough to plant half an acre, in drills, with full 
direction for the cultivcxtion, which is perfectly simple. 

These packages will be fonvarded per mail, fkkk of post- 
age, to any address, on receipt of $L.30 for each jjackage. When 
not sent by mail, we will furnish the packages at $1 each. 

Early orders are solicited, as the supply of good and reliable 
seed is quite limited. Applicants’ names will be entered in the or- 
der in which they are received, and the seed will be ready for mail- 
ing or delivery on the first of October. 

Addi-ess, with plain directions for mailing or shipping, 

, D. B. PLUMB Sc CO., Augusta, Ga. 

^^Pamphlets, containing full history and description of this 
plant, with valuable Reports on its merits, will be sent, postage 
free, to all who purchase seed, or who will enclose a three cent 
stamp. 

Dealers in seeds and country merchants can be supplied 
at a liberal discount from retail rate's, if their orders are received 
immefi’.tely. Oct56-tf 


I 


40 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


CONTENTS OF JANUARY NUMBER. 
Flaiitafioii Ecoiioiiiy and Stiscellanj". 


Work for the Month Page 9 

Making Forage and Wintering Stock “ 10 

Hay Making in the South •. “ 12 

Level Culture — letter from Col. Cannon “ 12 

Chinese Sugar Cane— North and South “ 15 

A good Horse “ 15 

Hydraulic, or Water Ram — reply to Hon. Garnett Andrews “ 15 

A Southern Dairy — reply to “E. G. P.” “ 15 

Poultry — Breeds, Management, <fec “ 16 

Angora Goat.s “ 17 

Chinese Sugar Cane in Mississippi “ 17 

Fodder Plants “ 17 

Concrete Buildings — Mr. Saxon’s Octagon House, its Cost, 

&c “ 18 

To Cure Foot Evil — Bacon “ 19 

Bxrilding Cement Cisterns “ 19 

Devon Cow Helena (illustrated) “ 20 

Cotton — Cut-Worm — Rust — Rot “ 20 

Lime — its value to Agriculture “ 21 

Agricultural Botany — Chinese Sugar Cane “ 21 

Improvement our Watchword “ 22 

Boys “ 23 

Letter from Texas “ 23 

Saving Pea Vine Hay — the Chinse Prolilic Pea “ 32 

Morgan Horses — North Star and Green Mountain (illust’d) “ 33 

Tall Cotton Picking ' “ 34 

The Art and Principles of Soap Making ‘‘ 34 

Hair Od for Horses - “ 34 

The most Extraordinary Cotton in the W orld “ 29 

Editorial. 

Answers to Correspondents Page 24 

Peabody’s New Strawberry “ 24 

Wine Test of Mr. Axt, &c “ 25 

Oiu’ Book Table, &c “ 25 

The “Home Journal’' “ 26 

Agricultural Statistics “ 26 

Cotton Seed Exported 1 “ 26 

Important Invention ior Cotton Planters “ 26 

A great Honey Crop “ 26 

Sale of Brood Mares “ 27 

AgreatVield “ 27 

HorticultJira! Department. 

Flowers for the South P.age 27 

The Pear— its Culture in the South “ 28 

Grape Growing and Wine “ 29 

Pomological Society of Georgia 29 

The Grape Crop of 1856 “ 29 

Fruit Growing in the South “ 3U 

Southern Vineyards “ 31 

Dwarf Pears “ 32 

Fruits for the South “ 32 

Iliiistrations. 

Devon Cow Helena Page 20 

Morgan Horses, North Star and Green Mountain “ 23 


WTANDOT FEIOLIFIC 

ri'^HE greatest Agricultural wonder of the age. 1.-; dircoverj^is 
I worth millions to the country. Yield 1.50 bn-hel-' to the acre, 
(some say 300.) Plant only one kernel in a hill, each kernel will 
produce from 3 to 12 stalks, 10 to 12 lea; big];, 4 e.v yp i ar.s, 8 to 14 
inches long, 10 to 16 rows of beautiful pearl v bite t > u. Seed se- 
lected with care, warranted genuine, put xip in a .>a '-ufi.lcient to 
plant an acre. Price !|1. 50, delivered in New Yor’ . vv. Money 
or P. O. stamps must accompany the order, with di. . uons how to 
send. 

Those who order sent by mail, and remit $4, t, :'" ro. . ive, post 
paid, a parcel to plant an acre ; $2, half an acre ; $1 ti-r of an 
aci'e. Orders for less double the above rates. Circulars showing 
the result from different parts of the Union, s iU be s uit to all vrjio 
address J. C. 'IHOV 'I’.'^iON, 

Jan57 — 3t Tompkiusville, Staton I.slaijd, N. Y. 


GEORGIA LATO OFFICE AT Ar’GyjST-A. 

1 HE undersigned respectfully informs the pu’olic, generally, that 
JL they have opened an office in the city of Anju tu, opposite the 
Insurance and State Banks, on Broad street, for the PUPCHASE 

And sale of lands and real estate of 3,11 descrip- 
tions, located in any section of Georgia, on Connnission. Particu- 
lar attention will be given to the sale anti purcha .o of Lands in 
Cherokee and Southwestem Georgia. Persons vrishiug to have 
Lands sold, will present them with the best chain of title they are 
in possession of; also, the original plat and grant if they have it. 

Those owning tracts of Lands, improved or unimproved, in any 
sect’ou of Geoi’gia, and wi.shing to sell, will find this the most ef- 
fectual medium of offering them. All we require is proper descrip- 
tion of improved Lands, the nature of titles and tomis, and they 
will be entered into our general Registry, free of change. Com- 
missions are charged only when sales are effected. 

Persons wishing to make investments in Real Estate, or *Lands, 
located in Cherokee, Southwestern Georgia, or airy county in the 
State, will find it to their advantage to favor us vrith their orders. 

DAVIDSON, GIRARDEY, WHYTE <fe Co. 

JAMES M. DVVIDSON, 
o- yVoodville, Ga. 

GIRARDEY, WHYTE & CO., 
Feb56 — tf Aagi'ota, Ga. 


1857 ! 1857 ! 

SOU'rMERN CULTIVATOR, 

A MONTMEiA" .YOUMNAE,. 

DEVOTJED TO SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE, STOCK 
BREEDING, POULTRY, BEES, GENERAL 
FARM ECONOMY, &C. 

DANIEL LE E, M. D., 'and’p. R EDMOND, Editors. 

The Fifteenth volume conimences in January 
1357. 

TERMS. 

One Copy, one year $1 I TwENTY-Fn-E Copies $20 

Six Copies “ 5 j One Hundred Copies 75 

ALWAY’'S IN ADVANCE. No paper sent unless tlxe cash 
accompanies the order. 

The Bills of all specie-paying Banks, and Post Office Stamps, 
received at par. 

Remittaunces, by mail (post-paid) will be at the Publisher’s risk. 

Addr.ess W3i. S. JONES, Aujfusta, Ga. 
U^^Persons who will act as AGENTS, and obtain SUBSCRI- 
BERS, will be furnished vuth the paper at club prices. 


. THE FAST TROTTING STAL.LION, 

S T. LAWRENCE has just arrived per steamer Sonthemer and 
is at C. A. RED’S Iffantation, four miles from Augusta, on the 
Savannah Road, and will be lotto Mares at the rate of $25 the sea- 
son until the Mare proves with foal or parted with. 

St. Lawrence is a beautiful Bay, vith black legs, mane and tail ; 
16 hands 1 inch high ; 7 years old, withgeud bone and ivell propor- 
tioned ; weighs 1300 pounds. We believe him to be fastest trotting 
Stallion on the American continent, and, willing to back our judg- 
ment, will match him against any btaihon for $1000 a side to go to 
wagons, over LaPayetto Course” 

His sire was the renowned trotting horse, St. Lawrence, who 
was the best trotting horse of his da}’-, having, on tv/o occa.ffon.s, 
beaten the celebrated Jack ilos.uter. an,, others. His d.am was the 
fast trotting Mare, DutchMoff — she byMorg.an. 

The proprietors hating rermrd a Stock Company, for the pur- 
pose of improving our Southern Stock, and one of tiicm havmg 
travelled through the Northern and Easteni S.'a’.e.s and ..errious of 
the British Provinces, instrn.c t :d to buy liie tinest and iarge.st Trot- 
ting Stallion that could tie in’oem ed x.nlinrit, -1 In pri-.m; and as tve 
ha.ve been at, a verv heaw f'nM;'.y m .curu.'.g this fine Stock 
Horse, we hope the I’icnters vt j c x to t’" iuverc t, an.i bestow 
that patron.-ige wbidi oni nn.EO ' ving T', 

By way of encoui ^ ^ a . . -> . ..r., ef h- CS-os, we 

offer the follovi inar premiv- ms : t- o; ■ ex "' -v -ntl.s old, a 

Pitclicr valued at <“ - i i ^ i. ' C 

Good pastimes grt i is. h r a • ’ e ...... i ’ . . g: ..In feel, 

if desired, on moderate rc;:' s. 

-'T’ ... 1 

V ' / ' ' ^i'‘':™-:ors. 

C. A..' . '■ D, J 

Augusta, Aug. 25, Oc^"6 — it 
|fy’°The CoustitVienal:; . E.k'-.vieli A ,k err c. ''‘a, ,.,..’ Re- 
publican, and Soavli Cavollmi a ”1 ■ \ . v 14 ... • i c four 

nsertions in wcel ly a-.id •''orv a.d ’' I;- 

' I . "U" -,.■ ■ , • 

I WISH to ell my ft OCR I the 

Di-jjot on tne Mcm;)ius . ' . . ■ '.. ..‘•n’em- 

pliis and Soinm; wile i’lank .oa,,, ...i ■ . . ■ • „ •, .. con- 
taining' biO acn;:,', ; 390 a.:res In <. ’ it..-, i- t;- oJv 

ti'mberod, ali under a jhav' a d .4 . -e ■ . ■ e -d 

.M’ory framed Dwobing, framed Neg-o 1 a. .. , ' .. .ie- fm* . w 

horses .and 100 1'.ead of cattle., la/, a.-iv ..i my .mby 

$5 worth .of milk i)cr day. There are 15-!-.;,, \ in .ri'idt 

Ih’ees of choice qiially. 

I will sell the farm together with rhe C’-'.-c M r,"1 a.-’’-. ''-.keiy 
young Negroes, and give -|'■•:'sessiou ir e,., .il;- ; a- ■. v , • . n. :■ a {' a 
Farm and Dwellings next whu'cv. Here is am i,. ’ . a- a 

r-.arty fa-auliar vlh Stock Rai.-ing and ; ■ d • ;,)t M- t,mn and at- 

tion to the business, to be f./and in iVest ’ ^ .■am . . e. 

The place ennbe divided into!' lots, win a L, .y: . \ bniid-hio: -Tite 

on each, with v.-ood, w.ater and cleared laud on em h. All .-ear and 
ivith a good road to the Dei'ot. 

If not sold privately before the l.st d.a;," of J’ ly it w,.l, en ihr.l d ' v, 
be divided and .sold in lots to suit -par. hascr.s, tir.gi-.; icr i- idi my 
Stock, coiisistingvof 75 head of COWS, nn a.tly m ealt bv my 
luin Bull; 20 MAIlES, in foal by ••Mobrnska e nne s. •ci.' ■ f h. ; d 
HOGS and SHEEP, together wi:h my Brahmin BULL, At cm ■■his, 
and the thorough b’-ed young STALLION, Nebrur.xa, sired 'oy im- 
ported Sovereign, dam Glencoe, 4 j-eans old. 

Persons wishing to examine the premises or get further i'r ff.rma- 
tion will call on uiyself or G. B. Lock, at Mompi'ds, or ii will he 
shown by my Overseer on the place. 

The Train, on the Memphis & Ohio Road leaves Memphis at 14 
o’clock, A. M., and returns at 14 o’clock. P. M. 

JAMES R. FERGUSON, 

Jnne56 — tf Memphis, Tenn. 

SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR FOR 1854. 

B ound volumes of the SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR for 1854 
may now be obtamed at this office. Price, $1.50. Or we 
will send it by mail, post-paid at $1 - 80. Addi-ess 

WM. S. JONES, Augusta, Ga. 



DEVOTED EXCLUSIVELY^ TO THE IMPROVEMSJSTT OF SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE. 




VOL. XV. AU GUSTA , GA., FEBRUA RY, 1857. XO. 2. 

WilililASI S. JONES, PiibJislier. OANIEE EEE, M.D., iinil 1>. IJEDJiONlJ, Editors^. 


IXV* See Terms on Last Page. i 

^[atttatiira (EconBnirj aitli Ifitscellaiii|. 

WORK FOR THE MONTH — ^FEBRUARY.) 

THE PLANTxVTION. 

Om— Continue plowing for this crop, breaking up 
vry deep, and using all the manure you can possibly ob- 
tain— unless your land is naturally rich. You can^ how- 
ever, scarcely manure Corn too highly— it will appro- 
priate ail the food you offer it, in the growing season. 
Manure heavily , plov' deep, and plavt <%$ early, as the sea- 
son v:ill admit, if you wdsh to have full cribs next fail. 

Coi/.OT?.— Push steadily forward, also, your preparations 
for Cotton planting— have your “bed.?” thrown up deep 
and mellow, and get a “ stand” as early in the season as 
possible. We are not aware of any recent marked im- 
provement in the cultivation of our “ great staple though 
the practice of our best planters, as iieretofore detailed in 
these pages, might be more widely adopted, with profita- 
ble re.suUs. Who will give us a short and practicad/oxxi 
comprehensive, treatise, on this most important subject, 
for our Blarch number % Many of our new subscribers , 
cannot obtain the back volumes of the CuUivai- r ; and 
we desire that all interests be fully and fairly represented 
in our journal. Let our best and most snccessful Cotton 
planters speak out Our friends, G. M. Saxton: & Co., of 
.New York, are, we believe, abont issuing a Cotton 
Planfer^s ilfa?!?/ :', ' which will be very valuable to our 
readers. We will notice it more fully as soon a.s it ap- 
pears. 

Sprino- O Is .''houiJ now be sown as soon as possible. 

J -ish P tfato‘.s may be pl anted, and Sivect. Potatoes bed- i 
ed out for the production of draws,’’ the last of the | 
mo)ilh. j 

Fenres must be vepoired, and put in erder for tiie sea- 
son. * I 

Hedges of the Osage Orange, Macartney and Cherokee 1 
Rose, F.vergreen Thorn, &c., (S:c., may still be set out, 
tiiough the season i's growing late. 

THE VEGETABLE GAliDEN. 

Tb.e operations of the Gru'dencr must now commence in | 


good earnest. In order to secure a regular and abundant 
supply of good vegetables, the garden must be put in a 
thorough condition at once. Let it, however, be remem- 
bered, that the soil should never be stirred, nor any seed 
planted, while the ground is wet; in fact, it must be dry 
enough to crumble easily, when raked over. See re- 
marks of last month, under this head, all of which will 
also answer for this month, and if any crop, that was put 
in before, has been destroyed by host, let it be renewed. 

Enslisk Peas may now have a good hoeing, drawing 
a good ridge of soil to them, particularly 'on the nortii- 
ern side. 

All vegetable seeds, except Cucumbers and Musk 
Melons, may be planted from the middle fill the latter 
part of this month, as Beets^ Spinage, Parsnips, Salsify 
LeM.uce, Tarnips, Onians, (black seed) Cabbage foi-’ suc- 
ce5.sion, &c. 

During the latter part of the -month, CoMmge plants 
r. ay be set out for a crop. 

Glra seed may be planted; if put in ra'her deeply, say 
covered with a couple of inches of soil, it will be safe, and 
be ready to start as soon as the season will permit. Plant 
Irish Pninioes,, and if any of the former planting have 
come up, lioe and draw the soil up, so as to cover them 
completely, and they will soon appear again. 

By the middle of the month, Vdoicr Melons and a small 
crop of early {'.nrn may be put in; Adams' Early, and 
White Flint Corn are the best varieties. 

Now is also the time to sow Colza seed. We have of- 
ten planted the seed during the first week of February, 
and had excellent greens in four weeks. 

If Hot beds have not yet been prepared, do it at once. 

Where Smeet Potatoes are v.'anted early in thesumrner, 
pnj: out your sets in a hot bed, that you may have au 
abundance of tlraws to set out by the first of April. 

THE ORCHARD AND FECIT GARDEN. 

Set out tlie Peach, the Plum, the AppU, the Pear, the 
Qi'.iiice, the Fig, t\\e Pornegranale,t\\e Grap^'pAxe. Stram- 
herry, the Raspberry , txed. all other desirable kinds of liruit 
and ornamental trees and vines. Examine I’each trees 
for the Avorm, and Apple trees for the borer, and dig those 
depredators from their hiding places with the sharp end 
of your k.nife. Heap leached ashes around your Peach 


n 


42 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


trees froiii the “ collar” to the htiglit of 3 or 4 inches 
above the surface of the ground, or pour boiling water 
around them as heretofore directed. Work around all your 
fruit trees, stirring the ground well as far as the branches 
extend, and applying a good top-dressing of manure. — 
Cover the surface with leaves, pine straw, or loose man- 
ure, to the depth of 4 or 5 inches, so that the roots may 
be protected. 

THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

Plant, at once, all Bulbs, such as Hyacinths, Tulips, ■ 
Crown Imperials, Dahlias, &c., &c. Sow tender AAmuds 
in hot beds, and prick out into open ground as soon as 
all danger of frost is over. Dress and inmbardcrs ; plant 
edgings of Box; spread gravel on garden walks, and roll 
the surface firinly ; plant ornamental Hedges or screens 
oi Arbor Yitec, Y/ild Olive, Holly, Privet, &c. Prune 
Hoses and other ornamental shrubs. Set out rooted plants, 
and cuttings of the Rose, Cape Jessamine; and* other flow- 
ering plants. Stake all newly planted and plant shrubs. 
Clear up all weeds and foul trash, and prepare your flow- j 
ers to “see company-.” Prepare ground for laiens, by j 
plowing very deep, (subsoiling 18 inches,) manure highly j 
and sow a liberal allowance of mixed seed, such as Ken- j 
lucky Blue Grass, White Clover, Herds Grass, Texas | 
Musquit, Italian Ray, &c., &c. When sown, roll smooth- 
ly with a heavy cast iron or stone roller, and keep off all j 
fowls, pigs, cattle, &c. j 

Transplant Evergreens, such as the Wild Olive, Cedar, ! 
Magnolia, &c , by digging a deep trench around them, (if j 
large trees,) and lifting a large ball of earth with the roots. ! 
Prepare a wide and deep hole to receive them — cut off 
smoothly with a sharp knife, all broken or bruised roots; 
use an abundance of water ; fill in with fine, rich soil, 
pressed firmly around the roots with the foot; leave a 
shallow basin or cavity around the trunk to hold water 
hereafter, and finish by staking securely and mulching 
with a thick layer or leaves or straw, over which sprinkle 
a few shovelsful or earth, to keep the wind from blowing 
it away. The very best time to transplant Evergreens is 
just as the young growth of these trees is shooting aut in 
idle spring. 

A LECTURE ON LABOR. 

EV DANtEL LEE, M.D., PROFESSOR OF AGRICULTURE IN THE 
UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA, JANUARY, 1857 . 

Gentlemen — I shall commence the present course of 
Lectures by attempting to explain the origin of productive 
industry, and the dignity of human labor, it being the 
most important element of Agriculture. s 

Some regard all labor as a “necessary evil;” others 
consider it as a punishment for the disobedience of our 
first parents. I have not been able to view the subject in 
either light, or shade. To my mind, nothing in nature is 
clearer than the fact, that our daily wants of hunger, of 
nakedness, of sleep, and of shelter from the extremes of 
heat and cold, are designed by Providence to make us pre- 
eminently working as well as thinking animals. Other 
animals both labor and think, but with greatly inferior re- 
sults. If we compare man, with his wonderful powers of 


speech, with the mute snake, we find the latter able to sub- 
sist comfortably a whole year on a single meal; and at 
the sa'ne time the i*eptile needs no clothing. In a year 
man requires over a thousand meals, and not a little arti- 
ficial covering by day and by night. The most careless 
observer cannot fail to notice the extreme weakness, the 
utter helplessness of a child during several years of its in- 
fancy, which are in no respect a matter of choice with 
either parent or offspring. For wise and beneficent pur- 
poses, the family tie has its strongest ligaments not in 
any conventional rule, but in the organization of man. To 
meet the most obvious and pressing wants of his children, 
and provide for his own, he is compelled to labor in some 
way by a natural law from whose penalty there is no es- 
cape when disobeyed. Savages and semi barbarians, 
when left to themselves, labor comparatively little; and 
as a consequence, they remain fronfage to age unimproved, 
and suffer all the privations and exterminating wars pe- 
culiar to man in his lowest estate. From this unhappy 
condition of physical suffering, of social, moral and intel- 
lectual degradation, there is no possible escape except by 
and through that muscular and mental labor which our 
Creator has made at once the most honorable, the most 
useful, and the most effective of all possible employments. 
To work with one’s hands or brain is no more a punish- 
ment than the inability of a child to walk and talk before 
it is six months old is a punishmeut. Providence imposes 
on all alike his own conditions of life ; and while He 
causes the proverbial industry of the ant and honey bee to 
contribute indefinitely to the happiness of these insects, He 
makes manual labor the mostprolific source of human en- 
joyment, Productive industry is not only a blessing to 
those who perform it, but the parent of ten thousand col- 
lateral blessings in the perfect economy of Infinite Wis- 
dom. Nor is there more than a shade difference between 
physical and intallectual effort ; both meet as equals in 
the nervous system ; and neither is capable of ruling 
the other tyranically without serious injury to the whole 
constitution of man. 

On no subject is there more erroneous talking and writ- 
ing than on that of the rights and duties of labor. Per- 
sons calling themselves philanthropists not only “rejudge 
the justice” of Heaven, but would fain re-create the uni- 
verse to give their fellows a happier existence than this 
world affords. Such philanthropy, however, rarely fails 
to injure the parties to whom its devotion is so vehement- 
ly paid. All zeal without knowledge is fraught with dan- 
ger and mischief. Seeing this, thoughtful students often 
and well enquire, “Why is it that man’s productive pow- 
ers, whether in agriculture, manufactures or other pursuits, 
develope themselves under such uniform features and 
characteristics % Why are all either free and independent 
laborers for themselves, or hired, or apprentices, or 
slaves!” 

These questions strike at the root of man’s industrial 
and social organization ; and their right solution deeply 
concerns the best interests of society in every country. 
Let us then be sure of our facts before we attempt to reasoa 
at all on this labor question : 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


43 


No one can doubt that hundreds of millions in civilized, 
and seini-civilized nations are at work for themselves as 
free laborers, or for others as hirelings, or as slaves, or as 
apprentices for a term of years, or life. Nor can there 
be a reasonable doubt that each of these forms of human 
industry has prevailed for hundreds and thousands of 
years, by the force of some law which operates indepen- 
dently of revolutions in governments, and in defiance of 
the schemes of enthusiasts. If self-employment and free- 
labor are better for all than to work for wages, or be a ser- 
vant for life, why did not tire early experience of man- 
kind lead all to adopt exclusively this most advantageous 
system of industry % No other good reason for preferring 
a life of comparative dependence as a servant to that of 
an independent worker for one's self, can be given except 
to affirm that the subordinate position requires less mental 
care, less anxiety, and less responsibility ; and it is, there- 
fore, preierred by minds of an inferior grade, God has 
not given to all that degree of intellectual force necessary to 
raise them above a subordinate position in providing for 
their own animal wants. 

From this state of things there is no appeal ; and, there- 
fore, when the philosopher Greeley and the Tribune un- 
dertook, a few years since, to carry into practical opera- 
tion Fourpjer’s theory of a general proprietorship and 
association of laboring families, by which all “hired help” 
was to be happily dispensed with, the scheme un-iformly 
failed. Neither “phalanxes,”' nor the most ingenious as- 
sorting of trades and professions with a view to suit all 
tastes, and all proclivities, can alter the essential ele- 
ments of human nature. 

Some men are, apparently, born to command; some to 
excel as master workmen, and become the employers of 
thousands; some attain to the distinction of being faith- 
ful and reliable hired men ; and some are happy to be ex- 
empt from all business cares, like wages or the providing 
for a family, and labor for life as an apprentice who never 
-ets through learning his trade. In this country, the last 
n::..n:ed persons are miscalled 

Between these different forms of productive industry 
there is really less antagonism and greater nroduction, 
taun there would be under any other conceivable arrange- 
ment. It is the arrangement of God not of man. Nlake 
all who are servants for life, and. all hired persons, inde- 
pendent of their employers, with their present defective 
labor, and mankind would compete together with less di- 
versity of jDroducts, and a smaller quantity; and at the 
same time, their common wants would in no respect be 
abated. The people of England wanted not a pound less 
sugar after they unwittingly changed the industrial re- 
lations of the laborers on their West India Islands; and 
yet, these laborers, when licenced not to work by the 
British Parliament, found themselves utterly incapable of 
making a tithe of tlte sugar which they made before. 
Negroes cannot work miracles more than white people; 
and it would have required supernatural power to give to 
the officious change of labor on these sugar plantations 
any other than a ruinous result. The experiment was 
precipitate, and based on two ideas, both of which are 
ialse. One was that common field hands will do more 
and better work as hirelings than as servants for life; and 


the other was the popular notion that the relation of mas- 
ter and apprentice for life is morally w'rong and a public 
evil. ‘The'*wri»Bg and the public evil lie at the door of all 
who have a private standard of ethics which differs essen- 
tially from that of the Bible ; and who will not permit 
employers and employed to pursue in peace those indus- 
trial arrangements which long experience proves to be 
best for all parties. If it were entirely practicable to send 
out of the planting States every negro, it would be difficult 
to find either at home or abroad, three and a half millions 
of laboring people who would, or who could produce an 
equal quantity of cotton, rice and sugar. These great 
staples are among the necessaries of civilized life; and in 
no other way than by negro labor ns now directed and 
controlled y can the present supply he maintained. Na 
other agricultural labor in this country is so remunerative 
or is managed with equal skill, all the reports of larger re- 
turns ni the free States to the contrary notwithstanding. 
Their agricultural statistics are exceedingly defective, and 
greatly over estimate the value of Northern staples. 

First ; They estimate their corn, oats, hay, pasturage and 
all other food for domestic animals, at a high figure. 

Secondly : They claim full credit for all the slaughtered 
animals grown and fed on the crops named, which are 
thus estimated tvnee^ox the benefit of Northern tillage and 
husbandry. 

Thirdly: They not only count the hay and grass that 
form milk, and then price the latter at some millions, but 
this milk appears again in the account once as cheese, 
and again as butter, and still again in pork made from 
whey and buttermilk. Hay and grass are re-esiimated 
in wool and sheep, in horses, mules, cattle, and j^attly in 
swine. 

Neither Southern cotton, rice, tobacco, nor sugar is thus 
over-estimated ; and, consequently, the great staples of 
the planting States are made to compare unfavorably with 
those of the fanning States. Isolate the apprentice labor 
of the South from that of hired persons both North and 
South, and the. latter in both sections will be found less 
remunerative than the former. To understand the reason 
of this, you should study closely the causes that enable 
one who has a cotton mill in Massachusetts or elsewhere, 
operated by fifty hands, to undersell goods made in a fami- 
ly by only five hands. Possibly these five laborers may 
be better informed, and work harder than the average of 
the fifty ; but much sound economy is entirely practicable 
in the larger establishment which is wholly impracticable 
in the smaller one. So obvious and important is this dif- 
ference in manufactures, that the system is rapidly extend- 
ing from cotton mills of fifty up to five- hundred operatives. 

At the North, the well known principle of extensively 
combining the productive powers ofman is far less applied 
to agriculture than to the mechanical arts; while at the 
South the reverse is true. We have but few large manu- 
facturing establishments of any kind. Our plantations, 
however, often give employment to fifty times more opeh 
ratives than are seen on Northern farms. It is absurd to 
contend that a system of rural industry is bad in itself, 
and unprofitable, so long as the laborers are, to all human 
appearance, happier than any other equal number of farm 
operatives in any country ; and at the same time, their erh- 
ployers command the best markets in the world for their 
staples, in spite of all competition, backed by mountains 
of prejudice against their system of productive industry. 
It is suicidal for honest labor in one form to attack equal- 
ly honest labor in another form; for their interests are 
identical. Each has its peculiar advantages to compensate 
for its acknowledged disadvantages. The parental care 
and guardianship which belong to the apprentice system 
for life, and the mutual confidence it inspires, make it 
triumph over all opposition, not so much by the wit of 
man, nor the strength of numbers, as fi'om the fact that 


44 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


the relation of master and servant is founded in Nature, 
and has the God of Nature for its support. 

Man does not create the necessity that compels him to 
till the earth. Tiie whole dispute about the different 
forms of labor, when sified to the bot'om, is found to be 
more a controversy relating to shades of color than any 
solid matter. An impartial investigator will find each 
best in its proper place. It fully meets, and can alone 
fulfila natural want in society; and, therefore, it is that 
society perpetuates from age to age, the five, different 
kinds of productive labor which I have named 

Had ourCieator made ail men on a common level in 
capacity, and attainments, in industry, frugality atid 
economy, it is possible thatonly one classoflaitorers would 
have l)eeii known amorg mankind. But since no such 
equality of endowment exists, or can pos'iiily be made 
to exist; and since there is an infinite diversity of gifts, pro- 
pensities and habits, including millions witii whom idle- 
ness and vagabondism, with all their attendant evils, are 
almost incuiable maladies, there is a positive necessity 
for coercive labor. Such at least has been the decision of 
the best informed of our race in all ages of the world. 

In the pt ogress of time, important changes in society 
take place-; and the words s/arc and slavery are no long- 
er applicable to those held to service for life in the United 
Stales. 

When the savages of Africa engage in wars, and in 
place of pin ting prisoners to death, or killing their ene- 
mies in battle, make them prof erty, and sell them as 

such, long usage denominates them * slaves.” But where 
servants are born the property of another, who feeds, 
clothe!-, and protects them alike in infancy, sickness and 
old age, and who is bound by State laws to provide for 
all their wants through life, persons so held to service op 
proximate nearer to the condition of apprentices than to 
that of slaves, properly so called. This was the opinion 
of the framers of the Federal Constitution; and the same 
clause which enables a master to recover his negro ap 
prentice for life, who runs away from him from one State 
into another, has precisely the like force in authorising the 
mastt r of a white apprentice, who flees into another 
Stale, to capture him and take him back to serve out his 
time. In all hired and apprentice labor, it is expected that 
the emplfiyer as well asemployed will be benefitted. Each 
of ihese industrial relations is some times abused; but it 
is the purpose of sound public opinion and restraining 
laws to [trevent all abuses as far as practicable. Doubt- 
less something more will be done as the subject becomes 
better understood. The unexpired service of a man who 
is hired for a year and has worked only a few months of 
the time, and that of an an apprentice who is bound to 
serve his master seven years, or for life, have, from time 
immemorial been bought and sold as lawful property. 
Nothing more than this continuous right to service on the 
fulfilin!-nt of important and reciprocal obligations on the 
part of I he purchaser, is ever sold when a negro chaeges 
owners in ih's country. 

Viewed as a system of Apprentice labor for the gradual 
but certain improvement of an inferior people, giving 
them all the liberty they can bear without abusing it, 1 
see no good reason why Southern Agriculture carried on 
by this I inil of labor may not become as popular under a 
new, aii'i more appropriate name, as it is now un- 
popular fiom a name derived from a land of savage cani- 
bals 

No one can truthfully deny that as American appren- 
tices, wl'.ol some discipline, salutary restraint, and elevat- 
ing lain I hive worked wonders for these naturally stupid 
and .Nad y degraded people. Withdraw these advantage.s 
premaioielv. and ihMr relapse into barbarism is ascertain 

SHiiy fi lure event can be 

isoi.e thing to labor industriously, and quite a differ- 


ent thing to labor to the best possible advantage. No one 
who has not made agricultural industry a special .study, 
has any adequate idea of tlie amount of honest hard work 
annually thrown away by its misapplication. Every 
State in the Union loses more in this way than it would 
cost to give every child an excellent educatipn, including 
a thoi ough knowledge of the true principles of tillage and 
husbandry. It is by the absence of this information that 
the soil is every where deteriorated and impoverished by 
American cultivators ; and as tlie number engaged in tak- 
ing annual crops from the arable lands of the United States 
increases rapidly, it follows that the injury done to the 
soil also increases from year to year in a nearly equal 
ratio. It is true, no census, State or National, shows irr 
terms the damage done to a single acre of latid in the 
whole country ; but no well informeii person, wlm sees so 
many million acres ofabandoned old ficlJ.s, and .-o many 
still under the plow that yield diminished harvests, can 
doubt the fact tliat American agriculture is prosecuted at 
the expense of the natural resources cf the e irth. This 
being the most prominent feature in our system of tillage 
and farm economy, whether carried on by hired labor, by 
farmers working for themselves, or, by planters working 
apprentices for life, it becomes a question of paramount 
importance to know what are the positive resources of 
any square yard, or given quantity!- of earth, for the 
growth of agricultural plants I Do one hundred pounds 
of common soil contain ten pounds, one pound, or one- 
tenth of a pound, of the precise things which nature takes 
from the ground in forming cotton, corn or wheat? Mil- 
lions labor to produce these and other crops, without 
knowing their elements, or the scarcity, or abundance of 
said elements in the land cultivated. The mind that di- 
rects the planting of the seed is just as dark in reference 
to the food on which the young plant is to subsist as the 
place where the deepest roots hide themselves from the 
light of day. To remove this intellectual darkness, and 
make every cause of inlertility, plain both to the eye and 
the understanding, is the object of Agricultural Science. 
No form of muscular toil, no amount of hard work can 
possibly give to the mind what skilful teaching and study 
impart toil. Had physical labor been adequate to make 
one wi.se in reference to the principles of agriculture, all 
its principles would have been mastered before the Flood, 
and never lost to the world. But long experience proves 
that the principles of any industrial pursuit are rarely 
learned without uniting much critical research wilh the 
practice of the art, trade or profession. Hence, too much 
study and too little work, or too much work and too little 
study, may be equally incompatible with the most skill- 
ful appIicn*ion of manual labor. One who is expected to 
govern and direct the labor of others needs more informa- 
tion than one who simply has to direct his own muscular 
powers, and govern himself An overseer on a plantation 
is in duty bound not only to govern himself properly, bul 
all others under his charge. He should, therefoie, be bet- 
ter informed than a common man, who works by the 
month or year in the field. But one who owns the plan- 
tation and the persons that cultivate it, should be better in- 
fi>rmed in agricultural matters than his overseer; other- 
wise he is more in the power of the latter than prudenca 
warrants. The wise professional education of planters 
and farmers will do more to elevate society, by their ex- 
ample and personal influence, than any other measure 
which is equally practicable. They give employment to 
more people than all other classes combined. Whether 
these lahoi ing people are hired for wages, or serve as ap- 
prentices for life, it is the interest of the employer to in- 
struct them in all that relates to the best system of tillage 
and rural economy; for their hands and intelligence must 
carry into execution all the plans of the proprietor. Hii 
knowledge becomes' the common property of all under 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


45 


liim, if they have the capacity to learn. Hence, the ser- 
vants of a highly cultivated family are uniformly more 
polite than those of a family wanting in that regard ; and 
for a similar reason, the operatives of a master who is 
thoroughly acquainted svMth his business become more 
skdlful f>r his example and verbal instruction.. It is in 
this way that the most unintellectual laborers are instruct- 
ed and greatly improved by constantly associating with 
pei-Nons much better infirmed than themselves. The 
jii IgmerK and reasoning faculties of a farmer or planter 
bliould he cultivated in the highiest degree; and yet he 
should not be wholly removed from his agricultural as- 
sociaiioiis. 

( To be ennelvded in ovr next.) 


COTTON SPINNINNi ON PLANTATIONS. 

Dir. Henry’s Patent Dlacisinery. 

We copy the following account of the apparently im- 
portant invention of Mr Henry, from the Journal of 
Onnu'cice. It cannot fail to arrest the attention of our 
readers : 

.An mveiitinn, which is forced, from its character and 
nanuv., to occasion such a revolution in the operations of 
commerce, and add so enormously to the annual pro 
ductive wealth of our nation, deserves a description, far 
ruo.- e elaborate, extended as this article may appear, than 
we Call now devote to it. 

Betbie we proceed to describe it, however, it is due to 
the Ml >ject to say a few wordi about cotton itself. 

It is admitted by all, to be the great basis of the now 
exten ted commerce of man. During no five centuries 
had the progress of the work equalled that of the last half 
cet tury ; at the commencement of which era the produc 
t on of cotton and its manufacture may be regarded as 
h ivitig iieen just inaugurated. And the transcendent 
progre^s of the arts and the extension of commerce has 
only lieeii equalled by the increase of this production and 
its manufacture. 

(jl idly would we indulge in a review of this bright 
eoo-li; but le.tving it to the reflection of our readers, vve 
mu'.! turn to ihe immediate business of our article. 

!'ti e.-»iim ite the extent of this improvement in the manu- 
faciuie of cotton yarns, we will first describe the mode 
tne seed cotton is prepared fur, and in which it is sent to 
liiai kel 

Coiioii in the seed being over three times its weight 
wlien guinea, and a very imlky article besides, the gm 
hiiu^es must be located in, or very near the lands upon 
w’hich It !s produced The gtn is placed in the second 
story of a large building, and the cotton is taken up to it, 
ih it as the gin takes the fibre Ifom the seed, a brush 
wheel, runiimg in the rear of the gin saws, while it 
biU'.hes the lint trom the saws, may also throw the fibre, 
now in a very open, straight condition, into the lint room 
on the side of the house brlow; the norses or mules 
woiKnig to a segment wheel below, giving motion to the 
gin Fiom the lint room, the cotl m is taken in baskets 
to a nox, niider a huge screw, and there it is piessed into 
an 1 oecomes a hale. 

Will II it teaches ihe ports, each bale is sampled by the 
sriler lo 'cil ny, and is re sampled by the buyer — which 
op r lioiis are lepeaitd iii the f reign ports. So light i." 
iiie .n ncle, even afti r it is pressed as described, that a 
.sir mini it only dr.twmg three leet water may lie piled 
ever vvitii coimii uahs until the hurricane deck, as it is 
cai I, Is as as com|)ieit ly covered us is the hull and 
bei vern de -ks On iiring sOld III the ports, it is alrnosi 
u n vr I s oly compres.'e 1 at the instance of sliipmasier.s 
liia t ley may stow into ilieir ships a greater number ol 
ponu is. 


Shipped, via Liverpool to Manchester, it is opened in 
their factories tliero, and about one bale of short staple 
Surat cotton is added lo two or three of our American 
cotton, and well mixed together. 

By this process of baling and packing the cotton, it 
becomes tangled and malted together, and the leaf, trash, 
&.C., which the gin did not extricate, the fibre takes fast 
hold of and to open and disentangle it, tnid free it from 
this trush, leaf, &c.. which must be done to make good 
yarn, the cotton is run first through a machine called a 
picker. Its cylinder revolves about IGOO times in a 
minute, and is armed with strong iron teeth. It is then 
taken through the lap machines. These liave two or 
ofteruir three beaters, revolving some 2 1 00 to 2200 times 
in a minute. The fibre is passed through two of these, 
in many factories, from whence it is taken to a set of 
carders, and often through another set to finish it for the 
drawing heads, &c. 

The improvements of Mr. Henry arise from this — the 
lap machine is attached to the gin, and all the preferred 
spinning machinery is so arranged in connection, that 
I'rom this gin and lap the cotton is taken on through the 
different machines used in the process of spinning, with- 
out any handling from the time if enters the gin until the 
yarn is put into bales. 

The gin, in the process of Mi*. Henry, is not required 
to gin over one-third the quantity gins now do. For 
example, a planter now making one hundred bales of 
cotton, has some 1000 lbs. ginned in a day (that is, clear 
of seed) and is three to four months ginning such a crop, 
off and on. The same planter beginning to gin on 1st 
September and ending 1st March, at about 340 lbs. a day, 
will gin and spin this crop. 

Running the gin thus, we extract from it more of its 
natural functions, (that of the carder to cleanse the cot- 
ton,) than is now expected from it, when the great desi- 
deratum is to gin rapidly, that the crops can begot off as 
soon as may be to market, and before bad roads interfere 
with its hauling, &c. 

We have said above, that the cotton, when taken by 
brush wheel off the saw cylinder, was in a very open, 
straight and flexible condition. In the improvement we 
are considering, the cotton as taken just in that condition 
from the gin, and passed on through the lap and other 
prirparation and spun without going into a lint room, be- 
ing baled or being re-opened, &c. 

It will strike every one very forcibly, that taking the 
fibre when thus open and loose, or to have the impurities 
taken from it, as this fibre has not grasped or tangled it- 
self about them, the wash and impurities fall easily, freely 
and naturally from the fibres, precluding the necessity of 
the tearing, bruising and pulverising manipulation it now 
requires to cleanse and open it, and withal which, it still 
is very imperfectly done. Besides, taking the cotton just 
from the seed, it is oily and elastic, and works far more 
kindly into yarns then than it ever afterwar ls will. It 
must be here stated that in running the cotton through 
the gin as rapidly as it is now run, in the necessarily 
running it through the picker in the cotton factories to 
open and disentangle it, and the continued severe man- 
ipulation it has to undergo in the further operations of the 
extra heating in the lap machine and extra carding, that, 
besides the ascertained laige amount o! waste, some 17 
per cent., which now flies off in consequence of this 
treatment, a large quantify of broken up, mutilaifd and 
intrinsically destroyed fibre enters into the yarn, and of 
which it is largely composed. 

And herein stands out in bold relief the great improTe- 
menis that the waste, liy Mr. Henry’s [lroce^s, is mmin- 
ished at least 10 per cent, and the yarn being luade cf 
comparaiively unbroken and unmuiilaled fiUri-, is infin- 
itely stronger, and finer yarn cun be made ol it with 
greater ease. 


46 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


We all know the length of the fibre is what gives 
strength to the yarn — and the less its manipulation the 
less the fibre breaks, and the less of the downy substance 
by which it is serrated you remove. And to this downy 
substance may be ascribed the adhesion or affinity of fibre 
for fibre, which makes the yarn of cotton the king of 
textiles. 

THEN TKS IMPROV.EMENT : 

1st. Presents to the family of man a yarn, all of fifty 
per cent, better than can be manufactured by the present 
processes, and which secures to itself the markets of the 
world, defying all competition. 

■id. The machinery can be conveniently arranged on 
the plantation, where the cotton is ginned, and very little 
additional power to that which gins will also spin it. 

3d. The machinery working like clock work, v/ith the 
exception of one skilful carder and spinner to superintend 
from one to a half dozen plantations, the little children of 
each plantation, from eight to twelve years old. and a few 
of the women not required to work out, will be fully suf 
ficient to spin up the crop, in addition to those now em- 
ployed to manage the gin ; in a week’s time these will 
learn enough to proceed successfully with it. 

4th. The crop can be spun up in season to withdraw 
any hands necessary to spring planting, that may have 
aided in spinning. 

.5th. In effect it will double the exports of the country, 
and generate and set in operation new improvements and 
enterprise. 

We might enumerate, one by one, many other of the 
numerous improvements resulting from this invention, 
but we will simply say in addition, that cotton being spun 
into yarns, is so compressed, that the same number of 
pounds that co^xr over a steamboat, exposing it to wet and 
fire, can on the same sized boat be stowed and protected 
nicely under cover 

Yarn, unlike cotton, is iiot extra hazardous, and insur- 
ance will be lessened on it. The freight and general 
charges being on the pound, as they will be on an article 
doubled in value, will be reduced in the descending ratio 
one-half. Sold by numbers in the ports, its frequent 
sampling and turning out for examination, &c., will be 
discontinued. There is deducted from the price which 
the planter sells his cotton, wherever be sells, all the 
losses and charges on it until it reaches Manchester, and 
also the estimated waste on it there, while it is beifig con- 
verted into yarns. Hence a system which saves 10 per 
cent, v/aste to and in ports, from damages, sampling, 
&C.J with the saving of charges — 10 per cent, more — fur- 
nishes, with other stronger considerations, the motive to 
determine the planter to the manufacture of his cotton into 
yarns ; and the advantage to customers is, that the saving 
of 10 per cent, of waste is equivalent to an increase of the 
American crop of 300,000 bales per annum. 

Commission merchants will rejoice in their commis- 
sions on an article doubled in value, paying them well to 
represent the interests of their principals. 

As Surat is rendered available in Europe for yarns, 
mostly by its mixture with our cotton, spinning ours up 
cuts off so much of the Surat as is now thus used, from 
competition with us. No small advantage itself. So 
many %'aluable results have already been presented, 
flowing immediately from this improvement, that we may 
now allow the minds of those who understand it, to pur- 
sue its consideration for further material ones. 

Every practical spinner or manufacturer acquainted 
with the operations of the picker, speader, and beaters, 
and carders, will at once see what this new mode accom- 
plishes, and its contemplation has been said by those 
who appreciate all of its consequences, to be intoxicat- 
ing. 

The release of capital in Europe, now employed in 


spinning, to be diverted to the demands of increasing 
commerce, and the enormously increased income of the 
South per annum, will far exceed the valuable effects, the 
discovery of two Californias. 

If the cotton of the South only ginned has set the 
world in motion, what will it achieve when the planter 
also manufactures it into yarns I 

One word in conclusion, respecting the consumption 
of cotton, and its connection with this improvement. 

Its consumption has been evidently checked by the 
clear incompetency of planters to produce it. That of 
last year, when 3,500,000 bales of Americaia cotton were 
consumed, besides those of Egypt, Brazils, India, &c., 
and without the stocks of manufactured goods on hand 
being increased, proves this. 

Although England exports about 160,000,000 lbs. of 
yarn a year, she is eager to v/eave up and finish the 
cloths for consumers, and hence does not press the yarn 
trade. The consumption of cotton yarns in Germany, 
Russia, South of Europe, and France, is rapidly on the 
increase, and could they command a portion for their 
consumption equal to what the British nation or our own 
consumes to the head, if our crops were doubled, it 
would be insufficient to meet it ; however, with a yarn 
superior to any that can be produced by any other pro- 
cess, ours must distance all competition, and meet ready 
markets. Spinner. 


KTRAI. AKCHITECTUKE— ORNA3IEATAl^ 
iiurdeiiing"— The Eiubellishnieiit of 
our Homes. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — Our farmers and 
planters, are, it seems to me, almost culpably neglectful 
of the beautiful and tasteful around their dwellings, and of 
what is due to the Creator and Architect of the Universe 
in the erection of Churches for His worship. It appears 
tome that the adornment of home would have a powerful 
influence in elevating and educating our rural population. 
The associations connected with a pretty and pleasant 
homestead would have a tendency to check emigration. 
Farmers would then endeavor to improve their soil, in- 
stead of seeking richer lands. 

I v/ould respectfully suggest ,that some practical hints 
on this subject, showing that taste could be exercised 
without any great expense, would be well received by the 
subscribers to the Cultivator. 

The remarks might extend to the style of building fences, 
well houses, out buildings, the arrangement or plan of the 
buildings and grounds, &c., &c. 

How often we see stables placed near and in front of 
the principal entrances, not a shrub or vine around the 
house, a rail fence enclosing the door yard, &c., &c. 

I am aware that I have taken a liberty in thus introduc- 
ing a subject and making a suggestion, but I have done 
so, hoping that it might attract your attention enough to 
induce you to draw from some of your numerous and 
qualified correspondents a series of articles on this subject. 

Yours, &c., W. 

AiJdn, S. C., Dec., 1856. 

[The same correspondent very obligingly sends us the 
following article, which, we presume is from his own 
pen. It appeared originally in the Charleston Courier : 

RURAL ARCHITECTURE, &C. 

Jn a progressive and enlightened age as this, it is some- 
what astonishing that so little effort has been made to 
improve and beautify the homes of the rural population 
of our State, 

The associations connected with childhood have an im- 
portant bearing oh the conduct of the man, and the recol- 
lections of youth form the most agreeable pictures that 
are impressed on the tables of memory. 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


47 


The scenes of our childhood, the hopes our youth, and j 
the aspirations of our manhood come crowding at the mere j 
mention of home. In infancy, consciousness first dawns 
upon the beauty of nature beneath the grateful shade of 
its trees, and their memory in after life acts as an incen- 
tive to noble action. 

There are but few whose eyes will not brighten, and 
whose Dulse will not quicken as the reminiscences of past 
happy days are brought to mind. 

“Ho w dear to this heart are the scenes ofmy childhood. 
As fond recollection presents them to view ; 

The orchard, the meadow, the deep tangled wild wood 
And every loved spot which my infancy knew. 

“The wide spreading pond, the mill that stood by it, 

The bridge and the rock where the cataract fell, j 

Tbe cot of my father, the dairy house nigh it, j 

And e'en the rude bucket which hung in the well.” { 

Y7ith associations similar to these, and with sufficient 
wealth at their command, a large portion of the citizens of 
our prosperous State are content to dwell in houses but 
little if an)' better than those constructed by the first set- 
tlers of our soil ; and there to bring up and educate ilie 
children, who are to be the men and women of the next j 
generation. 

They think, no doubt, that it is for the benefit of those 
children that they condnue to economize and toil; but a 
few moments reflection would show thatthe foundation of 
all education is laid at the home of out childhood. With 
the perceptions of order, symmetry and beauty, awakens 
the desire for possession, and with them comes that-reflne- 
ment of manners which distinguish a civilized from a 
coarse and brutal people. And as the first perception of 
order and beauty is awakened in most minds by' external 
objects, a confortable and attractive home has an import 
tant bearing on education and refinement. 

Like a strong anchor, the mere sentiment of home has 
saved many a person from shipwreck. 

Then, how necessary does it become, for a thinking, 
moral people, to throw every attraction around their home 
that their means will allow. In this view, the adornments 
of the Homestead has social and moral influences far be- 
yond the mere gratification of the eye, or the considera- 
tion of dollars and cents. 

The desire to surround ourselves with the higher sourc- 
es of enjoyment, rather than be content with mere utility, 
is to acknowledge the existence of a sentiment, which, next 
to a religious one, is the purest and noblest part of our na- 
ture. 

A man’s dwelling, to a certain extent, may be regarded 
as a type of his character, and in the aggregate, the ap- 
pearance of the houses, as an index of the people. 

Ranlett, in his work on Architecture, observes that, 
“The house proper, deserves more care and calculation, 
in its structure, than a packing box. It is the case in 
which a man places the objects which are dearest to him ; 
in which he shuts himself from the world to enjoy that 
portion of it which he can call his own ; it is his sanctu- 
ary in the time of trouble, his retreat from oppression, the 
scene of his first struggle for life, and the last glimpse of 
the world.” 

Doubtless many persons are deterred from endeavoring 
t© I’ender their homes attractive by fear of its involving a 
large outlay of money. To a certain extent, this need not 
be the case — taste and judgment will point out many ad- 
ditions and ornaments, that can be had, which cost but a 
trifle or a few hours labor. 

The effects of vines, evergreens and shade trees, are 
not sufficiently appreciated. Three-fourths of the cottages 
that have endeared themselves to the hearts of true poets 
and lovers of nature, have owed their charms to the trees 
and shrubs and vines with which they were embowered. 


It is the rural character imparted by this drapery that wins 
the affections. 

Associations of refinement, grace and beauty, are con- 
nected with the female occupation of a cottage, where 

“Across the porch, thick jasmines twine. 

And in the garden, myrtles blossom.” 

In our wild woods we have many beautiful running 
vines, such as the jasmine and china, that would require 
but the labor of a few hours to transplant, and which 
would aid materially in giving significance and feeling to 
a cottage, however humble it migfit be. For variety, the 
rose, honeysuckle, grape or hop might he added. 

A row of evergreens judicously placed might hide an 
unsightly object from the view*. But nothing can com- 
pensate for the want of shade trees around a country 
house. 

In lieu of enclosing the door yard and adjoining field 
with the ordinary worm fence, how much better it would 
be to have a hedge — a plain paling — a rough board or 
even a post and rail fence. Such ac.ditions as these, cost- 
nothing but time, would entirely change the aspect and 
throw' a charm around many a place that now looks cold 
and desolate. Something of a love for the beautiful is 
ahvays suggested by a vine covered cottage, because mere 
utility wmuld never lead any one to so adorn their resi- 
dence, 

A house might be compared to a wmman. A great deal 
of money might be expended in rich dressing, which 
would add, if properly applied, to the attractions suited 
to the taste of some persons, but when neatly and tastily 
dressed with well fitting garments, there is a charm that 
all will acknowledge ; and to carry the simile a step furth- 
er, if slovenly dressed creates a dislike. 

There is a misapprehension of the requisites of beauty 
in a dw'elling ; most persons think to embellish a house 
would be very expensive— this need not be the case. An 
expression of beauty can be given to the simplest farm 
house. Even a common log house may be made attractive. 

Our country houses should embody such ideas of order, 
beauty and truth as shall elevate and purify the mind. A 
building may completely answer the useful requirements 
of man, and yet give not a ray of pleasure or satisfaction 
to his heart or understanding. 

If, in the erection of the more expensive class of houses 
the opinion of architects were consulted, it would save 
many hundreds of dollars and add t© the comfort and hap- 
piness of the occupants. Beauty and convenience are in- 
finitely cheaper than ugliness and inconvenience. It 
seems reasonable to conclude that a man who has made 
it an especial duiy to adapt certain means to certain ends, 
would be more competent to do so than one who probably 
had thought of it for the first time in his life. 

In regard to cheap residences, there are no buildings, 
however humble, to which an agreeable expression may 
not be given. A picturesque character is bestowed by 
bold projections, casting heavy shadows. Roofs preject- 
ing from 12 to 3G inches, not only have this effect, but 
serve to protect the walls and make it cooler in summer. 

Hoods or projections over doors and windows, with 
heavy (or thick) casing, contribute to the general appear- 
ance, and give a cheerfulness of external efiect. These 
are among the simplest, cheapest, and most effective 
modes of giving force and spirit to any building. De- 
prive any structure of its light and shade and it becomes 
tame, cheerless and unattractive. 

Feeling can be shown by bay-windows and rustic trel- 
lises covered with vines, 

“A thing of beauty is a joy forever.” 

Farmers generally urge that they have no money to 
expend in ornamental decorations, but if they would only 
think of the pleasure derived from a pretty home and the 




48 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


aifluence it would exercise on their children, and of the 
trifling cost in money of such additions as these; they 
could not help but admit their error. 

In the construction or repairing of any and every coun- 
try house three things should be kept constanti}’' in view, 
viz : convenience for domestic duties, proportion and 
synmietry, and bold projections for casting shadows. In 
addition, the yard should be w'd! supplied with oraarnen- 
tal, vines,, shrubs, flowers, and shade trees! 

pKRs'iruMON. 

Aihin, S. C. , ilik/rc.li , 3, l85o. 

“'THE AND FRINCIPEES Dl'' SDAF 

Slaking'.” 

» 

A CoHRESPONOENT, Writing over the sigriature ot ‘‘fl. 
B.,” whose comunication may be found on page 34 of oar 
last number, “thinks” our “remarks on the art and prin- 
ciples of soap-making,” published in May last, calculated 
to mislead our leaders. Thence he proceeds to point out 
sundry errors, as he supposes; and says : “If! am wrong, 
I shall be glad to get right.” 

Soap being an article of universal consumption, audits 
home production on the plantation a matter of good econ- 
omy, the subject is ofsufticient importance to w’arrant a 
thorough discussion in this family journrd. We stated 
that “water slowly decomposes soap.” Our friend asks: 
“Is it not the lime and salts in the water which decompose 
thesoapi” We ansv/er, no ; in the case to which o.ur 
remarks applied. Everybody knows, or at least ought'to 
know, that earthy so.lts in spring and well water decom- 
pose soap, and often so injure the water that it is nearly 
valueless for washing purposes. We wej'e explaining 
how the niilk-hke apearance of soapsuds is produced in 
-pur-^ water. Oar correspondent fals entirely to give the 
rationale this interesting phenomenon. A solution of 
gypsum, copperas, alum, or other salt not unusually found 
in w'ater that has passed over or through a mass of earth 
or soil, seriously impairs the quality of soap suds, or the 
emulsion of oil or other grease in water. In a word, the 
decomposition of soap in thetwo cascs.is.difxerc.ru; giv- 
ing rise to a wide difference in the detergent power and 
value of the suds. So long as the chemical compound 
called soap remains perfectly- soluble' in Wii.t-^r, its soiu-’ 
tion is clear and translucent; but as the most satisfactory 
analjsishas shown , that pure water 11 abstract one- 
fourth of the alkaline base from oleic acid, this oil is left 
diffused through the water in infinitely small particles, and 
in the early stages of the formation of suds, gives ro the 
water the appearance of fine white clay' being similarly 
diffused through it. The milkiness of the water increases, 
and the suds thicken as washing and the decomposition 
of the olcate of potash or soda ad'vances,' • “R. B sug- 

gests that Knapp is mistaken in his views on the subject, 
we will here state .Ur. Knapp is a Pro.Rssor in the Univer- 
sity of Giesen, which is more distinguished than any other 
in Europe for the skill and thoroughnes.s v/ith which ana- 
lytical chemistry is studied and taught therein. LtEBiO, 
Eres ENtus, Will and Knapp have given to its Chemical [ 
Science a world- wide reputatibn. Neither Europe nor 
America affords higher authority than the author of 
** Chemical Technology,” w'ho, asvre stated in our former 


article on this subject, devotes forty-eight pages to its 
elucidation. He says; “Cold water never dissolves the 
oleate, raargerate or stearate of an alkali — the soap of 
commerce therefove— without decomposi/iov. The neau- 
tra! salts arc resolved into an alkali which dissolves, and 
iiito an acid salt that is precipitated. The same decorn- 
|>osition occurs when hot solutions of soap — particularly 
weak solutions — are cooled.” The critical reader wilt 
note in the above, the absence of all allusion to the 
agency of lime, or other earthy salts ixt decomposing soap 
in water, Knapp farther remarks; “Chkvhell investi- 
gated this decomposition, in the case of' .stearate of pbtash, 
with the greatest accuracy, and the results of iris exarru- 
natioa are vrei! suited to illustrate lim action of soaps in 
general. When a solution of neutral .'C :irstc of potash is 
cooled, one -fourths ofitspotasii remains oi so'tuion, and a 
mixture of neutral with acid stearate of potash is separat- 
ed. If the same salt is allowm-d to dissolve in 5000 parts Of 
cold w ater, the acid stearate [of the mixture] is alone pre- 
cipitated,- in the form of scales, possessing liie lustre of the 
mother of pearl, and the half of the piotush remains in so- 
lution. This behavior is common to 'the neutral margar- 
ates and oleates of potash and soda : and it explains why, 
in using soup, even with the ivalsr, u whitish tur- 

bidnesa.— soap suds~is always obudned. The alkaline 
property of soapsuds is ’ due to the liberation of a 

portion of the caustic 'potash or soda; and this it is that 
affords the possibility of removing fciity impurities in water, 
which is the sole object of washing w’ith soap,” 

Our friendly critic will .see that bur theory of the deter- 
gencyofsoap isfuilynsustained by the most reliable author- 
ity, and that such' detergency is chemical in its action, and 
not mechanical as he evidently believes when he says.- 
speakingof turpentine soap : “It unites with grease with 
remarkable facility, and by the friction- which it induces, 
greatly promotes the cleansing of cloth, while pure tallow 
or oil soap causes the folds of cloth -to slide quickly and 
smoothly over each other, so that little dr no inotioa takes 
place in the 'fibres of the cloth, and 'the I'cmova! of dirt 
from the interstices ts thus retarded. Good housewives 
always adds rosin or turpentine in their soap boiling, 'fi r 
the impiroved quality of. the soap thus yielded.'’ 

No one has a higher opinion cf -‘good haUse'WLvea" 
than the vi-riter ; yet, have they that critical knowledge 
'pf 'the chemistry of domestic aflairs, particularly in refer- 
ence to the manufacture of soap, -wlfich entiile.s their 
opinions to overrule, on a puVely chemical question, a dis- 
luiguisli'ed Professor pf the Geisea University 1 To do 
“good housewives” no more than justice, we are constrain- 
ed to remark that very few are, from choice.in the nabit oi 
washing their hands with “rosin soap” to avail themselves 
of that excellent ^fneiion'’ which commends itself so 
highly to the favorable notice of “R, B.” At th.e .same 
time, we would state.that we have nothing to say against 
“good turpentine soap.” It was a bad x^rticle that wc 
condemned. The idea that either rosin or iurpentine. is 
better than fat or tallow to make soap is an injurious enror. 
The former have cheapness in their favor — nothing more. 

Again, “ Ji B.”'asks : “.Uocs not the addition of salt 


SOlTHERX CULTIVATOR 


4 !) 


Siilficie):: qa:^!)tiiy to potr.sh soafu sue!) as you describe, i 
nlLca'iir sol.diiv ' Aii-! does if ih)C tdr!i;-t« h-to a soda , 

soap 'j say ihe autuovides.” ■ 

II’ Oil-; fiieuJ i)ad read ilie • autlioi Ities'/ closely. 1‘6 ; 
would Lave faund tiiat oy addiiiy an exc.es.s of what he : 
calls a ‘‘suriicent quantity ofcoiunion salt'' the foi rnaiiun j 
of a soda soap wid be preve nted. In the lirst volume, i 
(Philddelpliia odidon.. ISIS) page 405, of Knapp .s Cherni- i 
cal Technology, laay be found the following ; j 

“ When .‘^oap [meaning potash soapj is cut up into ; 
small pieces, and placed iii a solution of common salt, 
saturated a: the ordinary temperature, no a-ction lohaUtcr 
kikes piuce. The pieces of soap, far from being dissolved 
or soliened, swim on the suviace of the solution without 
ever being wetted by it. The solution of salt flows from j 
their surihoe as oil from iee. Even after long immersion, j 
no other result ensues than would occur if soap were j 
plunged into mercury ; instead oi softening, its hardness! 
is ratUef inci'f-ased. II tiie solution of salt is boiled, the j 
soap is softened by heat, and assumes the form of a gelati- ; 
oUSj or, rather, thick and doughy mass, which is equally i 
insoluble ia the saline .solution, keeping perfectly distinct ' 
from it, or at most separating into flocks that swim upon | 
the surface. Tliese flocks harden w'hen taken out, and i 
cool down to hard soap, if the solution of salt is not [ 
saturated, but diluted to a certain extent, the soap and salt | 
contend for the water after such a fashion that neither | 
positively get.s possession of it. The water is partly im- j 
bibed by the soaf., but a part remains with the salt, so ; 
that a solution of soap is seen swimming upon the saline; 
solution, which is now' saturated, without mixing with it | 
or dissolving, but still forming a distinct layer. It is i 
only when ihc salt in solution is below one four hundreth ! 
of the Liquid, that the soap is not prevented by it from dis- I 
solving.’’ 1 

The fav2ts above quoted are important to all w'ho are in | 
the habit nf adciiig salt to a pouish lye when boiling it | 
with grease for making soap. It is easy to put in too \ 
much Siil: ; and it is as easy to see why we qualided our [ 
remarks as to the certaivtp of getting hard soda soap by | 
the use of salt a.s indicated. | 

In turn, it would not be ditTicult for us to criticise our | 
critic ; but as it is not likely our numerous readers wmuld | 
be beneflited thereby, we sha'I let the matter pass; | 
wiih ilie remark, that the manufacture and use of poor | 
soap :s on the increase in this country', Every where 1 
men use ilirii bale scientific knowledge to make money j 
by shaiTirless uduHerations, by the production of inferior | 
articles, and bv the aid of the most enticing pufls. j 

L 1 


XOftTlIERN COTTON AND WOOEF.N ?TANU- ; 

factories. j 

As it may be interesting to the growers of Cotton to! 
know .siuncthin:: of the manner in w'hich it is worked up j 
in the large cstai)li;hmenrs of (he Xerth, we subjoin the 
following iirfn ic from a NfW E.iglaad paper. The wri- 
ter i^ iji^acrining the ••pacifle Ll.lis and Print Works" of 
Ervn iif.a, M ’j.s : 

‘ Th > e^.’ v !:s'«mcnt celei^rated fur its print.s, delaines 
ami • h-i 1 .“s coiiipuiy, whirh has a capita! nf t v > 

miliniii^ I'f lini! rs, was cnarieietl in lis4'.l. and l•o!|lm^'nced 
Ofiera n>ns L: Pj5!. Tfie e-l; l>!i>h!iieiit cnii>ists of three 
paiiilUl i.n ! ;ings -the mi l in liof.t. the print works in 
the iv.ir, and a large inter. nehiate building. 


Tiiat pari of liie main bmliling in operaiton is 50G feet 
long, 7'2 foe: .vide, a.nd seven stories high: when com- 
pleted, it will be h(it> feet in length. 

Bleaciiing, primiiig, dyeing, &c.. are carried on in the 
rear edifice the principal part of which is 050 feet by 60 
feet, exclusive of two wings used for storage, oflices, &.c., 
each 450 f'eet by iO feet, and three stories high. The in- 
termediate building is 800 feet, by 50 feet, and is also 
three stories in height If the various floors were ail on 
one plane, the works would cover an are of more than 
1 63 acres. These buildings constitute, it is believed, the 
largest cotton mill and print v/orks in the world. 

In that portion of the works now in operation, there are 
employed 50,000 self acting spindles, 1,P27 looms, 275 
carding machines, 36 fly frames, 19 warping machines, 
and 27 dressers. The yearly consumption of cotton is 

1.500.000 pounds, and of wood, 700,000 pounds. The 
aver.age produce of cotton yarn per day is 3,500 pounds, 
and of woolen, 1,000 pounds. The printing room con- 
tains 12 steam engines, and 12 great printing machines, 
capable of giving from five to twelve colors at once. These 
beautiful pieces of mechanism are capable of running 
through 300 pieces per day, or an average of 75,000 y’ds. 
They are truly lightning machines. In the printing ar- 
rangements there is an investment of BOO, 000 to S70,000 
for copper cylinders alone. 

The engi'aving room, where designs are prepared 
and sketched, is an interesting department. A little host 
of sketchers and designers here exercise their ingenuity, 
taste, and skill to please the fancy/ of the ladies, who are 
to purchase the fabrics of the company. The sum of 
$12 000 is annually spent for designs. 

The chemicals and dyestuffs used, reach the value of 
over Si, 000 daily, and comprise an anmtal consumption 
of 800,000 pounds madder, 40,000 pounds of cochineal: 
and there are employed besides, 550,000 pounds starch, 

4.000 gallons sperm oil, 2,000 pounds glue, 450 barrels 
flour, and numerous other articles. The gross annual 
amount of prints manufactured, reaches 7,000,000 yards, 
and of delaines and challies 5,600,000 yards. The power 
which sets in motion the vast machinery of the Pacific 
V/orks is derived from five turbine wheels, each six feet 
in diameter, and calculated to work up to 275 horse pow- 
er, but at present only exerted to about 150 horse power. 
The steam engines also furnish about 100 horse power. 
When the entire building is completed, the number of 
wheels ’will be increased to eight, two of them seven feet 
in dia.meterand of 350 horse power each” 

Of the steam apparatus of the Pacific Mills the writer 
says : 

‘'‘file steam for warming the premi.ses in cold weather 
and heating the dryinj; room — the steam for the priming 
engines, and for bleaching, dyeing, and other processes — 
is generated in 25 cylindrical boilers, each 28 feet long by 
5 feet diameter, and which are now producing, in the ag- 
gregate, high pressure steam equal to 1000 horse power 
per hour; while in winier the volume is equal to 1700 
horse power per hour. No lire is used on the premises, 
except in the great boiler hall, in the intermediate build- 
ing; and in this department occur some items of consump- 
tion, viz; 10,000 tons ofanthracite coal per annum, lOOO 
bushels of charcoal, besides over 100 cords of wood. 

'I'here are l.Gl'O persons employed on the works, one- 
half of whom are females, and ihs sum paid them annually 
IS over .$360,000. In connection wuth the cstabiisttment 
is a library of 1 700 volumes furnished for the use of the 
empl 'Vf es, who are required to confribute one cent a 
week for its mainienam e and increase. Theie is al'O a 
reading rouni open every evening f.ir llie workers, 
'in which thirty-tw o of the leudij'g newspapers and nmga-' 
zmes ot the day are on fiie. Besides tlieie is a lecture 
room where lectures are given. A relief society fur the 


50 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


benefit of its members in sickness, adds to the means of 
usefulness established by the company for its operatives, 
and to the funds of which it liberally contributes. The 
receipts from members last year were $2,237, and the dis 
bursements $1,240. 

AORICUIuTUliE IN GEOiiiaA— FAIRS, 

To the Executive Committee of the Southern 

Central A"ric%dtural Society : 

Gentlemen — You will pardon the liberty I take in ad- 
dressing you, Y’our high character warrants tiiis belief 
In the alFairs of life, the wisest, even, may sometimes find 
food for thought in the suggestions of the unimproved. 

The thoughts which follow and the expression given to 
them, have resulted from a visit to the late Fair. It was 
evident to all that there had been a decrease of interest in 
the exhibition of Geogia industry. This decrease was ac 
counted for by the last unfavorable season and by the ab- 
sorption of public interest in the Presidential election. This 
certainly will account for a degree of abatement of inter- 
est, but it still leaves much unaccounted for. 

This falling oft is ominous. It argues a lack of interest 
not only in Agricultura in its ordinary sense, but in pro- 
gressive agriculture. I had almost said in the science .of 
Agriculture; but the term, though often used, is not strict- 
ly correct. That cannot be called a science which is not 
positive and that cannot be positive, which is based upon 
the uncertain sunshine and showers. Agriculture uses 
science and is dependent upon its results, but it is not 
a science in itself 

Upon no persons does the advance of Agriculture so 
much depend as upon the Executive Committee of our 
State Society. If the farmers of the State are ignorant, in- 
dolent or obstinate, it isFnotthe fault of the Committee 
But we look to them to devise plans of improvement; to 
foster those w'hich have been begun, and to invite to 
generous and legitimate rivalry, by offering premiunrs to 
intelligent industry. 

The question arises, Is Atlanta the best place for the 
Fair I It certainly has an advantage in its facility of ac- 
cess and in its number of Hotels. But there are great dis- 
advantages. It is a railroad city. Its inhabitants are en- 
grossed for the most most part in occupations w'hich do 
not admit of interruptions. The place is too new to have 
attained that condition of society in which a general in 
terest is felt in the object of an industrial exhibition. No 
one could fail to remark the very small number of the 
Atlanta population wdio were on the Fair grounds. The 
interest of the citizens of a place must add greatly to the 
interest of the Fair. By these remarks I do not design to 
cast a reflection upon the citizens of Atlanta. I am mere- 
commenting on the unsuitableness of the place for a par- 
ticular thing. If our Fair was a Railroad Convention, it 
would be a suituble location. 

The town near which our Fair should be held, should be 
sufficiently large to accommodate visitors and not so large 
as to render the meeting of the Society an object of inter- 
est chiefly to the Hotel keepers. I do not presume to sug- 
gest a place — one might certainly be found combining 
the necessary requirements.. 

Might there not be selection of a ground for the Fair on 
which exhibitions of improvements, not only in practical 
but ornamentalagricuiture might be exhibited! It will 
be a noble end of the Committee to aid in arresting the 
migratory disposition of our people. Every thing wdiich 
tends to the improvement of our lands, which gives per- 
manence and comfort to our dwellings, and which adorns 
both in reasonable limits, assists in rendering our popu- 
lation permanent — in creating a love for the soil and the 
Homestead. 

Suppose our Fair grounds included a small stream of 
iraterin which there was a considerable fall. There are 


thousands of persons in our State who have never seen a 
water ram in operation ; wlio can well afford to buy one, 
and who wmold not hesitate to procure one, if tliey saw' its 
cheapness and value ; there are numbers who have not 
seen the simple process of churning butter by a water 
wheel, although they have a branch running by their 
dairy, which could do this at a cost of a few dollars. There 
ai’e again numbers who have never seen a fountain, and 
who certainly would not be without this most pleasant 
luxury, after having seen one playing, and remembering 
that the little branch which has run idly at the foot of the 
hill before their doors, might so easily be made to dispense 
its pleasant coolness in summer and refresh the parched 
sod, which they have in vain sought in defiance of the 
sun, to render continuously verdant. The cost of these 
things are trifling. I am quite sure that the Fair grounds 
at Atlanta to which even a water cart was a stranger, 
would have been most agreeably improved by the play of 
a fountain. If such a location were selected, we might be 
benefitted by an exhibition on a small scale of the greatest 
decideraturn to Georgia Agriculture — a well coducted in- 
stance of irrigation. 

Many persons confound irrigation with warping or flood- 
ing ; they suppose, therefore, that they can not employ 
the benefit of irrigation unless they own perfectly flat 
land. Whereas, on the contrary, there is hardly a farm 
in the primitive region of Georgia, a portion of which 
cannot be irrigated. There is scarcely a branch in Mid- 
dle Georgia which might not be made of vast value to its 
owner. The same stream may w'ater the hill side from 
its summit to its base. By this means we may defy the 
drouth of summer and increase greatly our crops — an im- 
provement amounting to this, that we may have an equiva- 
lent to a good rain, exactly at tlie time we want it, and 
lasting as long as we wish it, and no longer. This is 
putting the advantages in a wa}!- that all can understand 
It. In addition, a hillside prepared for irrigation is at the;, 
same time protected by the necessary ditches against all 
washing from rain. At the end of the main ditch necejs- 
sary for conducting the water of irrigation there must al- 
ways be more or less fall, which can be tipplied to me- 
chanical purposes when the water is not needed tor the 
land. ' . 

But the farmers of Georgia have never seen this pro- 
cess of irrigation. There has been books after books 
written upon the subject, illustrated with diagrams, but. 
they are of little use except to those who have seen a pro- 
perly irrigated field. 

Cannot the Executive Committee give ns the opportun- 
ity ! It might easily be shown on the Fair ground, if 
there were command of a proper stream — a very small 
one will answer, and one acre will serve as an illustration 
as well as fifty acres. I respectfully su£ge.st whether 
several gentlemen cannot be found who will unite in send- 
ing to England, for a person thoroughly acquainted with 
catch work irrigation. The services of such an one 
usually commands in England about $1000 per annum. 
There are single planters in the country who could make 
the outlay advantageously — certainly several might do it: 
his services might be secured to prepare a piece of ground 
for our next Fair. The irrigation of our undulating lands 
would introduce an era in our agriculture. 

It is possible that new branches of Agriculture might be 
introduced through our Committee. For instance, large 
quantities of prepared Sumach are brought annually into 
tliis country, yet we have several varieties of the Sumach 
growing spontaneously. Will not one of tliese answer 
the purposes of commerce ! 

A large amount of European industry, and in climates 
most similar to our own, is employed in the cultivation of 
the Poppy. Will this cultivation answer with us 1 If so, 
it would be extremely lucrative. 

The Hop is the most profitable of all plants when (he 


SOITHERN CULTIVATOR. 


51 


climate and soil suit it. Tiie crop of an acte of Hop.s in j 
Kent, in Enjjland, varies, in a good year, from S1500 to 
S'2501) to the acre. It is there an expensive crop, from the 
great value of the land and from the poles necessary in its 
cultivation. Our lands are cheap and poles cost but little. 
Why may not this plant be cultivated with us, and to 
greater advantages than in England! 

Soda, which is now so extensive an article of commerce 
is made from sal soda. This plant is cultivated in Spain 
and on lands which can be overflowed by salt water, its 
cultivation is very profitable. Are there not thousands 
of acres of salt marsh on our coast now totally useless, 
which might be made valuable by the introduction of this 
plant 1 

Might, not the connection of a Market Fair give increas- 
ed interest to our annual exhibifion and be of value to the | 
State! There is nothing of this kind in this country 
either North or South. I have wondered at this, as these 
market Fairs are so nurneious and of so great utility 
abroad. Sales are made by the sample of Grain, &c. j 
These are always for cash. Bankers are present to make 
the necessary advances. To prevent fraud, the sample is 
divided between bu^’er and seller. Formerly we had no 
crop but cotton, which bore a fixed price. Inconsequence 
of our Railroad system, all other articles of farm produce 
have their market value. If it were understood that a 
large number of farmers would be present at the Fair, 
with samples of their cotton, grain, &c., buyers would be 
attracted and via: verso.. If this be practicable, the con- 
course of persons at our Fair would be very great. And 
is it not practicable! I leave the question to be decided 
by persons more capable than myself 

Would it not be possible for the Society to establish an 
Agricultural School and Mode! Farm, and to place the Fair 
ground permanently tipon the farm. Permanence is of 
great importance. It is, of course, impossible for the So- 
ciety to make valuable improvements upon a spot of mere- 
ly temporary interest. 

If the Fair ground was connected wnth the school, an 
Economic Museum could be there established. Presents 
of Agricultural, Mineral, Commercial and Mechanical im- 
portance would be made to ii. It would be to the interest 
of inventors and venders to send samples of their wares. 
There is not a similar institution in Europe that would , 
not interchange the products of the several countries. A 
valuable collection could thus be made up at small cost. 
With this Museum, a Library composed of Agricultural 
and other cognate works could be established, and some 
one connected with the school might be the curator of the 
whole. 

In regard to an Agricultural School, it is proper to dis- 
criminate between such an one and the Manual Labor 
schools, formerly existing in Georgia. The writer was 
deeply interested in the first Manual Labor school estab- 
lished in the State. That, with all others like it, were 
failures. The reason was obvious. The boys going to 
the school were, for the most part, sons of wealthy farm- 
ers or planters, and it was impossible to keep them in or- 
der. The Agricultural was wholly subordinate to other 
pursuits. An Agricultural school should be composed of 
the sens of the poor, who have been accustomed to labor; 
and the amount of labordone should notonly cover expens- 
es, but leave a profit. This is done elsewhere and may be 
done in Georgia. A company of 100 persons who would 
subscribe lOU dollars each could make a successful begin- 
ning. Should tJie suggestion of such a school be favorably 
received, the details of most of the prominent Agricultural 
schools in .Europe can be furni-htd, and would c|]^erfully 
be made public Tliese alone would tully occupyva.‘hew3^_ 
paper article. We sadly want a class of eduegi^ .Over- 
seers, such as could be furnished by a proper A|r^<;dltufal 
school. • '■ 

The State could be made to aid such a school by pl'o- 


per eft'ort. It has aided our Academic school at Athens. 
!t has more recently aided the military school at Marietta. 
May the day be far distant when the Georgia Legislature 
shall prefer the sword to the plowshare. The appropria- 
tion to the Military School was right. But it is a safe 
precedent for a demand for aid to an Agricultural school. 
The noble devotion of Dr. Terrell to the Slate University 
wiil answer a most valuable end to the class of students 
who can alTord a collegiate education. But we need an 
institution for another class who .cannot be brought into 
association with the students of college without injury to 
both. 

There are other suggestions which I had designed to 
offer ; but iliis paper is already too long. It may be an 
intrusion to call the attention of gentlemen so well skilled 
in Agricultural affairs as our Execiive Committee to them. 
But whether valuable or worthless, they are at least the 
offering to the Agriculture of the State of a true-hearted 

Georgian'. 

Jojiuary, 1857. 

SEEDS. 

We have been requested to put upon record a fact in 
relation to this subject, which may serve as a caution of 
some utility to a good many. A farmer soaked his seed 
corn this spring, as he usually does, some of it 12, and 
some of 24, 30, 35, and up to 48 hours. Towards the 
last days of his planting, the land became very dry, and 
as there was no rain for upwards of two weeks afterwards, 
there were many parts of the ground so dry that seeds 
could not possibly germinate. The consequence was, 
that much or perhaps all of the seed corn which had been 
steeped long enough to cause it to sprout, could not pro- 
cure in the earth moisture enough to have the process, 
already commenced continued. The sprouts or swelled 
germ finding no moisture, rotted or died. Had as severe 
a drought as actually did occur, been anticipated, our in- 
formant would probably have preferred to plant unsoaked 
seed in the dryest portions of Ms field. He thinks that 
when there is considerable probability of a “dry spell” 
after planting, it would be safer to plant seed which had 
not been steeped at all, than to put any seed into dry 
ground — already dry — which has become soft or com- 
menced to swell or germinate. — Exchange. 

Marriages. — “Marriage is the mother of the world; it 
preserves nations, fills cities and churches, and peoples 
Heaven. An unmarried man, like a fly in the heart of a 
sweet apple, dwells in perpetual sweetneess, but dwells 
alone and cannot enjoy it for want of company.” Mar- 
riage, like the industrious bee, bulds houses, forms socie- 
ties and republics, sends out colonies and blesses the 
world. It is one of the good institutions which God at 
first gave us. Even in Eden it was not good for man to 
be alone. Man was too complete, as at first made, to be 
entirely happy. He was independent without having any 
j depending upon him. He v/as not to be happy without 
j having some other to care for ; so the Lord God took from 
i him one of his own ribs, and out of it made him a wife. 
Thus it needs a wife to restore man to completeness as 
such, and more especially to complete his happiness, by 
having a wife to depend on him. 

Georgia Wine, — We are indebted to Col. Sullivan of 
Americas, for a bottle of excellent wine, manufactured by 
himself from the dark variety of the Scuppernong Grape. 
Its llfivor and body is good, its complexion attractive, and 
its effects most salutary. Col. S. thiuks this variety of 
grape on many accounts superior to most others. It is 
a free and sure bearer, ripens late, and is suited to al- 
most any location, damp or dry. The grape culture in the 
South is likely to receive increased attention . — Journal 
Messenger. 



SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


DBirOI'T cow, KATE KSARI^TEY-. 

Calired Mov. 30tli, 1850. Bred by Mr. W. Baker, Devonshire, England, Imj^rted b^f and the 
property of C. S. W'ainwriglit, The Meadorvs, near RMnebeck, N. "S’. 


TME FAKMEll\S PSiVATE EIBISARY. 

.If there is any man who needs a good private library, 
it is the farmer. For, in the hrst place, he has a 2^rofes- 
siov to master which requires as much study as any other, 
not excepting divinity, physic or law. This will appear 
evident, when we consider that a knowledge of the physi- 
cal sciences generally is essential to the best understand- 
ing of agriculture, and then he must liave immense prac- 
tical knowledge of his art, of the markets, of the law of 
exchanges, of men and of things, in order to tine greatest 
success. Besides, there is no reason why the firmer 
may not enjoy literature and science, books and lectures 
for their own sake, as well as the men of other callings. 
And there is the consideration, that he who tills the soil 
has considerable leisure in the course of a year to enjoy a 
good library, especially in . the winter, by his own fire- 
side. 

In the next place, to use a pulpit phrase, “ Knowkdge 
is Powci-y'’ to the farmer, as well -as to other men. It is 
power to increase his income from farming, power to 
guide his family and “ his affairs with discretion,’' pow 
er to give him an influence in his neighborhood and town, 
power to make his itiduence ffit abroad through lectures, 
speeches, editorials, and books : for a farmer may devote 
his leisure to lyceum lecturing, editing, authorship, and 
■even to serve his constituents of a winter in the State or 
national Capitol, if he has the necessary requirements. 

Thirdly, a farmer needs a good private library, or as 
good as his ineatis will allow him to secure, for ilie saJ:e 
of hos fomiiy, as well as for his ovvrt sake For he gene 
rally lives sornewh it lemote from the circulating ]i!»rary 
of lliP vili ige. even if there is such a lilirary; and the 
same is true of the winter course of popular lect ores. 


Thus he and his, being more con.^ined at home during 
long winter evenings, need more the moral and mental 
enjoyment and stimulus of a library. And tiiis .li'orary, 
to meet the wants of both the head of the house and his 
family, old and young, should embrace not only the lead- 
ing works on agn’iculture, but books on history, politics 
and religion; as well as biographies, travels, poetry, and 
miscellaneous literature, adapted to give the young a taste 
for reading, and the old the best solace amid their declin- 
ing 5 mars. Many who read these lines remember with 
pain how much time they lost under the roof a farmer in 
tlieir childhoodand ycDuth, for the lack of sm h a. lihrary as 
we have described. They dosed awav lor.g -.nvd precious 
winter evenings for the want of books, i. ooiis They 
wasted hours, weeks, months, or even years, at country 
taverns or shops, or else in bed, because tliey had not 
either acquired the love of reading, or else had not the 
books to read. 

Fourthly, a farmer’s private library is one of the best of 
home attractions. The importance of making his dwell- 
ing aUractive to his wife ami children, as well a.^ to him- 
self, cannot be over e.^timrited If it is not ondi red a 
place of happine-<3, the nivern, the shop, or some | lace of 
more douiiSiul indnence ma v lie .'lougl t for. winlmi; away 
piTcioiis time. The well filled library at home .-i r.- ,'isthe 
attention of every fmiilv, Idiere are illn.-'tr..ied luults 
fir the chil Iren, hooks of adveniuic lor (he cmaig and 
of solid reading f>r the lover of strong, rn. i *. I iond. 

I hiis [lUre and I li'Vnted ta^re.s are formi d t’lai m i- ill 
carry tiiroUgh 1 fe, hnrMii! places are aviiirc *, t m • -'lens 
are re- isted. the nece.-^.siiy for consointly miooi g t" he.ir 
lectures no 1 inger exi'l.sy tor one cm I'e ul : : u )' ' ■ ores 
HI iionie, and save expo-ure to night :dr ana ' a.,l\ '(.nil- 

j ated \ooms.~ idossac’iiis'. iis Plooghniait. 


58 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 



INF€)KMATI«?«.' WANTED OF TKE OF 

tiie C’liinsi Tree. 


Editors Southern CULTIVATOR — Having long suspect- 
ted that there was more value aitac'iecl to this berry than 
is generally known, simply from tlie fact that a tree j 
bearing so large a quantity of berries, and as near perhaps | 
a never-failing bearer iis any other tree, and also observ- 1 
ing that these berries are not the favorite or especial food j 
of any kind of birds, the robin only eating tliian at such j 
times as their ordinal’’'' food is scant, it follows as a matter j 
of course, that these ben ies have a value not generally j 
appreci ited, okelse the Croat Creator is at lault, in ere- j 
:iting so much 'hr so little; wiiich would be too serious I 
an impeachment ofldivine Wisdoni, to be seriously enter- j 
tained. Hence, as a matter of belief! tliink there must be | 
great value in the China berry ; and T am so strong in this j. 
belief that 1 for one am fuliy determined to plant a large 
orchard so soon as I can obtqin a little' more information 
in their favor. And 1 would ask any reader of the CidtA- 
voJor to answer, as fer as experience has taught, the fol- ' 
knving querries ; | 

1st, Will sheep winter on them as their principal food j 
and keep in good order i | 

■ 2nd. The same ofhogs ; and will they kill pigs 1 | 

hrd. Will anything winter on them as their entire food, j 
for two or three months, and keep in tolerable order '? j 
These querries are few and simple, and I hope will be | 
fully responded to, especially by those most experienced. I 

M. T.-hlcGEHEK. . 
I\2irinit Elbciy Arko/t^sr/s, Nov., 185G. ^ * 


FIIINESE SIJfTiK C'ANE. i 

Great excitement is being created thro'dghout all parts ; 
of the United States in regard to the Cninese Sugar Cane, j 
or Sorgho Sucre. The supply of sugar to the commercial j 
world not keeping up to the demand, and the consequent ( 
large enhancement in price, induces a feeling of the high- 
est satisfaction o'o account of the discovery of this new 
source of supply for one of the indispensables of modern 
civilization. Tiiere will, no doubt, exist a very general 
feeling on the part of farmers, to trv a quarter of an acre, 
or so of the Sorgho Sucre.' 'I'he great resmbiance, how- ' 



should induce cauiiofi in obtaining a supply of the seed. — 
Okio Valley Parmer. 


MIEE .SIDE DiTCillNG— ANECVDOTE. - 

Editors '^outher-v Cultiva’J'or — The article ofCapt. 
Hardwick in a late 'aumber of tlie Soxdkcrn Cxdliva- 
tor calls to miind an anecdote of the tiinei wlien hill side 
ditches were comparatively unknown. 

During the sitting of the Court at Watklnsville, a young 
lawyer, while enumerating the effects of a client, included 
his land among his moveable property. The gentlemen 
of the bar indulged in a hearty laugh at the young man's 
expense. The late witty Judge Clayton, of Athens, who 
was tl'.en Judge, interrupted the laughter of the lawyers 
by saying: ‘-'Why do you laugh 1 The gentleman is 
right. Land in Clarke county is moveable property — 
mine has gone down toe Oconee long ago.” Thanks to 
hill side ditches, lliis peculiar feature ot' Georgia land is 
ceasing to exist. A Sussckiber. 

There cannot be much .selfishnes.s where there is a'^wife 
snd faniilyc There the house is lighted up by mutmd 
charities; evorytliing achieved for them is a vicloiy: 
everyihiV’g endured is a triumph How many vi--e'- are 
supiir'essed that there miy l>e no had example! IJmv 
Tiiaoy exertions made to recommend and inculcate a nood. 
cne ! 


THE - FISH EXPERIMENT. — PROPAGATION 
and .Domestication of Fish— — Aisit to Dts. 
Garlick aud Ackley’s Fish Nur- 
sery, near Clevela-nsi, Ohio. 

Tiic artificial re-production and cultivation of fish, has 
for seme time been practiced in parts of Europe. In 
France it is now carried on to considerable extent, and 
the produce of some of the streams and ponds, yield large 
pfofit.s. The subject is now attracting some attention in 
the L'nited vStates. The New York State .Agricultural So- 
ciety’, in their last premium list, have offered a prize of 
fHOO for the best cs.siu’ on '.he ‘‘ Production and Preser- 
votinn of Domestic. Fish for Ponds.” 

Garlick and Ackley, knovvn as distinguished surgeons 
of Clcvdand. Ohio, were the fir.^t, we believe, to intro- 
duce the ariificiai spawning and domestication of fish iu 
the United States.'^ Dr. Garlick being an enthusiastic in 
this line, commenced the business in connection with his 
associate. Dr. Ackley, upon thp farm of the latter, two or 
three years ago. They made .several trips >to Lake Supe- 
rior and Fort Stanley'-, in Canada, to procure trout for 
stocking tlieir streams, and in every' instance were suc- 
cc.sstui, except the fir.st, when they lost a large number of 
fish in transportation. 

After this, with persona! attention, ths-y found that by' 
reducing the temperature of the water in the vessels con- 
taining the fish, to 32 degrees, by' the application of ice, 
the respiration and circulation in fish was so reduced that 
they experienced no difficulty in transporting them any 
distance with perfect success. In this way they' have pro- 
cured at different times, 150 fail grown trout. 

.Feeling an interest in tlie success of this ente-rprise, 
and while visiting Cleveland a short time since, we called 
on Drs. Garlick and Ackley, who very kindly conveyed 
ns to the farm and fish nursery, situated about three miles 
frotn the city. The farm contains about JOG acres; 
through the timbered portion of it runs a ravine, abund- 
antly sunplied with never- failing streams of water. 
Across this ravine, dams have been built so as to lorm 
three ponds, connected by sluice-ways between. In the 
upper pond the young trout are confined by netting across 
the sluice. The .second ponds are destined for the fish 
after they have become so large as to be able to protect 
' themselves from tlie voracious appetite of the elder fish of 
j their race. 

At the head of a large spring, and near the upper pend, 
j is situ;tted the hatching house. In thi.s house is a tank 
] four feet wide fiy eight feet long and two feet deep. The 
I water is received from the spiing into this tank, and is 
; discharged from a pipe near the top into the hatching 
I boxes, ten in number, tvnd so arranged that the first js 
j higher in the series than the last, so that there is a con- 
i stant stream of water pa.ssin,g from the tank above, 
i through the two hatching boxes. In this tank we saw 
i the fish,. “ Queen , the prolific mother of 

! thousands. Her mate “ 'rrifon.,'' like his sex sometimes 
I in other departments of animated nature, had become 
! somewhat unruly, and had been assigned his abode, for 
: the time being, in one of the fsonds witli the f.miily at 
j large. Our iriends have so educated and trained tl\e old 
! queen that .‘■ he has l)ecome as tame a.s a pet cliicken, and 
■ ate minnows from our fingns readily. J'his fi-h was ta- 
I ken from the tank and pi iced in a pan for insfteefion. 

She is like all of this f.mily, truly beauiifid She rnea- 
! su PS al'Oiit seventeen iin-l'.es in lengili. Her weight we 


*vVe have sliowii, in previous oumbers of this journal, 
dial onr vener.iblf iiieii i, Dt. b a'jh M a . x . «.f Charleston, 
coimneo'-eil die an ilici.d pro.tucii m of Fish t'limy year.? 
prinr lo ihe expei loieol.^ ot' Drs. Gaklick and ACKLEY, — 
Eus ^juikeriL CiutiouLor. 


54 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


now forget, but with careful feeding can be inci*eased 
with astonishing rapidity. We were presented by the 
gentlemanly proprietors with a most beautiful engraving 
of her. ' 

It is the intention of these gentlemen to have some of 
the old and a number of the young fish on exhibition at 
the Ohio State Fair the coming fall. The display of do- 
mesticated Salmon and Trout, it is said, constituted a 
most interevSting feature at the great National Exhibition 
recent closed in France. 

Dr. Garlick is now engaged in writing a series of arti- 
cles on the “ Artificial Reproduction of Fish,” which ap- 
pear in the Ohio Farmer. They will finally be published 
in book form, and will, no doubt, prove of immense value 
to farmers and others who now own streams and ponds 
in this country. 

In every State in the Union, and in almost every coun- 
try, there are numerous springs and streams that, with 
comparative little labor, may be turned to profitable ac- 
count for the production of fish. 

Where brisk, cool springs are not to be found suited for 
trout, ponds exist adapted to various other kinds of fish 
that delight in such water. In a day’s ride through some 
sections of the country, we have frequently met with a 
dozen springs and streams that might be employed in this 
way. In France, and other countries of Europe, not only 
trout and many other kinds of still-water fish are propa- 
gated to a great extent, but salmon by thousands are rear- 
ed to full' size in a very short time. In the northern and 
eastern sections of our country, but more particularly 
near the Northern Pacific coasts, numerous places abound, 
most admirably adapted to salmon. It is said that a thou- 
sand lbs. of fish in proper places can be produced at a 
tithe of the cost of raising an equal quantity of meat. — 
Louisville {Ky.) Courier. 


THE 3100N’S INFLUENCE <>N lUAN AN© 
Plants. 

Septimus Piesse, a learned correspondent of the Scien- 
tific American,., says : 

The influence of the moon is admitted by all medi- 
cal men practicing in India. From infancy the natives 
of tropical climates are taught to believe in lunar influ- 
ence, and that with good cause, for the intimate connec- 
tion which exists between the new and full moon, the dis- 
turbed state of the atmosphere, and the attacks of epi- 
demic, has been well ascertained. Two hundred years 
ago a physician named Diemerbroeck, wrote a treatise on 
the Plague, in which he says; “Two or three days be- 
] tore and after the full moon the disease was more violent; 
more persons were seized at these times than at others.” 

I Many other authorities could be quoted to prove that the 
I moon’s influence is not to be regarded as purely imagi- 
nary, as is commonly the case. Many curious facts are 
recorded concerning the moon's influence upon the vegeta- 
ble kingdom. It is stated that if peas are sown when the 
moon is increasing, they never cease to bloom ; that if 
fruits and herbs are set during the wane of the moon, 
they are not so rich in flavor nor so strong and healthy as 
when planted during the increase. In Brazil, the farm- 
ers plant during the decline of the moon all those vegeta- 
bles whose roots are used as food ; and, on the contrary, 
they plant during the increase of the moon the sugar- 
cane, maize, rice, &c. The English gardeners observe 
similar rules in regard to grafting, pruning, &c. From 
observations of Mr. Hov/ard it appears that northerly 
winds are more frequent during a full moon, and south- 
west winds blow chiefly at the time of the new moon. — 
It is also remarjtable that rain falls more frequently du- 
ring the last quarter of the moan, and that not a twentieth 
part of the rain of the whole year falls at full moon. 


THE CHINESE PROLIFIC PEA — LETTER 
from Col. J. B. L. 3Iarshall. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — At the request of my 
friend, Mr. W. F. Douglass, I give you my personal 
knowledge of the Chinese Prolific Pea. 

I feel a great interest in the extension of this extraordin- 
ary Pea, and I am satisfied that if the Southern farmers 
will give it a fair trial, they will find it to be the greatest 
pea both for tabk use and for feeding stock' now known. 
It must be admitted, by every reasonable and sensible 
man who will take the pains to inform himself, that it 
certainly is the most prolific pea ever seen or heard of. The 
extraordinary yield from one single pea gathered by iMr. 
Douglass far exceeds anything of the kind I ever saw. 
It only remains to show, then, that it is a good pea for 
use. 

It is a beautiful and deUcioits pea for table use-, and as 
to stock, the hogs eat them with the greatest avidity; and 
the experiment having been fully ’tried Sy Mv. 'D'oUgl.ass 
to my certain knowledge, I can say with candor to the 
public that they not only agree with them, hwi fatten faster 
than anything I have seen tried. 

It is a well known fact that pea hay is most valuable 
for winter feed for stock; and it will be needless to add 
that where there is so great a yield of grain that the vine 
increases in tenfold proportion. 1 will only say that on 
the 1^ acres Mr. Douglass had in cultivation last year, 
there was at least four times as much vine as I ever saw 
on any piece of ground of the same size. 

If you think this statement will be of any importance to 
the public, or benefit to Mr. Douglass, you are at liberty 
to publish it. Yours, &c., J B. L Marshall, 

Assistant Engineer Little Rock 
and Napoleon Rail Road. 

South Bend, Ark,, Jan. 4, 1857. 


Never Give up. — Who are our rich men 1 — our distin- 
guished men! — our most useful men I Those who have 
been cast down, but not destroyed — who, when the breeze 
of adversity swept away their props, sought new stand- 
ards — pushed on — looked up and became what you be- 
hold them now. A glorious sentence and worthy to be 
inspired — never give up! Men are not made — they make 
themselves. A steady perseverance — a determination 
never to sink, though millstones were hanged about their 
neck — is the true doctrine. It is this that has made the 
wilderness to blossom, that has given wingd to the ocean, 
filled valleys, leveled mountains, and built up great cities 
of the world. Who then is a fool, and yields simpering 
before the blast I Who is a suckling, and cowers before 
a cloud 1 Shame, shame on you. You are big enough to 
possess an iron heart, and to break down mountains at a 
blow. Up, and let this be the day of your redemption. 
Resolve to be a fool no longer — even if you are obliged to 
stand with a red hot iron upon your brow — never give 

“ Jim Walson’s Book.” — On the plantation of James 
Watson, near Port Gibson, Mississippi, may be witnessed 
an exhibition of memory that is truly remarkable. An 
African girl about fourteen years of age answers to the 
name which heads this article. It is the custom of Wat- 
son to give rewards for over-work, and during the cotton 
picking season the amount each hand picks is weighed 
twice per day — noon and night. This girl stands by the 
overseer, and listens to the number of pounds announced 
to each hand, and at night the result is reported with the ut- 
most accuracy, Her correctness is repeatedly to put to 
the test by Watson and others, who keep memorandums 
during the weighing, and a day or two afterwards she le 
catei-hised, and her memory found perfect. Mr, Watson 
works from sixty to seventy hands. 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


55 


CHINESE SUCJAil CANE AS A FEKTIEIZER. | 

Editors Southern Cultivator ; ! 

Among the innumerable advantages, which tlie public j 
are already aware, belong to the Chinese Sugar Cane, ! 
one most important has escaped mention. For cheapness 
and value, as a gjvcri mamurey Vais, plant stands pre-emi i 
nent. It is time fhr the Southern people to awake to the I 
necessity of improving their lands, and to subdue that | 
greedy appetite, which takes every thing from the soil and j 
returns nothing to it. Patriotism, philantliropy, paternal | 
love, and a far-sighted polic}' unite in demanding this of | 
them. If the present system of cultivation is pursued i 
much longer, our lands will be exhausted, our govern- i 
ments impoverished, our commerce destroyed, our cities j 
in ruins, and our people driven like the poor Indians who j 
preceded them, from the land of their fathers, before tJie | 
indomitable perseverance, energy and science of the Yan- ! 
kee and the European. Another system might improve ■ 
our soil, enrich our governments, increase our commerce, I 
build up our cities, and render us a great, happy, and | 
contented people. To do this, a complete revolution must j 
be accomplished, old empirical notions must be eradi- I 
cated, and plans substituted in their stead. To i 

find out these by skilful experiments, and to prevail upon | 
the mass to adopt them, is the noble and useful vocation ; 
of the scietific Agriculturist; for he who makes “two! 
blades of grass to grow where only one grew before,’’ is j 
justly entitled to be called the benefactor of Ids race. { 

The three fundamental principles of planting, are deep | 
plowing, thorough drainage and manuring.' It is ob- j 
vious tliat the latter is the most difficult to apply skilfully. | 
The vaiieties of manure are innumerable. Almost every j 
mineral in the earth, every gas of the atmosphere, every i 
exhalation and excrement of the animal, and every re- 
spiration of the vegetable bodies give food to the plant. — 
To choose from all these, what can be applied to the crop 
with the greatest benefit, and at the least expense, is the 
object of the Planter, and evidently requires no small 
amount of study, judgment and experience. 

Green manuring, so successfully and extensively em- 
plyed in Great Britain, has seldom been used in this coun- 
try, except by accident, in turning under the grasses, the 
spontaneous growth of fields suffered to lie out. The su- ! 
periority of this manure over all others is easily demon- j 
strable. From the food of the horse, fljr instance, a large j 
amount of carbon, and a still larger proportion of nitro- i 
gen is extracted before it passes through the stomach, for j 
re-producing the tissues and organs of the body; the! 
amount of these gases, generated by the metamorphose of j 
these tissues being mainly exuded through the skin. The 
excrement of the horse consequently cannot be as rich as 
ais food. When this excrement is mixed with straw and 
urine, as in the common manufacture of stable manure, 
and suffered to undergo fermentation and decomposition, i 
a large amount of nitrogen again escapes into the air in ! 
the form of ammonia and nitric acid. But when any 
green crop is turned under, the gases generated by its de- 
composition escape slowly and with difficulty through the 
pores of the earth, and consequently a greater amount re- 
mains there to feed the plant, tlian can be produced by a i 
quaintity of farm-yard manure, much exceeding the green ' 
manure turned under. Tliis demonstrates clearly, that 
this manure increases the fertility of the soil beyond all 
otliers, for all organic manures are subject more to the 
same disadvantage as that of the farm-yard. Whether 
this superior will counterbalance or more than counter- 
balance the increased expense, if the expense be increas- 
ed, is the next question : and one that can be solved only 
by experiment. 

Clover and other long rooted grasses are principally 
osed for this purpose, on the other side of the Atlantic ; it 
is our object at present, to suggest as superior to them the 


Chinese Sugar Cane, particularly to the Corn Planter; 
and for tlie following reasons: 1st. On account of its 
greater bulk. 2d. The luxuriance with which it grows. 
3rd, Its richness in saline matters. 4th. Its similarity to> 
Corn. 5th, On account of the cheapness of the seed, when 
the plant has become generally cultivated. H. F. P. 

Nas/nnllo, Tevn., 1857, 



ONE OF THE ROADS TO 

One of the surest methods of makine- criminals is to 
degrade labor and pay undue respect to wealth. Men 
will run any risks to gain a position in society. The re- 
cent disclosures in the case of Huntington, Tuckerman, 
and otiier similar delinquents in. this country; of Sad- 
lier, Robson, Redpath, and others in England and France, 
prove that the desire to appear well in society, to be rank 
ed among the happy few who live without labor and n 
dulge in the elegancies of life, is one of the strongest 
incentives to crime. And it must be noticed, for the fact 
is painfully evident, that the false spirit of aristocracy 
which reverences mere wealth and scorns honest labor, is 
becoming alarmingly prevalent among us. It is time that 
the Press and the Pulpit, and every other instrument for 
modifying opinion, and pioducing a moral efiect, were 
employed in checking the growing evil in question. It is 
especially the duty of parents to instill into the minds of 
their children just ideas on the true dignity of labor, and 
the worthlessness of mere extrinsic show; for the child 
tiiat has been taught to regard wealth as the standard of 
excellence, and honest labor as degrading, will run a nar- 
row risk of ending his days on the gallows or in the cells 
of a prison, A few nights since, a little child of some ten 
years, wlio should have been as guileless and innocent as 
a cherub, on being requested to dance with another child 
of her own age, shrugged up shoulders, and in her child- 
ish way, positively refused. On being asked why she 
hesitatedi?sh^' said-sl>e cSuldsd. dance with the other little 
girl because her father was captain of a steamboat. Of 
course thehitle creature was taught to regard the captain 
of a steamboat with disdain, and probably to look upon 
the children of all mechanics as below her, or she would 
not have dreamed of making such an excuse. It would 
rtquire no gift of prophecy to foresee what must be the 
inevitable termination of a life which is commeneed with 
such false ideas of what should constitute true claims to 
honor and respect.— fSc?/- York I'ivies. 

■ ■ ■ ♦ -• 

PEA.S FOR HOG^-«riEDGE8 AND FENX’E'.^. 

Editors Southern Cui.tivator— In your last issue I 
see, a gentleman advocating the doctrine of fattening pork 
hogs entirely on peas. From the little experience I have 
had in the matter, I think hogs should be taken from the 
peas and fed on corn, say one or two weeks before killing, 
for the reason that if the hogs are fed on corn a while be- 
fore killing, the fat will be firmer or harder and will not 
drip as it will when fattened alone on peas. I may be 
mistaken in this; if so, I would like to know it. It is also 
my opinion it will' not do to put stock hogs on peas. 

I am trying the O.sage Orange. It is doing fine so far, 
and I think it will do when planted on the right kind of 
soil, and also rightly cultivated. I planted some where 
there was rock and it did no good. 1 have a mile of plank 
fence; plank and post furnished at .iioGOanhle; white 
oak plank, post oak post. I think this cheaper than rail 
fence. Yours, &c., A. R 

LaGrav^e, Ala, 1857. 

^3^ Feelings are stars, which guide us only under a 
clear sky; but better is reason, the magnellic needle, 
which directs the ship when they are corcealed and shine 
no more. 


51 ) 


S () U T IT E II N C V Iv T 1 5 A T O R . 




C|e .Sautljern tf iiltilmtar. 


AUGUSTA, GA : 



VOr... XV. XO. 2 ... FEBIIUARY, 1857. 


OIJK BOOK TABLE. 

Transactions or the New York State Agricui-teral 
Society. Vol, 15— for 1855. 

We are indebted to the kindness of Col. B. F. Johnson, 
the able and indefatigable Secretary of the New York 
Society, for a copy of this volume for the year 1855. It 
contains the continuation of Dr. Fitch’s work on Insects 
— an able Essay on Climate, by F. B. Hocgh; Ylr. How- 
ard’s Essay on Grasses; the second part of Watson’s 
“Practical Husbandry;” the Address of Hon Samuel 
Cheever; Farm Reports; articles on Drainage; Proceed- 
ings of County Societies ; Report of the Secretary, &c., 
&c.; making a volume ot 763 pages, very neatly printed 
and bound, and in every way creditable to the “Empire” 
Society of the Unioni 


I “Multicaulis,” with which a certain class of over-cautious 
, “oldfogies” are ever ready to assail anything which is new, 
j and outside of their experience We have already de- 
voted considerable space to the elucidation ol'the .merits of 
this plant, and shall continue to furnish our readers with 
j full details of such experiments as v/e may deem valuable, 
i We have not the least doubt that another year v/ill fully 
; establish its claims as a Syrup and Sugar Plant, through- 
out the entire Union. Syrup of a fine quality has been 
made, from NewOrleans to Maine, and from the eastern 
i Atlantic to the tipper Mississippi — the seed, through the 
i exertions of the Patent OfKce, Coi. R. * eter.s, ourselves 
I and others, has been scattered far and wide, ofien wiiliout 
I price, and always at a cost far below its real value; and 
I the indications at present are that it will have a general 
j trial throughout tTie length and breadth of the land. The 
result of this trial cannot but establish it as one of the 
staples ol our country, and may in tlie course of a very 
j few years render us almost entirely independent of foreign 
j countries for our Sugar, which indispensable article of 
j food is one of our very heaviest imports. Our Southern 
{ readers will do well to raise and carefully save all the 
j seed possible during the coming season — as, from the more 
j perfect development of the plant here, as a Sugar plant, 
and the difficulty of fully ripening seed at the North, our 
j Southern raised seed will, probably be in demand atremu- 
! neraiing prices. At all events, it is well to save an abun- 
dance ot it as food for stock and poultry, and for trying 
experiments in soiling, making foiage, green manuring, 
&c , &c., on a large scale, another season. 

We have yet a number of the pamphlets noticed in our 
December number (p 375) which we will mail to all appli- 
cants who will furnish their address and enclose a post- 
age stamp directed to D. Redmond, Augusta Ga, 

The Horticulturist, for Januar}^, is an excellent num- 
ber. No gardener or lover of fine fruits and flowers should 
be without it. It is published monthly and may be 
had for per year, in advance, by addressing Robert 
Pearsall Smith, 17 and 19 Minor st., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Transactions or the New Hampshire State Agricul- 
tural Society , for the year 1855. 

This is the fourth volume issued by this enterprising 
Society, and we notice one feaiure in it highly worthy of 
commendation — viz; the Secretary has addressed a series 
of questions to the leading agriculturists in every town 
in the State, with reference to various matters of rural 
economy, and the amount of information which these 
queries elicited adds greatly to the interest of the work 
The detail of experiments with new foreign seeds is also 
ofmuch value. The Secretary, James 0. Adams, Esq., 
will accept our thanks. 

The Chinese Sugar Cane ; its History, Mode of Culture, 
Manufacture of the Sugar, etc. With Reports of the 
its success in different portions of the United States, and 
Letiers from dislingui^hed men. Written and compiled 
by James F. C. Hyde, of Newton Centre, Mass. Bos- 
ton;, If^57. Pi ice 25 cents. 

This little volume is an additional evidence of the wide 
■pread interest which the Chinese Sugar Cane is exciting, 
and funii'hes undoubted proof otTts complete success as 
ta sugar plant wherever Indian Corn will grow and rijien. 
It is peculiarly gratifjinj; to the writer [D. R ] to wilness 
the iriumph.int succs'ss of tliis plant, especially in the Suufh. 
fls lie w; s tlie first to introduce it into jreiu ml notice ami 
culture hen ; and has n* ver for a nu'iiient f Itered in his ad 
vocacy of its claims, despite the cries of “liuitibug” and 


The Cotton Planter and Soil for January, appears in 
a very neat dress, and i.s full of matter especially adapted 
to the wants of the Southern Planter and Hor iculturiot. 
Published at S'l per year. Address Underwood & Cloud, 
Montgomery, Ala. 

Agricultural Books — Mr A. Sherman, the Agent of 
C. M. Saxton & Co., is still on liis travels, engaged in 
the good work of supplying standard Agricultural Books 
to our planting friends in the interior. We hope he will 
receive a kind reception, and that every householder will 
replenish his book-shelf from the ample store which Mr. 

5. presents. Read the article headed “The Farmer’s Pri- 
vate Library,” whicli will he found in present number. 

AX S WEBS TO COKBE8FOX DENTS. 

Bees. — E. R. D — The work you desire — “ Miners’ Bee 
Keepers Manual ’ — may he obtained from C. M. Saxtow 

6. Co., 1-iO Fulton street, New York, postage free, for 
Grape Culture. — Rev. J.L. E. — We prefer the Catawba 

to the Scuppernong as a Wine Grape — tliough the latter re- 
quires the lea.st trouble in cultivatiun. The Catawba grows 
ireely from cuttings— the heuppemong must generally be 
layered. Mr. Axt plants from l.fiOO to 2,0(10 Catawbij, 
cuttings pev acr<.‘, on land trenched to the depth of at least 
two teet. This trenching may be partly done wilh die plow, 
but the spade is, by far, the best implement, fhougli, of 
couise. the most expeni-i ve. A properly planted ami managed 
Viuevard wil , doubtless, be a good investment anyvirre, 
i die Srut'a ; tliough tve have yet much to Un n in the 
niakiug and ke ping of Wine. S e an article ciiGrapo 
culture in Teiinessee, in our next number. 


; S O r I i E R N c r I. t i v a tor. 


57 


Ora(’T!:d Tkees. — J. A. MeP. — if you wislj to start a 
large {j-rcLurd at oiice. procure froiueome reliable IMursery- 
laan a seleciiou of the bestvarietie?, (grafted or budded ;) 
plant prcperly, and with earefiii alter-eultnre, success is al 
most eertaiii. !>ee tlie various articles o:i the Pear, tVc., in 
present iiuittber. 

“Ei.ements oe AGRH'tr.TrRE.’' c. — W. M. — Write C. 

M. Saxton & Co., as abore, eriCiOsiug .-jl.’io. 

Sugar Cane. — V v'. T. S. — The advantage possessed by the 
Chinese variety over the true Cane is tliat tJie former pro- 
duces a>% abuudaucc of seed and will grow wherever Corn 
willripesi. Its product of saceSiariue juice, al’so-, falls little 
‘ short of that yieUletl by the true cane ; while it yields two crops 
of matured stalks per season, anywhere South of latitude 34'^. 
“Some five or six varieties of cane iiave been cultivated in 
Louisiana. None of them have ever been propagated from 
aeed there ; nor in fact elsewhtjre as far as known. Wray, in 
his ‘Practical Sugar Pi nter,’ remarits ‘that no variety of cane 
is known to perfect it.s seed, (or indeed to produce anything 
like seed,) eliiiaria India, China, the Straits of Malacca, Egyi.'t 
ortlie South Sea Islands : as in all these eountries the cane is 
entirely propagated by cuttings.” In Louisiana the season 
of planting is in the fall, iaimediu.teiy after the grinding is 
over. The planters use generally for cane seed, the riper 
part of the stalk. Some cut the cane in tlie middle, to 
use the top.s for planting, and bring the lower joints to the 
mill ; some, again, use tee green tops alone for planting. In 
the West Indies, says Fieischnnnan, “We are told that the 
few upper joints of the plant nearest the leaves, cominonly 
designed as the 'cane tups,’ are used as cane seed. Where ilie 
cane arrives to perfect maturity, where every joint is ripe 
and every eye well developed, the top points may answer, 
hutin Loaisana, vriiere the cane is never entirely matured, 
where it must be cut before the upper joints are Vovmed, the 
tops are not tit for seed, and the result iiiuti: necessarily be a 
bad one. Pieces of cane having from 5 to 1'2 or more joints 
are used lor planting.” It will be seen that tt)e true cane does 
not mature seed except in tropical countries, and that bv.toiie 
crop of canes j>er year can be obtained even there. Yoa 
cannot fad with the Chinese Cane, if you will read and profit 
by all that has appec.red in our paper, i'be French are mak- 
ing cider and alcohol in abundance fix-ai it, but we cannot 
describe the process, at present. 

Sh.ade ok Trees. — Ami^o. — Intelligent people, and even ' 
medical men, differ greatly in regard to the effect of .shade I 
treea around dwellings. One authority says: — ‘ The inter- i 
position of a dense forest, or a high wail, a chain of elevated i 
hills, or any other nat-ural or meciianicai obstacle has been i 
known to protect the inhabitants of villages, camps, of con- ' 
vents, and ofsiugle habitalions, from the pe.stiferous iutlu- ; 
ence t^)f neigaborie'g marshes. A notable instance of this ‘ 
sanitary principle is stated in respect to’ a convent .situated i 
on .^ount Argeutal, near the village of St. Slephauo, which 
tor a lung time wasrouiaikabl Ibr its salubrity but when the 
trees v/ere cut dow 1 it became extremely sickly.” Others, 
equally well informed, regard the shade of trees and the damp- 
uees rvhieii it engenders, as uuheuhhy, and v/e agree with 
these l ist to a certain extent. Will uur readers give us their 
views Dll the subject 1 

Plows A.vn Pr.owi.vo. — Gr.— The best tiirciag plow we 
know of, is Kick's inm Lemn, (nr *• vVashington”) No. 2. 
We may give you a short chapter on surface and subsoil plows 
hereatier. Tne expanding Horse Hoe is a very jierfeet im 
piemen for keeping the rows eJeau, 

Soioi.vo Cattle. — M. A. B. — Mr. Nei.so.v will prepare 
an article on Soiling Cattie in tlie South, for a future number. 
In the iueautiine, .see Stephens’ Book of ttie Farm,” “Col- 
rnau s Agricultural Tour,” and other works on Luropean 
fanning. 

T\ot Beds. — W. P. — We republish for you the mode of 
miikiug the ‘‘ German Kot B.,d,” as desired: “ Take wliite 
cotton cloth of a claae texture, slridcli and nail it on fntuies 
of any size you wish: take two ounces of lime water, four 
ounces linseed oil, one of white of eggs, two ounces or yoiR 
of eg,^s ; mix thelnne and oil With very gentle heat, beat the 
egg» separately, and mix them wirii the former;, spread this 
mixture with a paint brush over i he cotton, aliown g each 
coal lo dry beiore applying another, uulil. they become 
water ^r.tof. The f 4 uwi ;g are i he advaiitag. r rhis shade 
possesses over gl.ass ones : — 1. Tue c >sl beii g hardly o-,e- 
foartn. 2. Repairs are e s ly ainl cheaply made. 3. Th- 
light, T.iev do not require vvateri! g; no .uniter fow intense 
the beat, of ihe sun, liie plriutsaic never stl’.ac.k. u m ii oi 
burn , of eiifchked in growih, ne timr do tiiey j>row u,; io.i ■, 
sick, add Weakly as they do u der ghf s. and a. id tin re i 
abuiid-i.nc of li.,lit. 4. lue lieal arisc.g entirely Imm b>-l .ug 
is morn . quabie and temper le, wlncii usagrealntj et. Ta- 
YKpoi 1 s.i g m>!ji the manure and eanii .s c Lidei:.-.cd tiy the 
<300 Lor ..assiig over the euixaee ol snade, and stands iu dri-os 


upon the inside and, therefore, the plants do not reriuire as 
frequent watering. If the frames or stretchers are m.ade 
large, they should be intersected by cross-bars about a foot 
square, to support the cloth. These articles are just the thtri.<g 
for bringing forward flower seed.s in sea <ou for transplanting.'' jj 

In addition to our own remarks, under the head 
of “Work for the Month/’ we give the following sea- 
sonable hints A'oni Apenkck’s Rural, Alinanac.'\ 

TIlii IklTCHEN IN THE .S(,WTTr-?.. 

In discussing this subject, tbe great difllcalty is to keep 
i within the inoderaie limits recjiilrtil in a publication of this 
j kind, and yet convey the rcqui.site infor.mation, 

; As a general thing, in the -South, wc consutTte too much 
; of rich and highly nutritious food ; and too little of vege- 
I tables and fruits. The blood thus formed is too thick, 
! especially as perspiration is conti»iuous and copious ; and 
. dalliiess and disease are ilius induced. Vegetables and 
I .soups ought to constitute a large portion of our diet in hot 
j weather ; together with tlie free use of fruits before 
i noon. 

! The Vegetable Garden is the most important appendage 
i lo a homestead. Select a rolerabiy level spot of land 
! naturally rich. The exposure is of less moment than is 
i generally represented ; though we should prefer a gentle 
1 slope to the East, with protection, at some hftie distatice 
I from the cold North blasts. Water, from a running 
^ stream, pond or even a we!!, is indispensable. Pond.s can 
j readily be formed, and alford the best water. They may 
J be kept full or well supplied from a well or spring, n.-^ing a 
I small wind mi!) and pump. The location should be oiie 
I convenient to the dwelling, that the ladies of the Lrnily 
1 may have easy acce.ss ; the garden being, usually under 
I their exclusive care. It should also he accessible from the 
( stable or farm yard, that supplies of manure may readily 
be had. 

The shape slmuld be nn oblong 5 qirarc, that the plow 
and cultivator may be u.sfd as inucii as pr..soi!jk', Oiic 
bro.ad main walk up the centre, at, leasfp feet, vride ‘.x ith a 
gate at eacli end, wide cnongb for a cart or w.uton to 
pass; with borders live Let wlile next the fence, ad 
! around ; and a walk inside of these borders, also five 
feet wide. Dwarfed fruit trees mav bo jficiuted along.side 
of ;i.I! the walks running Icng'liways of tlu' warden, hut 
n.'.'t across the ends —that the plow and ciihi valor nny 
iiavi; free access to the end walks, fir itiritinir. The less 
complmaiioii in llie arrangement and iayin2 “IT rT the 
vegetable garden, tlie be'br Sliane and oi iiaua iiiai 
tree.-;, flowers and siirnb.s are out of [,■) .ce theie 

d'lie entire garden slmuli be tren''hcd if pn-.-'i de ; of tit 
lea.st Irencb-ploiL'f.d —xhwx is, in breaking up, afi. r a hetivy 
dre.'Siog of UHiiUre has iaen aprdied, usi- siion;.; tfauiG 
and good, deep-tiibng plows, running liic plow' to ifle, 
hvlrr’ in evert! furrou- ; thus t-tn ring u, • ihe, so--! to 
at 'Last a f lOf ill d' ptli. It will luiqnesiiouahly 'p ni to 
ireneh wii h tile spade and l horougiil v enru h the gar.'eu 
(n I Ik; depi h of till re, feet; iind<mdraiiii-ig at .-ante time 
when at til! pract ictib'e. Put wiili a fur .sod,. mu.- root ir> 
cpih, .-im! pleuufni Mippih's of nimuiv find nf vvat* r. the 
Vt-ry tinC'! Veg; r od- .s ."UI heprofnri-d ;it fdi ni .-i nns in 
dies <1 111 lie N i iier I liior m u miiiig iinr -ee I lUU'f he. 
sjt.il ed. .Sow agaoi fill I fi-ain, if neees-aiw ’'h- e.o -t of 
•seel is a more noiliing I'nnijiHreil to ilie fidv;i u’figi s of a 
pleiiidul supply of ve^t iahleft in ili-rir tetMuis, 


58 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


PXASTIC COTTON. — VALUABI.E INVENTION. 

We noticed, at the recent Fair of the South Carolina 
Institute, in Charleston, several specimens of elegant fur- 
niture, the material of which (plastic cotton) is to be ob- 
tained at a very small expense, and the chemical process 
to which it is subjected being very simple. Thearticleis 
very pliant and may easily be worked by the hand. — 
When dry it becomes hard and durable — qualities which 
vender it peculiarly valuable in imitating the most elabor- 
ate wood carving. In the manufacture of rich furniture, 
models, decorative work, &c., it is exceedingly useful. 
The material is light and strong. The articles exhibited 
attracted general attention, and were greatly admired. 
The inventor, or discover, James M. Legare, Esq., .A.ikin, 
S. C., offers the invention for sale, to be used within the 
United States or elsewhere. 

This material (Plastic Cotton) is prepared from com- 
mon cotton in two w’ays, as it may be required, for v:ork- 
itig by hand (No. 1), or for casting or pressing into moulds 
(No. 2). I 

The qualities w'hich five years of trial have developed | 
in No. 1, and which Sive guaranteed by the inventor, are : ' 
That the plastic material can be prepared at a cost per i 
pound not exceeding the cost of ordinary cotton. That 
v/hen manufactured, it is not warped or otherwise affected 
in any way by sun or fire heat, or by atmospheric raois- j 
ture; has greater hardness than the woods in common] 
use ; can be used in mass or for slight open work with or ! 
without support, as \t aliea.ys retains its fibre; may be | 
given any desired color or bronzed or gilded : may be at- | 
tached to wood work without the use of glue, and so | 
firmly as to resist the effects of warping in the surface to j 
which it adheres; and under no trial has been known to I 
crack. | 

Plastic Cotton No. 1 is especially applicable to the ! 
manufacture of antique and rich furniture, and to the decor- j 
ation of churches or public or private buildings, &c., &c., 
at less expense and with much more ease than by carved 
wood,' terracotta, or papier mache. No other substance in 
the arts can be used wholly without moulds. 

Plastic Cotton No, 2 — requires a like time for prepar- 
ation — the cotfon in either case being immersed from five to 
fifteen minutes only ; can be prepared for use at from 10 
to 15 cents per pound, which is less than the value of good 
frame composition, and as the plastic cotton is much light- 
er, it, of course, goes further in use ; that it may be used 
in any degree of softness, and cold or hot, and never ad- 
heres to the mould; takes a sharp, clear impression; is 
tough and flexible when in use, allowing complex and 
undercut nsoulds to be employed ; becomes very hard 
and capable of poli.'^h ; does not crack; and will readily 
take any of the preparations now employed for gilding It 
resembles feuttapurcha in its crude state, and in the ease 
with which it may be softened by heat, but is much more 
elastic; contains no resinous ingredient whatever; may 
be used in conjunction with No. I, or alone. 

Plastic Cotton No. 2 is applicable to all purposes to 
which papier mache, frame composition, &c., &c., are 
now applied, such os interior decoration, frames of all 
kinds, and any purpose requiring moulding. 


TEXAj5 MUSTANG WINE. 

We have received through Roet. Nelson, Esq., from 
Dr. C., of G., Texas, three bottles of native Wine from the 
Mustang Grape. No. 1. The pure juice, only pressed and 
filled in'o a cask, from which it had been drawn constantly 
for daily use It is exceedingly high colored, being of a 
deep crimson hue. It had some resemblance to claret, 
and might,, perhaps, by proper treatment, make a tolerable 
good claret. It will, however, at any rate^ make a superior 
vinegar. 

No. 2. About a pound of sugar had been added to a 
gallon of juice ; it was not so good an article as 

No. 3, which was a pretty fair wine, though perhaps 
too much sugar had been added. It was, unquestionably, 
the best of the lot, and resembled somewhat the Malaga cf 
our manufacturers. 

Considering that these wines were bu-t a few months 
old, and made in a rude way by persons who are ignor- 
ant of the process of making wine, we have no doubt, that 
a fair article cau be made from the Mustang Grape, wduch 
grows spontaneously and in such an abundance that large 
quantities can be gathered ; in fact Dr. C. assures us that 
he easily could have gathered one thousand bnshels. 

As the juice has a good body, there can be no doubt 
that a good Cognac brandy could be made from it. 

Cotton Packing. — The Chamber of Commerce, of New 
Orleans, has issued a circular for general distribution 
among factors, merchants and planters, in which tom- 
plaiiit is made of the practice offalse packing cotton. The 
Chamber has determined to endeavor to put a stop to the 
practice, by throwing all the burthens of expense, which 
accumulate upon such practices, upon the planters. Tlia 
following is the pointed resolution adopted : 

Resolved, That in the ease of falsely packed cotton — 
‘■pfiated,” and packed with evident intent to defraud — 
wherever it be discovered, and the marks are so prese»'ved 
as to be identified, it should in the opinion of thi Cham- 
ber, be restored as nearly as possible to its original con- 
dition, and sent back until it reaches the door of the 
packer, with all its accumulation of expenses. It is to 
be presumed that many, if not all, such cases originate in 
the malice or dishonesty of employees, and the course re- 
commended would be likely to induce such vigilance on 
the part ofthe planter as to it:uard against the recurrences 
ofacts involving his good name and interest. 



“Love after Marriage, and Tliirteen other choice 
Novelletes of the Heart," by Mrs. Caroline Lee He.ntz, 
has just been issued by the well known publishing house 
of T. B. Peterson, 102 Chesnut street, Philadelphia. — 
The numerous admirers of Mrs. Hentz will find this vo- 
lume a rare treat. It may be had at ^1.25 bound, or a. 
S'l in paper covers. Sent per mail, free of postage, by 
enclosing the price to the Publisher, as above. 

Catawba Brandy. — At tlie last meeting ofthe Ameri- 
can Pomological Society, Col. Wilder, the President, 
stated that Catawba Brandy (made almost exclusively, 
at Cincinnati,) has been puichased at S5 per gallon, for 
exportation to France, for the purpose of flavoring foreign 
liquors. 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


59 


TUB COTTON CHOP OF 3856. 

In order to ascertaintlie extent of the crop, Gen. McQneen, 
Member ofCongress, fromS. C., adopted the happy and re- | 
liable expedient of addressing ‘letters to the Representa- j 
lives from the cotton-growing States, and from their seve- 1 
ral responses he has made up the estimate. According to 
his figures, the crop will not exceed 2,700,000 bales — 
about 800,000 bales short of last year. The estimates for 
the .several States may be summed up thus : 

In Texas the crop will exceed- that of 1855 by 20 per 
cent., in consequence of iitcrease of land in cultivation [ 
and hands from immigration. In some portions of Arkan- ! 
sas, the increase will be 10 percent., from a similar cause, i 
while in other portions it will fall short 20 per cent I 
Louisiana reports the crop 20 ['Cr cent, short; Mississppi 
from one-quarter to one-half siiort; Alabama, Georgia, 
Tennessee, North Carolina and Florida, tell a like story, 
and in South Carolina Mr. Orr estimates the crop at one- 
fourtn short of 1855 ; Mr. Keiti at one-third short; Mr. 
Brooks at one fourth short , and Mr. Boyce and Mr. Mc- 
Queen at more than one-fonrth short. 

®fliticttituinl SejiMlraeni. 


REPORT OF THE COIHMITTEE A» INTERIM! 
of the Pomological Society of Georgia. 

Yo jr Committee would respectfully report that quite a 
large number of fruits have been submitted to them for 
examination, the past season, of which several seem 
worthy of general cultivation. Among these are : 

1st. Princess Faro.gun Peach ; ripe specimens were 
received from Peteis, Harden & Co., Atlanta, Ga.; ripe] 
August 19th. Fruit large, oval, one side larger than the 
other. Skin downy, yellowish white, dotted with red, 
and in the sun nearly overspread with dull red. Flesh 
white, melting and juicy. Quality best. Freestone. | 
2nd. BaLllniore Rooc'O) Pe«cA, (from the same parties), j 
Fruit large, roundish, tapering a little to the swollen point, i 
suture extending more than half around. Skin creamy j 
white, with red dots and a line red cheek. Flesh green- ; 
ish white, red at the stone, to which it adheres, juicy, j 
melting, sweet and excellent.— quite equal to the Old Mixon | 
Cling, with which it rifiens, August 24th. I 

3th. Saov: Cling, (also from Peiers, Harden & Co.,) is a j 
very sweet and juicy Peach of entirely too small size to ' 
merit further propagation ; ripe August 20ih. I 

4th. Large Wnile Cling, from Peters, Plarden & Co . | 
bought l.qv them as Stewart’s Late, is another peach of the 
highest character, ripening about the 20th of August. 

5th. P'ie Long Grape, from Dr. C. W. Long, Athens, 
Ga. This fruit was found over 30 years since by Col. Jas. i 
Long on his plantation, near Danielsville, Ga. The vine | 
makes a vigorous growth; leaf is heart shaped, slightly i 
lobed and similar in shape to the Lenoir. Bunches ol i 
ifuit somewhat shoulderea, very compact, of medium to j 
large size. Skin thin, dark purple, with a thin bloom, j 
Berries rather small (size of Lenoir_), tender, very little 1 
pulp, pretty sweet, vmous and very good. This grape j 
promises to be valuable 'or wine, being a most almndant ' 
bearer and producing a good, sf.-arkling wine. Ripens the ' 
last of August — three weeks latei than Lenoir. I 

Glh Tne Jacksan Cling Peach, a Seedling variety, from 
Mrs Cul. L. A. Franklin, Athens, Ga. Fruit large, ob- 
long, with a very large swollen point. Skin rich dark 
yellow, covered with dark red in the sun. Flesh rather j 
firm, orange yellow and dark red at the stone, very juicy, j 
sprightly and rich; distinct from the Lemon and Blanton | 


Cling. Quality best. A delicious peach, and it is thought 
unusually hardy, not having failed of a crop in eight years. 
Ripe August 20tli. 

7th. Pearl C/mg, also a Seedling of Mrs. Franklin; 
ripens at the same time. Fruit large, round, suture ex- 
tending three-quarters around the fruit. Skin creamy 
white, profusely dotted with red and a rich red cheek. 
Flesh firm, white, red at the stone, vinous, juicy^ and ex- 
cellent. Very good or best. 

8th. A large Seedling peach (freestone) sent Sept. 1st by 
J. Van Buren, Clarksville, Ga., similar in form to pleath 
Cling, was received too green to decide upon its quality, 

9th. Paxe or Columbia Peach . — The largest specimen 
of this variety we have seen this year was sent in Aug, 
2t)th by Jeremiah Gray, of Clarke county. Too well 
known to need description. 

lOth. A late summer apple, also from Mr. Gray, on 
which we will not report until we get the name. 

11th. Stephenson Cling Peach, from Thos Stephenson, 
of Clarke county, is of the Blood Cling family hybridized 
with some light fleshed variety, or as if it is a “half Indian 
Peach.” Size large, roundish, suture distinct. Skin very 
down, of a creamy tint, shaded with flesh color, the tint 
deepening in the sun, and passing through deep pink to a 
dark dull purplish red where fully exposed. Flesh white 
somewhat tinged with red and deep red at the stone, 
very tender, melting, juicy and of a delicious vinous flavor. 
Quality best. Sept. 1st. 

12th. Louise Bonne de Jersey Pear, from Peters, Har- 
den & Co. Very fine. Sept, tith, 

Bevrre Bose, Beurre Did and Napoleon Pca/rs, from J 
Van Buren. Very fine. 

Surpass Virgalieu, from Peters, Harden & Co., is most 
delicious. 

I3tb. Alberti's Late Rareripe Peach, from Peters, Har- 
den & Co. Glands globose. Fruit very large, roundish, 
suture slight. Skin not very downy, yellowish white, 
sprinkled with red dots and with a mi^rbled red cheek. 
Flesh pale, light red at the stone, very sweet and juicy. 
Very good. Freestone. Sept 0th. 

14th. Golden, from Peters, Harden & Co , but not of 
suflicient merit to justify a description. Sept. Oth. 

15th. St. Alichael Peaxh, GVxnds reniform, a beautifu 
Southern variety of the Pace or Columbia type, but rather 
later and better than tluit variety ; very large and globu- 
lar. Skin downy, bright yellow striped and marbled with 
dull red, suture slight. Flesh yellow, slightly marbled, 
with red, near the apex the red not reaching to the stone, 
sweet juicy and very good or best. Sept. Kflli. 

Wliilc English — Late White Kngli,'-1T or Heath. — Beau- 
tiful specimens of this noble and well known cling liave 
been handed in. Those tVorn Gov. W. Lumpkin, Dr. R. 
D. Aloore, Mr. Waddel, Mr. Pndjjeon and Mr. Donnahoo, 
ofAthens, and Peters, Harden & Co , Atlanta, and one of 
the same cta.'^s from Air. Nelson, were all fine. Ripe gra- 
dually from the Oth to the 2Ulh of Se[)t. 

10th. To Kalon Grape, Peteis, Harden . & Co., ripens 
early in September and very good, but said to be a very 
poor bearer by thegioweis. 

17th Bland, Grape, beautiful bunches from Peters. Har- 
den &Co., and from Dr J C. Orr, were received early .n 
September, perfectly ripened. A desirable variety, but 
requires carelul pruning and cultivation. 

I8ih Olio, from Peters, Harden & Co., is a very flaa 
lasted Grape, but the berries are entirely too small. 

19th. Cad.oAcba Grape \ magnificent bunches, from Mr. 
Axt, tlirough Dr. Luuon, the Iluvor of which did not belie 
their exterior. 

flOth. Raymond Cling : large, roundish, slightly oblong* 


60 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


suture shallow, but distinct. Skin downy, yellowish 
white at apex, but nearly or entirely covered with differ- 
ent shades of red. Flesh white, juicy, vinous and very., 
good. Ripe middle of Sept. 

Several Seedling Peaches were received at this time 
from Dr. J. Orr, J. H. Coult, of Athens ; R. Nelson, Ma- 
con: and Peters, Harden & Co., Atlanta ; some of v.'hich 
were of large size and good quality, but none quite ecpral 
in flavor to other varietie.s ripening at the same season. 

2lst. A Seedling Apple, raised by Mr. Mangurn, and 
sent to the Committee by Peters, Harden & Co. Fruit 
large, roundish, much flattened, stem short in a regular 
cavity. Calyx open in a deep basin. Skin, yellow 
striped, and w'a.shed with varying shades of red, a few 
russet specks. Flesh yellowish white, fine grained, ten 
der, moderatelj’’ juicy, with a fine mild Summer Pear 
main flavor, very good or best. Ripe September 12th. 

22d. Donahoo Cling . — Glands reminform. Fruit very 
large, roundish, suture quite deep on one side and visi 
ble entirely around the fruit. Apex depressed, or with 
but a slight swollen point. Skin creamy white, beauti 
fully dotted and tinged with red in the sun Flesh ivhite 
to the stone, exceedingly juicy, excelling the Heath Cling 
in tenderness of texture equally rich and luscious. A 
most desirable peach. Ripe Sept. 10th to 20th. Differ- 
ent from Heath in jjhape, and still better in quality. 
From Mr. Donnalioo, Clark county. 

23dj P residerd Church— Glands reinform. Size large, 
roundish, inclining to oval, suture shallow, often a mere 
line, with a small point at the apex, which is rarely de- 
pressed, with pale red in the shade, and beautifully mar- 
bled and washed with dark red in the sun, the exposed 
specimens are nearly covered with dark red ; in size and 
color it somewhat resembles the Late Admirable, and is 
quite as fine a flavored peach. Flesh pale red at the stone, 
very juicy, melting, of delicious flavor, the fruit free from 
rot. A great acquisition. A Seedling, raised by Rev. A 
Church, D D., President of Franklin College, Athens, Ga 

21th. Oconee Greening Apple, from Mr, PricJgeon, 
Athens, Ga. Fruit very large, roundish, flattened. Skin 
smooth, green turning to yellow, when ripe a little brown- 
ish in the sun, russet about the stem, with a few scattered 
russeit dots. Calyx open in a shallow slight!', furrowed 
basin. Stalk very short in a rather deep regular cavity. 
Flesh yellowish, fine grained, crisp, abounding in a delight 
ful aromatic lijVely sub-acid juice. Quality best. Original 
tree tree stands on the bonks of the Oconee River, a little 
below Athens. Ripens from October 1st to December. 

2.3ih. Yapp's Favorite Apple, from Robert Nelson. Fruit 
large to very larne, loundish, somewhat conical. Skin 
oily smooth, greenish yellow with a blush in the sun, 
sprinkled sparingly with russet dots, a little russeted about 
the stem, and somewhat marbled with dark patches made 
up of minute black dots. Calyx open in a deep basin. 
Stalk short, in a deep cavity. Flesh white, fine grained, 
tender, juicy, almost melting and of a most grateful sub- 
acid flavor. From .Laurens county, in this State. Qual- 
ity best. 

2 tih. H a- inn's Delicious Peach, {vora John T. Grant, 
Esq , of Walton county. Free bought of Mr. Camp, of 
Newton c.ouof'y. Fruit large, round, a liiile oval, depress- 
eil at the [c x P-uut verv small anti within the. depres- 
sion. Smuro. shallow. Skin modirraiely downy, of a 
rich aieoiiv winte vvuh a faint lilush in the sun. Flesh 
whim i(( me ^toise, wiili the exact flavor of a Heath Cling. 
Q taloy Oct Khh. 

27dj G nnls ('linjj , — A ('’liniistone Peach from Mr J. 
T. (b-.iiii Fi list nic.uiuoi t(t l.oge, oblung. to pni to t!ie 
pi'oinni(-ot j>o:ot. Suture well oi.aiked Skin |i:-i!e <uva!oy 
white, quite downy and preliy much covered with dull 


red. Flesh pale red at the stone, juicy, tender and when 
fully ripe very good. 

28th. Athenian Cling, from Hettry Hull, Jr., Athens. 
Fruit very large, oblong, depressed at the apex. Suture 
a mere line. Skin v'ery dpwnvr, yellowish wlTite, marbled 
with dull reef in tlie sun. F’iesii pale red at the stone, 
rather firm and rich, pf a high vinous flavor— a very 
great acquisition. Tills and Horton's delicious aie the 
two best Getober" Cling Stone Pe-Tches, and they ere of 
flavor totally distinct from each other, one a very sweet 
and luscious, the other ofa brisk' and vinous flavor. 

As we are closing tins report, three proi- i sing late 
beaches have been presented by Mr. Y. L G. Ihirris, and 
a box with a gn-ar numlter of varieties of A.m tipples has 
Iveon. received from J. Van Buren, Ksq.. Cl ■rksviile. On 
these the Committee will report hereauer ihrougii the agri- 
cultural Press. 

All of wrhich is respectful!}’ submitted, 

AY At. N. Chairman. 

Athens, Ga., 1S5G. 

JLOW FllUIT TiJEE.S— -CIAJSE PEA.XTli IMG, 

At a recent discussion in the American Institute Farm- 
ers’ Club, on the subject of Orchards — How to grow 
and preserve them," our friend, T. W. Field, Esq, o 
Brooklyn, gave utterance to the following very pertinent 
and sound views, nearly all of which we entirely en- 
dorse : 

Mr. Field said that it is often a.sserted, tliat '• the gene- 
ration which plants trees is not the generatiot'. v/hicii eats 
the fruit.” He thought that depended upon the way the 3 v 
plan't. Beyond all question the form of tree best adapted 
for all the functions of growth, health and productiim- 
ness is the pyramidal or conical, hranrhin^ from near thr 
ground.. The tree produced by a seed dropped into culti- 
vated ground or grown in an open plain, untouched by 
the pruning-knife, is much more nearb/ our model than 
the artificial thing whittled up to a single siiuft in the nur- 
seiy. 

NMture needs but little assistance, and that little in the 
right timeand_ place -As. single terminal bud pinched qff 
the young shoot in its first midsummer growth will do 
more toward affecting the shape which natiuc herself is 
constantly re-proilucing, than all the barbarous surgical 
operations performed by prutiing knife, saw and axe. — 
The continually decreasin.g longevity of our Iruit trees ts 
without doubt accelerated by the continually increasing 
artificial structure. A trunk six to ten feet high is no 
more necessary to the pcrlect structure of a tree than a 
neck of equal length to a man. It is quite as superfluou.s 
to a tree as a gutta-percha tul.ie 10 feet long is to a iiuman 
being to draw ail his sustenance through. The advan- 
tages of a low structure ol tree are ; 

First. Longevity— by conforming more perfectly widi 
nature, by less exposure to accidents from storms, and iiy 
interfc-riiig with less violence to its organism in heavy 
pruning. 

Second. Hastening of the production of fruit. Fruit- 
ing of the pear and apple is lessened to six years [in (he 
South to 2 or 3 years, fiom the graft or bud. — Ens ] ii - 
stead of twelve, by not wasting a long period i*"* firodu- 
cing a useless trunk ; by not requiring an excess of sap; 
to provide for the waste in travelling iq) a loiur, naked 
trunk, exposp'd to surface evaporation, in the fet venr heat 
of summer; and i>y a quick maturity of liierntu li<aiing 
branches from not being early depiived ot s qt-bii'ailiitig 
leaves. i lie ground i.s ino!c«ed and protected tr m the 
parebitig Ik at of sinimuT by ilic low branen . -d a 
ni'ire generous and cm linu.i! .>uppiy »d trait sap | r 'Vidcd 

'I'id/d. A much huger number oi liees ihay la giowu 


61 


SOUTeESN CULTIVATOR. 


and fruited on a given area of ground. The same amount 
of foliage and fruit-bearing branches condensed into a 
low pyramid will not cover and poison with its shadow 
one-quarter of the area, as if in a large straggling grov/th, 
elevated on a trunk eight feet high. 

In order to produce a large quantity of fruit, then, plant 
a large number ot trees on a small plot of ground, culti- 
vate and manure them well, [Yes! that is the whole se- 
cret. Plant properhi at first, then cultivate and ruanvre 
■well regulo.rly ofl.erwa.rd3 . — Eds ] arid a few apples or 
pears from each tJ ee will afford a large total. Plant 300 
trees on an acre, instead)^ of thirty, twelve feet apart each 
way, instead of fort}?", and if the next geticration fnid 
them too thick, after having afforded the planter fruit foi; 
twelve or fifteen years — why, as they'-cost nothing, let the 
lucky generation cut down the excess. 

In my own grounds I have three thousand atDple and 
pear trees bra‘ichiiig from the ground, planted tesi feet bv 
five. Such close planting as this is, of course, unneces- 
sary where land is abundant and cheap; but the usual 
space between our trees muy be lessened with benefit. — 
Eds. Most of them are in bearing their third and fourth 
year, and ottly when crowding loo closely will 
every alternate rov/ be removed. Thus may the genera- 
tion which plants eat the fruit of its labor and be sat.'ified. 

Dr. Waterbury complimented Mr. Field upon hises.say 
on the theory of growing trees, and said in his opinion, 
that the great want of this country was more agricultural 
theory. A man may practice us his fathered, but if he 
does so without any theory, he is like a machine, and 
does his work without a thought wiiv or wherefore, or 
whether he might v/oik in a different manner, and gain a 
greater product. Upon the subject of grov/ing trees, how 
few men have any theory upon the lav/ of nature that 
makes them grow. No tree can be judiciously pruned 
without theory, as to why and for v,' hut purpose a tree 
should be prunned. 

Mr, Pardee said that the reason why Wayne county, 
New York, gave more good market apples than ail the 
counties west of it, v.ms because the farmers cnrumehced 
right, v.'itii'well-plam.ted., grafted trees, introduced by a fam- 
ily by tne name of Foster, who were pioneers in the first 
settlement. Some of the apple trees planted thirty years 
ago produce now from ten to twenty barrels a year. 

IVofessor Mapes said, in setting peaih trees, let them 
stand an inch higher than in the nursery, in piantinii 
peach stones, set tltem butt up and out of ground. In 
trimming, always cut next to a 'single bud or a triplet 
bud; in the latter case, pinch off the two outside buds. — 
Never cut off a limb at a double bud. Peach limbs should 
be shortened-in every year. Upon this plan and in this 
way the trees w'ili last many years. Dirt should never 
be piled or suffered to accumulate around the stem. — 
Never cut off the large limbs of peach trees. Ail Jersey 
peach growers know that they cannot grow peaches, or 
make their trees live without working tlie ground. [But 
this working should be s/ialloiv near the tree, so as not to 
injure the roots. — Eds.] 

Mr. Field said that any interference witli the wood ot 
trees over one year s growth, is injurious. If tlie limbs 
are cut while succulent, the wound heals at once. 

Solon Robinson exhibited some grape vines with a re 
markable luxuriance of roots, to illustrate the great ad 
vantage of a deep preparation of tlie soil to grow vigor- 
ous plants and urged tlie necessity of digging large deep 
holes fir all trees when transplanted. 

Mr vVagner stated chat tlie ground f .r his vines wa-^ 
care'n'ly dug lour feet deep ; an I llicti ibe plant.-;, wlien 
takv-n out for ir.m-planting, are renioved witli -dl the roofs, 
and set in siiinlar ground start at once itito beaiirig 
vines. 

Tiiere was exhibited a be.iutiful parlor ornament, fjrm 


ed of a variety of growing plants, under a glass shade, 
that fits so tight upon its base as to prevent evaporation, 
and thus keep the plants perpetually green. 

PEAKS.— PROFITS OF — CrET'UKE,. &c. 

W HY is it, that even at this time, after many of the large 
nurseries have for years sold thousands of dollars each, 
of the choice kinds of Pear trees, that not one , Pear of fine 
quality is ever to be found in our markets 1 Where do 
they go if grown, or have they all failed and refused to 
fruit'! I..ook to the large cities, and any confectioner or 
fruit dealer will tell you, that so great is the demand ^or 
the first class of Pears, that those who grow them find a 
ready sale to the first store keeper to wh-om they apply, 
an'd hence that they are free-d frem the necessity of em- 
ploying tniddle-vien as hucksters, and therefore do not 
send them to mur.ket. 

During the last three years, the fruit dealers of.Broad- 
v.^ay 3 New York, have been 'unable to find a supply, end 
evefi now v/e tind in their windows great quantities of 
Pears imported from France, and like our own, Sold at 
25 to 50 cent-; each. Many have been purohosed in F ranee, 
.at 10 to 20 cents each, and have paid a large profit to the 
importers. 

We can readily understand that our country readers 
can scarcely believe that buyers can be found to pay 
such prices, but they" are mistaken. In large cities we 
have a class whose fathers, and not themselves, earned 
their foruines, and we arc sorry to Say that thousand.s who 
have becoiak rich by their own successes, ape the habits 
of those who iirherited th.eir fortunes, and the strife now 
is among these two classes, who shall outyie his neighbor 
in extravagance. Others who are still engaged in business, 
i ape the retired and v."ealthier portions of the community, 

I and many" an inmate of a stone front house spends ten or 
I twenty thousand dollars per y^ear. rather than be surpassed 
j in extravagance by either the two generations of aristocrat& 
j or the retired merchant princes. 

j Temperance is now the order of the day in fashionable 
! circles, and those who formerly drank wine at S5 per bot- 
tle, now eat Pears at per dozen. Do not fear that this 
class of consumers will pass away, or that a change of 
fashion will throvv" them back to wine instead of fine 
fruits. Not so— the march is onward, and the demand 
must be supplied. France, with her thousands of acres of 
fine Pears, can spare but few, and that only" at particu- 
lar seasons of the 3 ,"ear. for export. We have now more 
! than iOUO kinds, of Pears, and many" of them worthy of 
cultivation. Does any reader believe that one farmer in 
1000 is aware of this fact ? Do even the dealers in our 
markets know anything about fine Pears'? Why" then do 
not our farmers near large cities, or indeed distant froni 
them, raise fruit worth heur S'25 to S75 per barrel, rather 
than pay" the same freight on barrels ol poor Apples or 
.Peaches, worth from SR to S3 per barrel ”? But, say"s the 
old style operator, ‘Tf we all do it, they willvmZ sell at sucli 
pi ices.'’ Very true; but ail will not do it, and only those 
who do it properly can do it at all. We hud many dwart 
trees tliis year bearing 200 Pears, wliich we sold at 12~ 
cents each; and if ten years ago, when we commenced by.' 
putting out a fe w hundred Dwarf Pear trees, we had put 
out live acres, the. crop of tiiis y'ear would have given us 
four limes the value of the land, including the cost of trees 
! and cultivation. 

Last autumn and this spring, indeed every" autumn and 
spring, hitve found our nurscry-mcn unable to supply the 
deaiaudfor Dwarf P.-dr trees, and thousands ot dollars 
worth are annually imported from France, in athfitum to 
.iorne grovvih. Wiieie are the Pear.- 7 Wiiy, ni.my of 
!i)e growers have pu. :heii- trees in tlie ground, and liave 
never given tliem tile iiecessriry atteniion to secure profit- 
able lesuits ; otiicr.s Jiuve put them out improperly as to 


S O U T H E R N C V L T I Y A T O^R . 


if « 
<^0,- 


depfh, leaving the quince rootJi only in the ground, and 
auer a few years they have ceased to bear. But sonie 
have both planted and cultivated properly , and these have 
.prcnted, and will continue to profit largely by Pear cul- 
ture Why is it that the whole Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural community are not alive to these facts '? Simply be- 
cause not one in one hundred sttbscribe to an Agricultur- 
at or Horticultinral paper; and among those who do, 
many from mistaken econornyselect such as devote two- 
thirds of tneir columns lo .ba'‘4cr(]Mf.h^ not conrsected with 
the legitimate u.ses of an agricultural paper. It is either 
true or false, that choice fruit-cuiture, properly pursued, 
will pay large ; it is also true that badly pursued, like any 
■other business badly pursued, it will break its votary. 
We say, and our saying; accords with our pra.ctice. that it 
will pay largely, that it does pay us largely, and our past 
articles have shown how it. may be done. Let our read- 
•ers be up and doing ; there is po secret about it, but 
■simple truths alone, such as any intelligent man may follow. 
Should we not be asliamed at fmdini': foreign fruits im- 
ported into our large seaports and .sold at such prices as 
if raised here, would pay twenty times or more the pvufn 
per acre that can be realized by raising any of our great 
■staples 1 

Mach can yet probably be done to improve fruit-cul- 
ture beyond the point already attained. We saw two 
Pears at the Farmers’ Club of the American Institute last 
month, which far surpassed anything of the kind before 
exhioiied. They were grown in Cedifurnia. and are more 
than double the size of the same kinds grown here. They 
would have sold fur $l each from any Broadway window. 
Why should the enquiring mind despair of duplicating 
•such gro'vvihs here 1 Have not many doubled their own 
crops by superior cultivation 1 And why not the size of 
their Pears I The one was presented by the Kev. Ely 
Corwin, of San Jose, California, recording Secretary ol' 
the State Agricultural Society, of a species palled the 
^Tound Pear,”giown by E. L .Beard, E-q , of San Jose 
Mission, weighing 25 pounds ; girth 145 inches; circurn- 
T-fence, longitudinally, 21 g indies. 

Mr. Wheeler, of Sacramento, sent also a Pear — dimen- 
sions, 15i by HI inches; weiglu, 335 ounces — exhibiie,; 
by H. Hill Wheeler, Esq., of Hillard Terrace, New York. 
— Worki/ty Fttnncr. 


HAI.SIN (4 M (J SlircO OM.S . 


I 

i 

j 

I 

j 


Mr. Blot, a French gardener, near New York, states 
that he has a garden at Harlem where he can grow eighty 
to one hundred quart.s a day of mushrooms upon an acre. 
The beds are made at the bottom of trenches three feet deep 
rounded up fifteen inches high, the trenches being covered 
over with boards A. bed will last five or six months with- 
out renewing. The plants come naturallyTrom decompos- 
ing hor.se manure, but he ha.stens the growtlt by planting 
the spa\yn or seed of the mushroom, which is to be found 
in old beds of horse manure, in a suitable state of deconi- 
positio.n. The plants continue growing in the trenches 
summer and winter, and are gathered daily as they come 
to perfection, and sold to restaurants and hotels at about 
375 cents a quart. The supply is very much belrind the 
demand, and in consequence large quantities areinported 
in a preserved state. Mr Blot states that there is nothing 
in the climate to prevent grovvingin New York all that the 
city could consume. The following calculation will show 
the profit of growi-ng mushrooms : 

To cultivate an acre, two men and two horses would be 


required, Expenses of horses, say 400 

The labor of two men, say 730 

Beni of an acre of vacant city lots 400 


Total S 1,530 

A sale of SO quarts a day at 30 cents will produce 
ip2S 80 per day, or SI0,512 per annum This would 
give S8,0S2 as the net profit of one acre of the many va- 
cant ones lying idle in and about this city, and we are as- 
sured that it would take many acres to supply the demand 
at the price stated. 

Pe-ici] Worms. — Boiling water, says the HorlicuLtural- 
ist, is a most excellent application in the spring of the 
year, for diseased peach trees, and is a certain remedy 
for the peach worm. A correspondent very effectually 
excluded the peach worm by digging a trench around the 
foot of liie trunk, forming a cavity a foot in width and 
four inches deep, and then pouring into this basin a very 
thick whitewash made of fresh lime, and suffered to stand 
one day before applying. 


[Dr. J. M. WabD; of Newark, N. J , al,?o e.xhibited, last 
fall, the .M/goM Pear ever raised thi,? side of C.tlifornia It 
was of the Duchesse h’ AnpooJcinc varieiy, grovrii on a i 
■d war! tree, and weiglied, when picked, between .34 and j 
ounces ! Ai! the Norihern and European varieties of 
the Pear are much improved in .site and ni/ali/j/ wiien 
properly pl.mted and cultivated in the South. We are 
happy to state that Pear culture is on the iii'-rease among 
u.s, and trust that our readers will fnliy avail themselves ol 
the undoubted advantaims ot nur cliniaie — Eds] 

Farm G.iRDEXS. — Mr. R., at a late meeting of tiie Farm- 
■ers’ Clul.., advocated planting everything in long rows, 
so that nearly all die labor of cultivation can be done by | 
the horse hoe. and the persons who cannot find lime for 
spade cultivation will not neglect, as tliey now do, tliis 
valuable aid to family^ economy and lieaith, the farm gar- 
den. What IS most needed now is, for us to endeavor, 


WINTEii PEARt? IN NEW JERSEY. 

Ax experienced pomologieal friend, writing from Eliza- 
bethtown, N. J. under date of December 17, .says; 

‘•Fruit is scarce wiih us this season. Apples are worth 
ifo perbai-rel, and very mxlinary at titat. Pears are now 
very scarce, and con'miand fabulous prices — 25 to .50 cts 
each ' J have, on hand in good condition the following 
varieties; — Easter Beiirre, Glout Morceaii, Doyenne d’ 
Alencon, Btinre d’ yG'embei'g aiid Jaminette I'ln se are 
the principle kinds to he had at present for table u^e; also 
Winter Nelis, vvhicli is not yet quite rj])e with me, al- 
though seMom kee[)ing so late. Beiin e d’ Anjou, Beurre 
Diel, Columbia, Vicar of Winkfield, and Beurre Langelier 
are now nearly all gone. I’he latter is still in good con- 
and will, I tliink prove one of our best early win- 
ter Pears: size large and (iiir ; I think quite equal to 
' ' lout Mor.’c.au. Beurre Diel has been extra fnie and 
Y'icar of Winkfield has been what. I iiever had it before: 
p/erfectly meUiiig and i)!'good quality. W. R, 

[In tlie free of such facts us are above stated, is it neces- 


l>y constant reiteration of the subiect, to induce farmers to 
culUvate and eat more garden vegetables. We must keep 
talking of what it is best to raise, and how to plant and 
■sew, and tend and make produce in the easiest manner, 


sary for us to urge upon those of c.ur readers who liave 
easy access to our Atlantic seaports the ccrloinly of prof I 
from Fruit Growing'? The Atlantic slope of the Southern 
States, ought to be the Orchard of the world. — E ds.} 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


65 


THE FIG. I 

This is, emphatically, the poor man’s fruit, thriving in j 
almost any soil, producing fruit the first year from cut- j 
lings, and yet, notgone family in fiftyihave a good meal of j 
figs in the year. Every family in the South should have j 
a few fig trees : they require less care than any other tree. I 
Cattle wilt not browse upon them, and whites, blacks, 
adults, and children, pigs and chickens will fatten on them. 
They are a natural vermifuge for children, and not bad to 
take. 

In the upper portions of the South, fig trees will require 
some little protection during the coldest weather. It is mot 
generally the cold weather of winter that kills them, but 
the cold of spring. They should be planted in the cold- 
est, most exposed situations, so as to retard the putting 
forth the bud in the spring. A thick dressing of stable 
manure around the roots of the tree in the winter, will 
prevent frost from injuring the tree. But little attention j 
has been paid to improving this fruit, through new seed- j 
ling varieties, when it is as susceptible of improvement, ! 
- as any other fruit. Throughout the whole Southern por- 
tions of Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana and 
Texas, dried figs may be exported as profitably as from 

Smyrna. — Soil of the Smith. 



Fertilizers KOR Flower Plants. — It has been proved 
that, for the generality of flowers, and more especially 
geraniums and the more delicate lilies, common glue, di- 
luted with a sufficient portion of water, forms a richer 
manure than any o'ther other yet discovered. Plants i 
placed in sand on the worst soils, display much beauty 
and vigor when watered with this composition. 

CHINE.^E .SFGAIl CANE AT THE NOHTH. 

The New York Tribune discourses upon the merits of 
the Sorgho and its ultimate effects upon the imports of the 
country in this wise, after speaking of the Beet as a sugar 
producing plant; 

“But the prospect of a liberal and profitable yield of j 
sugar from the Sorghum, or Chinese Cane, is still better. ! 
Here is no crude theory— no rash experiment. The Sor- j 
ghum has been extensively grown for sugar from time im- i 
memorial in China and other parts of the East, where | 
its product came necessarily in direct collision with that I 
of the cane. The Sorghum will grow luxuriantly in all! 
our States south of 45®,' though it will prove most produc- | 
live and profitable in the South. Two crops of it (for j 
sugar) may be grown in all the Southwestern States, 
though but one probably would ripen its seed. The evi- 
dence embodied in the last two Agricultural Reports from 
the Patent Office, wiih that afforded by the personal ex- 
perience and observation of thousands of our citizens last 
summer, abundantly prove this a sugar plant of value, 
and in connection with the use of the refuse (or bruised 
and pressed stalks) for fodder, will soon render the pro- 
duction of sugar (or alleast Molasses) as common throngh- 
our Union as that of corn now is. 

“That Sorghum is a plant strongly charged with saccha- 
rine juice — that it will grow luxuriantly from Lake Erie 
to Florida — that its juice boils readily into a very palat 
able and sweet Molasses— that the cuttle will eat and be 
nourished by the pomace or bruised and pressed stalks — 
and that this plant might be grown with profit for 
fodder alone — so much is already established. The ready 
erystalization or graining of sugar from this hlolasses is a 
more difficult process, requiring skill, chemical know- 
tedge, and perhaps expensive machinery. As yet, seed 
te scarce and dear, exj^erience limited, machinery, even for 
crushing and pressing, hardly in existence, while the no- 
torious inertia of the great mass of our farmers, and their 


reluctance to ti’y new plants, weigh heavily against any 
new industry such as this. We do trust, therefore^ 
that Congress will not now abolish nor essentially modify 
the duty on sugar. The current assumption that this 
duty enhances the price of the staple fifty or sixty per cent, 
is simply absurd ; but let it pass. We desire that sugar 
be cheap and abundant — not for to-day merely, but per- 
manently — and we believe the way to this end lies 
through the steady encouragement of sugar-growing at 
home. 

-If if 'll- ^ if . 

“But we do not gauge the capacity of this country^ to 
produce sugar by’- its adaptability to the growth of the 
Sugar Cane. On the contrary, there are other plants of 
broader range within our limits from which sugar may 
be produced, and among these we give a higii rank to the 
Sorghum This habitant of the temperate zone is not an 
upstart — it has been producing sugar in China for centur- 
ies, and in Southern Africa for generations. And the ex- 
periments in growing it in France and this country have- 
thus far proved highly satisfactory. It grows luxuriantly 
from the Gulf of Mexico to Lake Champlain, though the 
IMiddle and older Southern States appear better adapted 
to it than the extreme North, where ihe uniform ripening 
of its seed cannot be relied on. We are confident, how- 
ever, that it will produce sugar in three-fourths of the 
area of the New England States. Its value as a fodder 
plant is fully established j it will produce more food for 
cattle per acre than even Indian corn, as it grows far tall- 
er, and horned cattle, horses, and even hogs eat it with 
avidity, not only when green, but also after it has ripened 
its seed. The American experiments in making sugar 
from it have as y'et been on a small scale, and with imper- 
fect machinery ; but the juice is abundant; it is about as 
sweet as that of the cane; and the syrup therefrom is de- 
cidedly the more palatable. Hitherto seed has been 
scarce, so that but a patch has been grown by any one ; 
but this year’s seed will serve to plant thousands of acresv 
and it is ail carefully saved. 

“Vfe trust Congress, therefore, will let the sugar duty- 
alone for the present. Let us give the Sorghum a trial; 
and let any other saccharine plants be also tested. To 
give up that we cannot make sugar, is to narrow the 
field of production and enhance the the price of the staple 
in Cuba, Brazil, &c To enlarge this field seems to us 
the true way' to abundant and cheap sugar.” 

COTTON TEREt^HEli AND CLEANER. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — I have been kindly shown 
an article in your Cultivator, wherein I see that you have 
received a letter from a gentlem.an residing in Texas, ma- 
king enquiries of you, if there is any such a thing as a 
Cotton Thresher and Cleaner, that cleans the dirt and 
trash out of the Cotton without injuring the staple. Also 
your invitation to correspondents or subscribers to inform 
you if there is any such a machine in their section of 
country. 

I have written to inform you that T am the inventor and 
Patentee of just such a machine as I think your corres- 
pondent wants It is a machine for cleaning the dirt and 
trash out of Cotton, preparatory to ginning. I do not 
pretend to ^ay that it icUl remove stains ; l-ut it is every- 
thing in the form of a perfect Cotton Cleaner that any' 
Planter co'vtld wish ; as it not only cleans the Cotton per- 
fectly, bu! leaves it so open, witliout injuring the staple, 
that the Saw or Roller Gin can gin one third more, and 
ihe hands can pick as much again ; for the most dirty and 
trashy Cotton can be cleaned by running it through the 
machine once. It is also an excellent Thresher for Peas, 
riie machina when made full size, run by the gin gear, 
and properly fed, call clean 35 or 40 bales of Cotton per 


/ 


64 


S O r 'r f 1 E R C U L ']' I A 1’ () R . 


day.' huleeii, the Pian'ers h.ere, who u^e diern, think it 
Dost to roothe whole oF their Cottoo erop through tliem, 
CIS the Cotton leares t[,ie machine so ioose, dry and clean, ^ 
that the]/ consider it a great saving in the rime of ginning 
tind wear of thexr Gms: and if the Cottott is wet they vnti 
it through the machine to beat it loose and dry it before, 
laying it in bstik for ginnirtg, A smalier one can also be 
made by preserving the same reiative proportio.rES, that 
can tun at the same time with the Gin, so that all that is 
requisite to do, is to feed the Cotton Cleaner, s,ud let it 
discharge the Cotton into tlie feed box of the Gin, 

I ejneiose a view of the machine, in which figure 1 is a 
perspective viewn Figure 2, a Transverse Vertical sec- 
tion, and iigiire 3, a longitudinal elevation of tlui main 
shaft, with beating w'ings detached. Oiher letters d.e.sig- 
Kate other parts of the niachine. B is casing ; H is the 
concave Ited, composed of rods or slats; J is supporting 
frame; C is hopper ; a iigure 3 is main shaft; B is a dri- I 
ving pally ; gg are beating win^s ; Fare radial b.ars or ^ 
arms supporting the bars; ff to which the beating wings I 
are attached. [We are unable to give the engravings a!- ■ 
laded to, at. j’>rasent.— Eo^:.] j 

-Much of the Cotton, when it comes front the field, is in | 
a matted, dirty condition, and if snhiected to violent he.at- ^ 
ing action at first, would be much inim-ed. d'he slow ' 
motion of the be.ating wings at the smallest end ■ cf the 
cylinder acting in corijnnetion with the bars or ribs of the 
concave H opens the fibres of the Cotton without injuring 
the same, and as it is gnadually pas.^ed along, the increas- 
ing speed of die wings iients the Cotron and ogitates the 
air to such a degree, tliat the dirt, and a part of the seeds 
are separated from the Cotton, the fibres are thoroughly 
opened, and tiie Cotton is discharged irom tlie machine in 
the most perfect, condition for ginning, 

f could procure a large number of testinionials in favor 
of its efficacy, hut the foliovvi.ag may be srifticient, for the 
present, it b' irtg an opinion kindly .sent to me by L C. 
Robbins, Mechanical ,Engineer, Washingfon, D, C, 


CMltNEHE PiiOL-IF'JtC FKA LET'I’Elf FMO.H 
E,v-fdov. «i' ArfiaiisaK. 

The following very convincing letter was recently ad- 
dressed by Ex Gov. Bahw, of Arkansas, to Robert H- 
l)ouG'.,A.s.s, Es(|., father of the gentleman who first intro- 
duced tins very wonderful Field Pea to public notice 
through our columns : 

Fopr S,’.i!TK. Ark., Dec. 20. 1855. 
/Jmr Su- ! thank you for the package containing 
the specimen of Clrina Peas. From the hardy appear- 
ance of the few I picked up on the g ound, in this month, 
at your plantation, I had supposed it capable of resisting 
the winters of a higher latitude, and will give it a trial in 
this vicinity. If they succeed as well here eis in your al- 
luvial soils, they must prove invaluable. 

The evidences ulibrded me while at your iiouse, by an 
examination ol the quantify of vine ;md peas gathered 
ftorn one and a half acres of ground, D beyiRui anytklthR 
in UiP. vniij of a ^rcat yield I luice ever knoten. 

! think I am within bounds when I say the yield in pea 
and Vine must be at least four or five times greater than any 
other pea — clover or grass lor hay. And the waste peas 
were equal to any other fall pea crop; and, from the quan- 
uiy of v^aste vinos remaisiing on the ground, 1 think it will 
prove a fine manure ai>d supporter of the soil. 

lour son, IMr. W>3. F. Douglass, has done well in ma- 
king: arrangeinents for the extended culture of this inval- 
uable pea in the older States, where it will doubtless do 
more iu re instating the old, worn-out lands, than guano 
or any otiter application to tlie soil, while; at the same 
time, the yield is likely to be as great on .such lands as on 
th.e ncii b'frtoiii.s of the Arkansas. Should it prove so, 
tiiis pea will become as farndiar to every Southf rn Planter 
as tiiose now esteemed a.s the most productive. 

Rcspeclfuily, your obk. servk , 

Tito.s. S. Drew. 


JoH.v Wism, Esq — Dear .S’b-.- My opinion of your 
Cotton Cleaner and Threslicr is as follows : in .simplicity 
of construction and efficiency of action, it is certaiolv one 
of the very best machines for the cleaning of Couon tfiat 
ha.s ever come under my observation, and if the above 
opinion can be of atiy .service to you, you are at liberty 
to use it in- any wo)? you may see proper. 

WLshing you much success, 1 remain respei-tPdiy yours, 

'if C. KoB3i.\s. 

My invention ha.s not been brou.ybt nmeh into notice, 
except in thi.s pl.ice, as my ciiTLim nances are ?.>.!ch tliat I 
rvsUid not provide rhe means ul iunfishing mjself vvicli 
Agent.s !;> travel tbrouijh iiu^ CoRon .gsavA'intr retrion of 
rhe United State-^, althoiigli a .short lirne before, ] wa.s 
;-;ho wn your article in D.iulhr^ u- i'v/firof/rr, a ttfO- 
tlemau ofiered to assist uic'. so t.h.-G. { shall now sen<i 
out one or more .Ayents, '.viih sand! working machirres 
for oper.atiori and trivd, anil .andfavor to .sell ntthts 'o in 
diviriuals or counties a.s .soon, as p.ossiidc y'onr CuHi- 

■ixitor !s ta.ken .and rciffi bv F-toiicrs pt incipjaiiv, who need 
fo.icti H machine, you vcould confor a lastiso:- obligation on 
me. by giving the inv-ention a notice i.n it, and ordage. ■ 

Y our mi.csi obh. seiu'^r., ■ ..F.,.i<.v Wiyph 

P. S -‘-I could refer any persons ioaking emptiries con 
cerning the machine ; To 31aj R-eamor Young, 11. Young, 
Jt,, E.sfare of CoL M. YY-is.ng, Dr. T. B Y'^-hnn. Gcnci-'a'l 
Tbos Bfsck.shear, 'Fhns. Jones, Esq . M B. Jonc.s. Esq . 
Ja.s founR, A. T Mcintyre. s'i.os-- Vf yche, L VYyche, 
H VYycho, VYin Lowder., L Bowen, M. Bowen, T Bot 
topos, Hoii Col. Jus Sewai'd. and ;5. innnbcr of ot hers who 
would ehceifody fxe tlu-ir te.sdmony in favor of tite e.lll 
mey of the machiue — ait b-eing in rffis county. 


Tui: .Steam Flow. — A cotrespondent cf the London 
'Pines says : 

. ‘Ufi'i Fiiday last 1 had the pleasure of witnessing Mr. 
Fowler .s new steam plow at work on the farm of Mr. 
Charter, near Slough ; and i veish the public to know that 
inadrinery has at last been set in uioiion which really can 
pl()\v With economy as well as e.fii. iency. Mr Fowler 
i.s able so ploiv very light land, 1 was informed, for 3s, and 
Iseavy land for (is per acre f and he i.s now trenching for 
ills Rova! Higiine.'-s, Prince iVibert, on khoic Farni, TO 
osf.nc.s deep, at losf per acre.’’ 

■■’'Ki'ons Toe. to .itd .50. 

, yAoout So G2, ' 

D.ci'r.vm VG 'ruL South. — T he New (fika.os BuJeiin 
sug;.te.sfs lisc following capita! method of deferiding the 
Soutii.; 

“ The best way of defersiliog tiie South," liie BulleliD 
says," is to lOake. a vigorous. and extended assault u,oon oid 
fields and dilapiriated fences, 'fhe enemy is .sure to enter 
at- every gap, and lie concealed in 'eveYy hria.r patch and 
acie of weeds he'nihy tiiscover To i-out him, lioise foot 
and dragooiis, it is nece.sSt«y to set tiie plow and the 
.'pn.de going; and ihfil to overvA-heiin ifia'i with mountains 
of n.anuffj. Nothing like rn.asiufe f >r the riglits of the 
8outh, and tlie expul.'ion of its enemies. 1'hcv <'ank. 
sfati i it Ht ail. Tlie ‘ Y.rginia and Kciitucky RcsolmifiiisY 
are nothing in cooiparis n witli it. 'Fhcy ttiay lie at- 
lackc!! it! front and .rear, and teiribly slimn-vtc*; but 
mu.-.k tiosu the swmTips an I dtep plowing, vvil'l a plenty 
of it, V. ill [irove invulin r.ii Ic. Cot on baie> a'C l.ui ^Oi^- 
satnei 'in potency, placed besi-fes heaps of muck." 


lAioniasvilte, Ga., 1857. 


J, W. 


S O IJ T H E R x\ C L T I A T O R . 


65 


CHINESE SUGAR CANE. 

A correspondent of the PrcdHe Fanner sends the edi- 
tors of that paper some molasses mace from the Chinese 
Sugar Cane, which is pronounced equal to the. ijest maple 
molasses. The mode of manufacture v.-as rude, Ivut show.s j 
how easy the molasses was obtained. He sa^vs; 

‘T cut five stalks, stripped off the leaves, and witii a 
h-animer pounded it into pumice. ' ] placed this in my 
cheese press, applied a little water, card gathered about a 
pint of the water and juice. This process was very im- 
perfect. — extracting but Ca small part of the juice. This 
my wife evaporated by pntiiog it in a basin on the top of 
the stove. From it d got five tabiespoonfuls, from the five 
stalks, of the very best molasses — equal to that made fron> 
the sugar maple. Pioud of my success, soon after, wiiich 
was about the raiddie'of August, I cut up and quaitered 
and split with my knife about a bushel of the stalks —put 
them into the boiler of the kitchen stove, added about one 
pail full of rain vvaiter, and steamed the stalks about an 
hour — then removed theni. Judging from the taste by 
chewing some of them, half or more of the juice yet re- 
mained in the stalk. This juice and v/ater we strained 
through a linen cloth, and boiled it away. No other 
cleansing or purifying process was tried. From . it we 
made a quart of molasses — a sample of wtiich I send 
you." 

Massachu.sktts MotiAssRs. — We are indebted toJ.,F. 
C. Hyde, Esq., ofNewton Centre, for a specimen of mo- 
lasses which he has manufactured from the Chinese Su- 
s:ar Cano, grown upon his farm in that town. - Mr. Hyde 
is confident that the cane can be successfully cultivated, 
and with as much ease a.s Indian corn, and produbing an 
article of molasse.s as good as that now selling in the mar- 
ket at sixty cents a gallon, and doubtless sugar of an 
equally good quality. We understand that this subject is 
now exciting general attention in this community, and that 
the experiment of its successful cuhure will be thoroughly 
tested . — BoiUm Journal. 

Self-Culture. — It is our business carefully to cultivate 
our minds, to rear to the utmost vigor and maturity every 
sort of generous and honest feeling that belongs to. our 
nature. To bring the dispositions that are lovely in pri- 
vate life, into the service and conduct of the. cornmon- 
wealth ; so to bo patriots as not io forget we are gentle- 
men. .To cultivate friendships, and not to iimur ev-nniies. 
To model our principles to our duties and situation. To 
be fully 'persuaded that all virtue which Is impracticable is 
spurious; and rather to run tlie risk of falling into faults, 
in a course whicii leads us to act with effect a n.d enefiiy, 
than to loiter out our d yvs v/ithout blame and witbdut use 
He trespasses against .'-.is duty' who sleeps upon his 
watch, as well as he thar goes over to the enemy'. — 

Hrsc-ription op a Paktv of Pleasurk.— '‘We went out 
clean — we came hoine dirty; we went out sober — we 
came home drunk: we v.'ent out v/eil — we eame home 
.sick; we went out laughing — we came 1 >me crying; we 
went cut vvitii cash — we came honte money itvss; we 
went out for air — we came home full of dust.'" 

Sugar Canp: in Nebraska. — The, Bellevue Gazclic, pub- 
lished at Bellevue, Nebraska Territory, has the folic w- 
ing ; 

“V/e acknowledge the receipt of a small quantity of 
molasses, which was manufactured from cane grown in 
our Territory’, Mr. Charles AIcRay intormed us that the 
cane is known as the ‘Chinese Sugar Cane,’ and’ that 
from the early' maturity of tiiis species there is every rea- 
son to think that its culture can be made profitabie." 


CRIN'EHE .SUOAE. C ANE— SECOND CSOE, 

A. friend, writing from the vicinity’ of Montgornery, 
Ala., under date of Dec. .3. say’s of the ssroii'J crop cJ 
rom his spring planting: 

"Or. the. 2!sr. of November, I cut catir. from the field, 
ci'u.'s bed out 100 gallons of juice; boiled it down to ‘J;j 
gallons of good svrup. This is doir.^ well, i think. 

A.J." 

Rath:-;;! . Fruity. — A celebrated comedian arranged 
with his .greengrocer, one. Berry, to pay’ him qu.nrterly; 
but the greengrocer sent in hi:^ account long beiore the 
quarter was due. The comedian, in great wrath, called 
upon the greengrocer, and, laboring under the impression 
that his credit, was doubted, said; "Isay, here’s a pretty 
mul, Berry; you have sent in your bill, Berry', before it 
is Berry. Your father, the elder Berry, would not 
have been such a i'r/t?5e. Berry; but you need not look 
bio.ck. Berry’, for I don't care a strav:, .Berry, and I .-^hiir't 
pay you till Cfirbinias, Berry.” 

Foot Ev'il, or "run round” on a Horse’s Foot. — 
Editors Southern OuUivator — Take soft soap and stir i a» 
fine salt, spread it on a rag 3 inchee wide, and twelve 
inches long, and smear it on the hoof so that the diseased 
part be covered, and over this sew a slip of osnabnrg 4 
indies wide, so as to be securely arranged. Put on fresh 
soap and salt and clean rags every 24 hours. It is a 
never-failing remedy'. 1 have stopped the disease so quick, 
that it only extended an inch long. It will also cure the- 
Scratches. Mecklenburg. 

Mississippi, 1S57. 

CiiiNESK Sugar Cane. — It is stated that a plan has been 
invented in France, that proves, successful in making sy'- 
rup by' cold m.^sceradcR, The cultivation of the plant is 
progressing in France, and meets with great favor. One 
variety has yielded 80 to 100 bushels ot seed per acre, and 
one half of the weigltt of the .stalks in syrup. The results 
in France show that tlie ripening of the seed of Sorghum 
does not detract from the value of the juice. 



A man’s true wealtii,” (said Mahomet, and it is a 
maxim th:\t Chri.stians may endor.se, if i '. is in the'Koran,) 
" a man’s true vveallh, liereafter. is the good lie does in 
this v/orld tO his feHow-raen.” When he dies, people 
may say, " v.'hat property has he left behind him I” but 
angels will ask. " wiiut good deeds hci.s lie sent before 
him ?” - . 

Georgia OuA-NOEg. — We were not nil ^ u.- -u- ■ ■ tluit 

oranges were cultivated as far north .a G lx .. . ki-ssrs. 

Curtis & Cobb, 348 Washington cjJrxtt h. v ■ ■- whi 'h 

were brought from Darien, Ga., by Jlr 8. Z Coiuns. '’nd 
which 'Are of a quality we have nevcV so . ’’ 

beside.^ being very large and haiuksom-c. in -appt t iCc 
They aeU readily at S‘2 per dozen. — Brsfor Cvld.rai-a'. 

Georgi.i -Sug.ar — ^^We havereceiv ul. s >■ ;■ >ri:.;inah 

Georgian, ivomS\x(\'gt'De.'Lyo\\, a .'-pcZ.,. Georgia 

Sugar, made by' him at Harrack, a few rnilc.s fiom th’s 
city. The iudge informs us that he de.signs going largely 
into iho business of sugar making the ensuing yoar. He 
will cultivate tlie Chinese Sugar Cane. 

O— • 

A Spanish peasant, when he eats a good apple, 
peach, pear, or any other fruit, in a forest or by the road 
side, plants the seed; and hence it is that the woods and 
road sides of Spain hav*e more fruit in andalong them than 
those of any other country. Csnmit we, in this country , 
j do the same ■ 


60 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


S£:a Island Cotton. — It is not generally known, says 
the Goliad (Texas) Express, that Sea Island Cotton can 
be raised to advantage in this portion of Western Texas. 
The fact that it can be cultivated to a very great advan- 
tage here, is now beyond all doubt. The last two years’ 
experience has given the most satisfactory proof of the 
fact. We know some two or three gentlemen planting on 
the San Antonio river in this county, who have raised 
this season more than 1000 lbs. of this staple per acre. 

Sfilep in Ohio. — The Ohio Farmer estimates the profit 
on sheep in that State the last year at SC, 000, 000, and the 
whole capital invested SCO, 000, 000, The number of 
sheep is probably five millions, and the wool clip last year 
reached 10,100,000 pounds— one-fifth of the entire wool 
•clip of the Union 

A sweet country hume, with roses and honey- 
suckles trained to climb over it; with good taste, intelli 
gence, and beauty within; toil enough to insure health, 
and leisure enough to court acquaintance with books, 
the flowers, and the loveliness of nature; with peace, 
plenty, and love; is surely one of the Paradises which 
heaven has left for the attainment of man. 

I^^A taste for trees, plants and flowers, is a peculiar at- 
tribute of woman, exhibiting the gentleness and purity of 
her sex ; and every husband should encourage it, for his 
wife and daughters will prove wiser and happier and bet- 
ter for its cultivation. 

I^^Florida Long Cotton was selling at Charleston, at 
the latest advices, at from20 to 30 cents, and in Savannah 
from 20 to 37 cents. The principal sales being effected at 
25 cents. The sales of Sea Islands range from 40 to GO 
■cents. — Alligator Advertiser, Jan. 1. 

In England, out of 50,000,000 acres cultivated, 
10,000,000 are sown to wheat or other cereal crops, while 
in France 50,000,000 are cultivated for that purpose. The 
.average growth of wheat per acre in England is thirty-two 
bushels, and in France only twelve bushels, while the 
produce of English land is about S*1C per acre, and that of 
France per acre. 

Soracstit ©tDHDiitij anil 

A New Mode of Saving Bacon. — About a couple of 
years ago we were entertained at the house of a friend 
with a dinner of eggs and bacon. We complimented our 
host on the superior quality of his bacon, and we were 
<curious to inquire the way to like success in the prepara- 
tion of this dainty article of diet, though one that is better 
fitted for the palate of an epicure than for the stomach of 
a dyspeptic, To our surprise we were informed that that 
portion of our meal was cooked eight months before. Upon 
asking for an explanation, he stated that it was his prac- 
tice to slice and Iry his bacon imrnediately on its being 
cured, and then pack it in its own fat. When occasion 
came for using it, the slices siightly refried have all the 
freshness and flavor of new bacon jnst prepared. By 
this precaution our friend always succeeded in “saving 
his bacon, ’ fresh and sweet through the hottest of the 
weather. — N. E. Farmer. 

Apples and pears, cut into quarters and stripped 
of the rind, baked with a little water and sugar, and eaten 
with boiled rice, are capital food for children. 


Antidote for Vomos.— Cut this Out.— A correspon- 
dent of the London Literary Gaxette, alluding to the 
numerous cases of deaths from accidental poisoning, 
adds ; 

“I venture to affirm there is scarce even a cottage in this 
country that does not contain an invaluable, certain, im- 
mediate remedy for such events, nothing more than a des- 
sert spoonful of made mustard, mixed in a tumbler of 
warm water and drank immediately. It acts as an emetic 
is always ready, and may be used with safety in any .case 
were one is required.” 


To Preserve Wkws.— Editors Southern Cidtivator—l 
submit the following plan, which I have tested two sea- 
sons with the most satisfactory results. As soon as the 
Hams become thoroughly dry, they should be taken down 
and packed in clean cotton seed, a layer of Hams and seed 
alternate. When the season for the fly shall have passed, 
pack the Hams to themselves. 

With esteem and respect, 

John B. Phillips. 

BelU Passi, Jan , 1857. 


How to Make Tea Properly.— The proper way, to 
make a cup of good tea is a matter of sofne importance. 
Tlie plan which 1 have practiced for these twelve months 
is this: the teapot is at once filled up with boiling water, 
then tea is put into the pot, and is’allowod to stand five 
minutes before it is used ; the leaves gradually absorb the 
water, and as gradually sink to the bottom ; the result is 
that the tea leaves are not scalded, as they are when boil- 
ing water is poured on them, and you get all the true flavor 
of the tea. In truth much less tea is required in this way 
than under the old and common practice. 


To Preserve Citron.— Take 3 lbs. of sugar to 14 lbs. 
citron, cut in as large pieces as convenient. Put the sugar 
in a preserving kettle with a little water ; boil and skim, 
add cloves, cinnamon, mace and coriander seee. Put 
in as much of the citron as the syrup will cover, 
and cook till you can run a straw through, then place 
upon plates to dry. Molasses can be used instead of 
sugar. A little citron thus prepared, if used in mince or 
dred apple pies, will add much to their ^divox.— Rural 
New Yorker. 


Quinces for the Table.— We know from personal ob- 
servation, that few persons are acquainted with the best 
method of preparing quinces for the table ; it is simply 
this: Bake them, remove the skin, slice and eat them witk 
cream and sugar. Prepared in this manner, many prefer 
them to the peach. If you have never eaten them pre- 
pared in this way, try it, by all means, and you will 
thank us for the suggestion. — Farmers Mirror. 


Sealing Wax for Cans. — A very good sealing wax is 
made by melting and stirring well together one ounce of 
Venice turpentince, four ounces of common rosin, and six 
ounces of gum shellac. A beautiful red color may be 
given by adding one-quarter of an ounce or less of vermi]^ 
lion. 


To Keep Flies off Gilding. — The meat market at 
Ghent is now completely free of the intolerable nuisance 
of flies. The simple remedy consists in the inner walls 
having been painted witli laurel oil {Oleum leaurinobiUs?) 
the smell of which the flies cannot support. Even gilt 
frames can thus be preserved unsoiled. The smell of the 
laurel oil is not unpleasant, and one easily gets accustomed 
to it. — The Builder. 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 6? 


Shi crtifiemtiiio. 

GRAPES, STRAWBEPJRIES, MULB,ER'RIES,. 

i&C., &c. 

A LL the finer -varieties olnative tind foreign GRAPES — some of 
-TjL the forruer, for Vinej-ards, on reasonable terms by the quan- 
tity. Also, the finest collection ofStrav.berriesm'theSouth- 
Rochelie or Lawton BLACKBERRIES ; varieties of the RASP- 
BERRY, ML LBERRY, See., Se e. See Descriptive Catalogue, sent 
free, of postage to all applicants. Addi'ess; D. REDMOND, 
Dec56 — tf Augusta, Ga. 

EVURELOOMING ROSES. 

~|DMBR AGING all the leading sorts of China, Tea, Bourbon, 
Jjj Noisette, Hybrid Perpccuals, &.c. Also, a great variety of 
Spring Roses, Moss Roses, Banksian Roses, Climbers. &c., &c. 
Ail select, strong plants, grown on their own roots. Price 50 cents, 
or $5 per dozen. Catalogues sent /ree o/^osm^c. Address: 

Dcc56 — tf D. REDMOND, Augusta, G a. 

A FARM -WANTED. 

T WISH to purchase a FARM in Southern Georgia of from 1000 
U to 5000 acres of land, near the Florida line and lying in the 
Southern part of Charlton county preferred. Persons having land 
in that neighborhood to dispose of will please address me at No. 
162 I street, Washington. D. C., giving a description of the land and 
the very least monev and best terms that will buy it.' 

MILTON GARRETT. 
Reference — Dr. D. Lee, Athens, Ga. Nov56 — tf 

GRADE CASHIsrERE GOATS. 

IT OR SALE, a few half blood BUCKS at $30 each. Address 

Jj [Nov.55— tf] R. PETERS. Atlanta, Ga. 

PLUMES !— F.RUTTLATO HURSER'Y ! 

A LL the most approved varieties of the PLUM on native seed - 
ling stocks,- furnished to order. - Also, full Catalogues of 
“Fruitlaud Nurseiy" mailed to applicants, /rte o/ postage. 

D.ec56— tf Address: D. REDMOND, Augusta. G-a, 

CHINESE PROLIFIC PEA! 

THE GREAT RORAGS PLANT AND RENOVATOR OF SOUTHER.N LANDS!!' 


HIS very remarkable Lew Field Pea is b}' far the most valuable and productive variety ever introduced. It is -vvoll adauted to 

1 poor laud, yielding at least three or four times as much as any, of the com.mou varieties, and producing a groAvth of vine almost 
incredible. It grows in clusters of from 12 to 20 pods, each pod contaiaing 10 to 12 peas, and is of cour.se far more easily gathered than 
any other. The vine never becomes hard, but is so/t and from the blossom to the root. It is greadilj- eaten bv stock, and 

the Peas are unsurpassed /or the table in delicacy and richness of flavor. 

We subjoin the following extracts — the first from Ex-Go vemor Drew, of A^rkansas, and the remainder from several well known citi- 
zens of South Bend; in the same State : 

■ Fort Smith, Ark., December 20, 1856. 

Dear 5/r .-—The evidences aftbrded me while at yotm house bj" an examination of the quantity of vine and peas gathered from one 
and a half acres of ground, is beyond jxnything in the way of a great yield I have ever kno^on. 

I think I am ivithin bounds when I say the yield, in pea and vine, is at least five times gi’cater than any other pea— clover, or grass for 
hay. And the waste peas were equal to any other full pea crop ; and from the quantity of waste \ ines remaining on the ground, i thiiLk 
it will prove a fine manure and supporter of the soil. 

Your son, Mr. Win. F. Douglass, has done %vell in making arrangements for the extended culture of this invaluable Pea in the older 
States, where it will doubtless do more in re-instating the old, worn-out lands than .guano or any other application to the soil, w hil e at 
the same time, the yield is likely to be as great on such lauds as on the rich bottoms of Arkansas. 

Respectfully your ob’t. seD-‘t., THOS. S. DREW. 

To Robert H. Douglass, Esq. 

Dr. Goree, of Arkansas, estimated the yield in Peas or Ha^- at ''five times that of any other Field Pea he had ever seen vlantedP W. R, 
Lee, Esq, sajo he ‘has never seen anything to equal it,’’ and that it should "supersede the use of every atfnr,” and the* following certifi- 
cate settles the question of its value for Hay ; ■ - 

“We, the undersigned, saw “that pea-vine,’^ and thbik. after the p.ea.s lyere gathered, that the vine would have made as much hay as- 
a stout mail could carrv ; it covered a space of tqn or Uvelve feet in diameter, and lav from one foot to eighteen inches deen.” 

WM. e.Aieeks, 

B. W. LEE. 

South Bend, Ark., Sept., 1356. - 

Col. J. B. L. Marshall, Assistant Engineer on the Little Rock and Napoleon Rail Road, say.s 

“If the Sonthem Farmers will give it a fair trial, they will find it to be the gremest Pea both for table use and for feeding stock, now 
known. They fatten hogs faster than anything I have ever tried. On the 11 acres Mr. Douglass had in cultivation last year, there was 
at least four times as much vine as I ever saw on any piece of ground of the sanu size,'' &c., &c. 

For further particulars, see Circulars furnished gratis by the Agents. 

We are prepared to send but a limited quantity of these Peas, put up in cloth package.s to go by mail. They will be forwarded, free op 
postage, to any address on receipt of $1.30, or otherwise at $1 each. Current funds and postage stamps will be a satisfactory remit- 
tance. Our names will be printed on all packages of the genume seed. 

Any one not perfectly satisfied with the Pea will have his money rctiumei. Addres.s (with plain directions for mailing) 

PLUMB & LEITNER, Augusta, Georgia. 

Dealers in Seeds and country merchants can be supplied, to a limited extent, at the usual discount, if their orders are forwardccl 
immediately. ^ ^ ^ Feb57 — tf. 

" FRUITS FOB 'TOE south’: 

“ FHUITLAUD IIURSBHV,” AXJSU.STA, a30HG-ir.a.. 

^ 2 ''HE Subscriber takes pleasime in offering for fall and winter planting, choice TREES of the following v.nrifUr,- ,.f ,1'; nk.-;, all -j-. 
L w-hich have been found to be well adapted to the South : 

APPLES — succession, ripening from May until December, and keeping uutilJuue, mostly of Southem .'-nd many but 

recently introdirced to the public— price, 25 cents each. 

■^P'RIfiOTS — .'uch fine varieties as Moorpark. Breda, Hemskirke^ Peachf-Ac., See. 

PEACHES — the choicest collection ever oflei'ed, inc.luding La additition to all the bust Northern and Foreign .'Orts, a sj)]e:. dM vuri. ^ 
of new Southern Peaches not found in any other Catalogue. The present year’s stock of Peach trees Is quite iimired in i nuiber, si 
that earlv orders are advisable. Price, 25 cents. 

NECTARINES — Boston, Stanwick (new), Hunt’-s Tawny, Ne-w White, and all other first cla.^.s sort.-s. 

PEARS— Dwarfs and Standards — a selection of the ro-y best, recommended by the American Poraol-'g!-.:! So{M'oty, and most 
of which have been fully tested in the South. 

PLUMS — aU the largest aud best varieties;. 

CHERRIES — Twenty or more select kinds, worked on the Mahaleb Stock, ars low Standai'ds or Dlva-us — 'io proper form for the 
South. , ^ 

GRAPES — fine rooted plants of the Catawba, Isabella, Scuppemoug, Warrenton and other native varieties, for the table and for 
wine making. Price, 25 to 50 cents. 

FIGS — strong rooted trees of 6 or 8 of the best kinds, fui-uishing a succes-sional crop throughout the entire season. Price 25 to 50 
cents. 

STRAWBERRIES — a selection from 35 or 40 varieties including Ilovey’s Seedling, Longworth’.s Prolific, McAvoy’.-; Superior, and 
all the new and desirable sorts. Price, $2 to $3 per hundred. 

POMEGRANATES — .strong rooted trees of the sweet and sub-acid varietie.s. Price, 25 to 50 cent.;. \ 

BLACEIBERRIES — the famous Rochelle or “Lawton” — also, the Albino or “White Blackben'y.” .Price, 50 cents each — $5 per 
dozen. 

RASPBERRIES — The American Rlack, Red Antwerp, &c. Price $1.50 to $3 per dozen. 

HEDGE PLANTS — such as Osage Orange, -$8 to $10 per thousand ; White Macartney Rose, cutting.s, $10 per tliou:- and : Cherokee 
Rose-, cuttings, $5 per thousand ; Fortune’s Yellow -Rose, cuttings, &c., &;c. 

- . — ALSO— 

A very choice selection of ROSES, new and rare EVERGREENS, FLOWERING SHRUBS, &c., &c. 

Labelling, packing, marking and shipping, carefully- attended to. . . . 

■■•^^A new descriptive Catalogue now 'ready, and ;vili be.sciit to all who de.sii-e itl free of postage. Address : 

XovSe— 2t ' ' D. REDMOND, .\ugusta, 'Ga.' 


66 


S O U T 11 E R N C 1) L T 1 V A T O R 


AUGUSTA SEED STORE. 

{^Nearly o]j-posite the United St.aks and Globe Hotels.') 

.Subscriber has received and will coutiune to receive 
X throughout tlic season, his stock of geuiuiie and fresh GAR- 
DEN SEEDS — crop of 1865. The usual deductions made to coun- 
try Merchants. J. H- SERVIGE. 

GIANT ASPARAGUS ROOTS, White and Red ONION SETS, 
White and Red CLOVER, LUCERNE, BLUE GRASS, &c., &c. 
Jan57 — 3t 


CHERRIES !-- AMEHICA2!Qr VARIETIES. 

W E can furnish a limited number of nearly all the new Ameri- 
can varieties of CHBRRIE.S, worked on the Mahaleb stock 
and especially suited to the South. Also, .all the old approved 
kinds. Price, 50 cents e.ach or .$40 per hundred. Address : 

Dec56 — tf D. REDMOND, Augusta, Ga. 


SHEEP FOR SALE. 

O NE very five half French and half Spani.sh MERINO BUCK. 

one year old Also, two superior pure breed yearling SOUTH 
DOWN BUCKS, of the Webb stock. 

J une.56— tf RICHARD PET ERS, A tlanta, Ga. 

A. LOHGETT, 

D ealer in FERTILIZERS, No. 34 Cliff street, New York. 

PERUVIAN GUANO No. 1 — Government brand and weight 
on each bag. COLUMBIAN GUANO, imported by the Philadel- 
phia Guano Company. SUPERPHOSPHATE OF LIME and 
BONE DUST. Jan57— 3t 

I mproved' SUPERPHOSPHATE of lime, of the'b^t 

brands, for sale hv A. LONGETT, 

Jan.57— 3t " 34 Cliff street. New York. 

”■ OLUMBIAN GUANO, imported by the Philadelphia 6u^ 
Company. A. LONGETT, Agent, 

Jaii.57 — 3t - New York. 


0 


OVER’S PATEHT COTTOH PRESS. 



1 

Pate«.ted July 3rd, 1855. 

above Press is designed for plant, .ifion use, and is the only one known that can be effectively worked inside the Gin Honse or 
JL Shed added thereto. As wi 1 be seen, it is a vertical Press and combines simplicity, durability ai d iiuicknes.s of action. Being 
inside of the Gii -House, all handling of the Cotton is saved ; the top of the box is a hole in the floor and the cotton is raked from the 
Lint room and taken out down .stairs a ba.e. Being above ground and under shelter it is not liable to decay. Its durability cen.'^iden <1, 
the Press is much cheaper than the sciew One of these Pi esses has been in operatio > on my own Plat tation for 3 years, givii g gen- 
eral satistaction. I also have one et ected at the Foundry of Messrs. Ewan & Bro., Coh nibus and Nassau streets, Charlcsti n, 8. C., 
who wiil give any particular info ii ation w mted, and furnish single Presses promptly, whom please address. These Presses can be 
worked • ither by hand, horse an 1 the pow. r th it drives the Gin. 

Patent R ght to States and Ccunties for sale. For purchase of Patent Rights address A. M. Glover, care of Mooi< & Olcver, 
Charlefiton/S. C. For purchase of Single Pre.ises addruss Messrs. Ewan & Bro., as above. Jain57 — 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


I 

I 


I 

I 

!' 


[t 

i; 

I 


69 


PATEITT BUCKLE. 



[j DESIRE to .sell the Right of making and selling the new 
il DOUBLS-JOEs^TED PATENT BUOKLE, and will thank- 
fully receive otfers for it until the l.st day of June next. The 
Buckle is the best that has yet been invented, one answering for 
the whole ward robe and should be made of gold or .silver. The 
Right of one State is worth a fortune. I will sell the Right of 
one or "lithe States together. \VM. SB ABE. 

Giir7i Greek, Dooly Co., Go,., N<jd. 24, 185S. .Ian57 — 5t 

WHITE’S GAISBEI^ina FOR THE SOUTH. 

A new work by W. N. White, of Athens, Ga., emitainhig di- 
rections for cultivating the Kitchen and l-'rait Cfardeu, with 
large aaci valuable lists of fmiits and vegeta,bles adapted to the 
Southern States, with Gardening Callanders for the same. 

Price $2.25, sent by mail, post naid, on receipt of Price. 

C. M. SAXTON & CO., 

Ag'ricultural Book Puidishers, 140 Puiton-st , New York. 
Jan 57 — 2t 

DIOBCOREA BATATAS--HBW ::HiNESB 
Potato— or Ham. 

t fC' HE experience of another season in the cnitivation of this new 
J_ esculent, w-arrants us in conhrming all we said in relation to it 
last year. Wherever it ha.s fallen into the hands of judicious cul- 
tivators, and received the care necessary to its full development, 
the result has been entirely satisfactory in all respects ; and it may 
confidently be reaffirmed that of all the esculents proposed as sub- 
stitute.s f ir the diseased potato, the Dioscorea Batatas is certainly 
the only important one. We can now supply small roots from 4 to 
Pinches long, carefully packed for transport at $ 5 per dozen; and 
small seed tubers (such as we sold last year) at $1 per dozen to 
$7 per hundred; these latter can be sent by mail. Description 
and directions for culture furnished with each package Where 
practicable, parties are invited to examine the roots be; ore purchas 
mg, as we have them constantly on view. 

NEW CHINESE NORTHERN SUGAR CANE.— Seed of this 
celebrated and invaluable plant in packets at 12i cents each 
(prepaid by mail 25 cts ) 75 cents a pound. 

CHUFASor BARTH ALMOND— $1 per TOO. 

JAPAN PEAS, 50 cts. a quart. NEW ORANGE WATER 
MELON (tiue), CHRISTIANA MUSK MELON ; KING PHILIP 
CORN ; SWEET GERMAN TURNIP, etc, etc, with the largest 
and most comprehensive assortment of VEGETABLE, FLOW' ER 
and FIELD SEEDS to be found in the United States. 

Catalogues on application. 

JAS. M. THORBURN & CO., 
Jan57 — 2t Seedsmen, <fcc., 15 John st.. New York. 


T’HE MOST EXTRAORDINARY COTTON IN 
the World. 

I HAVE for sale the earliest COTTON in the world, and will sell 
the seed at $1 each or six seed for $5. or the seed of the stalk 
now on hand say three thousand, for $2,000. J. L. GOREE, 
South Bend, Ark., 1856. 

CERTIFICATES. 

I certify that I am doing business for Dr. Goree and have seen 
his communication of the ^Sth of November, and cheerfully certiiy 
that it is correct and not the least exaggerated. The cotton is 
either a new one or one I have never seen before, as I am very 
well acquainted with most of the new cottons of the pre.'^ent day. 
Ibel.eve this seed will open as early in latitude 34 as any seed I 
know will in latitude 32. ” ALEX. DAVIDSON. 

I certify that I have seen Dr. Goree’s .stalk of Cotton, and that it 
is all he describes it to be. It ditfers from the fine cotloii of the pre- 
sent day by branching much more and every branch filled with 
bolls. 1 consider it an entire new' cotton, and far more valuable 
than the best lhave ever seen, aud fully a month earlier than our 
earliest cotton and well suited, 1 shou'd think, to the latitude of 
Tennessee and perhaps of Kentucky. It would not surprize me if 
this cotton does not more effectually than any thing else settle the 
stomachs of the Abolitionists. It certaiul 3 ' is a very extraordinary 
stalk, maturing so early so many bolls. 

WILLIAM WALDRON. 

At the request of our neighbor. Dr. Goree, we have examined 
the stalk of cotton described by him io a communication to tlu 
SotUhtru Culti-Bator, aud do cheerfully testify to the correctness ol 
the general facts of his description, and believe them ad to be 
correct. ROBT. IL DOUGI.ASS. 


PEABODY’S NEW SEEDLING STRAW- 

berry. 

SUBSCRIBER has originated a new Seedling STRAW- 
J. BERRY, which combines more good qualities to make up a 
perfect berry than any ever yet introducert, viz : It is of the largest 
size, measuring six and seven inches in circumference; H is of 
beautiful form, attacbe i to t^e caylx by a polished coral-like neck 
without seeds ; rich deep crimson color ; fruit borue on tali foot- 
sta ks, ot ihd most cxiiUi.site pine flavor; flesh firm, melti g and 
juicy; and bears transportation better than any .strawberry ever 
cubivated (See euf'raving and des ription of the pla,.t in the 
November No., last o uiiie.) 

1 will be prepared to send the plant out, wffienever thefol'owing 
term.-i are c niipl ed v. ith Not a plant of this vari^-t^ has ever left 
my ground.', noire er will, until the propositions below are sub- 
scribed to. I propose to get o' e thousand sub.-criptioiis at $5 per 
dozen plant.s, throughout 'he v.’hoie country. Subscrihei s on for- 
ivardlng their names and post < face add e.^s, vviih the numVicr of 
dozen desiri-d, will receive by return mai a beautiful colm-cd plate 
of the vine and fi'U'C d aw-n 'rom natuis ; and as .<oon as the thou- 
•sand .sub.sc.riptir ns are made up, I wiU not fy each subscriber, when 
the muu-y may be mailed t > me, and I will put the plants up in 
moss envelope them i • oi; s Ik, and forwa d them by inai!. By 
this method they ca he sent t any part of the Uni ii with safety 
and de.'^patch 1 have sent packages of 101 of the common Straw- 
bt-rry 1 O' Umi^e.s by iriad, with lut the lo.ss of a plant. Packages 
of one dpzen will go throimh the mail as c'^rtain y a,s a letter. 

Subscriber.s, oil receiving the l•olored > lates will phase .show 
their fri,end.s, that it may hasten th'- completion of the list. From 
o’''e duz 'ii plant', one thousand may bo pioducedrhc first year. — 
This plant is the hennaph-odite, always hearing perfect crops of 
f u t, without a ly impri-gnator 

Dir.uctions for the cu ture of this p'ant will' be .sent with each 
colored pla e. CHaRLEo A. PEABODYk 

Couhv.bus. liO., Oct. 1, 1856. 

As a, proof of the keepimr qualities of this new- Strawberry, on 
the mor- log of the bth of May la.st [Friday,] I picked a case of 
the berries, took them to Columbus six miles, in my buggy, sent 
them from Coi'iml us to Savannah, three hundred miles by Rail- 
road, and from ’^avaun.ah to New York, nine hundred miles by 
steamer to my friends, Messrs. J. M. Thorburn <fe Go. The follow-- 
ing extract from Messrs Thorburn & Co ’s letter, will show the 
c.^ndiaon of the berne - just one week after they were picked. 

C A. P. 

New York, Maylhth, 1856. 

Mr. Ch.\RLES a. Peabody— Dear Ni/-.— The S'rawberries 
came to ha 1 1 on he afternoon of Tuesdav, sound and in very good 
condition, retaining an uati.sually strong Strawberry aroma * * 
The berrie.' have wi t' d down only a very little, up to this time, 
Fridav moruiu«. May 16th. Yours truly, 

Jai57— .f J. M. THORBURN & CO 


"^7" YANBOT CORN. — Persons wishing to procure Seed of 
tV th.s new and most productive variety of Corn can be sup- 
plied by early application to D. B. PLUMB & CO. 

Jau57 — it 


“FRUITLAND NURSERY," AUGUSTA, GA 

Fruits and Flowers for the South ! 

''I ''HE Subscriber has just Dsued a NEW CATALOGUE OP 
JL FRUIiSFORTHESOU I H in which al the BEST and 
most desirable NA i IVE and FOREIGN varietits (suitable to our 
climate) are nilly described ; with specia. directions for the trans- 
planting and management of Trees, Shrubs, Vines, &c. Also,* 
selected list and description of the rarest and most beautifol 
ROSES, EVERGREENS, etc., etc.; forming a familiar treatise 
for amateurs aud those who desire to add to the comfort and adorn- 
ment ot their homes. 

This Catalogue will be sent to all applicants per mail, FREE 0? 
POSTAGE, by addressing D. REDMOND, Augusta, Ga. 

Dec56 — tf 


SOUTH DOWN SHEEP. 

I AM willing P. dispose of a few very tine yearling SOUTH 
DoW.n ewes, iu Lmb; also, four tine yearling BUCKS, 
not related TO the Ewes. 

Persons wislimg to make trial of this celebrated variety of North- 
ern Suei-p would do well to avail themselves of this opportunity 
to •btaiu a small tiock uf undoubted purity. 

I w ill sell a buck aud ffiree Ewes for $t00, if applied for prior to 
the 1st of J uuaiy next. RICHARD PLTEKS, 

Decob — if Atlauta, Ga. 


PURE AND VALUABLE SEEDS. 

AVlNlf experienced the great difficulty iu obtainmg reliable 
il El.CWER bEEDS, suitable to the South, I ha\e raised a 
s.jiall quantity, w<.ich 1 have placed m the i aiids of D. B Piumb St 
Co., Diuggists, 1 1 this city, for retaiiiug 1 would pai ticulany draw 
tae aiteiuion afthe ladies lothe sple.ndi'l co lection ofStock Gilljr 
r'ioweis, Ten Weeks Stocks, Douulc Wall Flowers, and German 
Asters. ROBERT NELSoN, 

Dec.ffi — tf Augusta, Ga. 

BLAC.i ESS JX HOGS. 


[Mr. Douglass did not .see the cotton for two months, and it hav 
ing been so long in the Louse, the children had pulled many boll.' 
off and an the twenty boll limb itouly had nineteen, mdtiiat is why 
he worded it as iie did. The others saw it the next day atter pud- 
lug. J. L. GOREE.J 

IJauoT— 2tl 


I JOR SALE, a few pa r of three to four months old, Pt $20 per 
jiair. For 1.0 llog.s, 1 c-m.sider this hived s iperuir to any 
,,,li(;r — they eanm t be ii.ad<- to take toe mange, and are free from 
•utaneou.s Cl 1 iijitioiis ainl oisea'C of tl 0 hiri^s, to which hogs are 
.so liable when confined in dry pens in a S utt ern i limafe. Address 
Novh.'i— tf R. PETERS, Atlanta, Ga. 



70 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


CORN AND COB MILLS. 



r j| HE undersigned have now in store and offer for sale the follow- 
1 , ing CORN AND COB MILLS ; 

LEAVITT’S “YOUNG AMERICA,” and 
MAYNORD’S “CHAMPION.” 

The Manufacturers of the “Young America” claim for this Mill: 

1st. That it will crush Coni and Cob ; also, grind tine IMeal. 

'2nd. That the entire grinding surface can easily be replaced at a 
■small cost. 

.3rd. That it has an extra set of tine and coarse plates. 

4th. That it deposits meal in a box or bag. 

.5th. That it has taken the premium over both the “Little Giant” 
and “Star Mills,” at the Ohio State Fair for 1855. 

6th. Thej^ submit the following table, showing the time occupied 
and number of revolutions made by each of the Mills on exhibition 
at the Fair of the Maryland Agricultural Society for 1855, in grind- 
ing hal/ of a bushel of Corn and Cob : 



Time. 

Revolutions. 

“Young America” 

-.21- Minutes. 

10. 

“Little Giant” 

...44 

15. 

“IM ay a 0 r ’ Champion 


20. 

“Colijurn’.s Mill” 

71 “ 

32. 


The Manufacturers of ‘CMaynor’-: Champion” claim that it is the 
simplest in construction, strong aiul durable, its grinding parts last- 
ing, (not being made cm the coffoo udll principle) and that for long 
and steady work it is the best Corn and Cob Crusher in use. 

Nov56— tf H. <fc J. MOORE & CO. 

CHINESE SUGAR CANE, OR SORGHO 
Sucre ! ! — Pure Seed ! ! ! 

r|''HE subscribers take great pic sure in informing the Planters, 

1 Farmers and Gardeners of tii ; South, that they have securecl 
from the most reliable sources a liu ited supply of FRESH SEED, 
of this very valuable plant, the properties of which may be briefly 
summed up as follows : 

Ist. One acre of the stalks, properly cultivated, will yield from 
400 to 500 gallons of flue syrup, equal to the best New Orleans ; and 
from the same roots, a second crop of excellent fodder. 

2d. Sown broadcast or in close drills, on land deeply plowed 
and Iflghly manured, it will jfleld from thirty to fifty thousand 
pounds of superior fodder to the acre. 

3d. It surpasses all other plants for soilmg (feeding green) and 
fodder, on account of the great abundance of sugary juice which 
it contams ; and is greedily eaten by stock of all kinds. 

4th. It bears repeated cuttings, like Egyptian Millet, growing 
off freely and rapidly, after each cutting. 

5th. It stands drouth much better than common corn, retaining 
iis green color andjuiciness even after the seed matures- 

6th. The seed is excellent for hmnan food, when ground into 
meal, and fattens domestic animals very speedily. From twenty- 
five to seventy-flve bushels can be raised on an acre. 

7th. It is so cei'tain and prolific a crop that planters may be sure 
of succeeding with it as a Sugar plant anywhere South of Mary- 
land and North of Mexico. If planted early in the Southern States 
^he seed will mature and produce another crop the same season. 

The seed, which has been vei'y carefully kept pure, from 
the original importation, will be offered in cloth packages, each 
containing enough to plant half an acre, in drills, with full 
direction for the cultivation, which is perfectly simple. 

These packages will be forwarded mail, FREE OF post- 
age, to any address, on receipt of $1,30 for each package. When 
not sent by mail, we will furnish the packages at $1 each. 

Early ordei’S are solicited, as the supply of good and reliable 
seed is quite limited. Applicants’ names will be entered in the or- 
der in w'hich they are received, and the seed will be ready for mail- 
ing or delivery on the first of October. 

\ddress, with plain directions for mailing or shipping, 

D. B. PLUMB & CO., AugWa, Ga. 

p^Pamphlets, containing full history and description of this 
I lant, with valuable Reports on its merits, will be sent, postage 
free, to all who purchase seed, or who will enclose a three cent 
stamp. 

f!^ Dealers in seeds and country merchants can be supplied 
fit a liberal discount from retail rates, if their orders are received 
immediately. • Oct56-tf 

R. B. NORVBLL, 

A uction and commission merchant, and deal- 
er in machinery AND agricultural IMPLE- 
MENTS, Huntsville, Ala.' Bec56 — 2t* | 


PLANTATION AND GARDEN 
Fertilizeis. 

T he Subscriber has constantly on hand the following concen- 
trated MANURES, a single trial of which will prove to the 
most increduloius their value as a restorer of fertility to worn out 
soils and their adaptation to increasing largely the products of the 
Garden ami the Orchard. 

Numerous testimonials from gentleman who tided them last sea- 
son have been received, all of whom concur in saying that their ex- 
periments were satisfactory and profitable beyond their anticijia- 
tions : 

PHOSPHATED guano. — I n barrels of about 2-30 lbs., at 2 
cents per lb. 

SUPER PHOSPHATE OF LIME.— In barrels of about 2-50 lbs. 
at 2 cents per lb. 

COARSE GROUND BONES.— In barrels about 175 lbs. at li- 
cents per lb. 

FINE GROUND BONES.— In barrels of alxuit 200 lbs., at 1-^ 
cents per III. 

PERUVIAN GUANO. — In sacks of about 140 ibs., at 21 cents 
per lb. 

POUDRETTE, or de-oderized Night Soil, in powder $1.75 per 
barrel. 

LAND PLASTER.— At $1 . 75 per ban-el. 

Also, ROCK Si’JLT, in barrels of about 300 lbs. at 1 cent perib. 
Orders by mail or othenvise promptly attended to. A 
pamphlet, containing further particulars and directions for using 
the above fertilizers ivillbesent by mail, on the receipt of postage 
stamp, to anj^one desiring it. D. C. LOWBER, 

August56 — ly 98 Jlagaziiie st.. New Orleans. 

WYANDOT PROLIFIC CORN! 7 

T he greatest Agricultural wonder of the age. Its discovery- is 
worth millions to the country. Yield 150 bushels to the acre, 
(some say 300.) Plant only one kernel in a hill, each kernel will 
produce from 3 to 12 stalks, 10 to 12 teet high, 4 to 20 ears. 8 to 14 
inches long, 10 to 16 rows of beantifnl pearl white com. Seed se- 
lected with care, warranted genuine, put up in a parcel sufficient to 
plant an acre. Price $1.50, delivered in New 'Turk City. Money 
or P. O. stamps must accompany the order, with directions how to 
send. 


Those who order sent by mail, and remit $4, will receive, post 
paid, a parcel to plant an acre : $2, half an acre ; $1 quarter of an 
acre. Orders for less double the above rates. Circuiai-s showing 
the result from different parts of the Union, will be sent to aU who 
address J. C. THOMPSON, 

Jan57 — 3t Torapkinsville, Staten Island. N. Y. 

GE^GIA LAND OFFICE AT AUGUSTA. 

^|5HE undersigned respectf-ully informs the public generally, that 
X they have opened an office in the city of Aug-usta, opposite the 
Insurance and State Banks, on Broad street, for the PURCHASE 
AND SALE OF LANDS AND REAL ESTATE of all descrip- 
tions, located in any section of Georgia, on Commission. Particu- 
lar attention will be given to the sale and purcha.se of Lands in 
Cherokee and Southwestern Georgia. Persons wishing to have 
Lands sold, will present them with the best chain of title they are 
in possession of ; also, the original plat and grant if they have it. 

Those owning tracts of Lands, improved or unimproved, in any 
section of Georgia, and v.-ishing to sell, Avill find this the most ef- 
fectual medium of offering them. All we require is proper descrip- 
tion of improved Lands, the nature of titles and tei-ms, and they 
will be entered into bur general Registry, free of charge. Com- 
missions are charged only A's hen sales are effected. 

Persons Avishing to make iiiA-estments in Real Estate, or Lands, 
located in Cherokee, SouthAvestern Georgia, or any county in the 
State, Avili find it to their advantage to favor ns with their order,?. 

DAVIDSON, GIRARDEY, WHYTE & Co. 

T 4 (VI US M. DAVIDSON, v.- Woodville, Ga. 
Feh5fi_tf GIRAR.PCV WHYTE A CO., Ga. 

GEORGIA RAILROAD. 


CHAMGE OF SCHEDULE. 

PASSENGER TRAINS. 

L eave Augusta, daily at 6 A. M. and 5 P. M. 

ArriA-e at Angusta daily at 5 A. M. and at 6 P. M. 

Leave Atlanta daily at 8.50 A. M. and 6.15 P. M. 

Arrive at Atlanta daily at 2.50 A. M. and at 3.36 P. M. 
CONNECTING WITH ATHENS BRANCH. 

ArriA'ing and leaA ing Union Point daily (Sunday's excepleU at 10 
A. M. and leaA-ingat 2.30 P. M. 

WITH WASHINGTON BRANCH. 


Arriving at CAimming daily (Sundays excepted) at 9 A. M. 
Leaving “ “ “ 3.30 P.M. 

WITH SOUTH CAROLINA TRAINS. 

Leaving Augusta daily .at 9.20 A. M. and 9.50 P. M. 

Arriving at Augusta dailv at 3 P. M. and 4.30 A. M. 

WITH ATLANTA AND La GRANGE RAILROAD. 
Leaving Atlanta daily at 3 . 30 A. M. and 4 ,45 P. M. 

Arriving at ' “ 7.55 A. M. and 5.35 P. M. 

WITH WESTERN AND ATLANTIC RAILROAD, 
Leaving Atlanta daily at 9 A. M. and 6 P. M. 

Arriving at “ 3 A. lil. and 3 P. M. 

GEO. YONGE, General Superintendent. 
July 14th, 1855. AuaSS — tf 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR FOR 1854/ 

B ound volumes of the SOUTHERN CULTD’ATOR for 1854 
may now be obtained at this office. Price, $1.50. Or we 
will .send it by mail, po^t-paid at $1.80. Address 

WM. S. JONES, Augi’Ua Ca. 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


71 


THE CHINESE PSA. 

T 'HS-most PROLIFIC PEA known ; well adapted to poor lands , 
and yielding more to the amount planted and the acre than | 
any other, by an liundi’ed per cent. One pea planted yielding a halt’ | 
gallon, if allowed proper distance to spread. The peas gianving m ! 
bunches, save great labor ingathering. The vines are eaten greedi- 
ly by stock, and the pea is unsurpassed for the table in delicacy and 
richness of flavor. 

Any one wishing them can have a package containing half a 
pmt(irom b to 7 ounces) sent per mail, postage paid, by remitting 
us $1 30 — jJt cnrrcni funds and 30 cents in postage stamp.s.) Any 
one not perfectly satisfled with the Pea will have his monev re- 
turned. Address D. E. PLUMB A- CO., Augusta, Ga. 

^[C^For distant Agencies, address D. REDMOIND. 

Rov.76 — 5t Augusta. Ga. 

' FRESH GARDEN SEEDS. 

are now receiving our supply of ch.oice GAKDEN SEEDS, 
Yv which we warrant to be GEN UI-N'E and of the cro]) of 1856. 
Those who purchase our seed may rely upon getting a fresh article 
as we keep no OLD seed on hand. 

SK^Merchauts supplied at a liberal di.scount. 

D. B. PLUZiLB CO.. 

NovSf — It Broad-st., Augusta, Ga. 

SVERGRESNS AND ORNAMENTAL TREES 
for tlie South. 

f FEW rare andboautiful EUBRGREEXS Trees and Shrubs 
of the proper size for transplanting may now be obtained 
from the subscriber. The collections embraces tie Deodar Cedar,' 
Cryptomeria Japonica, Oriental Cypress, Norway Spruce, Silver 
Fir,' White Piuc, Bals.am Fir, Silver Cedar, Iii.sh, English and 
Pyramidal Yew, Swedish .Juniper, American and Chinese Arbor 
’Vite ; Cedar of Lebanon, Magnolia Graudiflora, ‘■Mock Orange,’' 
Pittospornm, (fc'c., &c. ; in short all the most desirabl.. Evergreen 
Trees and Shi-iibs that flmirish in this latitude, DECIDUOUS 
SHRUBS and TREES, of many varities can also be supplied m 
quantity. (See Descriptive Catalogue se-nt gratis uei' mail.) Ad- 
■irrss [Doc56 — tt] D. REDMOND. At7g:nsta, Ga. 

.SELECT APPLES--SOUTHBRN SEEDLING-. 

A CHOICE collectio-n of Summer, Autumn and Winter APPLES 
J\. — mostly Southern Seedlings, and all perfectly adapted to this 
climate for sale by the subscriber at 25 cents each, or $'20 per hun- 
dred. Address D. REDMOND, 

Augusta, Ga. 

Descriptive Catalogues sent, per mail, /ree o/ postage. 

Dec56 — tf 


PEACHES !--BOUT'HI]RN SEEDLINGS. 

HE very finest collection of PE A CH TREES ever offered in 
I the South, may now be obtained from “Fruitland.” In addition 
to the well known and approved varieties of Europe and the North 
770 have many knew and exceedingly valuable Southern Seedlings 
found in no other collection, and furnishing a snccessional crop of 
■fruit from the first of June until November. Price, 25 cents each, 
or $20 per hundred. Descriptive Catalogues sent gratis per mail. 
Address D. REDMOND, Augusta, Ga. 

Dec56— tf ^ 

PEARS FOR THE SOUTH ! 

S TANDARD and DWARF PEARS, of the most approved 
varieties, finely rooted and well grown. Price 50 cents each, 
or $40 per hundi-ed. 

The Pear, under proper cultivation, is much larger and finer here 
than at the North or in Europe, and the kinds I offer are among 
the very best. Descriptive Cat^ognes sent /ree of postage. 

Dec56 — tf Address: D. REDMOND, Augusta, Ga. 

HEDGE PLANTS, BASKET WILLOWS, &c. 

O SAGE Orange, Macartney, Cherokee and other running 
ROSES for defensive and protective Hedges. Also, the 
Enonymus, Cape Jasmin, “Mock Orange,” English Laurel and 
other beautiful Evergi-eens for Ornamental Hedges. Osier or Bas- 
ket Willow cuttings, of the best varieties. Catalogues sent 
gratis. Address-. D. REDMOND, Augusta, Ga. 

Dec56 — tf 

THOROUGH BRED NORTH DEVON AND 
Ayrshire Bulls. 

I OFFER for sale a few choice young BULLS, bred from supe- 
rior Stock, with full pedigrees. For particulars, afidress me at 
No. ‘23 Fulton street. New Y"ork City A. M. TREDWELL, 
Importer, Breeder and Dealer in North Devon and Ayrshire Cattle. 
Residence Madison, Morris county. New Y'ork. 

Dec56 — 3ino 

GARDENING FOR THE SOUTH 

T he work, securely enveloped, will be sent by mad (pre-paid) to 
any person remitting at the rate of one dollar and twenty-five 
cents per copy in postage stamps, or in the bfils of any specie pay 
;ing Banks. Address WM. N. WHITE, 

Mayoo — tf Athens, Ga. 

COTTON SEED. 

bushels— O live— very pure. Price fifty cents a 
eH H w bushel at my gin, or forwai’ded to cash orders at fifty 
cents per sack extra. Also, 1,000 bushels “Growder,” equally pure 
and very productive, an early opener, growing and making till late. 
The young bolls do not dry up on the stalk, nor does it shed as other 
varieties do. Addi’ess DR. A. 'VVl'WASHBURN, 

— 6t Y’azoo%ity, Mississippi. 


AUGUSTA NURSERY. 

Extensive Collection of Selected Roses and 
Southern Raised Fruit Trees. 

F a. IMAUGE would respectfully inform the amateurs of 
e Roses, that he has now a superb collection of new and rare 
varieties, vyliicli he will be happy to supply such as may desire 
them- His prices to Nurserymen will be as low as those of any 
Nursery at the North, and his Rose Bushes will begeuerallv of a 
larger size. He has. also made recent additions to his stock of 
FRUIT TREES, and can now supply fine sorts of the follovvino- 
varieties : Apples. Pca-.-s, Quinces, Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots” 
Plums, Cherries, Soft SlieJl Almonds, English Walnuts, and Ha- 
zle-nnts. 

Also, GRSEX-HOL^SE PLANTS, such as Camelia Japonica, 
Orange and Lemon Trees, Ac., and hardy Flowering and Onia- 
mental Shrubs. Orders from the connti-y will be promptly attend- 
ed to, and Trees and Shrubs carefully packed and directed. 

Osage Ora ge Fruit for sale at $1 per dozen. 

Catalogues of Roses and Fruit Trees will be sent gratis, to all 
post-paid letters. Address F. A. MAUGE, Aiigusta, Ga. 
Dec56 — 4t 

LANDS IN SOUTH^/VESTERN GEORGIA' 

For Sale. 

''I'^HE Subscriber offers for sale six improved PLANTATIONS, 
X containing from 750 to 2,000 acres each. Land fresh and in 
cultivation. 

Also 3.5,000 acres imiinprovod LANDS, situated in Dougherty 
and Baker counties. 

The whole of these lands were carefully selected, and cannot 
be surpassed for certainty of crops and durabilit\-. Terms easy. 

The Railroad from Macon will be compVtc<i tp Albany , 1st 
Sept, next; thus giving easy access to au of the above named 
lauds. Old settled plantations situated in Georgia or Alabama 
within ten miles of a railroad, will be takeii in exchange, if desired’ 
at then- market value. W. W. GHEEVER. 

AVmnij, Ga.. Oct. 10th. 1856‘. Nov5G tf 


STOCK FARM FOR SALE. 

I WISH to sell my STOCK FARM, situated immediately at the 
Depot on the Memphis A Ohio Raih’oad, and also on the Mem- 
phis and Sommerville Plank Road, 11 miles east of Memphis, con- 
taining 610 acres ; 300 acres in cultivation, the remainder finely 
timbered, all under a ne-^v' and substantial fence. A good two- 
stoi-y framed D-^velling, framed Negro Houses, and Stables for 20 
horses and 100 head of cattle. I am no-vv selling from my dair\' 
$5 worth of milk per day. There are 15 acres well set in Fruit 
Trees of choice quality. 

I will sen the fai-m together with the Crop, Stock and a few likely 
yoiing- Negroes, and give possession immediately, or I will sell the 
Farm and DweUings next whiter. Here is the'best chance for a 
party familiar -with Stock Raising and can devote his time and at • 
tion to the business, to be found in West Tennessee. 

The place can be divided into 9 lots, -with a beautiful building site 
©n each, with wood, -water and cleared land on each. AU near and 
-ivith a good road to the Depot. 

If not sold privately before the 1st day of July it -ivUl, on that day, 
be divided and sold in lots to suit purchasers, together with mv 
Stock, consisting of 75 head of COWS, mostly in calf bv my Brah- 
min Bull; 20 MARES, in foal by “Nebraska a fine stock of blood 
HOGS and SHEEP, together with my Brahmin BULL, Memphis, 
and the thorough bred young STALLION, Nebraska, sired by im- 
ported Sovereign, dam Glencoe, 4 years old. 

Persons wislung to examine the premises or get further informa- 
tion w-ill call on myself or G. B. Lock, at Memphis, or it wUl be 
shown by my Overseer on the place. 

The Train, on the Memphis A Ohio Road leaves Memphis at 
o’clock, A. M., and returns at II o’clock, P. M. 

JAMES R. FERGUSON, 

June56 — tf Memphis, Tenn. 


CENTRAL RAILROAD. 


CHANGE OF SCHEDULE. 

O N and after Sunday, the 14th October, inst., and until further 
notice, the Passenger Trains on the Central Railroad will rua 
as follows : 

BETWEEN SAVANNAH AND MACON. 

Leaves Savannah Daily at 5.00 a. m. and 12.15 p. M. 

Arrive in Macon “ 2.15 P. v. “ 1.00 a.m. 

Leave Macon “ 11.45 a.m. “ 9.30 p.m. 

Arrive in Savannah “ 10.45 p.m. “ 7 ‘20 a m 

BETWEEN SAVANNAH AND AUGUSTA. ' 

Leave Savamiah 12.15 P. M. and 8.30 P. M. 

Arrive in Augusta 8.45 P. .M. “ 5..30A. .M. 

Leave Augusta 6.00 a. .m. “ 4.30 p.m. 

Ari’iveiu Savannah 1..30 P. m. “ 10.45 P. M 

BETWEEN MACON AND AUGUSTA. 

Leave Macon 11.45 A. M. and 9.. 30 P. .M. 

Arrive in Augusta 8.45 P. 31. “ 5.30 a. .31. 

Leave Augusta 6.00 a. 3I. “ 4.30 p. m. 

Arrive in Macon 2.15 P. 31. “ 1.00 A. 3 i 

BETWEEN SAVANNAH, MILLEDGEVILLE & EATONTOM. 

Leave Savannah 5.00 a. m. 

Arrive in MlUedgeville 2.45 p. 31 . 

Leave Macon 11.45 a. m. 

Arrive in Eatonton 5.00 p. m. 

W. M. WADLEY’’, Gen’l Superintendant. 
Savannah, Ga., Oct., 12, 185-5. July56 ^tf 


72 


SOUTHERN CULTIYA TOR 


C'O^i'TEXTH OF FEBlitiAMY NlJIVIEEii. 

EooHoiiiy and t^fi-icellany. 


Work for the Month .r.Tse 41 

A Lectiiro on Labor 4 J 

Lotton >Spiiiaing on i’lantntion.s — Mr. Iieiirv'.< Patent M:>- 

chinory •• Jo 

Tlnral Arcliitoctnro — Ornaincutal (Jarderih’.g', Ac ” 4 b 

The Art and Principles of tSoai) Making- ‘■t (.4 

Northern Cotton and Woolen Factoric.s '' 49 

A,gricnlturp in Croorgia — Fairs, &c.. Ac nO 

Steeping Seeds, A.'-. rr2 

Devon Cow Kate Aearney, (illustrated) '• .'iy 

The Fanaor’.s Privr.te Library by 

Fish Exjx'rinicnt, &c.. - " 5 ;j 

hdbnnatioa wanted of the China Lorry .%• 

Cliinese Sn.gtir Cane.b. b 3 

Hill Side Ditching r >:5 

The Chinese Proiitie Pea — letter from Col. .Marshall. '■ HI 

The Moini’s Intlucuce on man .and |.'iant.s :~)4 

S’ever give np. &c “ TM 

Chinese Saga! Cane as a Fertilizer “ 55 

One of the roads to Crime - ‘‘ 55 

Peas for Hogs, Ae - “ 55 

Chine.se Sugar at the North “ 63 

Cotton Thresher and Cleaner . 63 

Chine.se Prolific Pea — letter from llx-Oov . Drew, of Ark.. “ 64 

Steam Plow “ 64 

Defending the South “ 6-1 

Chinese +Sugar Cani^, Ac . . “ 65 

Sea Island Cotton , 66 

Sheep in Ohio, Ac “ 66 

Editorial 

Our Book Table, A.c Page 56 

Answers, to Con’e.-ipoudeut.s, Ac “ 56 

Plastic Cojtt.on^ — Valuable Inveption 58 

Mustang Wine. . . “ 58 

Cotton Packif).', A c, .18 

Colton Cro]> of io 5 b “ .59 

•) rtir ;; b <T32Je Jit. 

Report of the Co;:i.... ,.e Poiuological So- 

eiet} of Oeei gin , Page 59 

! jOW Friiit 'i’rees. A c. " 60 

i’cars — Pi-'/iit 01 , A “ 61 

Farm Oapieiis dd 

liaising Mnsbru-.imk '■ fid 

Peach Worms 02 

Win Icr Pears..'- ' '• 62 

The Fig ■ “ 63 

New Mode of Saving Bacon...' i’age bd 

Antidote of Poison '■ iti 

'i'o p-.-eserve Hams .• “ 66 

Hoav' 10 Make I'ea properly ab 

'fO Pi'o.sevve Citron ... " 66 

(^)uinces for the Tabic - •- ’• bb 

Sealing SYax for Cans :. 66 

'i’o Keep Fiie.s off (J ildiag : . - - 66 

llhsstrntidisa. 

Devon Covv Kate Kearney Pago .52 


COfclM AIM'D GOB MILL. 

. TilE CHEAPEST AN fe .E.ICST, 

W Fi offer (or sale the. above MILIi, -ndiieh snrjvas.ses all ot.hnr.s 
in speed and di.n-a.l)i ;ty, shujdieity and sij c. gth a.. w.< a as 
economy. Th.at part oi ti i; Mid iio.s . '-.iiLiiO to w ‘ ;u beoi, separ- 
ate from' thg mai;.i >; .dy, c.i.. o, ■» -ri-ooved A! .-juiij ex- 
pense. I _ 

The above Mill has received the di'st .at Bie St-i te. Fairs 

of JSew Pork-, Ohio, Michigan, \o'-'h i i , na and 2'- . • ;.,s 

also at a large nainbe.r of County ]■ airs .e v,. rious Si-ai.e.s. 

34ic YOUNG AMFJUOA MILL peic^rt.-.s its work belter and 
ueasly twice as fast' as any 'dit.rCoiu ' i i.d Cei) ivtaiyt 

oftered to the ymbiic. 

Planters are inviu-d to '\xaii;iii<; the Mill and coraoa. : bs ad- 
vantages. OrS .N A THOS. A. lii tN iS. 

Feb57— tf .. 

“irLGTARIHBS, ^APRIGOTS, FIGS, ^^c. 

A IjL the ehoiec.st varietie.s of ti r u Pomegranates, 

Almonds, English Walnut , A t ,< <'<:ss: 

Dec56— tf __ ' D ^ 9 August.-!, Qa. 

BOYiJ'o AiiXA”i:;..iA. WGATOA . 

BUSHELS ofBOYD’S F.XTllA I'KOLfFlC COTTON 
■A'li'J S.EED for -mkc. in s-u-ks from 1 to 5 bnsheis in a sank. 
Prie.e $i 'per bushel J vHlN M. TERM EH. 

NovSti — 4t Augusta Ga. 

■ CARMICHABIi A - t 

I -.rA i .^'^S IN HARDWARE, CUTLEKi, and AORICUL- 
JJ T -JR All TMPELMENTS, A'i ;,aista, Ga, 

We are, a'lso. Agents for the fo 'wing arr:<-.}i>- ; — SALAMAN- 
DER SAFES, ma.de by St.Jani.s A Javvm, New York; LI2’'rLE 
GIANT CORN AND COB MILl-.' : Indian Rubber BELTING, 
PACKJNG-andHOSE, made bv Boston Beiting Company; AT- 
KINS' SELF RAKING REAPER; CJKCl.TAR SAWS, made ! 
by Hoe A on., and Welch A Griffith’s HORSE POW'ER.-i, F.5N i 
HILLS. IHRESHERS and SMUT MACHINES. ; 

CARMICHAEL A BF.AN. j 
xYugatsta, Ga. | 


1857! 

S ‘l> U T H E R N 


1857; 

CELTIVATeik, 


• A AOrjiATAE. 

LhVO::;:> to SoyjHKRN- .AGRH'Ur.TVnK. HOiriTCLOTUfr--.. ;;T 0 ! t' 
■jki!;el) 1 .n-g. rouLTHV, aj. 

FAJ.-.-yi !-;coM):\iY, &,,c. 

DA.'b.MEL .USE, M, D., and D. REDLIOIJD, Editors. 

Tii .3 Frfteentli voIiAne commences kx Jayitzaiw 
_ lesi. 

OxE Cony', on.' year .%! j Tv. entv-Ftve ^ & ,q 

SxxWjtiks 5 I um: Hunjjuj.o (;oi>iEs.... 75 

ALvVAY.b IN AD) ANCE. No ])i!per .sent u-j ess the cash 
acc.orapanie-. the order. 

Tim Bids of ail .si'ccie-paying Bajiks. ajid IV.st Offi -e Stamp-? 
rt;eeivcd .at i)ai-. 

iiemittaiinees, by imai 1 .'pn.T-p.aiu) will be at t'ne Publisher's risk, 
AjJiJiti-'.s.s AY Al.. S. JONE?*>, -Aiig: 33 aitn., Uo,. 
fr^s-PerAcns-who will dot .as AGENTS, and obtain SUBSCRI- 
BERS, will be furnifrlicd with the paper at clitb prices. 

FLOWBR SEEDS FOR THE SOUTH. 

H .iYlNH experienced the great difficulty in obt.ainin" reliable. 

Flower Seeds suitable to the South. I have raised’a smaR 
quantity, which I am aojv offering to the public. I w-omld partico- 
lariy draw the attention of the Ladies to the unsnrpaa ed colle^'- 
t'lous of DOUBLE STOCK GILLIFLOWEKS, TEN WEEKS 
S'i'OCXS, CARNATIONS, GERMAN ASTERS, AVALLFLOW- 
ER. HOLLYHOCKS, aud many others: 

AT TEX (’F\TS A PATEti. Delphinium .\jacis. 

Double Stock Gillifiower.-?. • Dianthus chLnensis, 

*' Ton AVe<-ks Stocks. Double Balsams. 

'■ iinpi j'ial Stocks, Elicry.sium lucidu,m, 

'• .'.utiimual .SiOt k, I’apaver samnifenijii. 

w'arnatiou.s. nia.i-kantbum, 

k*v allflower, Emilea fiammea. 

Dianthus iinpp’ialis pl(aas.stma, t { ompherena globo?:i, 

Rhodonthr- M.huglesii, Hbri.s speciosa, 

Heliotn'pdum pcruvlaimm, Ipoim .i Quamoclit, 

Pbarbitis li id;-ata, Lovatcratriraestri.s, 

l’'-h'gaijura. lenetifoliuv. Mm’.solli. 

' yiVE cenx.s ‘’F.iv i’AS'KK. Plilox Dnumuoudi, 

Adoni.-i oestiyali;. 


A.geratu.u coernieiun. 

nv - r ; u ibu .s 1 1 - icol- . r. 
Ail nna i'O.S:’.-l, 

■' cliinm-si.s, 

A u ; m ob i u m alai u ; . 
AjHirrhlaam najhs, 

A. ter. ebmensis, 

Cab ndula I'vista gaili. 
Cailiopsis bicolor, 

1 '• i:;inor.i-he bieolor. 

< X;-i;)sea cristata, 
Ci'losia iiidiea, 
i .'-.‘litoiirea cvan.i'v 

rdi'rs; r-i'.closu' 
fi.-r 1 v.ery vvi 

Augusta, Ca.. or i - fje 
fion 

Ty6,o7_tf 


Portalacca Thcllu.soni, 

Potej'iina L-iiig A isorb*. 

Reseda odorata, 

Sidpig’osis varh- bibs, 

.Si:ai:ii)s.a au'..: u.qjun.' q 
<Tiiia tricolor. 

Stuecia elegam., 

Tagete.s ereeta. 

' “ r-atula, ■ 

\'.-!'i>ena liieb’.i.lris. 

■j 'ola cd.nata, 

Ziunea elegan,-. 

.K.rr;! ithcuiums an. tium, 
linap haiiu-m fobduum. 

., ' " tr'o?'.c-y .'Old a -e ce-nt postage, stamr 
b of s to l-u: 'T-t A LEITMER. 

suas." iber. -will im ei v ith prormt atten- 
ROCER i' NEi<B 0 ^N. 


PORTABLE STEAM 


subscrihar rcspcc.t.G'l y calls the- .a: 


a of "onihert; 

Plantersand Mechanics to the PORj'APd.E STEAM EN- 
i ! 'NES, of which he has the Agency in Nev. Or - ' - They are 
v; -imple in thelf consi.'u rllonthat atyvncgj'o , ry ca,pacitv 

■ ' i be taught to nm o-'.x iu .a day. For diiv ii.g .jt machinery. 
1 uuningcoi ton gins, plantation sawmills, or corn m-dls. , umping- 
vvater, steaming food, etc., they .cannot be exi -ihed. A striking 
t’oatnfe of these engines Is chat they co.stlo.?- .Lan would mules oi- 
iiorso's, ,to do the sar'ie amcmit of VAirl'. A -'■-. ir .-.f horses wdi- 
I i'.adily move them place to ; b-tco ov.er .any o” ■ nary road. They 
!-cqj: b\- no briek-woHs U; set them up, bu'.'+h-.;y are ail ready to b’ - 
put ill opei-atiim, with ij:e n.xception of ,a mioh.:--(i6r,; er cl imney. 
0>!e Is kept at work in the subscriber’s waj-el!;: - s<> . very day be- 
:a. een'dand 3 o’cloe!-:, a' d are invit--.;! tiK caii aud inspect it. 
’riie Planter, iL.iocialiy, should look y Ph uh •(.■ ■.u; uprn theifftro- 
ductioi: of those Eugiues, to tW,; .the place -ff horse-pov/er in gffi- 
' 'Ug ooi;t;;;i :ind grir:ding c-r -u. as the cc-’t o' -;inrdng .-i G. 8, or K- 
’'.;r=e Fogine is/much less e; - day Au-n du- exj);- - '■’'leding thf 
same- !iv ir.hor of iiov.-es-; 

FKICB 8 . 

2.1 House Power 8375) 

' do. ;io. 500 

6 do. do. 700 

8 do. do 900 

' 10 .}o. do 1,100 

.\ piunphlei. ■.■onvaii.yng •'id'er pavticr.hus will i)e sent bymaii t< 
pei.-i.iii .-eiu’estmi; it. Address, 

D. C. LOWBER. 

Ft'b.57~Ty 98 Magane .8t., New Orle.-uis. 


Apriio'J— Ciy 


j 



VOL. XV. AUGUSTA," GA.,~ MARCH, 185 7. 'NO. 3.' 

WTL,L.IA:\I S. JONE.S, PuMislier. DANIEL, LEE, M.D., aiid D. REDMOND, Editors. 


DEVOTED EXCLUSIVELY TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE. 


See Tenns on Last Page. 


WORK FOR THE MONTH— (MARCH.) 

THE PLANTATION. 

Provision Craps o/nd Provender. — Putin, as soon as the 
season will allow, an abundant supply of Corn^ Irish and 
Sweet Potatoes, Spring Oxts, early Cow Peas, Millet, 
Douraand common Corn (broadcast and in the drill, for 
fodder,) Lucerne, in drill, &c., &c. The Chinese Sugar 
Cane should also be planted and still farther tested as a 
syrup plant. For particulars of making, &c., see pamph- 
lets sent per mail by the agents. 

In preparing for your regular Corn crop, plow or sub- 
soil your land 10 to 12 inches deep (15 inches would be 
tar better) manure heavily and plant early. Do not lose 
a moment after the danger of late frost is over. 

As soon as you have finished the planting of Corn and 
other provision crops, prepare for respecting v/hich 

are various articles in present and former numbers. 

Sweet Potatoes should now be bedded out and provis- 
ion made for an abundant supply of ‘‘draws," No crop 
cultivated in the South is more worthy of attention than 
the sw eet Potato. It is one of the most valuable crops foi 
man or beast, and no planter .should fail to have ful 
“banks"V. the setting in of winter, even if he does no- 
make a “big crop" 01 Cotton. The (white) Yavis 

the Yellow Yanis, and the Red “fVcgw Killers" (so called' 
are all fine and productive varieties. 

Irish Potatoes should be planted in drills 3 feet apart 
and covered with a thick layer of pine straw or leaves, a^ 
heretofore directed. 

Chinese Sugar Can-: should -also be sown plentifully 
during the present and the next two months, for greet 
and dried forage. Pl-ant the Chinese Sugar Cane seed fat 
away from all plants of the Millet family, such as Dour; 
Corn, &c. Also, sow L-uceme or, “Chillian Clover. W 
prefer the drill system — land deep and rich — for ihes' 
crops. 

THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

If you have over-wintered Cabbage plants, set them 


out now. Sow^ more Cabbage seed to head in the summer 
P'lat Dutch is the best. Thin out Turnips, as soon as 
they have four leaves ; leaving them at the distance of 
six inches apart; and sow more Turnip seed; Kark 
White Dutch and Red Topped. Dutch are the best for 
spring use. If you did not sow seed (black) last 

month, do it at once ; they w'ili come into use in the lat- 
part of the summer, when all that were raised from setts 
or buttons are gone. If you did sow Black Onion seed in 
September, it can now be transplanted. Sow Carrots^ 
Beets, (“Extra Early" is the finest) Parsnips, Salsify, 
Lettuce, Radishes, Thyme, Parsley, and Rape (for early 
greens.) Plant all in rows 15 inches apart. Sow, also, 
a little spot with Celery and protect them from the sun 
When Cherry trees are in bloom plant Snap Beans-, asd 
when Apple trees are in flower plant Squashes (Scallop 
Squash 13 the best) in hills 3 feet apart; also. Cucumbers 
and Mushmelons 6 feet apart; the Nutmeg and Citron 
Mdons are very fine and the earliest ; Beechwood Melon 
iS very superior, but a little later. All vines are greatly 
benefitted by guano or poultry manure. At the same 
time, also, sow Okra, Tomatoes Egg Plants. Hill up 
Rhubarb. Asparagus will now begin to sprout ; don’t 
suffer any to run up to seed, but cut all down. Cabbages, 
j which have been set out, and are starting to grow, should 
once a week have a watering of liquid manure— a shovel- 
tul of chicken manure, dissolved in 10 gallons of water, 
will be found an excellent fertilizer for them. 

All vegetables, that already have a start, should have a 
good hoeing by the latter part of this month. 

Plant a full crop of English Peas, as heretofore directed. 

THE ORCHARD AND FRUIT GARDEN. 

If you have not finished pruning your orchard, do it at 
mce, omitting only such trees as are growing toa luxurL 
ntly to bear. Such ought not to be pruned until tire 
eaves are pretty w'el! sprouted. By this method, such 
fees will get checked and go to bearing ; should, how- 
ver, this late pruning not be sufficient, give them another 
svere pruning in the middle of July; that will prove 
atisfaclory. 

As soon as the trees are beginning to bloom, hang up a 
umber of wide-mouthed bottles, half filled with molasses- 
water, in your trees— you v/ill catch a great number of 


74 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


insects and tJius prevent them from doing injnry to your 
fruit. 

THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

Propagate DoMuis as soon as you can see the sprouts 
m- buds ; with a sharp knife split the stem idght through, 
ieaving a piece of the stem and one or two buds to each 
piece ] platit them so deep as to be covered with at least 
4 in«lies of soil Tie up all your flowering plants to stakes; 
the wood of the China tree, when splintered out, furnish 
the best and most durable stakes where Cypress cannot be 
had. If annual flower-seed has not been sown yet, it 
should be done at once. Recollect, that fine seeds will 
only need to be covered slightly. If covered deeply, they 
will not sprout. 

A LECTURE ON LABOR. 

EY DaMjEL t.KE, M.D.j PROFESSOR OP AGRICULTURE IN THE 
UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA, JANUARY, 1857. 

{<C4)nduded from our Ftbrwary number^ page 42.) 

To take a philosophical view of Labor, and develope 
the physical and intellectual man equally, and with the 
greatest success, the instruction of the plantation should 
partake more of the character of a first class school; and 
that knowledge which is most useful to the citizen, and 
the profession of tillage and husbandry, should be as dili- 
gently cultivated as the soil, for without a knowledge of 
the true principles of agriculture, planters uniformily im- 
poverish the land, and ultimately reap poor and unpro- 
fitable crops, because Labor is misdirected and misap- 
plied. On the other hand, educational institutions ought 
to have a broader basis, that the higher seminaries of 
learning and science may come nearer to the masses, and 
supply the most urgent and obvious wants of advancing 
civilization. It is folly in the extreme to suppose that the 
working muscle of the citizen and cultivated common 
sense ought to be separated. Laboring hands and en- 
lightened, cultivated intellects should be no farther apart 
than are the members of one body which the Creator has 
joined for the highest worth and usefulness of both. If 
any one, by mental and moral culture alone, were able to 
dispense with food, respiration and animal heat; if the 
health of the mind did not I'equire the habitual exercise of 
the limbs as well as of the brain ; if physical toil were 
not as necessary to the moral and social progress of socie- 
ty as it is beneficial to the constitution of the laborer; I 
should have less confidence in the wisdom of seeking to 
improve a whole community by having some work more 
and read less, some read and think more and work less, 
and many both work and read more and play less. 

Public opinion commits a serious fault when it exacts 
the cruel sacrifice of much that is valuable in the life of a 
laboring man, by compelling him to submit to thepreter- 
naturnal development of a few muscles at the expense of 
all his other faculties and powers. Nurserymen often 
dwarf trees to obtain early fruit ; but such treatment of 
man is infinitely worse, for it perpetuntee both ignorance 
and brutality in the very heart of a nation. In England, 
©n the Continent of Europe, and in this country, labor has 


been divided and subdivided to an extent quite incompat- 
ble with the dignity of the industrial arts, the general dif- 
fusion of useful knowledge, and that accumulation of 
capii .l which is so eagerly sought by this class of speciali- 
ties. It renders the producing classes narrow-minded, 
and incapable of wise self-govprnment ; so that they 
consmne in mere animal indulgences a large share of the 
wealih which their industry calls into existence. 

Porter has shown that the addition to the wealth of 
England — its production over consumption — is about fifty 
million pounds sterling a year; or not far from two hun- 
dred and fifty million dollars of our money. He has also 
proved from official and reliable data that the people of 
England annually consume spiritous liquors, including 
beer, and tobacco to the amount of fifty thousand pounds ; 
so that if intoxicatingdrinks and a poisonous weed were no 
longer used, the capital of England might be thereby aug- 
mented twice as fast as it now is. These are important and 
striking facts. They show that the wealth of theri chest na- 
tion in the world, whose surplus capital is loaned to all re- 
sponsible borrowers in other countries, and which does 
so much to construct American railways, manufacture 
American cotton, and expand American agriculture and 
commerce, might easily be doubled if the producers of 
wealth in England would only deny themselves a few 
luxuries, and lay up the money which they cost, which 
luxuries, upon the whole, injure far more than they bene- 
fit the consumers. But self denial and self-government 
are more easily taught than practiced. Habits of indul- 
gence grow with the facilities for their gratification ; and 
therefore we see the proceeds of human industry con- 
sumed in one way or another, nearly as fast as produced. 
The possession of money encourages weak minds first to 
be idle, and thus cease to add wealth to the community; and 
secondly, to double the daily cost of food and drink by 
more expensive living, and double the yearly expense of 
clothing. With the means of gratification, one’s vanity 
enlarges its consumption with marvelous rapidity ; till at 
length the fortune being exhausted by extravagance and 
vice, stern necessity compels a return to labor and better 
habits. 

Unless a wise use be made of money, or of liberty, its 
possession operates more like a curse than a blessing. 
Suppose every negro in the Southern States had full 
liberty to drink intoxicating liquors, and command of 
time and labor in from and nourish an appetite for the 
drams which lead to drunkenness 7 What would such 
liberty be worth to persons who would inevitably abuse 
it to their own serious injury 7 And what is money 
worth to one whose common sense and self-discipline are 
so little developed that it is used to patronize extravagance 
and strengthen vice and crime 7 With too much freedom 
youth runs riot on the pocket funds created by honest 
labor, because the community signally fails to teach 
through its seminaries of learning and by the force of ex- 
ample, the great science of keeping as well as producing 
property. 

To labor hard and faithfully to command gold and silver 
no matter whether the wages of one day’s work, or the 
proceeds of ten thousand, and then not know how to 
keep, nor how to use the funds so acquired, is evidently 
working for naught. There is wealth enough annually 
called into'existencesoon to enrich every member of society 
if properly husbanded, but needful reforms in haliits, cus- 
toms and fashions are not encouraged by an increase of 
capital. Hence, in prosperous times, when labor is ia 
good demand and well rewarded, the masses ever live up 
to their incomes. A few, however, are more considerate, 
and bring their expenses below their means of purchase, 
and thus add to the taxable property of the State. So far 
as my observation and means of information extend, the 
planters of the South greatly excel in this virtue. Divide 


SOUTHERfS CULTIVATOR. 


75 


the property of Georgia and South Carolina equally 
among the people of these States, excluding slaves, and 
each will have from two and half to three times more pro- 
perty than the people of the wealthy State of New lork by 
a similar division. 

In his late Report, the Secretary of the Treasury adds a 
fraction over 15 per cent, to the census valuation of 1850 
to obtain the present value of the real and personal pro 
perty of the several States, By this official estimate every 
man, woman and child in Georgia, exceeding servants 
for life, would have, an equal division, S'1,065. A similar 
division in South Carolina gives S 1,203. In Rhode Island 
which is the wealthiest, fcr capita., of the Northern States, 
a like division gives $'6-28. Massachusetts has 60G ; and 
New York about S400 ; or one-third as much as South 
Carolina. 

With such creditable and undeniable facts in their favor, 
should not South Carolina and Georgia be thankful to a 
good Providence, and content with the advantages which 
they now enjoy I The climate of New' It ork will not 
compare with that of the Cotton growing States for agri- 
cultural purposes; and the South still has ten times more 
land than laborers either black or white. Sagacious 
Southerners see the necessity of having more cultivators 
of the soil, and the only practical question is w'hether 
they shall be black or white, bond or free. 

Looking mainly to the laws of Nature for instruction 
and guidance, I venture to suggest that laborers of a tro- 
pical origin will ever be found best for the cultiv'ation of tro- 
pical plants grown in the strictly tropical “sunny South.” 
The fact should be borne in mind that the demand for these 
plants or their constituents increases much faster than popu- 
lation in Europe, and in all other parts of the world, and is 
likely to do so for one or two centuries at least. It should 
also be remembered that the Southern States contain over 
six hundred million acres of land, and after persons ot 
European extraction cultivate with tree labor all the 
ground they can be persuaded to cultivate, there will re- 
main Cotton, Rice and Sugar lands enough to give em- 
ployment to twenty million negroes. This fact indicates 
an agricultural power in the Southern Atlantic and Gulf 
States which no one has to my knowledge laid before the 
public. Time, however, will disclose the whole truth in 
reference alike to the Labor, the climate and the soil of 
the South. All that relates to its agriculture you will be 
expected to understand when you leave the University, so 
far as science and literature can inform you on the sub- 
ject. 

Here at Athens, although sufficiently elevated above 
the ocean to give us in part a Northern clim.ate, we are 
able to grow a crop of w'^inter wheat, and one of maize on 
the same land in the course of a year. Wheat and maize 
are the most valuable bread plants known ; and while our 
climate is so favorable as to bring both to full maturity, 

succession, in twelve months, that of England is too 
cold to mature corn in any part of the year, and barely 
suffices to ripen one crop of wheat. At an elevation ot 
1300 feet above the sea, wheat does not fully ripen in Great 
Britain. 

Georgia contains 58,000 square miles, or 37,120,000 
acres. Of these, the census of 1850 returns 6,378,479 as 
under improvement. Taking the permanent fertility of the 
land into consideration as well as immediate returns for 
Labor, there can be no question that better results would 
be obtained if our best skill, labor and other available 
means were concentrated on half the surface now gone 
over. In truth we have an agricultural force barely ade- 
quate to the proper cultivation of three million of our 
thirty-seven million acres This is one reason why our 
extraordinary advantages of cZiTTioic are so little appreci- 
ated both at home and abroad. Its agricultural capacity 
is about twice that of New England ; and the surplus 


fruits of our planting industry, over and above consump- 
tion, are probably four times larger tlian those of the 
farming industry of the most Northern States. Such is 
the dilTerence in climate, soil and markets, that an amount 
of labor v/hich in one place barely commands a comfort- 
able subsistence, in another, secures a foitune in addition 
to a good living. 

Regarded as a whole, the climate of Georgia is ad|mir- 
ably adapted to both white and colored laborers — to plant- 
ing and farming. There is ample room for the profitable 
employment of all kinds of agricultural industry; and it 
will unquestionably pay better at present than either com- 
mercial or manufacturing industry. N sparse population 
scattered over a million square miles need hardly under- 
take every branch of the labor carried on in den.sely po- 
pulated countries, and expect to excel in all. So long as 
land shall be in excess of occupants, the self multiplying 
power of agricultural plants and the animals will give to 
Southern tillage and stock husbandry, advantages more in- 
viting and valuable than any which are likely to be found 
in other branches of productive labor. Wlien the planter 
by putting one seed of corn into the ground gets two ears 
from it, and from one to two thousand seeds in return. 
Nature assists his Labor by the vital force in the parent 
seed, in a way and to a degree, without a parallel in any 
other department of the whole circle of industrial arts. 
Animal vitality is no less the ffiiend and laborer of the 
skilful husbandman. It is, however, rny duty to say now, 
and illustrate hereafter, that neither animal nor vegetable 
vitality confers upon agriculture, and through it upon 
mankind at large, a tithe of the benefits both will confer 
when Labor and Science are equally honored, fostered and 
understood by the American people. 

In these college halls you are learning from experience , 
something of the labor of science ; hereafter the science of 
labor will doubtless claim no inconsiderable share of your 
attention. It is indeed a profound aii.d interesting de- 
partment of knowledge, simple and common as human 
labor, whether physical or mental, appears to the feeble 
thinker. The most advanced science teaches man that he 
must labor in harmony with Nature, or her antagonism 
will, sooner or later, defeat his best laid schemes for the 
improper acquisition of food, raiment, wealth, or power. 
Is it consistent with the laws of Nature that the least cul- 
tivated Africans, as well as the more intelligent Asiatics 
and Europeans, shall be civilized by due personal efforts, 
and the 'proper instruction and care of civilized communi- 
ties. 

I know no other opposition to the industrial education 
of negroes by the cultivation of cotton, lice and sugar in 
this country, except that which attaches to, and arises 
from the apprentice system of planting. Great pains 
have been taken to prejudice the hundreds of thousands of 
European laborers who have recently emigrated to the 
United States, against the South as a field for the successful 
exercise of their skill and industy. This, and the com- 
mommon notion that a white man needs an umbrella 
over his head while working in a cotton field, to lessen 
the depressing influence of solar heat, are likely long to 
keep most Europeans from attempting to compete with 
negroes in the production of cotton and other tropical 
plants. Other branches of industry, and other kinds of 
agriculture, more European in character and associations, 
will hardly fail to command a preference, where the labor- 
er is free to gratify his taste, and tum his previously ac- 
quired agricultural knowledge to an immediate use and 
profit. Nor is the daily exposure from morning till night 
to the direct rays of a burning sun, while at work, very 
inviting to a white person born and raised in a Southern 
Atlantic or Gulf State. Hence, the never-ceasing de- 
mand for colored laborers in the large cotton growing dis- 
tricts. and their continuous migration from the tobacco 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


m 


yajsing States of Maryland and Virginia to the warmer 
Jaliludes of tiie South. But judging from the unprecedent- 
ed high price, now paid for this kind of labor, the 
supply falls njuch below the positive wants of the con- 
sumers of colton and sugar. Are these growing wants to 
be satisfied ? and if so, in what way 1 Thisisnoab- 
slract, nor idle question ; but one deinanding a practical, 
.TOt a theoretical solution. There are negroes enough in 
■MVica, if properly employed, to produce all the coffee, 
mgar, rice and cotton needed by more cultivated people ; 
B'U't opinion is greatly in conflict as to ii:hcU iy Ike proper 
miy to employ colored laborers'? Time, which settles so 
.many controversies and doubts, will ere long settle this 
grand dispute by the light of Southern experience and the 
pres-fftig wants of mankitid. 

3s?egraph wires will soon bring Africa, Asia and Eu- 
.rope very near to the New World; and our planting ad- 
vantages for the elevation of the dark-skined pagans who 
mbabil the vast continent South of the Mediterranean, can 
.Itamlly fail of being better understood in England and 
France, where some four-fifths of our cotton is manufac- 
Jared. Science is making our agriculture a most valuable 
«]Qd instructive School for the benefit of blacks not less 
than whites. Iti time, we can send colored planters to 
Jirica, every way qualified to civilize and christianize 
ate natives of that country if it be possible. Unite the 
5t®ady industry and varied attainments inseparable from 
ibe most advanced agriculture, and you unavoidably es- 
feiblish and maintain one of the most effective educational 
ifflstifulions in the world. It teaches not only the primary 
iSaty of labor and skill therein, but cultivates every Chris- 
tian feeling and principle, by which the heart and the 
ffead are equally improved. It would be a serious reflec- 
tion on any civilized, educated community to assert, that 
ffieir influence on uncivilized people would not, and could 
.not leach them many useful lessons. The duty of the 
best informed to instruct all who are less informed, and 
ihits more rapidly advance the knowledge and happiness 
of all classes, is too little urged on public attention. The 
nonorable and excellent labor of learning and teaching to 
ujainlain universal progress among mankind is clearly 
sts^cepUble of infinite extension ; and it deserves abetter 
analysis than I can give it. in the present lecture. To di- 
the labors of sincere philanthropists into proper chan- 
:®a]s is an object of no small moment; for the activity of 
opanding benevolence has made it one of the greatest 
powers of the age As productive industry and general 
iEfelligence render man less a slave to his every-day ani- 
v/ants, he has leisure to cultivate his higher and no 
bl'si faculties and sympathies; while his industrious ha- 
M-te, acquired in the school of physical necessities, will 
seoke him an earnest and steady worker in any new en 
tieTprise, whether in philanthropy, religion, politics or all 
l&re® combined. Industry must be met by equal 
mhastry; and if it is not, every idle man virtually adver- 
5is83 himself as a servant who stands in need of a master 
Mfeness long continued makes a man a brute, if not some 
tfeiog a little worse. To rise in virtue, knowledge, power, 
'saff asefulness, we should first learn the arl of learning. 
Master this art, and your success in college will he equal- 
jiy creditable to yourselves, gratifying to your friends, and 
ci/lvaniageous to the public. 

UsLORtDE OF Lime for Steeping Seed.-t-Ih Gerrnaviy 
it js considered of great efficacy. Beans steeped four 
.litaws in a solution of a quarter ofan ounce of chloride in 
a of water, were up and in rough leaf before others 

."isrwn at the same time were above ground ; and an equal 
sSilEtence was observable with other vegetables. Those 
are ambitious for having the earliest vegetables 
::E&£)Md give it a trial — Ohio Valley Farmer. 


GRASSES FOR THE SOUTH, 

Eoitors Southern Cultivator — Giving credit to 
who )i it is due, is sheer justice ; and if in so doing one in- 
dividual be made conspicuous, and it be done with a pro- 
per motive, no one can find fault. That the whole South 
need “line upon line and precept upon precept” to induce 
a change, no one doubts; and it is not to be found fault 
witli, for it is better to he slow in changing than to be ever 
changing. No one thing is more desirable, in a pecuniary 
point of view, than pastures; and nothing more difficult to 
get Southern men to attempt. The idea is continually 
before planters eyes, Xo kill grassei' ; and to name pastures 
is the next thing to insulting them. Notwithstanding this, 
I must plead for the grasses, and ask the many friends I 
have had the good fortune to make by my labors in the 
agricultural way, to believe me to be m this, as always, 
laboring for their good. 

Whilst on my trip eastward, I met with a friend of my 
youth, who was kind enough to say he had regarded me 
as wild, when urging, in by-gone days, the Bermuda 
Grass; looking on it as a curse ; and did now acknow- 
ledge he was wrong, and was putting out some hundred 
or more acre, regarding it as the best grass he ever saw. 
Since my return, a few days since, a planting friend ask- 
ing my opinion as regards Devons, said he wanted some 
50 or 100 acres of Bermuda; he has now some twenty or 
more acres ; at once frankly admitting his former preju- 
dice. 

I would say to all planters, try other grasses, try all 
grasses; let it be on a small scale so as not to injure by 
the cost, and if you need to see, so as to believe, visit the 
farm of Col. R. Peters. I again repeat, he is doing for the 
South as much as any other man, by way of proving that 
grasses will grow, that stock can be raised, that a fair in- 
terest can be made. Readers of the agricultural press 
will remember the report of Col. C room, of Alabama, as 
to Clover ; and I hope ere many years that many will be 
induced to follow the above examples. 

The planter who has never had the advantage of good 
pastures cannot appreciate the difference in the saving of 
corn, in the condition of stock, and the facility of raising a 
supply. Depending as many do upon corn and fodder, 
they will not look at the cost in the first place, and upon 
the immense labor; besides, could a planter of 10 hands 
save only 10 bushels of corn per work animal, admit he 
had 5 for the plantation and only 1 for his fiunily, thus 60 
bushels extra to feed to hogs ,or say 1-2 busliei for four 
months of the hardest time on hogs, what would be the 
gain in young stock and in sows 1 I would not be afraid 
to open an insurance office and insure that one acre of 
good land well prepared and well set in Bermuda Grass, 
kept for these 6 animals, that it alone would save those 
GO bushels in the year. Only one thorough preparation is 
needed; now calculate the saving and see how economical 
even to enclose that acre so the grass could never spread, 
admitting it to be the great evil. To make 60 bushels of 
corn is worth, labor alone, not less than, say, S15, at 25 
cents per bushel, and if 30 bushels per acre, a rent on one 
additional acre, but put at only SlO, the interest on $100 
at 10 per cent., and a planter can safely invest at 10 per 
cent. Then if preparing a hedging the acre cost SlOO, the 
planter is safe. 

But this is not all. Suppose 10 acres of rye, sown 11-2 
bushels per acre every September and kept alone for pas- 
ture and turned under, say 15th of April, when cotton is 
planted, it costs, say 15 bushels at 75 cents, $11.25; for 
the rye does about as well sown on a well cultivated cot- 
ton field, as if it were plowed just then. Then $11.25 and 
a hand to sow the grain $1 more, $12.25 ; will it not feed 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


77 


as much as ‘25 bushel of corn worth 50 cents per bushel, 
Sl‘2.50 in December, February and March 1 Try it and 
report. 

I have no sort of idea that the Rescue will, at S20 per 
bushel, begin to feed as many stock, yet I dare not dis- 
courage the Rescue, though I admit I have not confi- 
dence enough to pay S20 per bushel, and if it produces 
onhj 50 bushels per acre to pay $1000 per acre for the 
seed, it beats the Ponregranate and “Morus Multicaulis,” 
so bad that both have retired before it. 

Yours with all respect, &c., 

M. VV, Philips. 

Edwarfh^ Miss., 1857. 


OAT CULTURE AT THE SOUTH. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — Conversing with two 
planters of much intelligence as well as long practice and 
skill in planting, the Oat was alluded to, when I stated 
that our excellent ‘-Broomsedge,” whom I claim as a per- 
sonal friend, objects to oats being grown favorably upon 
the same land two years in succession, both of whom re- 
membered to hava seen a second crop of oats, and it a fair 
one, from the same land, though they had not tried it 
— the fact was a mere accident. Just here I would ask 
you to inquire, particularly, what was the result of a 
volunteer crop at the brick yard, near your city '? When 
I saw the small field the oat was small, but was improv- 
ing, and a very severe winter upon it, besides the land had 
not been plowed, and rather too much of a stand. 

In 1839 and ’40, 1 planted srme field fo oats, using a 
two horse plow both crops, preparing the land well, and 
covered with a two horse rake — land finely pulverized. 
The last crop was the best. 

We had considerable discussion as to oats injuring land. 
One of the gentlemen, about my own age, but experienced 
at the plow from his childhood, not knowing my views, 
remarked that oats did injure land, and gave the reason — 
the same I have heretofore given — and without an argu- 
ment or ceasing from his remarks until summed up, said 
the injury was in the management of the land by the 
owner — the boAl management. 

Which brought up the remark that causes my present 
writing. He said of all the varieties of the oat he had ever 
known, the one that several of us plant here is the best 
This staggered mm, as, in the month of February, he had 
said, his oat crop was lost, that his seed and labor was a 
loss from the remarkable cold weather. 

] reminded him of this. He then asked me if I had 
■plov/ed up my land and sown spring oats'? 

I told him I had, except a few acres to keep in the seed 
of the black oat. 

To this he said, although he had to all appearances 
had his oats entirely killed, having examined; indeed 1 
had looked over a part of his land ; yet as he had to supply 
another plantation with seed and was rather behind, he 
could not get time to plow up, and in postponing he found 
his oats seemed to come from the roots and his crop was a 
good one. 

This is nev/ to 'me. I certainly did not see on much of 
his land, when turnip tops had made several inches growth 
after the freeze, any sign of oat vegetation, yet there was a, 
stand, and a ciop gathered. 

This oat I have sown three or four years ; it is a black 
oat; makes either a w^inter or a spring oat ; is the heaviest 
oat I know, and does not grow so tall as the Egyptian (a 
white) oat. It begins to head out when quite low and 
grows up as it heads, so that, though of not more than h 
to 12 inches when heads are seen, the crop on good land 
will cut about 3 feet. They have sold at 75 cents and $l 
when others were to be had at 50 cents. 

1 regard the oat crop as a great object, and so far from 


regarding it is an exhauster, think it can be so managed 
as, to be an aid to improvement. There may be error in 
this, but if so, many of us are wrong. More of this ere 
long, perhaps through Frank. G. Ruffin, of Richmond, 
Va. Yours truly, 

M. W. Philips. 

Eduards, Miss., 1857. 


“HINT&i FOR STOCK GROWERS.” 

Editors Southern Cultivator — Why not say hints 
for the citizens of the South'? See page 90 of the Southern 
Cultivator for 1856, March number. There are many 
Southern men who really believe that cotton planters do 
themselves an injury by providing anything which will 
ensure a certain independence. They seem to think that 
all we make that can be made by any other people re- 
duces our customers. They seem to have the idea that if 
we make our own corn, meat and flour within the cotton 
growing region, that thus far we make people unable to 
buy our cotton. 

A project has been proposed to form a neighborhood in 
which one man will grow cotton alone, another corn, 
another hogs, and so on, and then exchange and sell the 
surplus. I ask how much money would the cotton plan- 
ter have clear '? 

My own opinion is, the Planters of the South should 
make their own supplies, such as the climate will admit 
of, except, perhaps. Sugar only, and if they have by this 
fewer purchasers, they will have more money. Because 
the diminution, if any, will be so trivial that it v/ill never 
be felt. Let any one count up the cost to buy corn, fod- 
der, meat, alone, and then how many extra bales to be 
made to pay for it. 

That the South can grow hay and make beef and mut- 
ton cheaper than it can be made in Connecticut in Mas- 
sachusetts or in New York, no one will deny if he will 
look to land worth $50 an acre. See Report of John B. 
Adger, from the Farmer rf* Planter, on the 84th and 
85th pages of the March number of the Southern Culti- 
vator for 1856. Suppose he only averaged 2 tons, his land 
not worth, perhaps, over $25 cash, it will thus be equal 
to about 3 tons of $50 land. But admit only 300 pounds 
per acre, will it not pay better than cotton 1 We of the 
South are the pronest people on the earth to talk of inde- 
pendence, and yet we are more dependent than any por- 
tion of this country at least. If we could be stimulated to 
making all necessaries, we would be on the way to inde- 
pendence, and not until then. 

As one of the citizens of the South, I am determined to 
make every exertion to not only make necessaries, but to 
make a surplus. I have done so for years, and will do it 
again. The only true policy, in my humble opinion, is 
to be, all ofus farn^ers; to have many things growing, so 
that whether it be dry or wet, whether we wake or sleep, 
something will be doing well. Rely upon no one thing. 
The reverse has and will ever cause ruin. 

Yours, &c., A Farmer. 

Mississippi, 1 857- 


In Cheshire, England, where the dairy is a great 
object of attention, it has been found that on pastures 
long used for this purpose, which had thereby become 
impoverished, the addition of bone dust to the land had 
resulted in the immediate augmentation of the crops on 
the land, of 700 per cent ! Nor, need this excite our sur- 
prise, when it has been found by the strictest examination, 
that the milk of a single cow, will, in seventy-five vears, 
exhaust the soil where she has pastured, of more than a 
ton of phosphate of lime, to say nothing of other substan- 
ces. — Ohio Valley Farmer. 


78 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


RAISING STOCK IN THE SOUTH, Arc. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — Our country here- 
abouts, this morning, looks more like the Icy South than 
the “Sunny South.'’ The trees everywhere are loaded 
with ice, and still raining, with the wind frdfo North- east 
and the thermometer indicating 33° Fah. What will be- 
come of the stock is a problem I can’t solve ; that will de- 
pend entirely upon -whether or not this weather continue. 
Planters are not prepared for such weather as this, not ex 
pecting it, and consequently their stock are badly provided 
for. More pigs and shoats die in this country than any coun- 
try I ever saw, and the reason of this is to be found in the 
fact that our system of hog culture is defective. Instead 
of managing our sows so as to have them “bring forth” in 
March and April, and September and October, in mild 
weather, and thus the pigs grow up healthy, and get the 
start of hot and cold weather, the boar is permitted to 
run with the sows from January to December, and our 
crop of pigs not unfrequently come in winter, and in the 
spring we have a few little scrubby things that have lost 
all their vitality in such weather as this, and the sows 
are not in a condition to bring them at the time we want 
them. 

If planters would manage like your correspondents, 
Bradbury, of Georgia, and E. Jinkins, of Mississippi, 
they would overcome the difficulty in hog raising, which 
they say exists in the climate. 

I read with no ordinary pleasure Mr. E. Jinkins’ article 
n the December [185G] nnmber of Cultivator. I 
think, from his talk, that he believes that land can be 
improved in Mississippi, by manuring, rotation of crops 
and rest. If so I should be pleased to hear from him on 
the subject through your journal. I have been ridiculed 
hereby some who cal! themselves P-l-a-n-t-e r-s, because 
I contend that a vt?orn-out place may be improved at less 
expense than one can be taken from the woods and 
brought into cultivation and improved in the way of 
building like the old one. 

They say, “what! haul manure enough to improve 400 
or 600 acres of land, and that, too, one or two miles ! ! ” 

No sir, I don’t propose to do any such thing. No man 
that has a thimbleful of brains in his craninm would 
dream of such a thing. I propose to make the manure in 
the field where it is needed, and on the highest points, so 
that it may be carted, and with but little trouble; and in 
this way, together with rotation, subsoiling, rest-abso- 
lute rest — turning under pea vines and stubble, and guard 
draining and horizontal culture by which last to keep the 
manure where I put it, and the soils where Nature’s God 
put it to improve a plantation. 

In conclusion, permit me to say that I intend to make 
some experiment in the application of manure to different 
crops, and subsoiling, which perhaps may throw some 
light on the above subject, the result of which I will send 
you at the close of the year. 

■Fours, &c,, G. D. Harmon. 

Utica ^ Miss., Jan , 1857. 


BEES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — The interrogatories 
of A. T. Sherrill, and Mr. LaTaste’s reply in your 
September [185G] number, and reply of “F. T.” in October 
number, have awakened me to revive my own 34 years 
of experience ; 13 years in Elbert County, Ga.; 13 years 
in Noxubee county. Miss , and 9 in Arkansas, with Bees. 
During which time I have been more liberally assisted 
by a pamphlet, or small book entitled “Buvan on the 
Honey Bee,” in arriving at correct conclusions, than all 


other reading (not s little) put together. Several asser- 
tions in that work I seriously doubted; such as the short 
life of the male bee (drone) 4 months) and worker bee 
5| months, and, long life of the queen, not proved, but 
known to live 7 years; and the- capacity of the wmikers, 
to raise a new queen, upon the sudemdeath of the old one. 
These doubts led me into various observations and experi- 
ments, to prove up for myself; and in every instance I 
found Bevan correct, and' ^vrith all my heart -would T re- 
commend to all w'ho desire correct information on Bee 
raising to purchase that truthful, and truly instructive 
work. Many other writings, that I have read, abound in 
hurtful errors. 

Of all the luxuries vouchsafed to man, I know of none 
that man takes so little pains to cultivate, and on account 
of his ignorance, abuses so badly as tlse Bee. Often it is 
said, the moth, or insects have destroys d the bees ; but 99 
times out of 100 this is not so ; they are lost either by the 
ignorance, or neglect of the owner ; and I can unhesitat- 
ingly say, that I do not believe insects ever did destroy 
a strong healthy swarm. The simpleton takes the effect 
for the cause. The dunce when he finds his bees gone 
from a gum turns it up and finds it lined with cobwebs 
and insects, then he is certain that the insects have de- 
stroyed them. Thus charging on insects the very charge 
he ought to make against himself, for murdering by his 
neglect or ignprance his ow-n most faithful and industrious 
slaves. But how is this % Do you set your gums exposed 
to all kinds of weather, cracked in many places % Do 
you set them on the ground, or so near that the toads and 
fowls of your yard can eat your bees at pleasure % If sOy 
you deserve to lose your bees — you are the true murder- 
er. 

Bees are valiant and v/aichful, and when in full force, 
will defend their entrance from all intruders; that en- 
trance should never be more than 5 inches long and 1-4- 
incli wide, 

I have already invited the reader to Bevan for much 
useful information, and, to avoid being tedious, I will now- 
give him my plan of management, which for simplicity, 
economy, and profit, is better than any I have seen or 
know of, and w-hich makes my bees worth, in a poor- 
honey country, at least $10 per stand ; yielding me 2 1-4 
gallons of the best honey, and 2 pounds of wax per stand 
a year ; worth ®2, or 20 per cent,, on $10. 

I utterly repudiate the stoppage of swarming as destruc- 
tive. Vv^here is the fool that ever thought of raising hogs 
without new families, or anytihrig CISC'! So important 
a law of nature cannot be violated without ruin ; hence 
all the fancy tales of bee palaces, bee houses, &c., are 
nothing but ingenious contrivances to destroy bees. The 
size of the gum should conform to the capacity of the 
country to produce honey. 

[Here follows a description of gums, which we are 
obliged to omit, on account of not having the requisite cuts 
to accompany it. We will indeavor to illustrate the matW 
in a future number.— Eds.] 

My gum bench is two inches higher on the back than 
the front, which gives a handsome descent from the back 
to the front — a material aid for the bees in carrying out 
their dead and filth. The lower end of the gum is so 
sloped as to stand erect on the bench, and is also 1-3 
smaller than the upper end. The importance of this is to 
lessen the waste apartment, for it is here and at the mouth 
that all the battles are fought between the bees and their 
enemies ; and the smaller this apartment is the less chance 
for the moth, especially with weak hives. The bench 
should not be less than 2 1-2 feet from the ground. And 
as much room diminishes swarming, when one vvisbes 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


79 


many swarms, the head of the gum should be placed in 
August under the upper apartment, to remain until the 
next swarming season is over. 

HOW TO MAKE A WEAK HIVE STRONG. 

Take oiF the head of the gum, cut out the comb, until 
you come to the eggs that produce the little bee; then 
cease to use smoke; patiently wait awhile, and you will 
see the bees crawl up freely, and among them the queen 
will be easily known ; capture and destroy her, 
for her v/eak laying qualities is the sole cause of 
the weak hive. But you will destroy the hive. Be 
easy ; just , close it up snugly and your faithful work- 
men and best of servants, will do the balance. The little 
workmen will go to work and build some rough cells over 
some of the eggs intended to raise the worker bee, and 
by feeding them on different food new queens are raised. 
These new queens fight for the- rule until all are slayed 
but one, and in 50 days you will see your hive stronger. 
I don’t believe it, some will say. You don’t. Very well. 
Then tell me, if you ever knew anything to lay three kinds 
of eggs. Then how does it happen that there are three 
kinds of bees, unless one kind of egg produces 2 kinds of 
bees. Answer this, or no longer doubt a truth that I have 
proven. 

THE PROPER TIME FOR ROBBING. 

There is but one season of the year that will do every 
year to rob bees, and that is immediately after the swarm- 
ing season. You can then with safety rob all but the 
young hives, and you can take all the good honey at or 
near the upper end of the gum. 

Robbing after that must be done with caution, or else 
you destroy your bees. But you can rob as often as you 
please after that, even in the dead of winter. But you 
must always leave them enough for winter food. It is no 
uncommon thing for bees to gain no weight after the 1st 
of June; and hence close robbing is dangerous. By 
weighing, I have known them to gain finely one week, 
and lose the next. Once I had a very large swarm of 
10 pounds to gain 44 pounds in 11 days, and after 5 
weeks old it gained but 10 pounds the ballance of the year, 
and I have had a swarm that come the last of August that 
gained but 6 pounds, yet lived through the winter ; anoth- 
er that weighed but 10 pounds, including bees, that also 
lived ; but these are rare cases. I have had some eight 
swarms in August and all lived, but rarely ever had one 
the last of May that did live. Fifteen pounds clear of the 
gum, makes a safe hive, to live through the winter. 

I doubt the propriety of cultivating anything to feed 
bees. But it is just to say that 1 have tried only Buck- 
wheat, and then I observed, by actual weighing of bee- 
hives, that when thejr gained fastest they paid the least 
attention to Buck- wheat ; although it was blooming finely, 
I have often watched bees on flowers, and find all gather- 
ing bee bread, and I seriously doubt whether they collect 
any honey from flowers ; but where they get it from is a 
mystery to me. But I believe the perspiration from leaves 
is the main resource, having noticed many employed oh 
green leaves when they were making large gains. 

Bevan is right about the life time of bees. Now I close 
by assuring the reader that proof and proven facts, have 
been my only guide. And if I can advance the cause of 
my little, but great favorite, I will respond to queries put 
in the Cultivator. Yours, &c., 

M. T. McGehee. 

Bradley Co., Ark., 1856. 

Cheap Fruit. — An American, at Gibraltar, writes that 
he bought “two pounds of grapes, two pounds of apples, 
two of peaches, two of lemons, and a basket to carry them, 
and all for a quarter of a dollar.” 


SOWING AND REAPING. 

Sow with a generous hand. 

Pause not for toil or pain, 

Weary not thro’ the heat of summer,, 

Weary not thro’ the cold spring rain ; 

But wait till the autumn comes 
For the sheaves of golden grain. 

Scatter the seed, and fear not 
A table will be spread ; 

What matter if you are too weary 
To eat your hard-earned bread'? 

Sow while the earth is broken. 

For the hungry must be fed. 

Sow ; while the seeds are lying 
In the warm earth’s bosom deep. 

And your warm tears fall upon it — 

They will stir in their quiet sleep; 

And the green blades rise the quicker, 
Perchance for the tears you weep. 

"Shen sow — for the hours are fleeting, 

And the seed must fall to-day ; 

And care not what hands shall reap it, 

Or if you shall have passed away, 

Before the waving corn-fields 
Shall gladden the sunny day. 

Sow, and look onward — upward — 

Where the starry light appears — 

Where, in spite of the coward’s doubting, 

Or youc own heart’s trembling fears, 

You shall reap in joy the harvest 
You have sown to day in tears. 

{English Paper. 


ECONOMY OF FEEDING FARM STOCK. BY 
Steamed Food. 

The scarcity of grain in the years 1854 and 1856 has 
led to the investigation of more economical methods of 
feeding farm stock. Thousands of farmers who had for- 
merly been in the habit of feeding hogs, cattle, and horses, 
npon dry corn in the ear, have found a saving of at least 
twenty per cent, in grinding or cleaning the corn fed to 
their stock. But recently, still greater improvement has 
been adopted by a system of more thorough preparation 
of the food by steaming or boiling, which renders it more 
perfectly adapted to the natural demand of the animal 
economy, thus securing the perfect digestion of all the 
grain consumed. 

On the 16th of July last, Mr. Samuel H. Clay, ofBour- 
bon county, Ky., put up six thrifty hogs, averaging in 
weight about 2.jU pounds each. 'Ihese he fed twelve days 
on cooked meal — taking fifty pounds of meal, adding wa- 
ter, and boiling it until the meal had absorbed sufficient 
water to increase the bulk to four hundred and fifty 
pounds of mush. This was fed to the six hogs twelve 
days. The gain of each hog was from twenty five to fif- 
ty pounds. This was by the way’of preparation for the 
experiment. The hogs were then separated into three 
lots, and placed in close pens, and fed as follows : The 
first lot, Nos. 1 and 2, were fed on boiled corn, and roa- 
sumed, in this time, nearly seven bushels when dry. Un- 
der this treatment the two gained 102 pounds. Nos. 3 and 

4 were fed the same length of time on boiled meal, pre- 
pared as detaded above. The meal, when dry, was less 
than five bushels; No. 3 gained thirty pounds, and 4 
gained fifty pounds. 

Numbers 5 and six were fed on dry corn for the same 
period, and consumed seven bushels and one peck. No„ 

5 gained 10 pounds and No. 6 gained 32 pounds. Taking 


80 


southern cultivator. 


the average gain of the hogs in the separate pens under 
the various forms of feeding, and estimating the value of 
the corn at 28 cents per bushel, it brings the cost of the 
meat gained per pound as follows : Nos. 1 and 2, fed on 
boiled corn, at 1 cent and 9 mills per pound ; Nos. 3 and 
4, fed on cooked meal, at 1 cent and six mills per pound ; 
and Nos. 5 and 6, fed on dry, cost 4 cents and 8 mills per 
pound. 

At the end of thirty days, the hogs were changed and 
fed as follows : Nos. 5 and 6, that had been fed on dry 
corn, were changed and fed on cooked meal for twenty- 
six days; they consumed in that time six bushels, and 
gained together seventy-four pounds. Nos. 3 and 4, that 
had been fed on cooked meal, were now fed the same 
length of time (twenty-six days) on diy corn, and con- 
sumed six and a half bushels. No. 3 gained thirty-four 
pounds, and No. 4 gained ten pounds. Nos. 1 and 2 wjpre 
continued on boiled corn, with about the same result as 
on the first trial. Estimating the corn as above, the cost 
of the gain of Nos. 5 and 6, fed on boiled meal, was one 
and a half cents per pound. The gain of Nos, 3 and 4, 
fed on dry corn, cost four cents and one mill per pound. 

Taking the extremes in the experiment, it will be seen 
that No. 5, when fed on dry corn, consumed 202^ pounds 
and gained but ten pounds in thirty days, which brings 
the cost of the pork gained at ten cents and one mill per 
pound. The same animal, when put on boiled meal, in 
the second trial of twenty-six days, consumed but 117 
pounds and gained 40 pounds, which reduces the cost to 
one cent and four mills per pound. No. 4, when fed on 
cooked meal, reduced the cost to one cent and three mills 
per pound, and when changed to dry corn increased the 
cost to nine cents and one mill per pound. 

Recent trials in feeding dairy cows on steamed food, 
show equal advantage in the inerease of milk and condi- 
tion of cows over the ordinary method of feeding. — Volley 
Farmer. 

A 3IISCEI.I.ANEOUS LETTER. 

1. Cholera in Foiols — Charcoal as a Remedy. 2. Hog 
Hair to Manure Irish Potatoes. 3. A Cock with Four 
Spurs. 4. Seuppcrnong Metamorphosis. 5. Shelter for 
Stock. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — Sending you my dol 
lax for the next years subscription to the Cultivator, I will 
add a line or two on some other subjects. 

1. Cholera in Fowls. — Have you or any of your 
subscribers ever tried charcoal for this disease ?- A neigh - 
bor of mine, not long since, had two chickens attacked 
with the above epidemic, and in order to get them out of 
the way, so as not to impart the contagion to other fowls, 
she sent them off and put them in the coal pen, near the 
blacksmith’s shop. In a short time these two chickens, 
contrary to their owners’ expectation, recovered. Think- 
ing that it might have been owing to the charcoal my 
neighbor mentioned it to a friend others, who resoved to 
test the charcoal cure the first opportunity. Shortly after 
an opportunity presented itself for her to make the trial. 
One ofher Muscovy ducks was taken with the epidemic 
which produced the usual prostration. The lady took 
this fowl which could not stand up, washed off the gum- 
my stuff which usually issues from the mouth and eyes 
in such cases, and gave the duck powdered charcoal, 
mixed with dough. The fowl was so far gone that the 
dough had to be forced down its throat. In less than a 
day it had gotten well. I do not pronounce charcoal a 
good remedy for cholera in fowls, but recommend experi- 
ments to test its value in fowl pharmacopceia. I shall try 
it when I have an opportunity. | 

An old man told me, the other day, he thought cholera 
wa§ produced among poultry by their sv/allowing live 


insects, worms, or maggots, which continued to live in, 
the stomach after they had been swallowed; and gave as 
a proof, his having opened fowls that had died of this dis- 
ease, and having found “live things” in their craws. I 
cannot agree with my old friend, for my own post mortem 
examinations do not confirm his theory. Perhaps I was 
not careful enough in searching for the cause. Let this 
theory be farther examined into 

2. Hog Hair to Manure Irish Potatoes. — Any ma- 
nure that is better than cotton seed must be good indeed. 
Hog hair for manuring Irish potatoes is better than cotton 
seed. I tried this the past summer, manuring part of my 
potatoes, on the same bed in the garden, with cotton seed 
and part with hog hair. You could tell to the very row 
where the former ended, and the latter began. The rows 
that were manured with hog hair produced larger, aud 
greener vines, and more potatoes. As the seacon for 
killing hogs has just passed', let everyone who has Irish 
potatoes to plant collect the hair at once, before it is scat- 
tered and lost, and put it in a corner of the garden to use 
in the spring. I know a wealthy planter of whom his 
neighbors say that his negroes would as soon think 
of leaving one of the hogs at the killing place as to fail 
to collect the hair, and cany it to the garden. Of course 
hair is a good manure for field as well as for garden 
crops. 

3. A Cock with Four Spurs. — I have in my poultry 
yard a cock which is a curiosity that I never before saw 
or heard of. He has four distinct and perfectly formed 
spurs two on each leg, one immediately above the other 
These spurs touch each other at the base, but are en- 
tirely distinct. The lower ones are something over an 
inch long, and the upper ones are a little over three quar- 
ters of an inch. The cock is of the ordinary breed of 
chickens, perhaps a little crossed with Shanghai, and is 
not yet quite two years old. I must give him a “walk” 
to himself, with a few hens, and see if he will propagate 
his variety. 

4. Scuppernong Metamorphosis. — A neighbor ©f mine 
has a Scuppernong vine, which after bearing the veritable 
grape that it should have done for four or five years, this 
summer produced nothing but small, black, hard musca- 
dines instead of white fruit. There was no muscadine 
vine witnin a quarter of a mile of it, or I might think the 
colored grape was the offspring of illicit amours between 
the Scuppernong and the Muscadine. Perhaps they con- 
cealed love-letters in pollen, and made carrier pigeons of the 
bees. But then, if this theory be correct, why should the 
fruit be so black '? Why not a mulatto color 1 But per- 
haps, after all, this Scuppernong may be a “Southern vine 
with Northern principles ;” and, partaking of the Fremont 
furor, have indicated its perference by changing its color. 

It is to be hoped that another year it may be a white man 
again. If it does not, my neighbor, who has no use for 
traitors or turn- coats, will cut it down, and no longer 
suffer it to cumber Southern ground. 

In the same garden, a number of years ago was planted a 
“white blackbery” vine In a few years the fruit of this 
vine became black. I accounted foi this, however on the 
score there having been blackberry vines not far from the 
garden. But may there not be something in this soil of 
this garden which has a tendency to change white fruit 
to black I 

5. Shelter for Stock, — A farmer should have shelter 
for all of his stock except, perhaps, hogs. I have been 
reminded of this by seeing the manoeuvers of my calves 
during the present cold spell. My milk-woman and cow- 
boy have their fire morning and evening at the cow-pen 
in order tc tha w ihtir fingers when they consider them 
“friz.” No sooner is the fire made than the calves crowd 
around it, disputing and pushing for precedence, like a 
crowd of school boys. It would be very pleasant to them 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


81 


to have sheds warmed up with s^ood fires, no doubt. But 
as they cannot gel both, they would compro- 

mised by accepting the sheds. And if I live and prosper 
they shall have the latter. But oh! the curse of cotton! 
How many comforts it cuts off from man and brute ! 

Horses, cows, and sheep should all have shelter. As 
to hogs, it is doubtful policy to give it to them, from the 
fact that, asleep or awake, they always have their snouts 
in the dirt. And when the dirt is dry, it gets into their 
nostrils and lungs, and gives them coughs and consump- 
tions. Under shelter the dirt is always dry, and there is 
nothing like hogs to “kick up a dust.” Perhaps, then, 
the/ should not have shelter. lam sorry for them, but 
they “had no !>usiness to be hogs.” They might put up 
with a good thick skirt of woods, and this is protection 
enough from the weather for them. Or if they have sheds, 
the roofs should be suffered to leak a little occasionally. 

But, Messrs, Editors, I must close this salmagundi let- 
ter, leaving it to you to print or burn. 

J. A. Turner. 

Timiwnld, Putnam Co., Ga., 18.57. 


CUETUKE OF BASKET AVIEEOW. 

The cultivation of Willows is not difficult nor expen- 
sive if properly understood. The first thing necessary, is 
to choose a proper piece of land, which should be rich 
and moist, but not wet. Many suppose that willows re- 
quire a wet place or they will not thrive, but it is not so. 
If you will notice where native willows thrive best, you 
will find it is not in wet places, but close to the banks of 
some stream, where the land is always well drained, but 
never suffers from drouth Consequently, we find the 
best land for a willow plantation is rich allavial interval 
that is flowed constantly; or a mucky swamp, naturally 
moist, but well drained. If the land is not naturally rich, 
it should be plowed under as deep as possible, then har- 
row and fit it as you would a garden. There is no danger 
of doing it too well, as you have it to do but once and it 
will aft’ect the crop for several years. 

When the land is prepared, mark it off as you would 
for corn, or use a line to set by and set the cuttings in 
rovs’s feet apart and about 1 foot apart in the 
rows; stick them perpendicular and leave but one or two 
buds above the ground. If it is green sward use an iron 
spindle to make a hole for them. On mellow land, it is 
no more work to set an acre of willows than to plant an 
acre of potatoes, but it is very important that it be done 
well, as they are not set every spring, and if badly started 
they will never produce a full crop. 

They should be cultivated the first year so as to pre- 
vent all grass and weeds from growing among them and 
keep the ground loose, and the second year until they get 
up so as to shade the ground and be injured by working 
among them. 

Cuttings should be procured in the winter and set as 
early in the spring as the ground can be prepared. 

CUTTING, BINDING, &C. 

The cutting is a very important of their cultivation. It 
may be done as soon as the leaves are off, or at any time 
before the buds begin to start in the spring. 

But it must be well done, they must be cut close and 
clean, othefwise the stools will form in bad shape and 
will not prodi.ice good willows. The best way to be sure 
of having it done well, is to cut them as close as you can 
— say within an inch of the old stock — and then in the 
spring go over them again, and cut all small ones that may 
have been missed, and cut dov/n many stubs that may 
have been left too long. This is but little labor and will 
insure a good crop. 

The best instrument to cut them with is a small hook, 
similar to a corn-cutter, with a blade two or three inches 


long, and the handle about two feet ; the blade should be 
narrow and thin similar to a jack-knife. 

They should be bound in small bundles as soon 
as cut, and lie careful to get the lower ends even. To keep 
them from drying up until the water is ready in the spring 
they may be set in a damp cellar, or set up in a solid pile 
on some moist piece of ground, and straw piled around 
them to keep them moist. As soon as it begins to be 
warm in the spring set them in water sufficiently deep to 
touch the lower ends of all and let them stand until they 
peel which will be in May or June in this latitude. If 
you have a brook running through your land, you can 
easily fix a place to set them, by building a dam so as to 
flow a level piece, and then put up poles, once in a few 
feet, for them to lean against, so that the sun may shine 
on them and the air circulate freely through them. Or in 
case there is not a brook convenient, a small piece of 
ground in some low place, can be levelled, and after mak- 
ing it as tight as possible, bring a stream of water into it 
with spouts or pipes. 

PEELING AND PREPARING FOR MARKET. 

In peeling willows by hand, as they always have been 
peeled, it was necessary to handle them all over twice, 
one at a time, which made it very slow business, requir- 
ing the labor of a man and boy to peel one hundred lbs. a 
day: but as there is no longer a necessity of peeling them 
in that way, it would be needless to describe the opera- 
tion. With the machine the peeling is very easily and 
quickly done ; the operator takes a bundle of willows and 
feeds them into the machine as he would a bundle of grain 
into a threshing machine and they are passed through and 
come out peeled at the rate of one to two tons per day. 
There should be a trough or vat of water so placed that 
the rods will fall into it as they come out of the machine, 
and as often as the trough is full, rinse them in the water 
and spread them out to dry. When they are sufficiently 
dry so that they will not mildew, they may be tied in bun- 
dles and are ready for market. In binding them put some 
of the thick ends both ways so that the bundles will be as 
large at one end as at the other, and to get them tight use 
a strap with a buckle at one end, and draw them together 
as tight as possible, then tie with strong twine three or 
four bands to a bundle. They are very slippery things 
and if not well bound are liable to work loose and thus be 
scattered and lost. The object of having them fall into 
the water as they come out of the machine is to remove 
the slime, thus preventing them from turning color, as it 
very desirable to have them white. 

THE AMOUNT PRODUCED PER ACRE. 

This, of course, varies, as with every other crop, accord- 
ing to the richness of the ground and the cultivation. The 
amount will range from one to three tons, and sometimes 
higher, even to five or six tons, but two or three tons may 
be considered as a fair average yield. The first year’s 
crop will be comparatively light — depending much upon 
the cultivation which they receive — the second year they 
will produce a middling crop, and the third year a full 
crop, and every year thereafter. 

ENEMIES 

The Willow is subject to no disease and has very few 
enemies. The bark and leaves are so extremely bitter 
that cattle will not eat them, and there is no need of fenc- 
ing them in if they are in a lot where cattle run only in 
fall and spring, but it will not do to let cattle run among 
them through the summer. 

There is a caterpillar similar to an apple-tree-worra, 
which eats their leaves, and thus stops their growing, but 
they are not numerous and do but very little injury. But 
to prevent their spreading it^ well to go through the field 
two or three times in the coffse of the summer and des- 
troy all that can befound, and by so dong but very few 
will make their appearance another year. 


82 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


THE MARKET. 

There is no fear about finding a ready market for any 
quantity of willow. It can be used for such u great vari- 
ety of purposes that there is no calculating the amount 
that will be used in this country when it can be obtained, 
Ido not expect that it will always command the prtce it 
does, neither ought it do so. Now that it can be peeled 
by machinery, at a cost not exceeding ten dollars per ton 
and the whole cost of raising and peeling a ton not ex- 
ceeding fifteen ortw^enty dollars, it ought not to sell for 
“one hundred and fifty dollars.” At present the price is 
even higher than that and but very few can be obtained at 
any price, and none except in a few of our largest cities. 
But if they could be supplied they would find a hungry 
market in every city and town in America, and the uses 
to which they can be applied are so numerous that the 
amount which would be used if they could be obtained at 
a reasonable rate is absolutely unlimited, • But allowing 
that we may sometime produce enough to more than sup- 
ply our own market, they would readily find a foreign 
market, and we may as well export willows as cotton or 
any other product and we ought to export a great many 
to pay for those we have been importing for the last 
twenty years . — Farmer tf* Visitor. 


HILL SIBS ' BITCHING IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — In the Cultivator (ox 
October I notice an article on “Hill Side Ditching — Capt. 
Hardwick’s Plan,” which, With regard to the manner of 
arranging the instrument, is exactly what has been prac- 
ticed in this part of Mississippi for some years. Yet, I 
think, for our lands, (which have a spongy soil six or eight 
inches deep with a clay subsoil entirely impenetrable by 
water — thus causing the soil to become saturated and 
wash off) we have a plan of running our ditches which 
answers a better purpose than the one he suggests. We 
take the level to the highest point on a natural drain and 
start as Capt. H. does, with the short end of the level in 
front and run up hill. Should the hill have two drains, as 
represented in the sketch sent herewith we go to the top 
of the hill, then turning the longer end of the level in 
front we descend to whatever point our instrument carries 
us. We then direct the natural drain to whatever distance 
we think necessary (depending on the nature of the land) 
and lay off another ditch, and so on until we have 
finished. 

After our ditches are laid off we then make them 
our guide rows, and instead of making our rows perfect- 
ly level we plow parallel to our ditches on the under side 
and cause each long row to empty its own water. All the 
short rows empty into the next lower ditch. 

We never give our ditches more fall than will carry off 
the water — say from one to one and a half inches in 
twelve feet. Those ditches which answer best are made 
shallow and wide — say 3 feet wide and 4 inches deep — all 
the dirt having been rolled out with hoes on the lower 
side of the ditch. 

Where the hill sides slope gradually we allow a greater 
distance between the ditches, and our object in these 
ditches is not so much to carry off water as to prevent 
washes. I have seen Capt. H.’s plan tried here, but it 
don’t work so very well and has been altogether discard- 
ed here. 

I herewith send you a rough sketch of the plan alluded 
to that you may understand it more easily ; as I am more 
of a practical farmer than a writer on agriculture. If you 
think you can make anything of this, by any corrections 
you may think fit, which M|i|l benefit your readers, do so ; 
if not, throw it under the table. W. H. R. 

Canion, Miss,, Oct., 1856. 


PLOWS FOR THE SOUTH, &c. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — You may remember 
my writing to you last fall for information- respecting the 
best Plows adapted to light sandy soils. You referred me 
to Dr. Philips, of Mississippi. I wrote him, and his letter 
in reply being very satisfactory and instructive, I enclose it 
for publication, in your valuable journal, hoping its peru- 
sal by your subscribers vi^ill prove valuable to them. 

Respectfully. W. J. Kurtz. 

Laurens, Co., Jam.., 1857. 

Edwards, Miss., Dec. 5, 1856. 

Dr. V/. J. Kurtz — Really and sincerely, sir, do I receive 
with great pleasure such letters as yours of the 16th. This 
day read and this night I reply. I am pleased for two or 
more reasons: — 1st, that my friends deem me that 
worthy ; 2d, when I can be of service. I have in all pro- 
bability, been at more expense and more trouble in test- 
ing plows than any private farmer, North or South, and 
I trust not without advantage to my fellows, to my coun- 
try, and not least to the deserving mechanic. This class 
of our population is not sufficiently prized, they are the 
planter’s strong aid ; without them we could not possibly 
make our labor remunerative, when prices droop. I ad- 
mit, too many of them are governed entirely by the sordid 
motive, but the few who follow their calling from a desire 
to give satisfaction and arrive at excellence should give 
respect even to the indifferent. 

From the character of your land, I would judge that 
you would want a mould board to set at a larger angle to 
the bar than I would, with a little less fullness in the 
breast and a little more curve. Our planters as well as our 
mechanics are too much inclined to have one plow for 
I all work. If you will reflect on this matter, you will at 
once see a stiff soil requires more force to break up ad- 
hesion and less curve to turn, for it only needs to be turn- 
ed very little over a perpendicular, whereas lighter soils 
need comparatively no force to break up adhesion, but 
more to turn further so as to make a clean turn. I would, 
therefore, advise you to apply to T. E. E. Beinley , 
Simpsonville,' Ky., to make a plow for light lands. I re- 
gard him to be the best plow-maker I now know. His 
prices are;— No. li, 2 horse, $8; No. 1, I horse, $6.50 to 
$7; Double Shovels $7, excellent for cultivating ; Culti- 
vator $7, a 3 small shovel implement, very nice for culti- 
vating and stirring the earth. 

I know his prices seem high, but I know tiiey are cheap- 
er than any 5 or 6 plows I ever used. I have used them for 
three crops already, and they will do me for five more, at 
least double that of the cheap plows. Bebides, being steel, 
when worn out the steel is valuable for laying, &c. 

The Mississippi Scraper is hard, very hard to describe, 

I have not the price. They are made of a slab of iron 
about 12 inches wide and some 16 long, and shaped as a 
long diamond ; the side fastened to the plow is 2 inches 
higher than the outer edge, so as when the edge next to 
cotton is on the bed the outer edge hugs the bed or dips 
into it, and when set on level land the handles and chip 
are not perpendicular. The bottom edge is sharp and 
kept so, so as to shave off earth, grass and weeds. They 
are made too light and not long enough. When you are 
ready, I will take great pleasure in having one made for 
you exactly right, by which you can have others made. 

Let me say this: be not discouraged on trial, put to 
the Scraper the most skillful hand and give $I when he 
shaves a bed to stand end to end, leaving about ^ to 1 
inch on each side of the cotton only, not touched. 1 have 
10, perhaps 20 hands that can average 2 to 3 acres, be- 
hind good scraping, in putting cotton to a perfect posi- 
tion for first working — not to a stand, but in bunches. 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


83 


The culti’.’ator I prctar is eiiher the double shovel, 
moulds- about b inches wide, twisted like h turn plow, or 
three shovels to a light sto^k, small shoveT. 

I always count upon a Doctor makiii" a good planter 
or I’armer if he will devote himself to it. Your beginning 
is good. Levy coiitributions, “black mail” on every 
source to get infor.mation, if meanness characterize the 
possessor, iet-liim go and try. somewhere else. 

My ambition is to be useful. Whenever and wherever 
1 can serve, you oblige me by conimanding the services of 
Yours truly, M. W. Philips. 



^ NIM A I i J [ A N 17 RE S^— SU B S O I L I N G . 

Editor.s SpuTHBRX CULTIVATOR — "As the grave yard is 
located in a grove of trees, the roots of which, we found, 
had left their usual horizontal position near the surface of 
the ground and had gone down perpendicularly to the 
bottoms of these two old graves where they had rioted for 
unknown years on the remains, perchance, of some sturdy 
yeoman or maiden fair.” 

The above extract is from Mr. J. Van Buren’s article in 
the December riSali] number of tha Southern Cultivator, 
in which I do not think he has given the whole cause of 
the “roots leaving their horizontal position near the sur- 
face of the ground, " and going to the bottom ofthe graves. 
They may have gone, in- part, in search of the “lamented 
dead,” "out the main cause was that the earth where they 
went down had been spaded and pulverized, or, in other 
words, svMnilcd. His discovery, therefore, is not only in 
favor of depositing dead animals as food for fruit trees, but 
is also a powerful argument in favor of subsoiling. No 
one supposes that the roots of those trees would have left 
their horizontal position and went down to the remains of 
the departed, if the ground had been as hard there as else- 
where. Just so in corn and cotton culture, if we plow 
de«p we give the roots of plants liberty to hide themselves 
from the scorching sun and roam at pleasure and with 
ease in search of the food which they need. 

Yours, &c., G. D. Harmom. 

Uiicc, Mlsi , Jan., 1857. 


EEVI'L CIRTTJRE — HORIZONTAEIZING, &e. 

Editors SouTHER.v Cultivator — I have just had the 
pleasure to read Col. H. J. Cannon’s communication in 
the January number of your invaluable journal, and as 
he has had much to do with me in his remarks, and in 
some instances seems to misunderstand me, I feel called 
upon to set my.self right. I read the Col fs article with no 
ordinary pleasure, and feel myself much benefitted by its 
perusal. 

To keep land from washing has long been my favorite 
.study, feeling as I did and do and shall, that it is the fun- 
damental ground work of all Agricultural improvement. 
And any system from whatever quarter, which had for 
its object that result, has ever received from me the most 
respectful consideration. And I am proud that this sub- 
ject occupies such a prominent position in this depart- 
ment of “Plantation Economy” in your paper. 

Col. Cannon’s system of “leveling” land seems to be 
ideniicnl with my own, the only difference being found 
in the fact that T find it necessary to locate in addition to 
“leveling,” hill .side ditches. 

And if Col C. had read my article as carefully as I did 
his, he would have found that my ditches gave me no 
more “short rows” and turns than he has without them, 
as my row.s cross the ditches as they come to them, the 
plows, in cultivating the crop crossing them also, paying 
no attention whatever to them — the hoe hands being re- 


quired to dead out any dirt that the plows may leave in 
the ditches. 

My system of “leveling” land being the same as Col. 
Cannon’.s, and he having saved his land by that system, 
and I having failed, it follows, therefore, that something 
more than leveling is required in this country, and that 
something is nothing more nor less than hill side ditching; 
and here the controversy between ue on this point ends. 
Still, however, I intend to run on -a. perfect level every foot 
of every row in one field in which there is no ditches, and 
report the result; and that report, I am sati.sfied will, be 
washed, badly washed!! — would have been saved by 
ditches. And here permit me to say to those who have 
contemplated ditching and “leveling,” not to be deterred 
by Col. Cannon’s success in the “cleaner corners ofTen- 
nessee,” for his .system will just as certainly fail in this 
country as that the thermometer, in Hinds county, this 
morning, was at 14'^ Fah. 

But the most remarkable feature of Co'J. C.’s article, to 
my mind, is the fact that he “regrets that I located him in 
the mountains,” as if that word carried v/ith it something 
reproachful. 

Now, if Col. C. thinks that I have done "him and his 
country injustice because, to illustrate an agricultural 
truth, I said he cultivated the stiff lands of Tennessee, 
similar to that in the mountains, what sort of justice does 
he suppose his expression ot unutterable contempt for 
mountain life has done hi.s brethren of his ov/n State, who 
live in the fertile valleys, amongst the mountains, which 
is to be found in every division of the State — East, Middle 
and West. Last fall was a year ago, I was in every di- 
vision of Tennessee, and I found the people quite as in- 
telligent and the lands quite as good for the purpo.se3 for 
which It v/as used, in Middle Tennessee and in the East- 
ern portion of the State as that in Col. C.’s “cleaner cor- 
ner.” 

At “Mont Vale Springs,” in the Eastern portion of the 
State, 28 miles from Knoxville, in the mountains of 
Blount county, I was cured of that “demon of human suf- 
fering,” Dyspep.<=ia, and I shall always, I trust, look back 
to that spot — to the “sparkling waters of Mont Vale” — to 
the mountain scenery that around it everywhere meets the 
eye, and to the pure invigorating mountain air, which 
bears up the drooping spirit, with the fondest recollections. 
I shall always remember the feelings inspired when tra- 
velling on the cars from Chattanooga to Nashville. The 
train was thundering along the railway with lightning 
speed, and, looking out the eye rested upon mountain 
rising in majestic grandeur above mountain, and in a 
line about the same distance from the summit, were huge 
craggy rocks, thrown wildly upon every mountain, pre- 
senting the appearance of innumerable white villages in 
the distance. 

Unlike Col. Cannon, to my mind that word “Moun- 
tain,” is associated with ideas solemn and sublime. It 
brings to the mind salutary and consolatory reflection. 
Our Savior often retired to the mountains and prayed 
where no eye but his Farther’s could see. He was “trans- 
figured upon a high mountain,” in the presence of Peter, 
James aud John. He wept over Jerusalem, the Holy 
City of God, which was located in the mountain, or 
“surrounded by mountains,” He atoned for the sins 
of the world upon the mountain. Our Heavenly Father 
selected a mountain for the Ark and the first family of the 
new world to rest upon. Moses, the man of God was 
interred upon a mountain, Ho.mer, the immortal poet, 
sung in the most mountainous country in the world. The 
mountains have produced the world’s great men. Still 
Col. Cannon had as soon “take a tree” as to go to a 
mountain. 

But this article is already too long. Adieu. 

Yours, &c., G. D. Hahmom*, 

Utica, Miss., 1857. 


84 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


CHINESE SUGAR CANE EXPERIMENT. 

The following (says the Germantov-n Telegraph) is one 
of the fairest tests we have yet seen with the Chinese 
Sugar Cane, indeed it is less than a fair test, as it 
was made, as will be seen, under disadvantages; but 
the result was the same as with others. Mr. Bulkley’s 
horse eat the leaves and stalks greedily. Cows cannot 
eat portions of the stalks unless they are chopped in small 
pieces, on account of their inability to bite them in two. 
Hogs are known to be fond of the stalks. A gentleman 
from Massachusetts, informed us a few days ago, that as 
provender for cattle, the fodder — stalks and leaves — pro- 
motes the secretion of milk — increases the quantity and 
qualty of butter — and in fat cattle gives a fine flavor to the 
beef! At any rate, and under al circumstances, the plant 
may be regarded as an acquisition of no mean importance 
to the countiy ; and as there can be little or no speculation 
inthe seed, there is not the least motive in any one to at- 
tempt to mislead the public, Mr. Bulkley’s commtinica- 
tion, we repeat, is valuable. We copy from the Scienlijic 
American : 

EXPERIMENTS WITH THE CHINESE SUGAR 
MILLET. 

Messrs. Editors : — Knowing that you take a deep inter- 
est in anything which promises to be valuable for our 
country, I send you the result of an experiment which I 
made with the Chinese Sugar Millet — Sorghum Sacchara- 
twm. 

Having received from the Patent Offlce a paper of seed, 

I planted it as a matter of curiosity, though not having 
the least confidenc that it would prove to be worth any- 
thing, The seeds and stalks so nearly resembled our 
common broom corn as to make me feel quite sure that 
they were these. 

I planted it in hills, about % feet apart, with G to 10 
seeds in a hill. It was greatly neglected during its growth, 
from an impression of its worthlessness. 

Some time in August, there was a chance frost which 
nearly terminated its growth, and, in fact, completely des- 
troyed some sweet corn growing in the same garden. 
The millet was just putting forth its seed stalk, and the 
seed was consequently, all destroyed. The stalks, how- 
euer, were left standing until some time in October, when 
— still supposing them to be worthless— I had them cut 
and thrown into piles, to get them out of the way. 

After they had Iain upon the ground for some time I 
took a handful of the stalks and gave them to my horse, 
who eat them greedily— eating both leaves and stalks. 

About this time, I saw a statement in the papers that 
some person had made some molasses from this plant. 
This led me to make the following experiment with mine, 
although I had reason to suppose that the frost and the 
exposure on the ground would have destroyed any good 
qualities which it might have originally possessed. 

I took some of the canes and cut them into pieces about 
three inches long, when they were readily ground through 
one of Hickok’s Portable Cider Mills, with cast iron grin- 
ders ; and then pressed with the powerful pressers at- 
tached to the mill. The quantity ground was about half 
a bushel of the pieces, and the juice expressed was about 
^ven quarts. This juice, when evaporated, made one 
quart of molasses, that is pronounced, by those who have 
tasted oi it, to be superior to the New Orleans molasses, 
and some say, equal to the flavor of the maple syrup. It 
is, at all events, good molasses. 

From an estimate made, I judged that the square rod of 
ground planted — if the canes had all been used — would 


have produced four gallons of molasses, or at the rate of 
640 gallons per acre. Such a crop would have proved 
valuable the last year, since sugar and molasses are sO' 
high. 

There is little doubt in my mind that any person who 
has a small piece of land may manufacture his own mo- 
lasses and perhaps sugar. 

I cultivated on so small a scale as not to warrant the 
expense of erecting the rollers for expressing the juice 
from the cane ; they may be cut in a straw cutter, and 
ground in one of Hickok's Portable Cider Mills, with 
such facility that two men could obtain five or six bar- 
barrels of the juice per day by hand, and proportionally 
more if horse or other power is used. This juice could be 
cheaply boiled in one of the evaporators with which you 
are acquainted, without burning the syrup or wasting any 
fuel. 

Besides the molasses obtained frofti the stalks, the 
leaves will make good forage, the seed will nearly equal 
that of a crop of corn or oats, and the tops will make 
brooms. 

With all these advantages, may not the Sugar Millet 
prove of great value to the community '? Every family 
in the country can make their own sugar and molasses, 
while at the same time, the seed, forage, and brush for 
making brooms will pay all the expenses of raising the 
crop. 

Those having seed to spare, will do well to make it pub- 
lic, that more experiments may be made during the next 
summer. H. G. Bcjlkley. 

Kalamazoo, Mich., 1857. 


COTTON — CIRCUMSTANCES ALTER CASES. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — In reading your jour- 
nal (and I love to read it) I have sometimes been surprised 
to see what uniform rules, some of its contributors lay 
down for the preparation of land in which to plant cotton, 
without considering the old and important adage that “cir- 
cumstances alter cases.” This adage must not be over- 
looked by farmers, if they would be successful in their 
avocation, plant what they may; and the disregarding of 
which has often caused failures, discouragements and loss. 
True, there are things in the management of cotton as well 
as other products that will apply wherever it is cultivated, 
but no rule for preparing the land will apply uniformly, 
with equal success, all over our vast cotton growing re- 
gion with its varied qualities and states of soil, that is to 
say : that some kinds of land need more preparation than 
other kinds. Planters must learn to regulate their opera- 
tions according to what they are operating upon. Some 
planters contend that it is useless to break up cotton land 
before bedding. Yea, that it is best not to do it. 

This may do on cortain kinds of land where the soil 
is inclined to be loose, sandy and mellow, but where the 
soil is close and stiff, cotton will always grow better and 
yield a more remunerative crop if the land is broken 
thoroughly and deep. This theory is often made to look 
very plausible, and may perhaps be correct so far as its 
advocates own farm or section of country is concerned, 
and hence some person living in another part of the coun- 
try and cultivating a different kind of soil, embraces it and 
tries it without remembering that “circumstances alter 
cases,” and finds that its practical effects don’t turn out so 
well with him ; but forgetting to call into question the 
false theory which he has embraced, he attributes his fail- 
ure to unfavorable seasons, bad kind of seed or some 
other accident, fails to think that “circumstances alter 
cases,” and pursues the imbibed theory and runs the round 
of disappointment again. 

The easiest and the cheapest way in the outset is often 
the hardest and most expensive in the end. Not only in 


SOUTHERN CULT IV AT OR. 


the preparation of land before planting, but also in ar- 
ranging the rows in planting and in cultivating the crop 
throughout it is needful to remember that “circumstances 
alter cases.” 

The distance of the rows apart should be proportioned 
to the quality of the soil. Land that will produce with a j 
fair ordinary season from 15 to 20 busliels of corn per j 
acre should not be wider in the rows than from 2^ to 3 1 
feet, when planted in cotton ; and 3i feet is generally wide , 
enough for the best of upland. In this estimate of distance j 
between rows I speak only of those cotton growing re- ' 
gions which have come under my experience and obser- 
vations, to wit : the middle and upper portions of Caro- 
lina and Georgia. Farmers are often too hasty to embrace 
new theories and hazard their success, because they are 
easy and have succeeded well somewhere and with some 
persons ; but farmers should always consider the'.r where- 
abouts and circumstances, lor “circumstances do alter 
cases.” 

These are thoughts, Messrs. Editors, which have sug- 
gested themselves to my mind from reading the CnitivaUrr. 
and if you deem tliem worthy of notice you may give 
them a place in your paper ; if not, I am still 

Yours, &C., CUKROKF.E. 

, Cave Spring, Ga , 1857. 

THE CUETURF. OF COTTON, 

Ah Essay delivered hef&rc the Beech Island {S. C.) Fanners' 
Club Jan'uary, 1857. 

BY H. L. MAYSON, KBQ.. 

Mr. CriAiRMAX — The subject for discussion to-day — 
the culture of Cotton— is one of the greatest importance to 
every Southern man, inasmuch as from Cotton we derive 
our principal wealth, as well as our political existence. 
There is no other crop that we can raise by which we 
can acquire the same amount of wealth, or by w'hich we 
can successfully keep in check the conflicting party strife 
of our country. Cotton has become indispensable to the 
happiness and comfort of mankind ; and should the South 
abandon its culture for five years it would produce such a 
revolution in the Manufacturing and Commercial world 
as was never before seen. Thousands of operatives in ! 
factories that now' find employment at least sufficient to 
procure their daily bread, would he thrown out and forced 
to find some other means to obtain a living, and in too 
many cases would fail to obtain work, and thus be reduced 
to stai vation or crime; while millions of money now profit- ! 
ably employed in its manufacture would become useless, I 
and factory buildings, reared at the cost of thousands, j 
stand idle or be left to decay and ruin, and the civilized i 
world reduced to an extreme never before known for an j 
article of cheap clothing; w'hile misery, want and deso- { 
Idtion would spread over the entire gloiie | 

But, sir, all this time the South could be free from any ! 
of these evils, by simply raising merely a sufficiency for 
her own use, and having that manufactured at home, and 
allowing none to be exported, either to the North or Eu- 
rope. ! 

But, sir, as thisdiscussion is only, or at least particular- ^ 
ly, intended to benefit the members of this Club, 1 will j 
confine the remainder of my remarks to the preparation 1 
of the soil and the after-culture of this plant on such j 
kind as is generally cultivated by the members of this 
Club, namely: light sandy soil. 1st, the preparation of 
the land : I incline to the opinion that an 8 inch shovel 
is the best plow to use in laying olF with ; the rows should 
be from 30 to 36 inches wide; this should be done if pos- 
sible, in January, or, at farthest, by the 15th of February; 
after your rows are run off put in your manure, and follow’ 
up with an Allen Plow, throv/iug two furrows to each 
row; you can then let them remain till aboufthe middle 




of March, when you should finish out the bed with the 
same plow (the Allen). About the 1st of April com- 
mence planting ; open your beds with a small Tongue 
Plow; if the land is not too dry, roll your seed and sow'- 
covering with a board or harrow ; as soon as your cotton 
is well up, run round with a three toothed harrow and 
follow after with the hoe, chopping out— this is a very 
important working and should be well done, for if well 
done and all the young grass removed you will after- 
wards have but little trouble in keeping your|rrop clean. 
The second working with the “Sweep,” following with the 
hoe and bringing to a stand, and also replant missing hilk 
— this work should be done carefully, as the plant is very 
delicate at that age and liable to the “sore shin” by being 
bruised with the hoe The balance of the culture maybe 
done with the hoe and sweep. Seventeen acres is suffiel' 
ent for the hoe. 

I have no experience with manures, except stable or 
barn-yard — do not know how guano and the other foreiga 
manures wdll answer. 

I should have said, in the proper place, that if the land tr.- 
tended for planting has been lying out or stubble, it will be 
necessary to first break it well and thoroughly. Cotton doe.s 
not require deep culture, nor does it want much dirt 
thrown to it, as the one injui'e its roots, and the other 
often destroys the stand when young, and if farther ad- 
vanced injures tlie bottom forms. 

A PEEA FOR THE CHINAS. 

Editors Southern Cui.tivator — Startle not, dear read- 
er, I am not going to inflict upon you a dissertation oc. 
those long legged things that have afforded Mr. Burnkajc 
so rich a theme for the display of his wit('?), but I pro- 
pose to say a word in the defence of the much abused 
Pride of India, or “ChinaTree,” {Mclia Avedaraeh ) The 
Cochins can do their owm crowing. 

I am apprised that this tree does not rank as highly ae 
it formerly did, as an ornament for the grove, and I ant 
equally certain that no very great taste is displayed wk-ei:’ 
we notice those to which preference has been given over 
the Chinas. A gentleman is settling a new place — he 
must have shade trees, and these must be maple, beech, 
elm or v.'ater oak, of course no other will do, because it’s 
not the fashion. Vfell, he pays a man a pretty good psioc 
to put them out for him, and in six or seven years behold 
his grove. Do tiiey resemble tlie trees formed by nature! 
Do you see that beautiful taper from the root to the (op ! 
or do you not rather see a diseased trunk, surmounted by 
an unsightly knot, from w^hich sftring out many irreguk.c 
branches, giving the whole thing the appearance of a tow - 
headed boy, whose hair has not been combed from his 
infancy. 

To have a fine grove, you must plant the whole tree, 
no matter whetlier large or small ; take it up and set it out 
properly, and it will be sure to live, but put the whole 
tree. 

But I started to say a word in defence of the Chinas. 
The great objection urjjed against this tree is iis fikhmest. 
If this is indeed an objection, I cannot see w’hy it doet 
not apply with equal force to all trees, for all must shed 
their leaves, and while others drop theirs gradually, the 
China is sooner through, and hence your cleaning uji 
sooner done. It should be remembered that every leaf, 
stalk and berry that fills from this tree is a valuable ma 
nureforthe garden. The China is never infested with 
catterpiilars and other noxiou.s insects, an advantage that 
can be claimed for no other tree. But the great advantage 
of this over other trees is its rapid growth. From the 
seed in a few years you have a fine, and if properly ma.'i- 
ased, I would add, a beautiful tree. 


86 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


A tree, like a child, will need attention from the birth 
till it can care for itself. It must have proper prun’mg-, 
and this must be done at the proper lime. But if allowed 
to attain size and age, as is common in the cities, and suf- 
fered to be trimmed by a rough negro with a dull axe, you 
may expect to see just what you do see— a mangled thing 
that should be cut down and used a;.- fire wood. Lei the 
matter be well considered, and I feel well satisfied this 
once popular tree will again find its way. around our dwel- 
lings, V, L. 

Near Augiisla, 1857. 

vSHABE TREES ABOUT B WELUiNGS. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — My viev/s in regard 
to the effect of shade trees around dwellings coincide with 
yours — that, to a certain extent, they do engender sick- 
ness — butthismust depend in a measure upon the local- 
ity of the place, as well as the nature of the tree produc- 
ing the shade, A friend residing in a neighboring coun- 
ty had a large number of the barren Mulberry growing in 
his yard, casting so dense a shade that the rays of the sun 
never reached the ground. I called his attention lo the fact, 
and advised him to remove every alternate one, but he 
chose to let them stand; the consequence was he lost his 
wife and his only three children, and came very nigh 
losing own life. Now, w^hether this is to be attributed to 
the dampness caused by the shade or not, I arn not pre- 
pared to say ; but my impression certainly bears in that 
direction. I may be mistaken in ray notion, but it seems 
to me that the leaf of the Mulberry retains moisture longer 
and is more difficult of decomposition than the leaf of any 
other tree, for which reason I have always looked upon 
it as a species of Upas, and have never allowed the wood- 
man to spare it on my premises. On a high, sandy, ele- 
vation, I cannot think that shade would be so apt to pro- 
duce sickness as on a low place, but in either case the 
trees should not be suffered to stand so closely as to pre- 
vent the sun from drying the ground, and again they 
should be trimmed sufficiently high to permit a free circu- 
lation of air. I believe, too, that if the housewife v/ould 
be careful in having all fallen leaves immediately lemoved 
to the manure pit before they commence decaying, a very 
great cause of sickness would be removed with them. I 
would also recommend a similar disposition to be made 
of all slops, dead chickens, &c. This includes a part of 
my rural management, and I think the bakers will attest 
that my family has enjoyed a goodly share of health. 

V. L. 

C^dcr Urecti, near Augusta, 1857. 

TO CURE FOOT-EVIE AND SCRATCHES IN 
Horses. 

Ed/tors Southern Cultivator — A contributor in the 
January number gave a prescription for the cure of the 
“Foot-Evil,” a disease which I am well aware has al- 
ways been dreaded, and looked upon as incurable after it 
has “raw rouiidA the hoof. 1 have seen it treated very 
barbarously with hot soft soap, hot grease, tar, &c., and 
as I had some knowledge of the power of medicines, I 
thought sometliing better could be applied. 

My plan of cure is simply this : No matter at what 
stage of the disease you may meet with it, have the parts 
well washed and thoroughly cleaned ; then apply pure 
Nitric Acid with a small vag mop on a stick, and be sure 
that the acid touches every part of the sore surface. I 
have used the acid diluted one-half, and even one part to 
three of water, and it was quite as efficient, 1 could de- 
tail many cases, but it is needless ; all that is required is a 
trial It changes the color of the hair and the sore flesh. 
It seldom needs repeating, if well put on. Turn the ani- 
mal in a dry lot, and have him watered with a bucket, or 
m a teough. 


I have seen bad cases of ^-Big cured with Ni- 

tric Acid, by applying it continuously to one spot o/i the 
face, so as to make an issue, or artificial ulcer. It is a 
sudden and certain remedy for Scratches. 

Respectfally yours, &c. A, R. K 

Concordia Parrish, La., Feb. 3, 1857. 

METEORDEDCY FOR FAmiERS-.-EETTER 
IVom Eieut. Maiii-y 

Observatory, Washington, D. C., ) 
January 23rd,. 1847. ) 

Editors Southern Cultivator. — The great snow- 
storm of 1857 commenced here about midnight of the 17th. 
Where did it begin I which way and how fast did it 
travel, and where did it end '? 

These with other circumstances connected with it, are 
interesting points of inquiry ; and if those of your readers 
who keep meterorologicai journals will send me an extract 
from them for a week commencing January 14th ; and if 
those who do not keep journals will report when the storm 
began and ended with them, the amount of snow that fell, 
and the way the wind blew, I shall have materials 
enough to go into the investigation. 

Will you do me the favor to say that I will be much* 
obliged to any of your readers who will have the kind- 
ness to give me such information tlirough the post office. 

Respectfully, &c., M. F. Maury, 


THE MISFORTUNES OF JAMAICA. 

The property holders of .Jamaica are moving to effect 
some change in their social and political relations that 
will enable them to cultivate the earth with more success 
than they can at present. The Fabnoniii Post of a recent 
date, has the following : 

Five gentlemen who have resided for many years in 
Jamaica, and desire a change in its social and political 
condition, having addressed a letter lo M. Labouchere, the 
Secretary of State for the Colonies, directing his attention 
to certain suggestions which they offer, with the object in 
view of arresting “the wide-spread and annually increas- 
ing distress which overshadows the entire population, and 
has sunk a large portion of its inhabitants into actual des- 
titution.” The gentlemen whose names are attached to 
the letter stale that the condition of the colony is at the 
lowest possible point, short of universal bankruptcy and 
ruin — that real estate has no market value — that dwelling 
houses are gradually decaying, and money can with diffi- 
culty be raised, even in return for personal property — 
that most of the neceesary articles for consumption are 
imported from the United States, while the nataral pro- 
ducts are neglected — and that the money capital of the 
country is drained, in the absence of any exchange of 
trade. They add that the industrial condition of the in- 
habitants is at the lowest ebb, and that their moral and 
social condition is not a whit more elevated. 

Liquid Manures. — One cow will void every month 
about 1000 pounds of urine, containing seventy-five lbs. 
of solid matter, or guano. Partially rotten pasture turf, 
thrown daily upon the stable floor, is an excellent absorb- 
ent of this valuable manure. Human urine mixed with 
sulphuric acid in the proportion of one part of the latter 
to twenty parts of the former, and absorbed in a compact 
heap of pasture swards, and the whole applied as a top- 
dressing for wheat, will produce a great increase cf crop, 
It has been calculated by chemists that in every pound of 
urine there are the elements of a pint of wheat. — Ohio VaL 
ley Farmer. 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


87 


A HINT TO ORCHAKDISTS. 

]\fr. Edilor : — Allow me to present you with a speci- 
men of the Lancaster Greening and New York Pippin 
Apples, with the compliments of James H. JBostwick, 
Esq., of Jefferson county, Ga., from whose orchard they 
were taken. Mr Bostwick has an Apple orchard con- 
taining one hundred and twelve trees, of eighteen varie- 
ties, planted in 1850, commenced bearing in 1852. In '55 
and ’5G he had an abundance of apples, some of which 
weighed a pound, of as rich flavor as any northern, eas- 
tern or western, and fairer were never seen — to both of 
which assertions you can testify, after you i;ave submit- 
ted those now presented to the usual ordeal. 

During my journeyings through Burke and Jefferson 
counties,! have wondered why so little attention has 
been given by the citizens to the culture of so great a lux- 
ury. 

My opinion was, that the soil and climate were as 
genial as those of New Jersey, where is grown the most 
delicious fruit, of the greatest varieties, in profuse abun- 
dance. To all suggestions I niade in relation to this mat- 
ter, I was met with that common phrase : “It canh be 
done but it has been done by Mr. Bostwick, and satis- 
factorily done; and he gives it as his opinion, based upon 
actual experiment, that Apples, Peaches, &c., can be pro- 
duced upon Jefferson county soil, that will compare 
favorably with that produced in any State in the Union. 

He has also a small Peach orchard whic'n produced, 
during the two past years, the finest fruit, in lavish quan- 
tities ; and I regret that I have no specimen to present with 
the apples. 

These orchards have produced large crops of cotton and 
potatoes, every year since the trees were set; and he 
says the trees have been materiolly improved by the ope- 
ration. 

His hogs are fattened upon the fruit, and good results 
from their rooting among the roots of the young trees. 

Now, I imagine the reason why so many have failed in 
their attempts at orcharding lies in the fact that when the 
trees were set, they supposed their work done. That was 
a mistaken conclusion ; for manuring, plowing and cross- 
ing, if you please, are as essential to the thrift of fruit 
trees, and the perfection of their fruit, as to that of cotton, 
corn, or any other product. Yours truly, 

A. SlIERMAN', 
Constitutionalist . 


SOUTHERN APPEES — MAKINC.; CIDER, &e. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — You ask my opin- 
ion in regard to the “best cider apple V' I feel prepared, 
after giving it a fair test, to pronounce Hughes’ Virginia 
Crab as standing a full head and shoulders above all other 
cider apples cultivated in the United States, and the Har- 
rison Long-Stem next to it. 

In my first practice in Pomology I followed Kendrick as 
my guide, and, of course, commenced an orchard out of 
Northern apples, including the Harrison Apple for cider. 
I failed utterly, all rny winter apples ripening and falling 
off the trees in autumn. Pell’s far-famed “Newtown Pip- 
pin” alone has cost me some thousands of grafts to re-top 
them with good Southern varieties of winter fruit. 

I have for years been positive in the opinion that South 
©f Maryland we must have a Pomology of our own, so far 
as apples are concerned. 

The labors of the l.rst 8 years of my life have been de 
voted to the examplification of the above opinion, and the 
result already is that my orchard now contains more than 
a dozen varieties of Win'er Apples — all Southern Seed- 
lings — which, in my opinion, cannot be equalled in point 
of fine quality by the same number of varieties of Apples 
grown at the North. As regards the Newton Pippin, 1 


can best it with Camak’s Winter Sweet. I, however, can 
take but little credit to myself for anything I have done in 
advancing the science of Pomology, as I have worked as 
noiseless as a mole, and on my own ground. It is to Mr. 
J. Van Buren that the South is more indebted than to 
any other living individual for giving an impetus to Po- 
mology by collecting, publishing and disseminating ail 
the varieties ofSoutiiern Seedling Apples of superior qual- 
ity heretofore discovered. 

You need have no fears in regard to Hughes' Crab suc- 
ceeding as far south as Augusta. I met witli it in the 
greatest perfection on a gentleman’s farm in Coweta coun- 
ty, Ga. The gentleman did not know any use he could 
put them to, as neither his negroes or hogs would eat 
them ! 

You would probably like to know my process for mak- 
ing fine cider. It is as follows : 

Let the crabs be thoroughly ripe ; then grind well and 
press close, and from the press put the cider in open-mouth- 
ed barrels, and to every 60 gallons mix in 5 pounds of 
maple coal-dust, and also two dozen eggs, and beat up 
shells and all. If the weather is very cold, it will take 
from 12 to 15 days before the coal will be precipitated ; if 
mild, not half that time. The next process is to press it 
through a large and deep hopper filled with the finest of 
sand and also 20 ply of the very finest flannel, having its 
vent, or outlet in a grooved plank, to catch it as it issues 
from the hopper. 

The coal takes up all acidity, and it comes from the hop- 
per in a stream about tlie ^ize of a rye straw and as pure 
as the morning devA. 

Another and more speedy way to purify it with the 
coal and eggs is, after it is mixed to put it in a large cop- 
per boiler, and so soon as it boils to skim it and pass it 
through the hopper. 

But cider made by the latter process is not so fine as 
the former, as it loses much of its aroma which passes oil' 
in boiling. Yours truly, S. McDowfxl. 

FrfmJclin, Mamv Co., N. C. 

Milking. — The Massachusetts Plovghmav says; — The 
milker should sit close to the cow, and should endeavor 
by all means to be on good terms with her; and if he 
scolds and kicks, she will be quite likely to return the 
compliment. Sit close, and let the left arm be in contact 
with the leg of the cow ; then she cannot set her foot in- 
to the pail if she is disposed to do it. She cannot kick 
while lier leg is in contact with your left arm, for a blow 
requires space between the agent and the object. The 
best milker is he who is quicke.st, for there will be a flow 
in less than a minute from the commencement of the pro- 
cess. Take advantage of this, and not let the milk flow 
back again. Milk out all that the cow will give, for the 
last of the milk, or the strippings, is worth more than four 
times as much for butter as the milk that first comes. 



Strength of Slavery. — A waiter in the A.ugwsta 
Chronicle Sentinel says : 

“The real strength of slavery lies in its adaptation to 
the relative capacity of the two races, in the eliecrful sub- 
mission of the slave, in the dependence of the civilized 
world on its productions, in the fa-vorable convictions o 
all who have any practical knowledge of it, in the instinc- 
tive repugnance of the whites to equality with blacks, 
and in the social and political ligaments which bind to 
getber all classes at the South. Thus fortifi''d, it needs no 
help from the officious schemers who now the 

land.” 


88 


SOUTHERx^' CELTIVATOK. 



AUGUSTA-, GA : 


VOI.. XV. ISO. 3 MARCH, 1857. 

AN8WER8 TO CORIIESPONBENTS. 

Rotting of Apples. — W. M. L — Please give us a par- 
iicular description of the disease that affects your Apples, 
and let us know whether you cultivate Northern or South- 
ern varieties. All the Southern kinds that we have tried, 
and a few of the Northern varieties succeed admir 
ably with us at “ F’rmtia'nd.y Late Northern Apples are 
of no value in the South. 

No Address. — Dr. Ch.\s. N. H. — It is impossible for 
us to comply with your request, as you furnish no post- 
office, or other indication of your locality. Correspon- 
dents are often too negligent in this particular, 

Arkansas GrapeSeeds. — Mrs. R. J. G. — Many thanks 
k)r your kindness. We will plant the seed sent. 

Concrete Houses. — C, D. M — Our concrete house 
is nearly complete, and we will shortly publish drawings, 
description, &c,, as you desire. 

Planting Fruit Trees, &c. — G. W. L F. — Your com- 
Aiunication is on file, and we shall reply to it at length here- 
after. 

Sample Numbers. — N. C. — The desired numbers were 
aent per mail, and we shall be greatly obliged by your 
kind efforts. 

Osier Willows. — W. B. H. — We answered your letter 
per mail, and you will find an article in present number, 
giving much information on the subject. 

CurriNG Sugar Cane.— M. R. S. — The Chinese Sugar 
Cane will bear cutting 4 or 5 times during the season, like 
any other Millet. If for Hay, let it tassel — if for green 
forage, cut at any stage, and sprinkle freely with salt be- 
fore feeding out. 

Wa.rts on Fowls. — J. G. — An intelligent and experi- 
enced correspondent (A. R. K.,) writes us from Concordia 
Parish, La., as follows: — “Seeing in the January number 
an inquiry from a lady correspondent, Mrs. M. B. W., of 
Mobile, Ala., as to the best cure for warts, and although 
the query was answered by you, still I think the follow- 
ing a more certain cute than those you proposed, so I 
concluded to give her and your other readers the benefit 
pf my experience, and not only mine but of nearly every 
person of my acqu dntance near here. First, pare off the 
wart or warts with a sharp knife or scissors, and apply 
immediately the common Spirits of Turpentine to the 
place. It may be necessary to repeat the operation, but 
it never h is so happened with me. It has been applied to 
the qyelids v/ithout any injury. I never have, known it 
to fail of effecting a speedy cure. 

Weights and Measures. — W. P, — We have publish- 


ed the following before, but repeat it for the benefit of your- 
self and other new subscribers . 

Of wheat, sixty pounds to the bushel. 

Of shelled corn, fifty-six pounds. 

Of corn, on the cob, seventy pounds. 

Of oats, thirty- five pounds. 

Of barley, forty eight pounds. 

Of potatoes, sixty pounds. 

Of beans, sixty pounds. 

Of bran, twenty pounds. 

Of clover seed, sixty pounds. 

Of timothy seed, forty-five pounds. 

Of flax seed, fifty-six pounds. 

Of hemp seed, forty-four pounds. 

Of buckwheat, forty-two pounds. 

Of blue grass seed, fourteen pounds. 

Of castor beans, forty-six pounds. 

Dwarf Pears. — H. — Success with dwarfs is certain if 
you will only select the proper varieties, plant the trees 
right, and give them high culture afterwards. A corres- 
pondent, (G. W. F.) in South Western Georgia, writes us 
on this subject: — “I have extensive collections of almost 
every kind of fruit here in my own grounds. Of Pears, 
over 150 varieties, mostly on the quince. The trees grow 
well and look very thrifty and vigorous. They would 
have yielded me a good deal of fruit last season but for late 
frosts. As it was,! had a good many fine Pears, although 
my trees are yet very young.” 

Chinese Sugar Cane Culture.— E. P.-^You will find 
directions in our January number, but as the season for 
the earliest planting is now at hand, we will repeat, in 
substance. The Chinese Sugar Cane seed, if planted in 
March, anywhere South of the latitude of Augusta, will 
ripen two crops of seed from the one planting ; i. e. after 
the first crop matures, and the cane is cut, the plant will 
^'•rattoo'id'^ or shoot out from the ground and ripen another 
crop of seed before frost. A good single crop may be 
made in the same latitude, by planting any time before 
the middle of June — though we advise our readers to get 
their seed in the ground as soon as possible after corn 
planting. In regard to culture, Dr. Robt. Battey re- 
marks : “While the seed remains in the hands of the few, 
and commands a price too high to permit a waste, it 
should be planted for one season with good distance, that 
the seed crop as well as the cane may attain their highest 
state of development. I would recommend that the rows 
should be three or even four feet apart, and a distance of, 
say two feet, given in the row, dropping one or two seed 
in a place. Let the ground be well cultivated, as for corn, 
and the shoots or suckers which spring up from the root, 
be all permitted to grow, A small portion of the crop 
should be reserved for seed, and permitted to stand until 
fully matured and dry. It would be well to limit the 
canes in the seed patch to one. By all means permit no 
Broom-corn^ Dourah-corn, or other plants of the same 
^SiVimy y to grow nea,r ymtr Ca?ie. It readily intermixes 
with these varieties, and effectually ruins your seed for the 
production of syrup. For the same reason, great care 
should be observed in procuring reliable seed, as well as 
in keeping them so. 

“After the first season, when a full supply of seed shall 
have been secured, a better- paying syrup crop may be 
grown, by closer planting. The space between the rows 
may well be narrowed down to three feet, and the seed 
put in, say two or three every six inches. When well up, 
the stoutest and healthiest plants should alone be allowed 
to stand. The cane, when very young, presents so much 
the appearance of grass, that an advantage may perhaps 
be gained, by dropping some other seed with the cane 
that the latter may be more readily distinguished. This, 
of course, should be drawn out with the superfluent cane 
plants. When of sufficient size, the plants should be 


SOUTHEEN CULTIVATOR. 


89 


suckered dovvn to one cane lor each root. In other re- 
spects, the successful grower of corn will not be at a loss 
in the cultivation of this plant. 1 have found n suitable 
time for planting to be immediately after the corn crop, 
although excellent results have been obtained by planting 
as late as the 15th of May, in Cherokee Georgia. It will 
doubtless be desirable to make several successive plant- 
ings that they may mature gradually, and so give more 
time for harvesting the crop. The land, in my opinion, 
should be prepared iuall respects as for corn.” 

Those wishing more special information in regard 
to harvesting, crushing the stalks, boiling the syrup, &c., 
can obtain it by enclosing us a postage stamp ior a copy 
of our pamphlet on the subject. 

Ground P£.4s or Pindbrs. — A Subscriebr. — We have, 
in former volumes, published much on the culture of 
Pindars; but, for the benefit of new subscribers, we give 
the following from White’s ‘‘Gardening for ike Souik” : 

This plant is likewise known as the ground nut, pin- 
dar and pea nut. Although not exactly belonging to the 
kitchen garden, a few hills should be allowed a place for 
the sake of the little folks, and indeed, when baked, few of 
the older members of the fa.mily will find them unpala- 
table. 

The ground pea was originally brought from Africa. It 
is also said to be a native of Mexico. This plant is a 
trailing annual, one of the few which ripens seed under 
ground. The yellow pea shaped flower springs from the 
part of the stem near the surface o! the earth, and after 
being fertilized, the flower stem elongates, growing from 
four to eight inches, turning downward until the small 
tubercle which is to be the future seed pod, reaches and 
penetrates the earth. From the lower extremity of each 
legume, in the early part of its growth, filaments proceed, 
seeking moisture and probably nutriment from the soil. 
The seed of the ground-pea abounds in a fine oil which is 
sometimes expressed for table purposes. 

This oil renders it a very valuable crop for fattening 
hogs, being for this purpose fully equal ,io and probably 
better than corn. The vines are greedily eaten by most 
farm animals. 

Culture . — The ground-pea thrives and produces best on 
a light, tolerably fertile soil with a good clay subsoil. 
Like clover, it possesses a long tap-root which extends 
deep into the earth, drawing thence the fertilizing proper- 
ties which are beyond the reach of many of our cultivated 
crops. The soil should be deep and mellow and well 
broken up, so as to be ready for planting soon after the 
heavy frosts are over. The last of March or the first of 
April is a suitable time. 

For field culture, they may be planted in the pod, (wo 
in the hill ; but for the garden should be shelled. It is 
best to drop about four in a hill on the level ground ; the 
rows being laid off three and a half feet wide and the hills 
two feet asunder ; cover them two or three inches. 

When they come up, thin them to two in a hill, and, if 
there be any vacancy, transplant. It is better to plant 
them level than on ridges, as they are less liable to sufl’er 
from drouth. As they continue growing all the season, 
it is well to get them started as early as the season will 
permit. The only afier-culture they require is to keep 
the ground clear and mellow, and a slight hilling up 
when they are laid by. They will produce from twenty - 
five to seventy or eighty bushels per acre, according to 
soil and culture, and are as easily cultivated as corn. 

Flower Sekds. — We are indebted to Robert Nelson, 
Esq., of this city, for a collection of Annual Flower Seeds, 
embracing many varieties very beautiful, and heretofore 
quite rare. These seeds will be supplied per mail on the 
testug set forth in Mr. Nelson’s advertisement, which see 


OUK BOOK TABTE. 

The An.vtomy .ii.ND Physiology of the Horse: "With 
Anatomical and Qeustional Illustrations. Containing 
also, a series of Examinations on Equine Anatomy and 
Physiology, with instructions in reference to Dissection 
and the mode of making Anatomical Preparations. To 
which is added. Glossary of Veterinary Technicalities, 
Toxicological Chart, and Dictionary of Veterinary Sci- 
ence. By George H. Dadd, M. D., V. S., author of 
“The Modern Horse Doctor,” “Cattle Doctor,” etc. 
Boston : Published by John P. Jewett & Co. 1857. 
As the title indicates, the above work is intended for 
Veterinary Surgeons, and those who would make the 
anatomy and diseases of the Horse a study. It is the most 
complete treatise of the kind that we have yet seen, and 
should have a place in every enlightened farmer's library. 
It forms a large octavo of nearly 300 pages, and the typo- 
graphical execution and embeilishment.s of the work are 
excellent. It may be ordered from the publishers, as 
above. 

The Vermont Stock Journal ts a new monthly paper, 
published at Middlebury, Vt., by D. C. LiNSLEy, at 50 
cents per annum. It is devoted to the interests of Stock 
Raisers, and contains much information of value. 

Drainage — A Statement of Facts, showing the advantages 
and profits of Thorough Drainage. 

This pamphlet should receive careful consideration 
from all owners of swampy and wet lands — who may re- 
ceive much benefit from its facts and suggestions, whether 
they adopt Draining Tile or not. Copies may be had per 
mail from C. & W. McCammon, Albany, N. Y. 

The Rural Annual and Horticultural Directory, 
for 1857, contains a valuable article on Rural Architec- 
ture, accompanied by beautiful designs of Farm Houses, 
Cottages, Suburban Residences, &c., also practical trea- 
tises on the management of Fruit, Flower and Kitchen 
Gardens, cultivation of Grapes, Strawberries, Raspberries, 
Blackberries, Gooseberries, Currants, &c ; plan for laying 
out a Fruit Garden and Ornamental Grounds with the 
best location for Fruit Trees, Vegetables, &.c., together 
with useful articles on the rearing and management of 
Poultry, and various other subjects of interest to every 
lover of rural life. It contains also a very full and correct 
list of Nurserymen in tlie United States and Canada ; 
List of Agricultural Implement Makers, &c., together with 
a list of the Fruits recommended by the American Ponio- 
, logical Society, as corrected at its last meeting, lield at 
i Roche.ster, September, 1850. It is a work of 141 pages, 
illustrated wiih 80 engravings, and i.s alike attraciive and 
useful, containing as muc.h matter and more information 
than many dollar books. 

This beautiful and valuable work will be .«ent, postage 
paid, to any address, on the receipt of 25 cents in postage 
stamps. Address Joseph Harris, Rochester, N. i. 

7'he Horticulturist, for February, contains the fol- 
lowing articles : 

Landscape in connection with Tree Planting ; A short 
account of the Life and Writings of John Claudius Lou- 
don — By his Widow ; Visits to Country Places, No. 7, 
around Boston, H Hollis Hun ne well’s, Mr. Wilder’s, Mr. 
Peabody’s, R. S Fay’s, Col. Pei kin’s, Gen Lyman’s, J K. 
Thayer’s, J, S. Armory’s, J. S. Gardener’s, Botanical Gar- 


90 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


den at Cambridge, Hovey’s Nurseries ; Gas for Country 
Houses, with a cut ; Night Temperature — by Amicus, j 
Philadelphia; A few words about Sickly Pear Trees— by ^ 
the late A. J. Downing ; Frost, and the Cunila Mariana, 
or Dittany — by J. Stauffer, Mount Joy, Pa.; Garden Vege- ‘ 
tables. No. 2 — The Cauliflower — by W. M. Chorlton ; 
Remarks on some of the Chinese Plants — by J. B, Garber, 
Columbia, Pa ; Wine Making — by Edward C. Delavan, 

N. Y.; Vine Borders heated artificially, with a cut; Cle- , 
matis patens, var. Amelia and Louisa ; Reply to Dr. 
Ward on Pear Culture — by T. W. Field, New York; ' 
Monstrous Brocoli, with a cut; Fruit Culture — by W. B. I 
Waldo, N. Y.; Prost Gage Plum — by Wm. Tompkins, 
New York. - , 

Horticultural Revieic. — Patent Office Report ; Manual 
of Botany — by Asa Gray ; Strawberries, Graperies, 
Grapes — The Winter Contest. 

Editor's Table. — The Journal of the U. S. Agricultural 
Society; The Transactions of the Pomological Society; 
Intermediate Native Fruit Reports; Pears, why not more 
plentiful; Roses ; The Cloth of Gold ; Grape Vine Bor- 
ders ; Grafting Geraniums ; The Guava fruited at Cleve- 
land, and notice of other varieties, and the Eugenia fra- 
grans; Origin of Cuba Bast ; Firewood — Gossip; Trees 
as Arches ; Lippincott’s Gazetteer of the World ; Taxo- 
dium sempevirens ; Washington Gigantea ; Baumann’s 
Plan of the New York Park ; The Schuylkill Park ; 
Answers to Correspondents; Catalogues, &c., received ; 
Note from Cincinnati ; The Valonia Oak, by Alan W. 
Corson. 

Calendar of Operations for February. — Vegetable Gar- 
den, Fruit Trees, Pruning, Grapery, Greenhouse, Flower 
Garden and Pleasure Grounds — by Wm. Saunders. 

Terms, per annum. Address 

Robt. Pearsall Smith, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Cooper’s Patent Plow. — Mr. G. W. Cooper, of Scri- 
ven county, Ga., has presented us with one of his new 
adjustable plow stocks, which evinces much ingenuity 
and mechanical skill. It is so arranged that the depth of 
furrow, elevation of handles, &c., is entirely under the 
control of the plowman, and the ease with which every 
variety of point or share can be attached to the stock, 
adds greatly to its practical value. It is mostly of iron, 
very light, strong and durable, and seems to combine 
many of the advantages of Forman’s, Warlick’s and other 
stocks heretofore noticed. The patentee will dispose of 
rights for the use of this stock on reasonable terms. A 
sample of the plow, with many others of different con- 
struction, may be seen at Fruitland Nursery." 

CHINESE SUGAlt CANE AND FItOEIEIC FEA. 

We have purposely delayed sending out the packages 
of these seeds until the present time in order that we might 
“make one job of it.” We send them now (March 1st) in 
full time for planting, and if any of our readers who have, 
previous to this, ordered through us, fail to receive their 
seeds by the 20th inst., they will confer a favor by inform- 
ing us at once. 

Mr. A. Sherman, the Travelling Agent of C. M. 
Saxton & Co , will also receive subscriptions for the 
Cultivator, and we commend him to the attention of our 
friends throughout the country. 

Chinese Prolific Pea ! — For a full description of 
this Pea, see the advertisement of Messrs. Plumb & 
Leitner, in another column. 


To Correspondents. — We have yet on file for inser- 
tion many practical and valuable communications on the 
various subjects to which our journal is devoted — for all 
of which we will endeavor to find room in good time. 

CHINESE SUGAR CANE. 

At the late meeting of the United States Agricultural 
Society, Mr. D. J. Browne, of the Patent Office, was re- 
quested to give in his “experience,” in respect to it. This 
he did with great readiness, tact and ability, and no doubt 
to the general satisfaction of his numerous and intelligent 
questioners. Every sort of inquiry was made, and as 
promptly answered by Mr. Browne. We append the 
main points in relation to this addition to our cultivated 
plants, as elicited from the remarks and replies of that 
gentleman. He first observed that he could say no more 
than had been already published, but was willing to re- 
ply to any queries that might be put. As to the process 
of granulation of the Sorghum, he could not say much, but 
the proportion of crystaiizable syrup depends on the dry- 
ness or moisture of the land on which the plant grows. 
It should be cut when in its milky state. When pressed 
it is deprived of its leaves and passed through rollers ; and 
for crystilization the syrup should be raised a little above 
blood heat. In some cases the old-fashioned cider press 
had succeeded. Could not say how the free acid evolved 
would be best neutralized, but it is generally done by lime 
water. When a saccharate of lime is formed the fluid re- 
mains sweet. When the plant is cut at 45 or 50 degrees 
Fahrenheit it does not ferment, but keeps sweet, but if 
cut earlier in the season than when this temperature pre- 
vails it is apt to run into the ascetous fermentation. Five 
cuttings of Sorghum had been made in Florida last year. 
Sugar could sometimes be had from the dry stalks, but it 
is expensive. It contains saccharine matter as far North 
as the milky state can be had ; in Massachusetts it has 
shown 23 percent, of sugar, here in Washington only 14 
per cent. It requires a dry and soil and hot sun. Should 
not be planted so soon as Indian corn by several days. 
Will mature in less than a hundred daysfiom sowing sow- 
ing the seed. Foi%sugar it fiourshes best on poor soils, 
but for fattening animals on rich soils. For sugar it 
should be haiwested, or rather cut late in the season, but 
for seed should be cut, and therefore planted earlier. As 
a fodder, Mr. B. considered it as making a revolution in 
cattle- fodder all through the Union. The seed can be 
produced at the price of oats, at the rate of fifty or sixty 
bushels to the acre, and can be converted.- into bread or 
chocolate, fed to fowls, &e. It will give 1500 gallons of 
vinegar to the acre. The most northerly point of its 
growth is Minnesoto. If the seed be cut off it will sprout 
again and bear double, as last year in South Carolina! 
Did not think it good for producing quantity as much as 
a fine quality of milk. These answers were made to 
questions chiefly from Hon. Mr. Clemson, Prof. Nash, Mr. 
Waring, and others; and in the discussion Mr. Clemson 
and Dr. Antisell took prominent parts. 

Gardens for Children. — Children’s gardens are now 
the fashion in Germany, and have been successfully in- 
troduced into London. A practical guide to the English 
Kintergarten, has been issud by the “Council of Educa- 
tion,” and a monthly journal was 'commenced in May 
last, by Mr. and Mrs Ronge, who have established an in- 
. stitution for the training of teachers, young ladies and 
nurses; their form of education is introduced into the 
wealthy families in aristocratic quarters. Nothing could 
promise better both for youth and age. 


SOI T H E K X C I L T I V A TOR. 


9J 


THE CH-IOV.'TH OF COTTON IN THE UNITED I goi 
I^tatcs and its Ifniiufacfui't* iu England. 


It is not enough that we have an abundance of ef- 
ficient labor to produce all the cotton the world shall need, 
OxE might challange the industrial statistics of the-j in addition to what is raised in other countries. We must 
civilized world to furnish a more interesting and instruct- | have good land in eolia! abundance before we are safe 


ive body of facts than those which would express the 
progress of cotton culture in this countrj'-, and of its manu- 
facture in 'England, in the last sixty years, England has 


from outside competition, and the danger of losing every 
material advantage we now possess^ "Very unwillingly 
I does England depend so much on the Cotton- growing 
had, and still has, the capital, labor and coal, as well as I States of the American Confederacy ibr an article so in- 
the industry, enterprise and commerce, necessary to excel j dispensable to her domestic peace and prosperity. Hav- 
all other nations in the cheap and extensive production of ! ing, however, tried thirty years in vain to supply her 
cotton goods, and in finding adequate markets for the | wants from other quarters, she is beginning to make her 
same. History teaches the pregnant fact : nor is it likely [ necessity a national virtue, and to speak more respectful- 
that any country will equal her in this important branch | ly of the kind of labor which produces her cotton. New 
of manufacturing industry for many years to come In j England will ere long do likewise-, nor will similar infiu- 


the last fifty years, the general increase of population in 
the Island of Great Britain has been about 100 per cent ; 


ences fail to operate in France and Germany. 

In a word, people are not apt to quarrel long and' ear'- 


while on an area of near 3-20,000 acres surrounding Man- 1 nestly with their bread and butter, nor look with jaun- 
chester, the increase during the same period has been 335 ! diced eyes at the sources of their wealth, when once un- 
percent., and in Manchester and 15 other to-vvns within the [ derstood. Without interfering with other branches of 
same area, the increase has been 330 percent. Consider- | Southern agriculture, we can grow not much over three 
ing what Great Britain has lost by emigration to her nu- | a half million bags, having an average weight of 450 
merous provinces and the United States, the rapid pro- | pounds. This gives 1,575,000,000 pounds. Allowing 
gress of her agriculture, and consequent increased demand j three pounds of seed cotton to produce one of lint, there 
for labor therein, and the great commercial prosperity of' be fingers enough to pick tour thousand seven hun- 

London, Liverpool, and other cities, the growth of the Ared and twenty-five million pounds, as gathered in cotton 
Cotton Manufacturing District of England is without a j fields. 

parallel in the Old World. Congress has endeavored, by | Allowing that the present low standard of physical corn- 
high import duties on British cotton fabrics, when brought j fort with the laboring millions of Europe, and the masses 
into this country for consumption, to transfer the labor of} everywhere, is destined to rise rapidly as compared with 
carding, spinning and weaving cotton from Old to New ! the past, it is easy to see a correspondino increased demand 
England; but with indifferent success. On the other j forall kinds of cotton fabrics, whether of clothing, bedding 
hand, Parliament has made no inconsiderable efforts to | or other household goods made of cotton, sail cloth, or 
obtain a full supply of cotton from India, and other coun- ' bags for holding grain and flour. L-ooking to the almost 
tries than the Southern States, with no better results. ' infinite variety of uses to which this article may be ap- 


The laws of trade are more potent than those of Legisla- 
tures, because they are laws of Nature. The manufacture 


plied, and its more than probable future consumption, we 
are a little concerned to know where all the fingers are to 


of cotton, however, is extending in France, Germany, j come from to pick nine or ten thousand million pounds of 
Russia, and in other European nations, as well as in | seed cotton in the few montiis allowed to this work in 
America. Allow to the two hundred and fifty million ! autumn. Possibly they may come in part from western 
peop’.e in Europe the same amount of cotton goods per ' Africa, from Eastern Asia, from Europe, from the North- 


head which it takes to supply the inhabitants of this 
country, and the consumption of our great staple will l)e 
doubled from this increase alone. Can it be produced to 
the extent it is likely to be needed during the next twenty- 
five years I 

We doubt if it can, unless much more free labor is em- 
ployed in its cultivation than at present. It would be a 
national misfortune to lose the many aduantages secured 


ern States ; but certain we are they will come from some 
quarter when needed. If there is anyuhing in the natural 
attractions of soil and climate, of good government that af- 
fords security to life and property, then the Southern 
Stales are destined to be at once the richest and most po- 
pulous part of the christianized world. Our process of 
reasoning on this subject is simple and in tliis wise : The 
longevity of the people of the South, their success in grow- 


to the republic by virtue of having almost a monopoly ofi the valuable plants adapted to temperate zones, and 

this article of prime necessity in clothing mankind. It | many that demand the heat of a tropical summer, attest 
■will ever do more than anything else to save us from the I truth of the remark that the Soutli has a peculiar and 


expense and misfortunes of a war with any of the great 
powers of the Eastern Continent. As a Pacificator the 
Cotton Plant is unrivalled. Its power in this regard will 
be maintained just in proportion to the dependence of Eu- 
rope on the United States for a supply of its lint ; and our 


remarkable climate, and one as salubrious as it is^extra- 
ordinury for its agricultural capabilities. These are n-n- 
/r/ruZ advantages, and will certaiuly be known in time 
among all commercial prople and nations. 

We have shown elsewhere, in the present number of 


success for the next quarter of a century in fully meeting j the Cultivator, and from reliable sources of information, 
the European markets will depend on our skill in grow- j that the citizens of Georgia are worth per capita 150 per 
ing cotton, and maintaining the natural fruitfulness of the j cent, more than the citizens of the State of New York. 


92 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


We do not say that the citizens of our adopted State are 
more industrious, intelligent, or more economical than 
those of our native State; but we do say that one can 
raise a crop of wheat and one of corn in succession on 
the same land in Georgia, in the time consumed in the 
growth of either crop in New York. In the last 
named State it requires the heat of two summers to pro- 
duce both crops ; in Georgia the heat of one is sufficient. 
This, however, is less than half the advantage which 
Georgia has over all climates like that of New York. 
Winter in Georgia is just cold enough, and just long 
enough fully to renovate man's physical and mental ener- 
gies, so that he can labor happily and profitably, through- 
out the year. Place a tropical sun over our heads twelve 
months in succession, and our cotton crop would soon 
be no larger than that of South America. The recuperat- 
ing influence of our Southern winters has not received 
tliat public attention to which it is fairly entitled. With 
what elasticity of muscle, and strength of will are hun- 
dreds of thousands of planters, now engaged in preparing 
the earth to receive its seed, and in committing it to their 
well- tilled soil I Their energy has often excited our ad- 
miration ; and with the smiles of Providence, the cotton 
crop of 1857 will considerably exceed that of any pre- 
vious year. L. 

COMPOST FOR GARDENS. 

“A Gardener,” in the Geromntovm Telegraph, gives 
us the following good compost for gardens : — “Perhaps 
the best manure that can be used on gardens, is animal 
excrement in a decomposed state ; but as this is not al 
ways available, a very efficietjt substitute is found in a 
compost made of muck, one part; gypsum, lime, charcoal 
dust, bone manure and salt, equal proportions, onepart; 
clay, one part ; and chip manure, one part. These in- 
gredients are to be thoroughly^ incorporated, and wet with 
urine, or soap suds. A sinall quantity of sulphuric acid 
diluted with water — one thousand parts water to one of 
acid — will be found beneficial, if sprinkled over the com- 
post before applying it, as will also a solution of copperas 
in water. Both these liquids are powerful fixers, and 
therefore tend to economise the volatile and gaseous pro- 
ducts of decomposition, and renders them available to the 
plants. By filling the soil with this compost, we may se- 
cure a good crop of almost any vegetable. It is cheap as 
w'ell as efficient, and may be prepared in almost any quan- 
tity.” 

A travelling correspondent of the Neic England 
Farmer makes the following fling at our imperfect system 
of farming. We fear there is too much truth in his stric- 
tures. Let us strive manfully to shake off our supineness, 
and furnish our enemies with no cause to reproach us: 

Most of Georgian and South Carolina farmers, as far as 
my observations extended, never make, save nor apply 
any kind of manure. Land is cultivated, or rather crop- 
ped, as long as it is capable of producing anything, with- 
out regard to rotation, and then left common, making what 
is termed “old fields.” 

The area of this worn out land is rapidly extending it- 
sell, planters seeking some new spot, again to practice 
the same exhausting process of tillage. 


Farming tools, that belong as far back as the seven- 
teenth century ; plowing that merely scratches the sur- 
face; overseers who have no intelligent notions about ag- 
riculture; slaves who care not how their work is perform- 
ed ; absence of home markets for fruit and other perish- 
able products ; the frequent and entire loss of crops upon 
land shallowly plowmd iu seasons of drouth, are a few of 
the disadvantages and features common to Southern farm- 

Great Production. — A writer in Xh^WorJdng Farmer^ 
states that Mr. Edwin Shaterell, of Rahway, N. J., raised 
from a single seed, twenty Valparaiso Squashes, weigh- 
ing in the aggregate 2500 pounds. One weighed 154 
pounds. The seed was planted on a heap of pond muck 
which had lain exposed to the w’eather about a year. The 
same writer say's, Mr. Wm. Marshall, Jr., of Somers, 
New York, picked, last season, from a piece of ground 
measuring 15 by 21 feet, 162 quarts of straw berries, or at 
the rate of 268 bushels 12 quarts per acre. 

Extraordinary Sale of Apples. — We have the plea- 
sure of putting on record (says the Nashx'ille Banner,) 
probably the best sale of fruit ever known in this country, 
and that, too, of Tennessee fruit. The specimens of ap- 
ples exhibited at the Fair by Mr. J. W. Dodge, artist, 
raised on his farm in Cumberland county, on the moun- 
tain, were sold at auction on Wednesday night. They 
were sold by the half dozen, and as high as S5 20 per 
half dozen paid. The w'hole lot sold, amounting to about 
a barrel and a half, of seven varieties, brought Si 1 1. If 
any of our famous fruit-growing States in any section of 
the Union can equal this, we should like to hear from 
them. 


InttitEllEtfll Stpaitment. 


FEOWEK8 FOR THE SOUTH. 

(“Cdosia Crfikntar — Cockscomb.) 

Editors Southern Cultivator — “Did anybody ever 
see the like F’ 

“Why, sir, I declare I thought you had a better taste 
than to plant such an old-fashioned thing, which I have 
known since I was a little girl — it always grew in my 
grand-mothers garden — the common old Princes Peaiher ! ’ 
This, and similar exclamations I am listening to almost 
every day during the summer. Still, by a little closer ex- 
amination, the ladies admit tiiat they never saw' so beau- 
tiful Pnnee's Feathers as mine, and before they leave my 
garden they alw'uys tell me to be certain to save some of 
the seed for them. 

Although the Cockscomb is entirely different from the 
old Prince's Feather, (Arnaranthus CoAulatns) wffiich it 
somew'hat resembles, still it is true that it is so old, neg- 
lected and forgotten, that it is almost new again. In fact, 
we have thrown away a heap of fine old plants, (merely 
because they were old fashioned), which we ought to get 
back again, while we have introduced many new ones’ 
whose only merit is to be new. But I for one will never 
give up true beauty for so silly a reason, and will continue 
to plant the “Cockscombs” in my front yard, because they 
are lasting beauties. From spring, through the whole 
summer they are growing prettier and prettier, until at 
last they at once must succumb to the severe stroke of 
“Jack Frost.” 

Years ago only a red or deep crimson varie<.y was 
knowm. Now they sport in all different shades and hues, 
in pink, scarlet, crimson, orange, buff, yellow and vari- 


SOUTHERjV cultivator. 


93 


gated colors. Unlike most other flowers, they do not get 
exhausted and wither ; no ! they are always developing 
more beauty ; they are one of the greatest. as well as most 
constant ornaments of our gardens, and a group of them j 
on a lawn, or in the front of a house is a most beautiful j 
object. Besides, they are so easily raised from the seed j 
that there is no trouble in getting them, and they are so 
perfectly adapted to our climate that they will reproduce 
themselves. 

Another species, also very ornamental, is the Celosia 
Itidica. It grows up very straight from two to three feet 
high, producing its flowers in long beautiful spikes, which 
at first are crimson but afterwards turn white ; it is almost 
indispensable for boquets. 

Both of these plants are annuals, and belong to that 
class which iscalled “everlasting,” for they will keep for 
years, particularly the latter, when dried and put away. 

Robert Nelson, j 
Fniitland Sursm-y,'' Angnst^, Go., 1857. j 

NOTBi^ ON PEAR8 AND TKEIR CULTURE. 

Editors SoDTHERN Cultivator — If you think the fol- 
lowing observations made during the past summer would | 
interest the readers of your valuable journal, you are at j 
liberty to publish or otherv/ise dispose of them as may be j 
most in accordance with your opinions. 

1st. Bezi D'La Alotle . — A noble variety, and worthy 
the attention of all cultivators of the Pear; although not 
quite first-rate in flavor, its large size and productiveness ! 
amply compensates for its slight defects in flavor. i 

Snd. Rcnissekft dc Rheim$. — One of a peculiar type or 
class ; of which it is the genitor of a numerous progeny. 
With the exception of the Seckle, Rosteizer and Madeline, 
this race of diminutive Pears should be erased from the 
list of cultivators and nurserymen ; not from any want of 
excellence, but in consequence of their small size, as we 
have an ahundance of equally good flavor and of large 
size. 


3rd. Andreu'S.—A large green Pear, with a dull red 
cheek, of only passable flavor, not more than good. 

4th. Stevens Gi nesscc, Louis d’ Prusse . — A fine large 
turbinate shaped Pear of excellent flavor; the trees are 
vigorous and grow admirably on the quince. 

5th. Belle et Bonne, Belle d' Bruxells . — A very large 
turbinate shaped Pear; color, a dull green with some 
spots of russett, sometimes of fine flavor, at others quite 
indifferent. 

6th. Cuniberl-and . — A medium sized and very pretty : 
looking Pear, but of indifferent quality. We have recent- 1 
ly noticed that this vanety has been placed among the re- j 
jected ones. 


7th. Passe Colmar . — An excellent Pear of medium size, 
and fine flavor. Worthy of a place in every collection. 

6th. St. Gkislaine . — May do for saints to eat, but for us 
sinners, with mouths as large as a clam, it is entirely too 
small. Let it go with the other small fry^ 

9th. Zepherine Gregouc . — One ofthe ne\^'arieties, with 
quite a windy or airy name ; it is of medium size, turbi- ■ 
nate shape, yellow color with considerable russett; the 
lower. part of the stem is much swollen where it joins the 
fruit. Nothing remarkable in any respect. 

lOth. Flemish Beauty . — Rightly named, and of great i 
excellence at limes ; at others, not so good; but taking it 
ail in all, should have a place in every collection. 

llih. Dunmare — A beautiful Pear, of fine size, flavor 
and appearance, and should meet with more extended cul- 
feare than has hitherto been bestowed upon it. 

22th . — Glout Morceau . — A ^ood sized winter Pear at 
the North ; here it ripens in October and November; it is 


hardly second-rate in quality, being astrigent and of coarse 
texture. 

13th. Brown Beurre. — From the high encomiums be- 
stowed upon this Pear we had expected to find it of great 
excellence ; with us it is hardly very good. 

14th. Van. Asschc. — One of the new varieties, of large 
size and every way entitled to attention, being of first-rate 
flavor, and bound to become popular. 

15th. Rosteizer. — A small early Pear of the Rousseletc 
family; it is of first rate flavor, which is all that saves it 
from condemnation with us, as we are dead against this 
host of diminutive varieties. 

16th. Summer Ban Cretcin: — An old and somewhat 
neglected Pear; in size it is large, and of fine appearance, 
in flavor about second-rate and deserves more attention 
than it receives. Ripens in July. 

17th. Easter Bergarnotte. — Ripens in October; rather 
a queer time for Easter to come. Never will make much 
noise in the world. Mene, Tekel, Upharsin. 

18th. Julienne. — The best early Pear yet cultivated at the 
South; too much cannot be said in its praise ; it is of 
medium size ; pale yellow' color, with a long slender stem , 
in quality, best. 

19th. WilJdnson. — Although not of first-rate quality, 
yet from the great productiveness of the tree, together 
with the beauty of the fruit it will long be a favorite ; it 
IS of medium size, a beautiful golden yellow' with a car- 
mine cheek. 

20th. Sageret. — A very pretty’- speckled pear, but won’t 
“do to tie to,” being astringent and rather below size. 

2lst. St. Germaine. — If St. Germaine ever ate one of 
these pears, I expect he thought he was in purgatory rather 
than being canonized as a saint. 

Our numerous list of Pears needs sifting ; entirely too 
many small ones have a place in it ; none should be be- 
low the size of Peabody’s new strawberiy. We shall 
place ourself on our reserved right, and condemn all who 
do not come up to that standard. 

We see no reason nor common sense in retaining so 
large a number as we now have, when we have plenjty of 
good size and equally as fine flavor. The Seckle, Made- 
line and Rostizer are sufficient to gratify^ the lover of small 
varieties. 

We would here take occasion to urge upon our Southern 
friends to plant Pear seeds, and test the varieties raised by' 
grafting them when one year old upon bearing trees which 
will hasten the lime of fruiting very materially. We are 
willing to hazzard our opinion in saying thatour Southern 
Seedling Pears will be as far superior to those ofEuropean 
or Northern origin as are our Southern Apples. 

Time will give us these, and until then we must of 
necessity use the former. Northern varieties are usually' 
more healthy and less subject to blight than the European 
varieties, although there are quite a large number ofthose, 
particularly of the old and -well established varieties that 
are vigorous and healthy. 

Very little has yet been accomplished in Pear Culture 
which is of any benefit to the South, except the discovery' 

' and detection of synonyms. As to which varieties are 
best, experiment alone can determine, for the difterence 
between the soil and climate of the North and South is so 
great it is but reasonable to infer the character of the 
fruit produced in the two sections will be equally as 
great. 

Were it necessary, we could give instances where a 
variety of superior excellence at the North had proved of 
value here, and visa versa. 

We have under trial quite a number of Southern origin 
which we hope ere long to produce fruit and will then 
place the result candidly before the public. We now have 


* 


94 


SOUTHERN C U L T I V A T 0[R . 


one of supeiior quality which we shall ofter for sale the 
coming season at our usual price, for we shall not in but 
rare instances ask anything more. Our object from the 
commencement of our nursery operations has been to 
place our trees before our Southern friends at prices a 
little lower than those asked by Northern nurserymen. 

We here avow it has been our intention to cilford no 
excuse for. sending to the North as heretofore fpr fruit or 
fruit trees. We have every year for several past, paid 
from 50 cents to S‘b50 per tree at the North for new vari- 
ties and tlie year following sold the same varieties at 40 
cents per tree; grown here, from grafts taken from those 
identical trees. Our object is to place it within the means 
and tempt our Southern friends to engage in the cultiva- 
tion of excellent fi’uit in abundance, and we have the gra- 
tification of saying our motives have thusfar been duly ap- 
preciated and seconded. 

We had the pleasure of receiving a letter a few days 
since from an enterprizing citizen of this State, w)io 
says: “in five years Georgia will be the greatest fruit grow- 
ing State in the Union. If so this will be a rapid stride, 
as it is btit seven years since the attention of the public 
was directed to the substitution of Southern for Northern 
varieties. 

There is an erroneous opinion promulgated at the North 
in relation to Southern fruit, and we reluctantly are com- 
pelled to think designedly, by interested persons. Not 
long since we read in an extract from an address delivered 
by a distinguished Northern Potnologist, before a North 
ern Society, the following paragraph ; 

“Our Northern Apples are of little value in the South, 
and the very finest Southern Apples are utterly worthless 
in the North.” 

The former part of this assertion is all known to be 
true, for we have for 30 or 40 years been proving them ; 
but is the latter clause true ? For so late as 1845 when 
Dov/ning’.s Fruit and Fruit Trees of America went to press, 
itappears there was no such anomaly known as Southern 
fruits, for with the exception of the Columbia Peach 
and the Father Abraham Apple, none are mentioned ; and 
even in 1855 wlien B.4Rry’.s was published, in his descrip- 
tive list of 133 varieties of Apples, but four hail from the 
South of Mason and Di.xon’s Line, to wit: Bokannon,Red 
June, Cane and Limber Twig. Now, as our Southern 
Apples have only been before the public for seven or 
eight year&(with but few exceptions,) how does the dis- 
titiijuished orator know “Southern varieties are utterly 
worthless at ihe North.” 

We here will run the risk of saying not one of our 
Southern varieties, with the excej)tion of those four men 
tinned atmve, have ever been grown or fruited in a State 
North of Mason and' Di.xon s Line. We challenge the 
author to prove to the contrary, for we kiunv they liave 
had neither grafts nor trees from the South, and further if 
they had, they have not had time to fruit them. We speak 
of St.rte.s as far south as Georgia or South Carolina. When 
the foregoing assertion was made it was fjr Buncombe, 
for the benefit of Northern nurserymen, and a fraud upon 
the Northern fruit grosvers. 

Wiiether our Southern varieties will succeed at the 
North or not remains to l)e tried and ascertained, and 
wheti they f.ave had as long experience with ours as we 
have had with theirs, we shall deem them competent to 
judge. 

Northern nur.serymen see and know that the glory is 
about to depart from Judeah, and fear that they must 
soon exclaim ‘alas ! Othello’s occupation's gone.” 

V/e do not claim to be a prophet nor the son of a 
phophet. but tlie North must pay back the amount she has 
received from the South with interest for fruit and fruit 
trees purchased from her, or be content with indifferent 


varieties, and second-rate prices in the market, or procure 
j her trees from the South. 

I The reasons urged against Northern varietie.s and trees 
! will not apply to Southern varieties going North. Our 
j trees are raised an a more sterile soil than theirs, and on 
j being removed to a better, as we know theirs to be, will 
j have a tendency to increase the size of the fruit, to say 
i the least. Southern raised trees are healtliier and less sub- 
I ject to disease than Northern, and instead of dying down 
i will grow off vigorously. Some of our varieties may not 
I have time to arrive at perfection there, but that is a ques- 
I tion to be yet determined by experiment. 

J. Van Bcren, 


r'l n fin 1 S.aT 



j very distinguished Pomologist, well known both 

I in Europe and America, writes us as follows, from Florida : 
I APPJbE.S IN TME .SOUTH. 

j Editors Southern Cultivator — During my rambles 
through the Carolinas and Georgia I was much surprised 
to see that the larger part of the apples sold in the stores 
were products of . the North, while the North Caro- 
j lina and Georgia Apples are nearly all of superior quality, 
! and most of them very productive varieties. With such 
j Apples as the Buff, Nickajack, the Camak, and Carolina 
j Greening, and many others, the South could depend on 
I its own resources, without the expenses and inconveni- 
ences of transportation, which almost always proves so in- 
jurious to fruit, especially late in the fall. 

A circumstance which struck me all over the Southern 
States is the comparatively small number of Apple and 
Pear trees. The Peach tree alone seeming to be cultivated 
or, in some localities, rather allowed to grow spontaneous- 
j ly. What I have seen of the few Apple and Pear trees is 
I enough to convince me that they succeed admirably in 
j these latitudes, grow faster, are less exposed to diseases 
I and produce uncommonly fine crops. If neglect or care- 
lessness could be justified, the 1‘act that the blossoms are 
1 often injured by spring frosts could be brought in as an ex- 
j euse or justification; butas it is not a drawback to the cul- 
j tivation of the Peach tree, although as much and perhaps 
j more exposed to those frosts and other inconveniences 
j (as the borer, the short living of the tree) why sliould it 
I be an objection to raise other fruits as useful, perhaps 
more so than the Peach ? 

Travelling through extensive plains and valleys, with 
hurdlj one Apple tree in sight, I was often thinking that 
if only H good apple tree was to be jiiund on an average 
to every ten acres of ground, instead of purchasing poor 
Apples from ilie Nurtli, the boulh could not only supply 
its own wants but send to the niidiile States Apples of a 
quality and flavor unknown in the Northern States. Jt is 
a very singular feature in Pomology that almost all the 
Southern Appltj possess a spiceness, an aroma, a richness 
of flavor winch we find in very tew of the Northern vari- 
ties. They are, moreover, of uncommon size, and some 
last as long as the late Noriheni varieties. 

There are many valleys, many favored spots in . that 
rich, varied and sunny Georgia where Apple and Pear 
trees would escape the spring frosts. This fact will he 
better known when more fruit trees shall be planted in 
different localities on southern and northern slopes of the 
mountains or in favored and protected valleys. It is hard- 
ly possible to expect fruit trees to grow equally thrifty 
and to be equally produciive in every spot of such vast 
area as North and South Carolina, Alabama and Georgia. 
In France, only a few proyinces are celebrated as fcuU 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


95 


growing localities, such is Normandy for its Apples, An- 
jjers for the Pears, other departments for the Grape, and 
Gascoigne for its Plums, Peaches and Nectarines. &c. The 
same law will prevail here ; but it must be tried and found 
out, eis it will undoubtedly be in a few years hence. 

There are few more hardy, lasting and well shaped 
trees than some of our fine varieties of native Apples. 
Most of these have recently sprung from native seed and 
possess all the vigor and thriftiness of young and new 
varieties. The Apples of the North and East are unsuccess- 
ful in the South ; but this is not to be regretted. I have 
seen and tasted enough of those noble Southern Seedlings 
to be induced to try their cultivation in the middle States, 
where most of them will undoubtedly retain their high 
qualities and their beautiful size and appearance. 

The North has a hundred apple trees, at least, for every 
one to be found here, and still the North had not enough 
for a good supply at home. Apples sold at S5 and S6 per 
barrel. It was nearly the same in 1855, and still those 
repeated failures do not discourage our planters. They 
have winters of Arctic severity, spring frosts like yours ; 
still they keep on. Why should you not try under more 
favorable cond itions 7 B . 

Jami-aryy 1657. 


GKAJFT1N(^ FKUIT TREE.S— CABBAXtE 
Apliiis, tfcc. 

EofTORS Southern' Cultivator — A correspondent, 
“L.,”in your November [1856] number,inquires for infor- 
mation in reference to grafting the Peach. I have prac- 
ticed it for several years with complete success, and great- 
ly prefer it to budding. My method is to lift one year 
old stocks early in February; cut off the tap root (as 
short as may'^be to leave a goodly number of horizontal j 
roots) with a slanting cut, cut clean the bruised ends ofi 
the others and insert the graft at the collar of the root, by I 
the usual method of cleft grafting, or, for very small stocks, | 
whip grafting. Then replant either where I wish it to re- 1 
main or in a nursery, being careful not to handle it by j 
the graft, or to let that receive any sort of a push or tap. j 
I use waxed cloth instead of wax. I think it every way i 
preferable. j 

In February, 1655, I grafted a plum scion in a peach ; 
stock without lifting the latter. As an experiment, I re- j 
moved the soil from around it and cut off all the horizon- 
tal roots. The plum tree is now twelve feet high, well 
branched from within eighteen inches of the ground, 
measures six inches and a half in circumference above the 
swell of the graft, and promises to produce some fruit next 
year. 

At the same time, I grafted a peach graft in a sprout 
which came up from a horizontal root of a plum tree. 
That year the peach grew 6 feet high with four or five 
lateral boughs, and was covered with fruit buds. I was 
obliged to transplant it in the spring of 1856 ; but not- 
withstanding this check it matured six excellent peaches, 
all thet were suffered to remain on it. This stock had no 
tap root at all. 

in February' of the last year,I grafted a peach in a three j 
year old stock of the common flowering almond. In this 
one season it has grown to a heiglit of seven feet; is i 
thickly branched on every side, and covered with fruit I 
buds. My object was to dwarf the peach, but w’hatever j 
the result may be it does not promise that at present. I I 
give these experiments for what they are worth ! 

Have you ever known a barren plum tree 7 In 1852 a I 
volunteer seedling came up in my garden, which, from its ^ 
peculiar appearance, I 'was induced to save. In 1651 it i 


bore one plum of a remarkable fine quality, the rest of its 
fruit being destroyed, as I supposed, by a late frost. In 
1855 it wms covered with blossoms, but produced no fruit, 
which, without examination, I ascribed to the same cause. 
Last year it was again loaded with flowers, and I exam- 
ined a great many of them carefully. The result was 
that I found in every one a mere rudimentary pistil, and 
that w'as black and dead. All the other parts of the blos- 
som were perfect and healthy. What is the explanation 
of this 7 Is it a natural defect 7 oris it attributable to 
some incidental cause 7 The tree grows in a good soil, is 
very thrifty and is evidently a variety of thp common 
chickasaw plum. 

Tour correspondent “L.,’' will find nothing so efficaci- 
ous as a remedy for the Cabbage aphis as Scotch snufF, 
sprinkled fifeely on them, or cutting off every leaf on 
which they appear and grinding it to powder, and even 
then if he "lets one escape, in two days they will all be 
back again. 

1 had a favorite pium tree which w'as awfully attacked 
by the black aphis. Limb, leaf and fruit they covered it 
like a pall of death. At the urgent advice of a friend and 
with no faith in the remedy, I w'as induced to bore a half 
inch hole in the trunk of the tree, half through, and fill it 
W'ith the flour of sulpher. In five days every aphis was 
gone, and though they re-appeared in small numbers on 
other trees and vines, they never touched that tree again, 
yet, however, I am not certain about the sulphur. 

In conclusion, let me thank Mr. White, for his “Gar- 
dening for the South,’" the very thing for every one who, 
like myself, is A Learner. 

Sclvia, Ala., 1857. 


CARAFE CFETURE IN TENNE88SE. 

BY JOHN R. EAKIN, OF WARTRACE, TENN. 

The writer has for several years, been engaged in the 
effort to establish a vineyard in Middle Tennessee, near 
Wartrace. As he has year by year marked the result of 
the effort, and acquired information from other quarters, 
both at home and abroad, he has become more and more 
convinced that the thing is eminently practical, and wor- 
thy the attention of all who desire the advancement and 
prosperity of the State. 

It is fast becoming here in this country a question, how 
the least ground can be made to produce the most value. 
With our forefathei's it was a different question, given an 
unlimited quantity of ground, how can the least labor turn 
out the largest product. Slovenly modes of culture and 
crops that required little care or neatness, were the natural 
results of an extensive surface of rich ground, and a scarc- 
ity of hands. It has been corn after corn, and cotton, 
cotton to the end of the chapter ; very naturally, too, be- 
cause such things with a virgin soil, and sparse population 
were the most profitable in that day. But, the cream of 
the soil has been all skimmed away ; families have grown 
up and divided the old homestead — worn as they are — 
immigration has demanded room also, and new modes of 
culture must be devised, and people must set themselves 
to solve the other proble.m, too. 'When they begin to 
work at it in earnest it will be the inaguration of a new 
era and a better one, which I hope is not far off. Facilities 
of communication with the world opens new markets. We 
can now sell fruits, hops, willow twigs, ground peas, and 
best of all, wheat. Many things now bring money which 
our fathers planted in patches for fanidy use, and threw 
the overplus away. Cannot vines be made a source of 
revenue to the State, and of comfortable subsistence to 
families, confined to small portions of ground, but willing 
to work fora living! Let us see what we are promised 
in what has already been done. 1 he vineyards in the 
vicinity of Cincinnati are cultivated almost exclusively by 


96 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


Germans. They labor in them with their wives and 
children, the cultivation is li^ht, and after the first prepar- 
ation of the ground, all the members of the family ca)r as- 
sist. Each acre so cultivated, will produce, one year with 
another, three hundred and fifty gallons of wine, at a low 
estimate, worth one dollar per gallon. The average of 
some vineyards is far above this, some below it; but this 
is a fair average and a safe one for our calculations. Sup- 
pose it to be only half that or one hundred and seventy- 
Sve gallons. My head vine-dresser, himself a German, 
and experienced in the business, tells me that a man and 
his family will cultivate 3 acres with little difficulty and two 
and a half acres with ease. Take the lowest estimate, and 
we have ST37 ; this on two and a half acres, without 
hired labor. But this calculation will be considered by 
those more versed in the business, ridiculously low. 1 
put it so to show with what certainty on how .small a por- 
tion of land an industrious family may make a support. 
Seven hundred dollars would be a much more reasonable 
calculation of the value of their produce, leaving out the 
ordinary productions of a kitchen garden. It it is for this 
class that the introduction of the vine culture will do the 
most. The class who tire of living from hand to mouth, 
tending corn on rented land, and who finally with their 
families and a cart, wend their weary way to the swamps 
of Arkansas, Missouri and Texas — or worse still, give up 
in despair, and take to politics and the grog shop. 

Passing by the amateur (who will cultivate his vineyard 
as he does his roses, profitable or not), the man of capital 
has every inducement to embark in this buiness as a 
Source of profit. The annua! ex{»ense per acre of cultivat- 
ing a vineyard has been estimated with the utmost accur- 
acy. It amounts to about sixty dollars. Independent of 
tlie wine made, the sale of cuttings each year nearly pays 
ihe expense of cultivation. The crop has been estimated 
above in a rough manner. Three liundred gallons are 
very safely calcttlated on Mr. Buchanan one year made 
eight hundred and eighty-four. His average for seven 
years was over four hundred gallons to the acre. When 
the wine is prepared and bottled, it will nett 150 percent, 
upon these calculations; but every thing is put at the lovv- 
est, as when sold from the press, after fermentation. 

We can ha.rdly conceive the immense addition to the 
wealth ofTennessee — or its capacity far increased popu- 
lation and power, siimdd it be found that its soil ar.d cli- 
mate are adapted to this culture, and its citizens encour- 
aged to pursue it. 

There is every reason to hope that we are peculiarly 
v/ell situated in this respect. We have the climate of the 
South of Europe, and our calcareous hill sides afford the 
elements of soil every where thought most desirable. The 
vine flourishe.s under more varieties of climate and soil 
than any other plant intended for the use of man, I l>eiieve, 
Indian corn not excepted. From the sunny plains of 
Persia, to the cold and misty shores of England, it has 
pushed it.s way through Europe, becoming better at this 
place and worse at that, but pervading every country, 
and hailed, as a blessing. In mir country it is indigenous. 
Nature herself lias marked out our adaptedness. 

Its cultiu'e has not heretofore been genera! for several 
obvious rea.'<ons. In the first place, we were not wine 
growing emigrants, and had too much which it was more 
profitable to do, to take time, to learn. Not until the pre 
sent jreneration, has the immigration from wine producing 
countries been very large, and the application of their 
own habits of agricultural management is just beginning 
lo attract attention. 

Quite early, however, in the West, intelligent and far- 
seeing men had turned their thoughts in this way, and 
many experiments were made to introduce the business, 
with but little success. We had not learned enough, and, 
more than all. had not found the right kind of grape. It 


lays at our feet, and we were striving to acclimate the 
European grapes — they theniselves, being strangers in 
Europe, old natives of Persia. They tefused to cross the 
ocean after that, died out, and became barren, and almost 
ruined all hope ofour wine making at all. Daniel Web- 
ster declared that we never could; we lacked the volcanic 
element in our soil, and would have to give it up. We 
were loth to think so. Mr. Longworth, of Cincinnati, 
especially, hung on to the idea of acclimating the grapes 
of Europe. It is admirable to read of the pertinacity with 
which he struggled after this object regardless of expense, 
and hopeful after defeat. Hear what he says : 

“There never was a year, for twenty years, that I did 
not collect foreign grape roots from some of our Eastern 
cities. 1 also imported over 5000 grape roots from Ma- 
deira, of all their best wine grapes; as many from the 
middle part of France and from Germany. All lived and 
'were cultivated for a few years, and finally discarded. As 
a last trial, I imported 0000 roots, composed of 24 varieties 
of grapes, from the mountains of .Jura, in the north part 
of France, where the vine region suddenly ends. Their 
vineyards are for-months covered with snow. My suc- 
cess was no better than with vines from a warmer cli- 
mate.” 

Discouraging enough to drop the Kellie at last! but 
Mr. Longworth had. the trueg/iL and hit it at last with a 
native grape. He has earned the name of the father of 
wine making .in the West. 

Coming nearer home to our own State and city, we 
find that the same spirit has been operating here. Many 
have been impelled by the same hope of acclimating the 
foreign grapes, to make long and expensive elforts. The 
most remarkable and noteworthy of these was made by 
our fellow citizen, Dr. Felix Robertson, nearly half a cen- 
tury ago. It becomes a matter of historical interest, which 
I hope will be my excuse for publishing, in full, a letter 
lately received from the Doctor on the subject. Every 
portion of the letter is interesting — not the least so to me, 
his cheerful God speed at the end. 

Nashvjllr, August 30, 1856. 

Mr. John R. Eakin — Dear Sir : — I received afew days 
since your letter asking information on the subject of the 
cukure of the foreign grape. I believe I wa.s the first 
person in this vicinity who made an attempt at the cul- 
ture of the vine to any extent. I cannot be precise as to 
dates, having notJiing bui memory to rely on. I think it 
was in 1810 that 1 commenced. There was no means of 
obtaining slips at that time nif^her than Glasgow, Ken- 
tucky. I ordered a quantity of slips from there, sufficient 
us I supposed, to set ten acres They were broughtdown 
in cold, dry weather, and from the carelessness of the 
wagoner, (who neither gave them water or protection,) 
they arrived in very bud condition, and caused it to be 
two or three years before I had the ground fully set. I 
planted them, I think six feet by four, a stake to Ccich, six 
or eight feet high. I did not prepare the ground as was 
diiected, by deep and tnorough spading and turning. It 
was prepared as well as could be expected with the plow. 

I think my collection only comprised four or five varieties. 

A large and small cape grape, Madeira and Bordeaux. I 
do not at present reeoliectany others, all said to be foreign. 
The Long Cape is what is now called by some the 
Schuylkill Mu.seatel, and is, I believe, by many, claimed 
as a native. This is decidedly the best table grape I have 
yet tasted. The Small Cape was something over half the 
size of the larger; round, black berry, and quite sweet, 
it bore in short, compact bunches. The Madeira was 
much such a looking grape as to color and size as the Isa- 
bella, but I think ,a purer sweet. The Bordeaux was a 
large, round berry, in short and very compact bunehes. 

About the time the vines first commenced bearing, I 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


97 


met with a Swiss who said he had been raised to the cul- 
ture of the grape, ar.d I employed him to attend to the vine- 
yard. He paid very strict attention to it for two yeais 
butbeame disheartened at the prospect and left. 

From the time the vines commenced bearing, you could 

see they were becoming unhealthy, and in a few years 
they had not strength to form any bearing wood . I made 
but very little wine ; it seemed to be more hke claiet than 

any other wine. . j 

In 1820, I think, I broke up the v^eyard and sold 

what vines were still living to Col. ^ 

transplanted them to his fama a few miles off. Hiey 
flourished again pretty well for a few years, JinaUy 
died out, and the Col. has abandoned • 

Francis Fink, a German, soon after my failuie, p an ed 
some five or six acres, three or four miles from INa.hville 

and continued to cultivate them for several year^, but 
finally despaired of succeeding, and sold out and removed 
to Ohio. His stock was foreign vines. I have known 
several others make uials on a small scale, say rroin a half 
to one or two acres, but invariably with like resul s. 
Some have lately commenced grapes that are said to be 
native, and as yet are in good spirits of succeeding •, but 
doubt whether the short lime which they have been at it, 
would justify a positive conclusion. All the vineyards 
which I have seen have been, I think, on too flat or level 
land. Hill sides, and those having gravel in their com- 
position, I should prefer. I have seen a few vines o. the 
Lono- Cape cultivated to furnish the table, which have 
succeeded admirably. They were planted in yards, and 
trained on the house or trellis to the full extent of their 
•Growth. This vine, treated in that v/ay, perhaps would 
Succeed in field culture, extended on trellis work. They 
are, I think, decidedly the best table grape yet cultivated 
amongst us, and is worth the exertion to obtain it. I think 
I have seen on a single vine more than five bushels of 
bunches of grapes. 

The grape is the only sure fruit crop we have. I have 
never known them to fail. They are sometimes affected 
by rot, the cause of which 1 do not believe is certainly 
known. It commonces in a minute spot as if it were the 
sting of some insect, and rapidly spreads over the berry. 
It appeared to me that it was apt to occur in very wet, or 
very dry seasons. Some persons attribute it to Nvet, some 
to drouth. 

I have thus, Sir, given you a short and hasty sketch of 
my experience of the grape culture, and wish it could have 
been fuller and more saiisfactory. 1 hope and believe that 
you will succeed better than we who have preceded you, 
and that the culture of the grape may become a profitable 
business in our country. The pleasure of our tables 
would be greatly increased, and the intemperate use of 
distilled spirits much curtailed thereby. 

Wishing you great success in your enterprise, T am 
dear sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Feiux Robe-rtson. 


Several others have continued to experiment with foreign 
varieties from time to time, in this State and elsewhere, 
with uniform non-success. It is almost hopeless, yet in 
the infinite varieties of our soil and local influences, there 
may still be found places where it will succeed. Mr. 
Camus, a Frenchman, having a small vineyard on the 
Nashville road, about ten miles from Nashville, has three 
varieties of French grapes, or supposed to be, which are 
bearing abundantly, and as yet give no signs of decay. 
He has made a small quantity of wine from mixed grapes, 
but owing, no doubt, to imperfect appliances, it is of too 
acid a character to suit the general taste. His vines are 
beautifully luxuriant, and may turn out hereafter to be 
highly valuable. It will require some years yet to test 


their health and durability, after so many failures, but 
Mr. Camus himself is very confident of them under his 
mode of culture. 

In our native grapes now lie the deep hopes. The 
Isabella and Catawba stand yet at the head of the best for 
wdne, more especially the latter. It is a native of North 
Carolina, near about our own latitude, and from a coun- 
try very similar. It was first introduced to jjublic notice 
by Major Adlum, who considered he had rendered there- 
by a greater service to the country than if he had paid 
the National debt. Nine-tenths of the wines about Cin- 
cinnati are the product of this grape As yet it is pre- 
eminent, but not perfect. It is very liable to disease, and 
often disappoints the hopes of the vintner. We may have 
in our forests something better still, and all those grapes 
which are observed to be of remarkable excellence in a 
wild state, should be noticed by amateurs and cultivated. 

The Catawba should be adopted by all about com- 
mencing the business, and the others made subjects of ex- 
periment. The wine is pleasant, of a delicate .straw color, 
mild, and keeps without any foreign mixture. It needs 
neither sugar nor alcohol. Several excellent specimens 
have been made in our vicinity. Mr. Vaulx succeeded 
in making a small quantity from his vineyard near Nash- 
ville, equal to any I have ever seen. He did not test its 
keeping qualities, but there is no reason to believe it de- 
ficient in that respect. Others at different points have 
commenced in earnest, and there seems to be a growing 
confidence in the success of the business. The experi- 
ence of the writer so far, has been most encouraging. My 
vintage this year, although necessarily small, from vines 
only four years old, was at the rate of 400 gallons to the 
acre. The wine is of excellent quality, with the proper 
amount of saccharine strength to ensure its keeping. 

In order to embark in the vine culture, less preliminary 
knowledge is necessary than would be at first supposed. 
To commence aright is the main matter, and that is easily 
learned. As the vine grows year by year, ample time is 
given to any one to make themselves acquainted with the 
training, and other subsequent processes of wine making. 
A few plain directions to beginners will close this article, 
already too long perhaps for service. 

The ground should be well prepared in the fall or early 
winter, to receive the benefit of the freezes. Undoubtedly, 
the best means of preparing the ground is by trenching at 
least two feet in depih. By trenching is meant simply, 
what its etymology would import, cutting up and loosen- 
ing the VjJwle of the ground, into open ditches, like 
military defences. The entire surface of the earth is to be 
loosened up if possible^ and that is best performed in the 
following manner : 

Begin at one side of the ground to be jirepaifd, and lay 
off a land the whole length about three fe<'t wide. Dig 
and throw the dirt out carefully from the side of ,the pro- 
posed vineyard, until you have a clean ditch, at le.i.st 18 
to 20 inches deep, cind if two feet the better. Lay off then 
another land by the side of the first, and of the same 
width. Dig it out, throwing all the dirtinto the first ditch 
until your second one is completed to the same depth. 
Ditch No. 1 will then contain the soil taken from ditch 
No. 2 in an inverted form and will be slightly raised. Lay 
off another land in the same way, dig and tlirow the soil 
into ditch No. 2, and so on until you go over the whole 
ground. Your last ditch will of course be open, which 
you may leave so or fill as you please. The dirt from 
your beginning ditch can be scattered over the bed. That 
is trenching, and decidedly the most perfect mode of pre- 
paring either vineyard or garden. No one should be 
satisfied with any less effectual mode, if this be at all pos- 
sible. It seems slow, and is more expensive, but in the 
end it pays better. One hand beginning now will trench 
one acre before spring, which acre will be increased there- 


98 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


by threefold in value. I omitted saying that a hill side 
should be selected if you have it, and a friable calcareous 
soil, if mixed with gravel the better. 

For those who cannot trench, a large'plow, followed by 
a subsoil plow, well used, is the next best. It may do, 
but not so certainly, and the vineyard will not be so good, 
unless in very favorable soils. It fails to throw the rich 
surface soil to the bottom, a very important part, as it is 
not favorable for the roots to run near the surfoce. They 
should be tempted down. 

Where time and opportunity fails to allow the use of 
the subsoil plow, it may still be worth while to begin with 
the use of the common plow alone, run as deep as pos- 
sible. It is not a very hopeful plan, but by subsequent 
trenches between the rows, it may do partially, and in 
favorable localities, yield a remunerating crop. For those 
anxious to begin, it is better than nothing, and may afford 
a start to be improved upon afterwards. 

During the winter the slips or one year old roots may 
be obtained, and they should be set out not more than 6 
feet by 4 apart, leaving the top eye just level with the sur- 
face of the ground, and slightly covered with light earth 
to prevent being killed by the sun. Two slips should be 
set in each hole to allow for one failing. If both grow, 
one may be removed next springs for replanting missing 
spots. It roots are used the top should be trimmed away 
to one or two good eyes. The proper time for planting is 
after the spring has fairly opened, say from the middle of 
April to tbe middle of May.* The first years’s cultivation 
is only to keep them free of weeds. No trimming, training 
or staking will be needed, it will be hard if the beginner 
does not learn in the next twelve months how to pro- 
ceed. 

The preparation of the ground let me repeat, is of the 
highest importance. You cannot have a vineyard with- 
out it, any more than ♦you can have a house without a 
foundation. If you wish to throw away your vines, and 
what little trouble you do take, let your ground alone un- 
til spring — snatch a little time from your farm or garden — 
dig a hole in the hard ground where you want your vine 
to be, just big enough to get it in, and “let it rip.” After 
a few years, folks will hear you talking that vines do no 
good in this country. 

After all, the.best and most compendious piece of advice 
to a beginner, is to lay out a dollar or less in the purchase 
of Mr. R. Buchanan’s Treatise on the Vine Culture. It is 
an eminently practical book, by a practical man, adapted 
precisely to the wants of those who wish minute and de- 
tailed instructions. 

To those who would like to enquire further concerning 
this subject, the writer cheerfully proffers, if addressed, 
to give them the benefit of all he knows. Satisfied of the 
importance of this branch of industry, in every sense, he 
is not likely to be averse to a little trouble now and then, 
in its service. — Tennessee Farmer tf* Mechanic. 


VINEYARDS AND ORCHARDS IN SOUTH 
Carolina. 

Dr. Randall Croft writes the editor of the Greenville 
Patriot and Mountaineer, as follows; 

Mr Editor: — We have just returned from paying a 
Christmas visit to my bi'oiher, who resides on Shaw’s 
Creek, four miles from Aiken, where we spent three 
weeks delightfully; and with the best of friends, tne 
choicest fare, and plenty of good cheer, the time passed 
so quickly away, that we regretted when our own busi- 
ness required our presence at home again. While there, 
we frequently saw our Iriend and townsman, Mr. Pinck- 


*From four to eight weeks than this in the more 

Southern States. — Eds. So. Cult. 


ney McBee, who is spending the winter at Aiken for the 
benefit of his health. We were much pleased to see the 
imorovement in his appearance and spirits, which a few' 
weeks sojourn there had effected. I also met another of 
our Greenville friends, Maj. Easley, who is there for the 
same purpose. He is looking better, and I hope will soon 
be restored to health. How fortunate are we to have in 
our own State a town like Aiken, where the sick and af- 
flicted can resort with confidence in the winter, and with 
impunity in summer. It is a delightful place, and w'e 
were gratified to see how much it had increased in size. 
It has been much frequented by consumptives, and those 
suffering from pulmonary diseases, from the Northern 
States, during the winter, and those flying from the dis- 
eases of the city and the fevers of the lower country dur- 
ing the summer months. 

There are two fevers raging to a very considerable ex- 
tent in that section — the grape and the peach fever. And 
you can form no idea of the wine excitment existing there 
at this time ; neither are we able to describe it. We are 
not certain that we have not caught the infection. Every 
one is either planting or preparing to plant him a vine- 
yard. The vine has been cultivated very successfully for 
several years by A. de Caradeuc and Dr. McDonald. I 
spent a very delightful day with Mr. de Caradeuc, from 
whom I received much information and instruction on the 
growing of the vine — the proper location of the vineyard, 
and the different varieties of grapes which are best suited 
to our climate. 

For the first time in my life, I saw a regular wine press. 
You are aware that wine is only the juice of the grape ex- 
pressed, and allowed to ferment, when it is drawn oflf and 
put into casks for a year or so, and then bottled. It should 
receive no alcohol. I tasted, at Mr. de Caradeuc's and Dr, 
McDonald’s, a delightful Claret, an excellent, still Cham- 
paigne, and a delicious Madeira wine; also a very fine 
brandy. These gentlemen may be said to be the pioneers 
of vineyards in South Carolina, and are rendering much 
essential service to the State. They make some seven or 
eight hundred dollars to the acre; and they are doing thb 
on lands which twenty years ago no one would pay taxes 
on. 

Our rice planters do not clear one hundred dollars to the 
acre on lands that are w'orth from one hundred to two 
hundred dollars per acre, while they are realizing six or 
seven hundred dollars. Their places are perfectly healthy 
for whites and blacks, while the rice lands are healthy for 
neither. 

The grape is, generally speaking, a pretty sure crop. 
Dr. McDonald has some thirty or forty acres in vineyard, 
and Mr. de Caradeuc sixteen or eighteen. There have 
been others in South Carolina who long ago attempted 
the culture of the grape. Mr. Herbemont, Mr. Guigniard, 
Mr. Maverick and others, all of whom failed. The stum- 
bling block to those who first made the attempt to raise 
wine, was the cultivation of the foreign grapes. It is 
now reduced to a certainty that they will not do, but that 
our native grapes are eminently successful. Those 
which Dr. McDonald and Mr. A. de Caradeuc plant are 
the Warren, the Isabella and the Catawba. The Warren 
produces the best Madeira, a wine resembling it in char- 
acter; and it is the vine which these experienced gentle- 
men prefer. They also plant largely of the Isabella, and 
the Catawba. These are all native, and no doubt will do 
well over a great portion of our State; and it is our 
opinion these and also the Scuppernong will do well in 
Greenville District, and we think that the time is not very 
distant when we will see a great portion of our hillsides 
covered with vineyards making sixty thousand dollars to 
the hundred acres, or six hundred dollars to the acre, 
which is only a moderate estimate, according to the ealcu- 
lations of those who are realizing that, and a good dnaJ 


SOUTH'ERN CULTIVATOR 


m 


iriore, on lands much thinner than our poorest mountain 
ridges. The best location for a vineyard, is a hillside 
fronting the east, so as to have it protected from the even- 
ing sun. The approved distance of planting the vines, is 
in rows of eight feet in width, and four feet apart in the 
rows. The grape produces from two to lour hundred gal- 
lons of wine to the acre. 

Is it not strange that our State Agricultural Society has 
not taken a more lively interest in vineyards, grapes and 
vines, than it has 1 We would think a premium offered 
for the best of each of those productions, would elicit 
much light on the subject. We asked Mr. de Caradeuc 
why Dr. McDonald and himself did not exhibit their wine 
and brandy at the Fair, and he observed he would do so 
when there vv’ere premiums offered tor them. We are 
credibly informed that both Mr. James Rose and Mr. 
Henry (iourdin, (gentlemen distinguished for their busi- 
ness habits, their elegant hospitality, and their great judg- 
ment on wines,) have passed considerable encomiums on 
Mr. A. de Caradeuc’s Warren wine. Major Bausket (a 
near neighbor of my brother’s, who is not only one of the 
best lawers of our State, but one of the closest observers) 
has just returned from a trip up the Mississippi river as 
high as Cincinnati, gave us a glowing and graphic de- 
scription of their vineyards. He says every acre that is 
planted in the approved vines, is valued at one thousand 
dollars per acre, Air. N. Longworlh, of Cincinnati, who 
has not only built a wide reputation, but a mammoth es- 
tate by his vineyards, has done it mostly by his Catawba 
grape. Thirty years of his life have been devoted to the 
culture of the grap8,and for fifteen years he tried the foreign 
varieties, on which he failed, as the rest did w’ho tried ^ 
them, and sunk one hundred and twenty thousand dol- 
lars He then turned his attention to the native grapes of 
the country, and in the space of sixteen years has not 
only retrieved his losses, but has amassed seven or eight 
millions of dollars. His taxes the last year amounted to 
eighty-five thousand dollars. What golden harvests must 
he not reap from his still and sparkling Catav/ba I AVe 
have frequently drank it, and so have you. It is a de- 
lightful Champaigne, selling at two dollars a bottle, or 
from six to eight dollars a gallon. We asked the Major 
what he thought of the grape culture '? His answer was ; 

I can see no possibility of its failure. 

What an adjuvant the production of light wines in our 
State will be to the cause of temperance! The Temper- 
ance Societies, led and conducted by their great chief, our 
worthy friend Judge O’Neal, have for a long time fought a 
good, true, and steady fight, against intemperance, A 
powerful ally has now appeared in the field. They can 
now do as old Leatherstocking did when the Prairie was 
on fire — “Let fire fight fire.” The experience of all Eu- 
rope has proved that a wine making country was never 
much given to intemperance. With the expressed juice 
of the grape, the spirits are elevated, and the skin filled 
before reason is dethroned. With distilled or alcoholic | 
liquors, the reverse is the case. But what is this to me or 
to you, Air. Editor 1 We are digressing from our subject. 

We would advise all of our friends to plant out a few 
of the Cawtaba, and a few of the Isabella, Warren and 
Scuppernong vines. These are the most approved grapes 
for making, wine, which will keep well. The Burgundy, 
as a table grape, is thought the most of about Aiken. All 
these, however, are fine. By planting now any one, in a 
year or two, if he desires to establish a vineyard, could 
have a good number of cuttings, and should they not they 
would have an abundance of table grapes. There is such 
a great demand at this time for the cuttings, and roots, 
that it is very difficult to procure them in numbers, Aly 
brother intended planting out fifty acres this sping, but 
Will not be able to get the cuttings. The Warren is the 
»»ost difficult to obtain. From description, I think it must 


be the same which we call in Greenville the “Bunch-clus- 
ters.” 

We also paid a visit to our mutual friend. Air. Wm. 
Gregg, of Kalmia, whom we esteem as one of the greatest 
men of our State, in head and heart. Pie is the father of 
the largest and best conducted factory in the South, the 
Graniteville Factory — one that our State has just reason 
to be proud of. On entering his library, we were pleased 
to see in a neat frame an excellent likeness of yourself. 
We rode with Air. Gregg all over his extensive orchards, 
and found him courteous, kind and communicative. He 
is the great fruitist of the State, and deserves much credit 
for making those barren sand hills more lucrative than the 
most fertile rice or cotton lands of our or any ot\)er State. 
From some thirty or forty acres in peaches, he last year 
cleared and realized S‘5,500. He was busy planting out 
some forty or fifty acres more, and should the year after 
next be a good fruit one, we verily believe he will make 
twelve thousand dollars net from his peach orchard alone, 
in the planting of which great judgment and taste are 
evinced. 


PREPARATION OF GROUND FOR PEAR 
Trees. 

For each row of trees dig a trench two and a half feet 
deep by five wide. Fill up the trench to the depth of 1 
foot with small and broken stones. The ground should 
be so selected that there shall be a gradual descent from 
one end of the trench to the other, to carry away all water 
that may find its way to the bottom of these broken 
stones. For the compost to fill up the remaining one and 
a half feet, use turf from the road-side, or old pastures, 
spading to the depth of 3 or 4 inches — the same having 
been thrown in heaps till rotten, and mixed with some 
lime. Old lime rubbish, such as plaster from torn down 
houses, and old brick-bats, form an admirable admixture. 
A little leaf mould added, is also beneficial. When the 
trench has been filled with this compost, (putting in an 
occasional layer of the best of the original soil with it) place 
the trees selected for planting, on the prepared soil, spread- 
ing out the roots carefully and covering them with the finest 
of the soil. Conclude the operation by mulching with, 
half rotted manure. An excellent mulching and shading 
can also be provided by a top layer of brush or small 
limbs, cut up so as to lie in immediate contact with the soil. 
In the absence of sufficient rains, the mulching should be 
occasionally well watered during the first season, follow- 
ing the planting. The distance between the trees in the 
rows should be 8 feet for^warf trees, or 15 feet for stand- 
ards, Alternating a standard with a dwarf, each dis- 
tant from the other 10 feet, is a very good ph.n, removing 
the dwarf when the standard shall require all the room. 
The rows should be distant apart 12 feet for dwarfs, or 
25 feet for standards. — Ohio Valley Former. 


SEED OF THE SWEET POTATO. 

To John Bausket, Esq. — Sir : — Long ago you offered 
a reward for the seed of the Sweet or Carolina Potato. 
Doubtless it was incredulity of the existence of such seed 
that prompted you to offer the reward. There were a 
great many blooms of the Potato in the fall of 1855, and, 
looking carefully for seeds, (in the calyx, of course) I found 
some three or four of them. Storing them securely away 
in a paper and labeling, I deposited them in my portmonce 
and kept them there until spring; when I planted them 
in my garden, where there were no other potatoes near, 
and set up sentinel sticks around as a guard. After a 
time a little morning-glory-looking plant peeped out from 
the ground, and you may imagine the relief it afforded my 
suspense, when I beheld it taking on the well known fea- 
tures and marks of the not-to-be-mistaken Yam Potato. 
By cutting the vines and planting them I made three or 


100 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


four hills of potatoes, yielding a double handful of respect- 
able tubers. 

My only apology for addressing you \s, Eureka! I 
intend planting the tubers thus raised the coming season, 
and expect to send you a good large Yam for a potato pone. 
So that you may expect the grand proof of the pudding — 
*‘the chewing the bag.” Respectfully, 

E. J. Mims. 

La Pine, Edgefield District, S. C., Feb., 185G. 


CHINA BERRIES AS EOOD FOR ANIMALS. 

Editors Southern Cultiv.\tor — For the information 
of M. T. McGehee, of Mount Elba, Ark , I would state 
that I have from childhood been well acquainted with the 
China Tree and its fruit and have always considered the 
berries of no use as food for domestic animals. The China 
Berry and leaves, however, I know to be an excellent 
manure, A. McL. 

Cl-ayvelle, Ga., 1857. 

lomtstic CcDnointi anlt 


To Stop Bleeding from the Cavity of an Extract- 
ed Tooth. — Noticing the case of Mrs. Locke, who bled 
to death in consequence of the extraction of a tooth. Dr. 
Addington, of Richmond, Va., says he never fails to stop 
the bleeding by packing the alveolus from which the 
blood continued to trickle, fully and firmly with cotton 
moistened in a strong solution of alum and water. He 
cured a bi'Other physician in this way, whose jaw had 
bled for two weeks. 


Recipe for Mending Broken China. — Take a very 
thick solution of gum arable in water, and and stir into it 
plaster of Paris until the mixture becomes a viscous 
paste. Apply it with a brush to the fractured edges, and 
stick them together. In three days’ the article cannot 
again be broken in the same place. The whiteness of the 
cement renders it doubly valuable. 

The Boston IVIcdical Jo^irnal mentions the follow- 
ing simple and economical apparatus for overcoming bad 
odors, and purifying any apartment where the air is load- 
ed with noxious materials. Take one of any of the vari- 
ous kinds of glass lamjDs — for burning camphene, for ex- 
ample — and fill it with chloric ether, and light the wick. 
In a few minutes the object will be accomplished. In dis- 
secting rooms, in damp, deep vaults where drains allow 
the escape of offensive gases, in outbuildings, and in 
short, in any spot where it is desirable to purify the at- 
mosphere. burn one of these lamps. One tube charged 
■with a wick is sufficient. 


To MAKE Starch Polish.— Take 1 oz., Spermaceti, and 
1 oz., White Wax ; melt, and run into a thin cake on a 
plate. A piece the size of a quarter dollar, added to a qt 
of prepared starch, gives a beautiful lustre to the clothes 
and prevents the iron from sticking. 

Blueing for Clothes— .B e/, and cliea/per than Indi- 
go . — Take 1 oz. ofsoit Prussian Blue, powder it, and put 
it in a bottle with 1 quart of clear rain water, and add 
1-d oz. of Oxalic Acid. A teaspoonfu! is sufficient for a 
large washing. 

To Implove Pear Trees and their Fruit. — When 
planted in a clay soil, mix sand and lime together at the 
rate of one part of the former to two of the latter, and ap 
ply a bushel of the mixture around each tree after the soil 
has been hooked up and loosened. Broken bones are 
also a good manure for Pear trees. — Ohio Valley Farmer. 


lim ntiseraeiito. 


FRUITLAND ISTURSBR-Y-— A CARD. 

T he subscriber would respectfully infonn his customers and 
friends that the unprecedented demand for trees, added to 
the severity of a, portion of the winter, and the premature coming 
on of spring (15th of Feb.) has prevented him from tilling many 
late orders with which he has been favored. His stock for the next 
year, (1857-8) however, will, he hopes, be amply sumcient to meet 
all demands, and he earnestly solicits that orders be sent in as 
early in the fall as pos.sib'e. Laud intended for orchards, next 
year, should be deeply plowed, well manured, and cultivated in 
some hoed crop, like corn, cotton or sweet potatoes. Por further 
particulars see Descriptive and Priced Catalogue of FruitlandNur 
sery, sent/reeo/ postage to all applicants. Address 

D. KED1.IOND, Augusta, Ga. 
“Fruitland Nursery,'’ Augu.sta, Ga., March 1, 1857 — if 

YOUNG AMERICA CORN AND COB MILL. 
The Cheapest and Best. 



W E offer for sale the above MILL, which surpasses all others 
in speed and durability, simplicity and strength as well as 
economy. That part of the Mill most liable to wear being separ- 
ate from the main body, can at any time be removed at a small ex- 
pense. 

The above Mill has received the first premium at the State Fairs 
of New Pork, Ohio, Michigan, North Carolina and Tennessee, as 
also at a large number of County Fairs in various States. 

The YOUNG AMERICA MILL performs its work better and 
nearly twice as fast as any other Cora or Com and Cob Mill yet 
offered to the public. 

Planters are invited to examine the Mill and compare its ad- 
vantages. JOHN & THOS. A. BONE& 

March — tf 


GARDEN HAND PLOWS. 



fTlHESE well known and most useful little PLOWS, worked by 
_L band, >vith six different working irons to suit such work as 
may want to be done, attached to each at pleasure, will be found 
at all the Hardware Stores in this city, by wholesale or retail. 

Marcb.57— 2t B PICQ UET. 

SEED OF FINE LONG STAPLE 
For Sale. 

T his cotton, with the subscriber, has proved early and pro. 

ductive. Price #5 per sack of 2 bushels, delivered in Beaufort 
on board the Charleston and Savanuh steamboats, and less if taken 
in bulk from the plantation. RORT. CHISOLM, 

Marcb57— It Beaufort, S. C- 


PURE AND VALUABLE SEEDS. 

H aving experienced the great difficulty in obtaining reliable 
FLOWER SEEDS, suitable to the South, I have raised a 
small quantity, which I have placed in the hands of D. B Plumb & 
Co., Druggists, i:i this city, for retailing. I w’ould particularly draw 
the attention of the ladies to the splendid co. lection of Stock Gilly 
Flowers, Ten Weeks Stocks, Double Wall Flowers, and German 
Asters. ROBERT NELSON, 

Dec56' — tf Augusta, Ga. 


^IVIORBURN’S WHOLESALE PRICED LISTS of VegetaWe, 
JL Field, Tree, and Flower SEEDS for 1857 will be mailed to 
Dealers enclosing a three cent .stamp. 

J. M. THORBURN <St CO. 

March57— It. 15 John street, New York. 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


101 


“SORGHO SUCRE,” or CHI^7BSS SUGAR 
Caiie : 

I TS History, Propei- Method of Culture and Manufacture — Value 
as a Syrup or Sugar IMaking and Fodder Prodiiciug Plant, &c., 
&c., including Reports of many Practical Experiments in the South 
and other portions of the United States. Compiled from various 
authentic sources, by D. Redmoxd, Assistant Editor of the South- 
ern Cultivator. 

Copies of the above Pamphlet and PURE SEED fumi.shed 
by PLU3tB <S: Leuwer, Augusta, fta.. See their advertisement in 
anther column. 


FRESH GARDEN SEEDS. 

W H are now receiving our supply of choice GARDEN SEEDS, 
which we warrant to be GKXUI.VE and of the crop of 18.0(1. 
Those who purchase our seed may rely upon getting a fresh article 
as -vve keep no ot.d seed on hand. 
jU^Merchants supnlied at a liberal discount. 

D. B. PLUMB Sc CO., 

Nov56 — 4t Broad-st, Augu.sta, Ga. 

AUGUSTA NURSERY. 

Extensive Collection of Selected Roses and 
Scutliem Raised Fruit Trees. 

F a. MAUGE would respectfully inform the amateurs of 
• Roses, that he has now a superb collection of new and rare 
varieties, which he will be happy to supply such as may desire 
them- His prices to Nurserymen will be as low as those of any 
Nursery at the North, and his Rose Bushes will be generally of a 
larger size. He has also made recent additions to his stock of 
FRUIT TREES, and can now supply tine sorts of the following 
varieties : Apples, Pears, Quinces, Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots, 
Plums, Cherries, Soft Shell Almonds, English 'Walnuts, and Ha- 
zle-nuts. 

Al.so, GREEN HOUSE PLANTS, such as Camelia Japonica, 
Orange and Lemon Trees, Sec., and hardy Flowering and Orna- 
mental Shrubs. Orders from the country will be promptly attend- 
ed to, and Trees and Shrubs carefully packed and directed 
Osage Ora ge Fruit for sale at Si per dozen. 

Catalogues of Roses and Frait Trees will be sent gratis, to all 
post-paid letters. Address F. A. MAUGE, Augusta, Ga. 
Dec56 — 4t 


LANDS m SOUTH WESTERN GEORGIA 
For Sale. 

LJtHE Subscriber offers for sale six improved PLANTATIONS, 

1 containing from 750 to 2,000 acres each. Land fresh and in 
cultivation. 

Also 35,000 acres unimproved LANDS, situated in Dougherty 
and Baker counties. 

The whole of these lands were carefully selected, and cannot 
be surpa.ssed for certainty of crops and durability. Terms easy. 

The RaUroad from Macon wiU be completed to Albany .y 1st 
Sept next; thus giving easy access to all of the above named 
landis. Old settled plantations situated m Georgia or Alabama, 
within ten miles of a railroad, will be taken in exchange, if desired, 
at their market value. W. W. CHEEVER, 

Aloany, Oa., Oct. 10th. 1856. Nov56 — tf 


COTTON SEED. 

BUSHELS — Olive — very pure. Price fifty cents a 
• vl \ J vJ bushel at my gin, or forwarded to cash orders at fifty 
cents per sack extra. Also, 1,000 bushels “Crowder,” ecprally pure 
and very productive, an early openei’, growing and making tfil late. 
The young boUs do not dry up on the stalk, nor does it shed as other 
varieties do. Address DR. A. W. WASHBURN, 

Nov5t5 — 6t Yazoo City, Mississippi. 


STOCK FARM FOR SALE. 

I WI.SH to sell my STOCK F.\RM, situated immediately at the 
Depot on the Memphis Sc Ohio Railroad, and also on the Mem- 
phis and Sommerville Plank Road, 11 miles east of Memphis, con- 
taining 610 acres ; 300 acres in cultivation, the remainder finely 
timbered, ail under a new and substantial fence. A good two- 
.story framed Dwelling, framed Negro Houses, and Stables for 20 
horses and 100 head of cattle. I am now selling from my dairy 
S5 worth of milk per day. There are 15 acres well set in Fruit 
T rees of choice quality. 

I will sell the farm together with the Crop, Stock and a few likely 
young Negroes, and give possession immediately, or 1 will sell the 
Farm and Dwellings next winter. Here is the best chance for a 
jaarty familial- with Stock Raismg and can devote his time and at 
tion to the business, to be found in West Tennessee. 

The place can be divided into 9 lots, with a beautiful building site 
on each, with wood, water and cleared land on each. All near and 
with a good road to the Depot. 

If not sold privately before the 1st day of July it will, on that day, 
be divided and sold in lots to .suit purchasers, together with rny 
Stock, consisting of 75’head of COWS, mostly in calf by my Brah- 
min Bull; -20 MARES, in foal by “Nebraska ;” a fine stock of blood 
HOGS and SHEEP, together with my Brahmin BULL, Memphis, 
and the thorough bred young STALLION, Nebraska, sired by im- 
ported Sovereign, dam Glencoe, 4 years old. 

Persons wishing to examine the premises or get further informa- 
tion will call on myself or G. B. Lock, at Memphis, or it will be 
shown by my Overseer on the place. 

The Train, on the Memphis & Ohio Road leaves Memphis at 
o’clock, A. M., and returns at 11 o'clock, P. M. 

JAMES R. FERGUSON, 

Ju*e56 — tf Memphis, Tenn] 


“FRUITLAND NURSERY,” AUGUSTA, GA. 

Fi-uits and Flowers for the South I 

Ij"'HE Subscriber has just issued a NEW CATALOGUE OF 
Jl FRUITS for the SOUTH, in w’hich all the BEST and 
most desk-able NATIVE and FOREIGN varieties (suitable to onr 
climate) are fully described ; witli special directions for the trams- 
planting and management of Trees, Shrubs, Vines, &,c. Also, a 
selected list and description of the rarest and most beautiful 
ROSES, EVERGREENS, etc., etc.; forming a familiar treatise 
for amateurs and those w ho desu-e to add to the comfort and adorn- 
ment of their Immes. 

This Catalogue will be sent to all applicants per mail, frkk ov 
FOST.VGE, by addi-essh)g D. REDMOND, Augusta, Ga. 

Dec56 — tf 


BLACK ESSEX HOGS. 

F or sale, a few pair of three to four months old, at $20 per 
pair. For Lot Hogs, I consider this breed superior to any 
other — they cannot be made to take the mange, and are free from 
cutaneoixs erruptions and disease of the lungs, to which hogs are 
so liabjo w'hon confined in dry pens in a Southern climate. Addros.s 
Nov.5.5— tf R. PETERS, Atlanta, Ga. 


GARDENING FOR THE SOUTH 

T he work, securely enveloped, will be sent by mail (pre-paid) to 
any person remitting at the rate of one dollar and tw-enty-tive 
cents per copy in postage stamps, or in the bfils of any .specie pay . 
ing Bank.s. Address WM. N. WHITE, 

May56— tf ^Athens, Ga. 

PATENT BUCKX.E. 



I DESIRE to sell the Right of making and selling the new 
DOUBLE-JOINTED PATENT BUCKLE, and will thank 
tully receive offers for it until the 1st day of June next. The 
Buckle is the best that has yet been invented, one answering for 
the whole ward robe and should be made of gold or silver. The 
Right of one State is worth a fortune. I will sell the Right of 
one or all the States together. WM. SLADE 

Gum Creek, Dooly Co., Ga., Nov. 24, 1856. Jan57 — 5t 


AUGUSTA SEED STORE. 


{Nearly opposite the United States and Globe Hotels.') 

T ''HE Subscriber has received and w-ill continue to receive 
^ throughout the season, his stock of genuine and fresh GAR- 
DEN SEEDS — crop of 1865. The usual deductions made to coun- 
try Merchants. J. H. SERVICE. 

GIANT ASPARAGUS ROOTS, White and RedONlON SETS, 
White and Red CLOVER, LUCERNE, BLUE GRASS, &c., &c. 
Jan.57 — 3t 

D EALER in FERTILIZERS, No 34 Cliff street, New York. 

PERUVIAN GUANO’No. 1 — Government brand and weight 
on each bag. COLUMBIAN GUANO, imported by t.he Philadel- 
phia Guano Company. SUPERPHOSPHATE OF LIME and 
BONE DUST. Jan57— .3t 


CENTRAL RAILROAD. 



CHA.NGE OF SCHEDULE. 


O N and after Sunday, the 14th October, iust., and until further 
notice, the Passenger Trains on the Cientral RaUroad will run 
as follows : 

BETWEEN SAVANNAH AND MACON. 

Leaves Savannah Daily at 5.C0 a. M. and 12.15 P. M 

Arrive in Macon “ 2.15 P. M. “ 1.00 A. .M. 

Leave Macon “ 11 45 a. Jt. “ 9.30 P. .M. 

Arrive in Savannah “ 10.45 P. JM. “ 7 20 A. M. 

BETWEEN SAVANNAH AND AUGUSTA. 

Leave Savannah 12.15 P. M. and 8-30 P. H, 

Arrive in Augusta 8 45 P. M. “ 5-30 A. M. 

Leave Augusta 6.00 a.m. “ 4.30 p.w. 

Arrive in Savannah 1 30 P. M. “ 10 45 P. M. 

BETWEEN MACON AND AUGUSTA. 

Leave Macon 11.45 .\. M. and 9.30 P. M. 

Arrive in Augusta 8 45 F. M. “ 5.30 A. M. 

Leave Augusta 6 00 a. M. “ 4 30 P. M. 

Arrive in Macon 2.15 P M. “ 1.00 A. .M. 

BETWEEN SAVANNAH, MILLEDGEVILLE 6c EATON TON. 

Leave Savannah 5 00 a. m. 

Arrive in MlUedgevUle 2.45 P. M. 

Leave Macon 11.45 a. m. 

Arrive in Eatonton 5.00 P. M. 

W. M. WADLEY, Gen’l Snperintenc'ant. 
Savannah, Ga., Oct., 12, 185-5. JuJy56— tf 


t 


t 


102 


SOUTHEliN CULTIVATOR 


CORN AND COB MILLS. 



IIE undersigned have now in store and offer for sale the foilow- 
L iug CORN AND COB MILLS : 

LEAVITT’S “YOUNG- AMERICA,” and 
MAYNORD’S “CHAMPION.” 

The Manufacturers of the “Young ximcnca” claim for this Mill ; 

1st. That it will crttsh Corn and Cob ; also, grind fine Meal. 

2nd. That the entire grinding surface can easily be replaced at a 
small cost. 

.3rd. That it has an extra set of fineand coarse plates. 

4th. That it deposits meal in a box or bag. 

.5th. That it has taken the premium over both the “Little Griant” 
and “Star Mills,” at the Ohio State Fair for 1855. 

6th. They submit the following table, showing the time occupied 
and number of revolutions made by each of the Mills on exhibition 
at the Fair of the Maryland Agi'icultural Society for 1855, in grind- 
iirg half of a bushel of Corn and Cob : 

Time. Revolutions. 


“Young America” 

21 Minutes. 

10. 

“Little Giant” 

-...41 “ 

15. 

“Mayuor’s Cbanq ion.. . 

....5 

20. 

“Colburn's Mill” 

...-71 

■ 32. 


The Manufacturers of “51ayuor’s Champion” claim that it is the 
simplest in construction, strong and durable, its grinding partslast- 
ing, (not being made on the coft'ee mill principle) and that for long 
and steady work it is the best Corn and Cob Crusher in use. 

Nov56— tf " H. A J. MOORE & CO. 

CHINESE SUGAR CANE, OR SORGHO 
, Sucre ! !™Pme Seed ! ! ! 

f|''HE subscribers take gi’cat pie rure in informing the Planters, 
X Farmers and Gardeners of th ; South, that they have secured 
from the most reliable sources it lin- ited supply of FRESH SEED, 
of this very valuable plant, the properties of which may be briefly 
.summed up as follows ; 

1st. One acre of the .stalks, properly cultivated, will yield from 
400 to 500 gallons of fine syrup, equal to the best New Orleans ; and 
from the same roots, a second crop of excellent fodder. 

•3d. Sown broadcast or in close di’ills, on land deeply plowed 
and highly manured, it will yield from thirty to fifty thousand 
pounds of superior fodder to the acre. 

3cL It surpasses all other plants for soiling (feeding green) and 
fodder, on account of the great abundance of sugary juice which 
it contains ; and is greedily eaten by stock of all kinds. 

4th. It bears repeated cuttings, like Egyptian Millet, growing 
off freely and rapidly, after each cutting. 

5th. It stands drouth much better than common corn, retaining 
ite green color and juiciness even after the seed matures- 

6th. The seed is excellent for human food, when ground into 
meal, and fattens domestic animals very speedily. From twenty- 
rive to seventy-five bushels can be raised on an acre. 

7th. It is so" certain and i)rolitic a crop that planters may be sure 
of succeeding with it as a Sugar plant anywhere South of Mary- 
land and North of Mexico. If planted earty in the Southern States 
the seed will mature and produce another crop the same season. 

The seed, tvliich has been very carefully kept pure, from 
the original importation, will be offered in cloth packages, each 
eontaming enough to plant half an acre, in di’ills, with full 
direction for the cultivation, which is perfectly simple. 

These packages will be foi'warded mail, FREE OF POST- 
AGE, to any address, on receipt of $1.30 for each package. When 
not sent by mail, we will furnish the packages at $1 each. 

Early orders are solicited, as the su^^ply of good and reliable 
seed is quite limited. Applicants’ names will be entered m the or- 
der in which thej' are received, and the seed will be ready for mail- 
ing or delivery on the first of October. 

Address, with plain directions for mailing or shipping, 

D. B. PLUMB & CO., Augusta, Ga. 

|^^’’’Pamphlets, containing full history and description of this 
p-lant, with valuable Reports on its merits, will be sent, postage 
free, to all who purchase seed, or who will enclose a three cent 
stamp. 

1^^ Dealers in seeds and counti-y merchants can be supplied 
at a liberal discount from retail I’ates, if their orders are received 
immediately. oct56-tf 

R E. NORVELL, 

A uction and commission merchant, and deal- 

FJR IN MACHINERY AND AGRICULTURAL IMPLE- 
MENTS, Huntsville, Ala. Dec56— 2t* 


PLANTATION AND GARDEN 
Fertilizers, 

T he Sub.=:criber has constantly on hand the following concen- 
trated MANURES, a single trial of which will prove to the 
most incredulous their value as a restorer of fertility to worn out 
soils and their adaptation to increasing largely the products of the 
Garden and the Orchard. 

Numerous testimonials from gentleman who tried them last sea- 
son have been received, all of whom concur in saying that their ex- 
periments -were satisfactory and profitable beyond their anticipa- ■ 
tions : 

PHOSPHATED GUANO. — In barrels of about 250 lbs., -at2 
cents per lb. 

SUPER PHOSPHATE OF LLME.— In barrels of about 250 lbs. 
at 2 cents per lb. 

COARSE GROUND BONES.— In barrels about 175 lbs. at li 
cents per lb. 

FINE GROUND BONES.— In barrels of about 200 lbs., at 
cents per lb. 

PERUVIAN GUANO. — In sacks of about 140 lbs., at 2} cents 
per lb. 

POUDRETTE, or de-oderized Night Soil, in powder $1.75 per 
barrel. 

LAND PLASTER.— At $1.75 per barrel. 

Also, ROCK SALT, in ban-els of about 300 lbs. at 1 cent per lb. 
1^^ Orders by mail or otherwdse promptly attended to. A 
pamphlet, eontaming further particulars and directions for using 
the above fertilizers will be sent by maU, on the receipt of postage 
stamp, to any one desiring it. D. C. LOWBER, 

August56 — ly 98 Magazine st.. New Orleans. 

WYANDOT PROLIFIC CORN. 

T he greatest Agi'icultural wonder of the age. Its discoveiyi^ 
worth millions to the country. Y’ield 150 bu.shels to the acre, 
(some say 300.) Plant only one kernel in a hill, each kernel will 
produce from 3 to 12 stalks, 10 to 12 feet high, 4 to 20 ears, 8 to 14 
inches long, 10 to 16 rows of beautiful pearl whita corn. Seed se- 
lected with care, wan-anted genuine, put up in a parcel sufficient to 
plant an acre. Price $1.50, delivered in New York City. Money 
or P. O, stamps must accompany the order, with directions how to 
send. 

Those who order sent by mail, and remit $4, will receive, post 
paid, a parcel to plant an acre ; $2, half an act-e ; $1 quarter of an 
acre. Orders for less double the above rates. Cu-culars showing 
the result from different parts of the Union, will be sent to all who 
address J. C. THOMPSON, 

Jan57 — 3t Tompkinsville, Staten Island. N. Y. 

GEORGIA LAND OFFICE AT AUGUSTA. 

HE undersigned respectfully informs the public generally, that 
X they have opened an office in the city of Augusta, opposite the 
Insirrance and State Banks, on Broad street, for the PURCHASE 
AND SALE OP LANDS AND REAL ESTATE of all descrip- 
tions, located in any section of Georgia, on Commission. Particu- 
lar attention will be given to the sale and purchase of Lands in 
Cherokee and Southwestern Georgia. Persons wi.?hing to have 
Lands sold, will pi-esent them with the best chain of title they are 
in possession of; also, the original plat and grant if they have* it. 

Those owning tracts of Lands, improved or unimproved, in any 
section of Georgia, and wishing to sell, will find this the most ef- 
fectual medium of offering them. All we require is proper descrip- 
tion of improved Lands, the na,ture of titles and terms, and they 
will be entered into our general Registry, fi-ee of charge. Com- 
missions are charged only when sales are effected. 

Persons wi.shing to make investments in Real Estate, or Lands,, 
located in Cherokee, Southwestern Georgia, or any county in the 
State, will find it to their advantage to favor ns with their orders. 

DAVIDSON, GIRARDEY, VvHYTE <fc Co. 

T/' MES M. DAVIDSON, v.. Woodville, Ga. 
Feb56— t.f GIRAKOEV V7TiYTE CO., tiUTUSia, Ga. 


GEORGIA RAILROAD. 



CHANGF OF SCHEDULE. 

PASSENGER TRAINS. 


L eave Augusta, daily at 6 A. M. and 5 P. M. 

Arrive at Augusta daily at 5 A. M. and at 6 P. M. 

Leave Atlanta daily at 8-50 A. M. and 6.15 P. M. 

An-ive at Atlanta daily at 2.50 A. M. and at 3.36 P. M. 
CONNECTING WITH ATHENS BRANCH. 

Arriving and leaving Union Point daily (Sundays excepted) at 10 
A. M. and leaving at 2.30 P. M. 

WITH WASHINGTON BRANCH. 

Arriving at Cumming daily (Sundays excepted) at 9 A. M. 
Leaving “ “ “ 3.30 P. M. 

WITH SOUTH CAROLINA TRAINS. 

Leaving Augusta daily at 9.20 A. M. and 9. .50 P. iL 
Awiving at Augusta daily at 3 P. M. and 4.30 A. M. 

WITH ATLANTA AND La GRANGE RAILROAD. 
Leaving Atlanta daily at 3 -.30 A. M. and 4.45 P. M. 

Arriving at 7.55 A. M. and 5.35 P. M. 

WITH WESTERN AND ATLANTIC RAILROAD. 
Leaving Atlanta daily at 9 A. M. and 6 P. M. 

Arriving at “ 3 A. M. and 3 P. M. 

GEO. YONGE, General Superintendent. 

July \Ath, 18.55. Aug.55 — tf 

^^OTHERN CULTI'^TOR FOR 1854. 

B ound volumes of the SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR for 1854 
may now be obtamed at this office. Pi-ice, $1.50. Or we 
will send it by mail, post-paid at $1 . 80. Addre.«s 

WM. S. JONES, Augusta, Ga. 


103 


SOUTHERN CULTIVA.TOR. 


EVERGREENS AND ORNAMENTAL TREES 
for the South. 

A FEW rare andbeaiitifiil EVERGREENS Trees and Shrubs 
of the proper s^e for transplanting may now be obtained 
from the subscriber. The collections embraces the Deodar Cedar, 
Cryptomeria Japonica, Oriental Cyi)ress, Norway Spruce, Silver 
Fir, White Pine, Balsam Fh-, Silver Cedar, Irish, English and 
Pyramidal Yew, Swedish Juniper, American and Chinese Arbor 
Vit*; Cedar of Lebanon, Magnolia Grandiflora, “Mock Orange,” 
Pittosporum, «fcc., <fcc. ; in short all the most desirable Evergreen 
Trees and Shrubs that flourish in this latitude, DECIDUOUS 
SHRUBS and TREES, of many varities can also be supplied in 
quantity. (See Descriptive Catalogue sent (grat/s per mail.) Ad- 
dress [Dec56 — tf] D. REDMOND, Aiigusta, Ga. 


GRADE CASHIi<[ERB GOATS. 

lOR SALE, a few half blood BUCKS at $.30 each. Addre.ss 


INov55— tf] 


R. PETERS, Atlanta, Ga. 


SOUTH DOWN SHEEP. 

I AM willing to dispose of a few very tine yearling SOUTH 
DOWN EWES, in lamb; also, four tine yearling BUCKS, 
not related to the Ewes. 

Persons wishing to make trial of this celebrated variety of North- 
ern Sheep would do well to avail themselves of this opportunity 
to obtain a small flock of undoubted purity. 

I will sella Buck and three Ewes for $100, if applied for prior to 
the 1st of January next. RICHARD PETERS, 

Dec56 — tf Atlanta, Ga. 


THOROUGH BRED NORTH DEVON AND 
Ayrshire Bulls. 

I OFFER for sale a few choice young BULLS, bred from supe- 
rior Stock, with full pedigrees. For particulars, address me at 
No. 23 Fulton street. New York City A. M. TREDWELL, 
Importer, Breeder and Dealer in North Devon and Ayrshire Cattle. 
Residence iladison, ilorris county. New York. 

Declid — 3mo 


CHINESE PROLIFIC PEA! 

THE GREAT FORAGE PLANT AND RENOVATOR OP SOUTHERN LANDS ! ! 

^1’’ HIS very remarkable new Field Pea is by far the mo.st valuable and productive variety ever introduced. It is well adapted to 
J. poor laud, yielding at least three or four times a.s much as any of the common varieties, and producing a growth of vine almost 
incredible. It grows in clusters of from 12 to 20 pods, each pod contaiaiug 10 to 12 peas, and is of course far more easily gathered than 
any other. The vine never becomes hard, but is .so/£ and from the blossom to the root. Itisgreadily eaten by stock, and 

the Pea.s are unsurpassed /or the table in delicacy and richue.^JS of flavor. 

We subjoin the following extracts — the first from Ex-GovemorDrew, of Arkansas, and the remainder from several well known citi- 
zens of South Bend, in the same State : 

Fort Smith, Ark., December 20, 18-56. 

Dear Sir : — The evidences afforded me while at your house by an examination of the quantity of vine and peas gathered from one 
and a half acres of ground, is beyondgnyching in the icay of a great yield I have ever Icnovm. 

I think I am within bounds when I say the yield, in pea and vine, is at least live times greater than any other pea — clover, or grass fbr 
hay. And the waste peas were equal to any other full pea crop ; and from the quantity of waste vines remaining on the ground, I think 
it will prove a fine manure aud supporter of the soil. 

Your son, Mr. Wm. F. Douglass, has done well in making arrangements for the extended culture of this invaluable Pea in the oldea' 
States, where it will doubtless do more in re-instating the old, worn-out lands than guano or any other application to the soil, while, at 
the same time, the yield is likely to be as great on such lands as on the rich bottoms of Arkansas. 

Respectfully your ob’t. serv’t., THOS. S. DREW. 

To Robert H. Douglass, Esq. 

Dr. Goree, of Arkansas, estimated the yield in Peas or Hay at times that of any other Field Pea he had ever seen planted." W. R. 
Lee, Esq , say.- he “has never seen anything to equal it,” and that it should '•'supersede the use of every other," and the following certifi- 
cate settles the question of its value for Hay : 

“We, the undersigned, saw “that pea-A'ine,” and think, after the peas were gathered, that the vine would haA’e made as much hay as 
a stout mim could carry ; it covered a .space of ten or tw'elve feet in diameter, and lay from one foot to eighteen inches deep.” 

WM. U. MEEKS, 

B. W. LEE. 

South Bend, Ark., Sept., 1856. 

Col. J. B. L. Marshall, Assistant Engineer on the Little Rock and Napoleon Rail Road, says : 

“If the Southern Farmers wiU give it a fair trial, they Avill find it to be ike greatest Pea both for table use and for feeding stock, now 
knoAvn. They fatten hogs faster than anything I have CA-er tried. On the 11 acres Mr. Douglass had in cultivation last year, there waa 
at least four times as much vine as I ever saw on any piece of ground of the same size," &c., <tc. 

For further panicxilars, see Circulars furnished gratis by the Agents. 

We are prepai-ed to send out a limited quantity of these Peas, put up iu cloth packages to go by mail. They will be forwarded, frea of 
to any address on receipt of $1.30, or otherwise at $1 each. Current funds and postage stamps aa-IU be a satisfactory I'emit- 
tance. Our names will be printed on all packages of the genuine seed. 

Any one not perfectly satisfied with the Pea wiU haA’e his money returned. Address (with plain directions for mailing) 

PLUMB & LEITNER, Augusta, Georgia. 

Dealers in Seeds and country merchants can be supplied, to a limited extent, at the usual discount, if their orders are forwarded 
immediaZely. Feb57 — t f. 


FRUITS FOR ; i OUTH ! 

“FEtriTLAND NUHSERV," AUGUSTA, GEORGIA. 

rnHE Subscriber takes pleasure in offering for fall and winter planting, choice TREES of the following varieties of Fruits, all of 
J. which have been found to be well adapted to the South : 

APPLES— a succession, ripening from May until December, and keeping until June, mostly of Southern origin, and many but 
recently introduced to the public— price, 25 cents each. 

APRICOTS — .such fine varieties as Moorpark, Breda, Hemskirke, Peach. &c., Ac. 

PEACHES — the choicest collection ever offered, including in additition to all the best Northern and Foreign sorts, a splendid variety 
of new Southern Peaches not found in any other Catalogue. The present years stock of Peach trees is quite limited in number, se 
that earlv orders are advisable. Price, 25 cents. 

NECTARINES— Boston, Stanwick (iicav). Hunt’s TaAvny, New White, and all other firtst class sorts. 

PEARS — Davarfs and Stakuards — a selection of the very best, recommended by the American Pomological Society, and most 
of which have been fully tested in the South. 

PLUMS — all the largest aud best varieties. 

CHERRIES— TAventy or more select kinds, worked on the M.ahaleb Stock, as Ioaa- Standards or DAvarfs— the proper form for the 

rooted plants of the CataAvba, Isabella, Scuppernong; Warrenton and other native varieties, for the table and ftir 
•wine making. Price, 25 to 50 cent.s. . 

pjQS— strong rooted trees of 6 or 8 of the best kinds, furnishing a successional crop throughout the entire season. Price 25 to 50 

^^^"^STRA'WBERRIES — a selection from 35 or 40 varieties including Hovey's Seedling, Longworth’s Prolific, McAvoy’s Superior, and 
all the new and desirable sorts. . Price, $2 to $3 per hundred. 

POMEGRANATES — strong rooted trees of the sweet and snb-acid varieties. Price, 25 to 50 cents. 

BLACMERRIES— the famous Rochelle or “LaAvton”— also, the Albino or “White Blackberry.” Price, 50 cents each— $5 per 
dozen. 

RASPBERRIES —The American Rlack, Red Antwerp, &c. Price $1.50 to $3 per dozen. 

HEDGE PLANTS — such as Osage Orange, $8 to $10 per thousand ; White Macartney Rose, cuttings, $1-0 p^r thousand ; Cheroka© 
Rose, cuttings, $5 per thousand; Fortune’s Yellow Rose, cuttings, &c., &c, 

— ALSO— 

A very choice selection of ROSES, neAv and rare EVERGREENS, FLOWERING SHRUBS, <fcc., &-c. 

Labelling, packing, marking and shipping, carefully attended to. 

neAA’ descriptive Catalogue now ready, and will be sent to all -who desire it, free of postage. Address ; 

Nov56— ?t REI>M0ND, Augusta, 0*. 


104 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


CONTENTS OF MAKCH NUMBER. 

Plantation Economy and Miscellany. 

Work for the Month j . . . Page 73 

A Lecture on Labor (concluded from our last No.) ‘‘ 74 

Grasses for the South “ 76 

Oat Culture at the South “ 77 

Hints for Stock Growers “ 77 

Paising Stock in the South, &c ■... “ 78 

Bees atid their Management “ 78 

Sowing and Reaping (poetry) “ 79 

Econom^of Feeding Fann Stock by Steamed Food “ 79 

A Miscellaneous Letter “ 80 

Cultxire of Basket Willow “ 81 

Hill Side Ditching in Mississippi “ 82 

Plows for the South, &c “ 83 

Animal Manures — Subsoiling “ 83 

Level Culture — Horzontalizing, &c “ 83 

Chinese Sugar Cane Experiment “ 84 

Cotton — Circumstances alter cases “ 84 

Culture of Cotton “ 85 

A Plea for the Chinas “ 85 

Shade Trees About Dwellings “ 86 

To Cure Foot Evil and Scratches in Horses “ 86 

Meteorology for Farmers— letter from Lieut. Maury “ 86 

The Misfortunes of Jamaica “ 86 

Liquid Manures “ 86 

A Hint to Orchardists “ 87 

Southern Apples — Making Cider “ 87 

Milking “ 87 

Strength of Slavery “ 87 

Seed of the Sweet Potato “ 99 

China Berries as Pood for Animals “ 100 

Editorial. 

Answers to CoiTespondents, &c Page 88 

Our Book Table “ 89 

Cooper’s Patent Plow “ 90 

Chinese Sugar Cane and Prolific Pea “ <t0 

To Correspondents “ 90 

Chinese Sugar Cane, &c “ 90 

The Growth of Cotton in tiic United States and its Manu- 
facture in England, Ac “ 91 

Ilorticfiiltisral ileimrtment. 

Flowers for the South Page 92 

Notes on Pears and their Culture “ 93 

Apples in the South “ 94 

Grafting Fruit Trees — Cabbage Aphis, &c “ 95 

Grape Culture in Tennessee “ 95 

Vineyards and Orchards in South Carolina “ 98 

Pr^aration of Ground for Pear Trees “ 99 

Domestic Economy, &:c. 

To Stop Bleeding from the Cavity of an Extracted Tooth. Page 100 

For Mending Broken China, &c “ 100 

To Make Starch Polish “ lOO 

Blueing for Clothes “ lOO 

SHEDS SOUTBL 

H aving experienced the great difficulty in obtaining reliable 
Flovzer Seeds suitable to the South, I have raised a small 
quantity, which I am now offering to the public. I would particu- 
larly draw the attention of the Ladies to the nnsurpas-ed collec- 
tions of DOUBLE STOCK GILLIPLOWERS, TEN WEEKS 
STOCKS, CARNATIONS, GERMAN ASTERS, WALLFLOW- 
ER, HOLLYHOCKS, and many others ; 


1857! 1857! 

SOUTiERN CULTIFATOR, 

A .TOUHIVA.S., 

DEVOTED TO .SOUTHERN- AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE, STOCK 
BREEDING. POULTRY, BEES, GENERAL 
FARM ECONOMY, &C. 

DANIEL LB b 7 M. D., 'a nd *D. REDMOND, Editors. 
Tile Fifteentli volume commences in January- 
1857 . 


TERMS. 

One Copy, one year $1 1 Twenty-Five Copies $'20 

SixCopiE.s ‘7 5 1 One Hundrei» Copies 75 

ALWAYS IN ADVANCE. No paper sent unless the cash 
accompanies the order. 

The Bills of aU specie-paying Banks, and Post Office Stamps 
received at par. 

Remittanuces, by mail (post-paid) will be at the Publisher's risk. 
Address WM. S. JONE8, Augit^ta, Ga. 
i^^Persons who V, -ill act as AGENTS, and obtain SUBSCRI- 
BERS^ w'ill be furnished with the paper at club prices. 


AT TEN CENTS A PAPER, 
k Double Stock Gilliflowers, 

“ Ten Weeks Stocks, 

“ Imperial Stocks, 

“ Autumnal Stock, 

“ Carniitions, 

“ Wailliower, 

Dianthus imperialis plenissima, 
Riiodonthe Mauglesii, 
Heliotropium peruvianum, 
Pharbitis limbata, 

Polyganum lenetifolium. 

AT FIVE CENTS PER PAPER. 
Adonis eestivalis, 

Ageratnm coemleum, 
Amaranthus tricolor, 

Althea rosea, 

“ chinensis, 

Ammobium alatum, 
Antirrhinum majus, 

Aster chmensis, 

Calendula crista galli, 
Calliopsis bicolor, 

Catanouche bicolor, 

Ce'osea cristata, 

Celosia indica, 

Centourea cyanus, 


Delphinium Ajacis, 
Dianthus chinensis, 
Double Balsams, 
Elicrysium lucidum, 
Papaver somuifeimm. 

“ mackanthum, 
Emilea flammea, 
Gompherena globosa, 
Heris speciosa, 

Ipomea Quamoclit, 
Lovatera trimestris, 

“ Murselli, 

Phlox Drummondi, 
Portulacca Thellusoni, 
Poterium Long visorba, 
Reseda odorata, 
Salpiglosis variabilis, 
Scabiosa atropunpuuea, 
Gilia tricolor, 

■ Senecia elegans, 

Tagetes erecta, 

“ patula, 

Verbena Melindris, 

Viola odorata, 

Zinnea elegans, 
Xeranthemums aunuum, 


Gnaphalium foetidum. 
S^^Orders; enclosing the money and a thr?e cent postage stamp 
for every dollars worth of seed sent to PLUMB & LEITNER, 
Augusta, Ga., or to the subscriber, wiU meet w-ith pi-ompt atten- 
tion. ROBERT NELSON. 

_Feb57— tf 

( ■COLUMBIAN GUANO, imported by the Philadelphia Guano 
y Company,, A. LONGETT, Agent, 

Jan57-— 3t New York. 


PO.RTABLII STEAM ENGIICBS, 

U|'’'IIE subscriber respectfiilly calls the attention of ‘•'outhern 
J_ Plantei-s and Mechanics to the PORTABLE STEAM EN- 
GINES, of which he has the Agencj' in New Orleans. They are 
so simple in their construction that any negro of ordinary capacitv 
can be taught to run one in a day. For di'iviug light machinerj^ 
running cotton gins, plantation saw mills, or corn mills, l umping 
water, steaming food, etc., they cannot be excelled. A striking 
feature of these engines is that they cost less than w-ould mule^J or 
horses, to do the .same amount of work. A pair of horses will 
readily move them place to place over any ordinary road They 
require no brick-work to set them up, but they are all ready to be 
put in operation, with the exception of a smoke-pipe or chimney. 
One is kept at work in the subscriber’s warehouse every day be- 
tween 9 and 3 o’clock, ai d all are invited to call and inspect it. 
The Planter, especially, should look w-ith pleasure upon the intro- 
duction of these Engines, to take the place of horse-power in gin- 
ning cotton and grinding corn, as the cost o: running a 6, 8, or 1() 
horse Engine is much less per day than the expense cf feeding the 
same number of horses: 

PRICES. 

2v Horse Power $?375 

4 do. do 500 

6 do. do 7(X) 

8 do. do 900 

10 do. do 1.100 

A jjamphlet containing fuller particulars will be sent b} mail to 
anv person requesting it. Address, 

D. C. LOWBER, 

Feb57 — ly 98 Magane St., New Orleans. 

"dIOSCOREA BATATAS--NBW GHIMESE 

Potato — or yam. 

T he experience of another season in the cultivation of this new- 
esculent. warrants us in continuing all we said irr relation to it 
last year. Wherever it has fallen into the hands of judicious cul- 
tivators, and received the care necessary to its full development, 
tlie result h.a.s been entirely satisfactoiy in all respects ; and it may 
confidently be reaffirmed that of all the esculents proposed as sub- 
stitutes for the diseased potato, the Dioscorca Batatas is certainly 
i the only important one. We can now supply small roots from 4 to 
9 inches long, carefully packed for transport at |*3 per dozen; and 
small seed tubers (such as we sold last year) at $1 per dozen to 
$7 per hundred ; these latter can he sent by mail. De-; 'iptioii 
and directions for culture furnisbed with each package, t.'here 
practicable, parties are invited to examine the roofs be'ore purchas- 
ing, as we have them constantly on view. 

NEW CHINESE NORTHERN SUGAR CANE.— Seed of this • 
celebrated and invaluable plant in packets at i2i cents each 
(prepaid by mail 25 cts ) 75 cents a pound. 

CHUFASor EARTH ALMOND— $1 per KKi. 

JAPAN PEAS, 50 cts. a auart. NEW ORANGE WATER 
MELON Grue), CHRISTIANA MUSK MELON; KING PHILIP 
CORN ; SWEET GERMAN TURNIP, etc., etc., with the large.st 
and most comprehensive assqrtment of VEGETABLE, F.LOWER. 
and FIELD SEEDS to be found in the United States. 

Catalogues on application. 

JAS. M. THORBURN & CO , 

Jan57 — 2t Seedsmen, &c., 15 John st,. New York. ' 

BOyD’S EXTRA PROLIFIC COTTOH SEED. 
Onfl BUSHELS of BOYD’S EXTRA PROLIFIC COTTON 
SEED for sale in sacks from 1 to 5 bushels in a sack. 
Pi'ice $lper bushel JOHNM. TURNER, 

Nov.^1 — 4t Augusta Ga. 

SHEEP FOR SALE. 

O NE very five half French and half Spanish MERINO RUCK, 
one year old. Also, tw-o superior pure breed yearling SOUTH 
DOWN BUCKS, of the Webb stock. 

June56— tf RICHARD PETERS. Atlanta, Ga. 


I MPROVED SUPERPHOSPHATE OF LIME, of the bcist 
braiids, for sale by A. LONGETT, 

Jan57— 2t “ 34 Cliff 'trect. New V orb. 



DEVOTED EXCLUSIVELY TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF BOUTEBEK AGRICULTUHE^ - 


VOL. XV. 


AUGUSTA, GA., APRIL, 1857. 


NO. 4. 


WILLIA3I S. JONES, Publisher. 


DAMEE EEE, M.D., and D. KEOdlOND, Editors, 


See Terms on Last Page. 

^lautatinE 6cnEnm^ anii Histtiluttil- 

WORK FOR THE 310NTH— (APRIL.) 

THE PLANTATION, 

Corn. — After a premature spring, in February, we have 
been visited by a second winter, whieh has retarded all 
operations on the Plantation, and few persons in this re- 
gion have even commenced planting Corn up to the pre- 
sent date (3Iarch 18). It is absolutely necessary,, there- 
fore, that the utmost energy be called into requisition and 
that not a moment be lost, whenever the ground is in pro- 
per condition. Manure heavily and plow deep—u^Q the 
best and heaviest seed you can obtain, and let your aftei- 
oulture be of the most thorough character, working often 
and shallow, so as to break no roots. More suggestions on 
this subject hereafter. 

Cotton.— Having properly started your corn crop, push 
forward the planting of Cotton, without delay. It is very 
important to get an early stand, and much may be effected 
in this way by throwing up the beds light and dry. See 
the various hints and suggestions of our experienced coi- 
respondents, in previous volumes and numbers. See also 
the new ^-Cotton Planter's Manual," of our friend Col. 
Turxer. It may be had from Geo. A. 0.\tes & Bro., of 
this city, or from C. M. Saxton & Co., of New York, at 
51, postage pre-paid. 

S'^c■ce^ Patoitoes.— Plant your main crop of ‘‘sets’’ and 
“draws” this month. Try the level system heretofore des- 
cribed in our journal. Reason and experience both teach its 
superiority. But, if you plant in hills or ridges, plow the 
soil very deep and throw them up broad and flat on the sum- 
mit so that they may catch and retain as much moisture 
as possible. Potato “draws,” or any similar plants may 
be safely set out even in dry weather, by dipping the 
roots in a thick batter of black woods-mould, or surface 
soil and water, as heretofore described. 

Irish Potatoes, already planted, must be put la 

immediately, or it will be too late for a summer crop. 
They should be dropped 10 inches apart in 3 feet drills, 
and covered with a thick layer of partially decomposed 
pine-straw or leaves. 


Chinese tSugar Ca.vr^ox syrup, and to supply an abun- 
dance of seed for future use, should be planted as 
soon as the weather becomes settled and warm — a little 
after Corn planting time. 

The Chinese Prolific Pea is also worthy of a fair tiiai, 
as it comes to us very highly recommended by highly re- 
spectable and f/towitorestorZ men. We shall plant at least 
50 acres of it the present season, if we can reserve seed 
enough for that purpose. 

Common Corn and Chinese Sugar Cane, for cutting 
green and for winter forage, should also be sown plenti- 
fully during the present and the next month. Sow, also- 
Egyptian Millet, but do not let it come near the Chinese 
Sugar Cane, or you v/ill ruin the latter as a sugar plant. 
Early crops of Coiv Peas may also be sown. For fodder^ 
we prefer the drill ; but if intended to turn under for ma- 
nure, SOW’ the Peas broadcast. 

THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

Attend to all work not performed last month, without de- 
lay. Set out all Cabbage plants, you may have, and sow- 
more Cabbage seed to head in the summer : Plat Dutch is- 
the best. Thin out Turnip, as soon as they have four 
leaves, and sow m.ore Turnip seed; Early V, nite Dutch 
and Red Topped Dutch are the best for spring use. Also 
sow White Norfolk Turnip, it will grow larger than ths 
former and succeed them. If you have not already sow^n 
Onion seed (black), do it at once; they will come into 
use in the latter part of the summer, when all that w’ere 
raised from setts or buttons are gone. If you did sov/ 
Black Onion seed last fall, it can now be transplanted* 
Sov/ Carrots, Beets, (“Extra Early” is the flnest) Pars- 
nips, Salsify, Lettuce, Radishes, Thyme, Parsley, and 
Rape (for early greens.) The White Belgian Carrot 
stands our hot summers best. Also sow Mangel H artzely 
it will be found very good for late use, w hen the other 
beets are gone. Plant all in rows 15 inches apart. Sow, 
also, a little spot with Celery and protect them from the 
sun. When Cherry trees are in bloom plant Snap Beans; 
Early Valentine is an excellent variety, and we are in- 
clined to recommend it in preference to all others. When 
Apple trees are in flower, plant Squashes (Scallop Squash 
is the best) in hills 3 feet apart ; also, Cucumbers and 
Muskmelons G feet apart; the Sutmeg and Citron Md/ms 



HO I I' 11 K l( l\ O I l/r I V A 'I'O |{ . 


|IH> 

iri'. vrvy i. i'i .onl lit*; r/iilifd^ Hi'i'ili iniuil. Ahf/a/i, oi vnry j 
iijiMioi Ui,i I. fililo Inlii'i , 'I'lir. rci'Dinri /I /'/(///«, or “ / iiiilm it ^ ’ ' 
i 0(1 4 i(<'- II' '. .iiifiy, loo I('imI(‘i lot ilo; oii'lfllo Si/ii>'w, ! 
Uoi iloi.i. '/i/« '! li' M', All viiKW lu i; yj < ully iK'o' liiioil Uy \ 
i>>rioi<i<oi j (0 o'/ oi/iiiOM' M|)j)iiMl III k 1 m|iiiiI loriii, ol'lr.ii, , 

liUl not ;O0 A( iIm' '.'Oiii'lllll*', i»l;Oj kO'.V 

/'■ <; f'lllil lll^l 0 |t h’'ililiinh. A \ 

M'T' ou.v liO'Miji ( I . (iioiil r'o iiol iiiiOi'i' tiiiy lo iiiti up lo 
( > I (I. Ww : 4 4 (ill ilo tV o ' 

I/ /,, , I / iiiny iioy, 1)( |(|fliit4'il II- liill , 1 0 l-r.ci ii|i/u(,j 
II III - 1, , - ,( '!ii .ir.lif.-i uiiil |ioul(i'y oi.iiiiiiff' Itociitllv 10 1 

III- )( h t- III' ;:0 IIIIOIV (ljiri',i'‘'iil kmilo ko'l Vtii lol i< ;; j 
(||,ll.‘'l A' 0,1 |i 1 lIlKi' lo l|r 'o!/' /!« In ih'", //4 '/ Vl/o I 

lllii III- I-, ,• --11 ol llii i ii4'i;;lil,orliiiii(l II Wi ll 

,,, ,1 ; /I A t ,l.| r.'/l,ll iHU I'l IiM ii> 4'll 

|M..u . op of I iii"Ji li 1*1 It; , lor II iiiici'u I'.iiiii, I’or 

II i,i, , 1 u, Miult llif ' I'.hin !m|ii n 'I ' .Mill ili»' 

I., .|| liloi' i. ' u III il pto -lloil IlM lo- .‘iAliO Mill' Mh (lio 

' 1 , I I'’, i!,(:'/ \voll I'o'ior in ilir<'« .v< i k*i loo r 

'ii'iii I 1 'I A in 1 A A I > 1 ’ ii’in'r ( - a K-niAA, 

I;, , ,1 I, Ilk ii'oiii. likVk (p lOi'yi'il iK'iiily nil 

(' , ..,|k kill' liloillllill'i, Slid M'l I.'"I Oiuy ♦ .CIIIX' I 

, ,('/ ii; ,l 1 ■ it , iiuil AppIkH III )i irio’-iiliir li,iv< | 

lii'i I I I'.i. Ip'll III llu'ir lilooiiiiii'.' (till! oiny ‘ilill 

yif'Pi ,, ini,: M,‘, n, W l■'l|llllP:lllly liojik (Pill rill two 

v,iiu;hyf8 oii'itufii. svill Ar jiliiiiP il niofk » xlkiinivi'ly in ilo* 
ImiuiP, iliiiki i lo All l-i'kii (Ilk I'll-. , 4 iA( (lu-y i-ii-PPioit 
lliil. .o'liil i.i'4.-o;. 11- '-v , iMilpi I’ll .‘-u'l (III. i/i A Jl(l['•^ ui'k or .rujK 

I'liM i|Oitl«iiy 

V '( 04 /' /or , ilf fO’ojk'i'ly jiloiiii il iiviil friiiim»'«ll will O' fd 
ilio i-lkhkiJ, lin(5 ll'lliry ton lurlliikil lo blow tilroof to iIm' 

woul, 1,0' Ui.'oi op III |1 loOl ; liildi \rilb, (I Mliiuf m’i(! bi'oiul 
;.(t 1)1 I'l' nJoli-i fiolor'ii ' liiliiiy/ "i ''n(ilvr.i|;i,r in i KOkllnii, 
lot iMl"' " 0(0100 nliouPl Ipk I.)iliii;f In dry mid wiuiii, 
till , mill, 'll I'lO Iioii)ioduiii'l_y III till Ar,f lir.,»vily (oo diroflkd 
r.ii likilow,! nod w.'ilcr'd, thi'ink-'li Lii\ '///i/./r,' /p; 

ri.im uiiiii, llo Slink. I Pi Mill ip'liiy llir iuul''hiiif; br-youd 
lii. I loJllIk 4»ll' Apiil, ‘b :dl i\( OI-: Il iM ooi id' I lo' ii loi.l, 

oprYiill-'iifi iMioiii'i Ikit u illi bkr (’iduir' m iPo 

■•1 M'il, 

,, , . r bb Ill I. mu oii'liiiiil null ■pii:«Pii;i llicy nio, 

ymii l»i'Hi| Ili'O'i'iilu limy "|'''y id'Oi' i I'lil,’' Hot only on mti' O' 
mill In Slio (P'liif^Pl w ill. It ipi y nH'oi il llm «’y4 mud llo' hc.oi, 
put -il'iik' mill dll' dr.Nt I ik'i low ol iiiyinidk ol:' rnpoi'ioo- m 
4.1 I'l .. All M fiUrtPi'f )ii oliM'l lull ii'iyuuiit iir.ilkloirv oirmi'.ls, 
pmin np (II iniiiiiob*'r I'l will- uimilliiul Imttpui, lininiHkd with 
iiio|.r(r.:kmvi/k»iOr, oi yoio b-' n you will i .ilcU n jijrokl 

llUioini; Oil IllH'iiili 

•ii'iiir i-'i .nw i'.p' cMnri'.N. 

I'l ojiliif mud .rf mil t}i/fl}!fi;. dll' Mnit;; of oil I 

litti'dy 11 ( '4,(0 lot noil ,li ymi|' fl t woP u Sloi'lt Inycr of 
IdAtiVii. S'lroiio hmlPoV,'! of dm W ood ,, i.in ioliliii;; o lilllo 
,t»oi! ov«ii,‘ illn nHit''liio;r, lo ki'i'p ilu* \\ ti.d froiu blowiii"; it 
.fiiwny Sn'imu.'Hil'iiisd Mtv /'y /■rm/,: ot'.ill Mod. .Mow , ,/vkA/ //o' 
Anni* Lfh'i'i’l* I, tiiih'ii .'ii'i iij; ill!' only |ii'o|im liom. (Uiuiit 
mji moll imtl ytiiiiir y.i'iivid wiillcfo di’cHw ymir lon'di.i'ii- fio 
uip rtll htir)m« 4imri llnwni iii<';« |iltiiit«i In iittiki -i of ry |it:ofin or 
illliiiiiio tirr«i 'wtKol mid |m( rvci ylliin^f in trnti Im dio roim 


Il Aooo.il I'low' r k4-kdr, p.ivk not b/'co "owo, ilii no j'. 
link, 4! j vvoik f)i45 w()i| ipmp, mid ( oio'li i! 'Wkll (miiltry 
oiioook I : kXkklP (It.; nil fo".|'. . iioil < lillylluv/i-rn mr. hij'li 
ly l(k04'Mf4'il by il, 

riih i; 1 , 1 , A't’i o\H or i^Auotf wo < tn.'^fA'rr,, 

f iloo [imfiif ooi lu'i'OiM. (oil.iiPoi wliii'.p iH pulditdikd 
111 floi Wiii'i'li loioib' r o( dik > iillii'iiliH'^ ipki'k okkio'N iiii 
kiiorol dm pi'kon by oonltio;.'; (wo woidi, v/liirli wo 4|(- 
•014- lo I (in 4,r,(,, Mid n( ( 111 , -„iin(; uoik »'X(diiio olor'j folly 
llino W.I . cooVkOlkiil oil iloO Ok, I'll ,ioo, (pk I'-d.lSloil'l llikl 
HUpiiO.f. bkf'.V4-k|| Ikbor Ullll I'loiliitk, A 'i 'Vi'iIlkO, 4iod 
IhioImI III ilik, Aflo'o'; )ik(o i , OO.I' i'( oo.i'U vr*',. n ; Ini 
I o vv , 

‘ " I Im 1 PiioiO of k.vr '» ork will not ''('Oi[iiiik willi lli;il 
oilin' < oi|-oo prowiofj' ISt.Ui '. loi (Oil u'oPoi id i'iui))oi,k« 
nod (Im .■'miiili I, III) p,! . fro (ion *; oioikl.iod tP.io l.dioi'ki,* 
(fit In I Idni'k Ol wfiili , ,‘ i",ik|on ' ,*“'oolliki imi *( »(<■♦; (In* in- 

ily of liuviok’ onm .'itluv.iloi ol (In' -mil; loid (In 
only (0 0 ('l l■•ul ((iikNtOMi m wlikllikc (In V '.linll Im Idm-.k or 
wliiO'., Pood or (|•' , fmoino", lokioly lo ilik, l,iw*4 lit No 
('O'l I'or lo. inm.lMoi nod {'.uolmi' ( , i vktiooc (o .-.ookyi-d i pni 
kiliorki,i ol It (k po'iil orikio will 4 r Pk loood In nl for (lie 
' olliv.ilom of' iiojiotnl )dno( . [(I'owii ni llo' "Iro'ily (ro)io’ol 
■.•uiii.iiif /'A III tin- '.'■'iiooy .Soiopy ' 

'I'ln, word 5 "iiiuooiki", of mm 4imi( U'd lo tin* ( iMnj/i/in , 
nod tlmikliy It iimk<'ii im 'inyv in kt/,c.'t,, tint ilm doiitlicni 
I’^dlirri Pave k tio)iiknl kliointi, Uio wioli.i'o ur<-, oiiyLliio;; 
blit tiopotkl , wliilk. tho f'uc.ipfy v,/iip wPi'*li nil, orimmly 
oil, ti •(Jill III idiiitfi tiiutkoon* to oikMn'ity in a li'w tnoiilli 8 
rifuir (Ilk :ik(',d Id |iliuiU;d, iu '4 kidfivait il in the .SoLUlmrn 
Ad.oilo', luol 4 «ulf‘.Stitt 4 iii, like k,oii 4 )i,i, iodi,"(i, i*k',k, ynni'i, 
.Old liWi iJl jmtiUOk -, oi.ikfit. not loo i llian tpe tPkrroooudki', 
dik Pi/^li iiiiliudi liii.tt oj (Oil* litioiiiikr . Wk doubt wlmtliki' 
llm < oilf .Sii'kdoi Ini' H i /'rent . HI inlliif lo’k on tiilliki' llo' 
'kmiinor (4 oijikr.iforo of' rim Afliuitu' .Si.iO 'yoi' tlmj wiol 4 'r 
t 4 'Oi|ikr 4 llink of Irk.buol 400II PPi;j;t.M)d, I 'l *100441 4 li‘i(itigiM.sli 
twl iii 4 ifk 4 ii'olo',i;i-itr 4 biiV 4 ' nn)ijiO,‘. 4 'd VVby 4 l 4 i<"i loit iPi.s 
,"('41041 riv4'i' 4»f w/o'Mii vviittir i 4 llkkl one woir4!rri 40'i W4dl iid 
'tfniiioiiki!i. (Old 41H W 4 illn ‘4 tlik woib'i’.. of ibk Ihitinh hlninlk' 
Tlo' Wk,‘it4'roi M 4 I 0 H of 4'<ii»iin( tiL*i boiio4p'(l by k.xtkiolcd 
o|iko 4(i’,4','ui'i, 4«s ilbrilrnUid 110 tli4i c.luiuttk.'. 41 I .‘*|iiun inni 
4 Pdulok ou«, ar<' In.iH 4lkji«midtitit no l ivi'i". in tlu: f.kii I'oi 
ibkir (Mild rooii|M'rnfuri tbmi on cm ri oi'i <ii’ wmin Jiir li.iv 
oiji;' a Momb widoi' biiNiN. lUaviiO' 4'lkVklk,d nioniitaio-. 
oom ON 00 tbr imi'lb, i( in aoHy Im ncc.ount for ibo ;iU4ldkn 
mat MoriikliokaH k'xfrkknk c.kibl with wbik lk w arc- viHil4'd 
■\ kbkii^M* of ibk wmal lo like koiit b. wbi>'b driv4*s Ibi- kikid 
o( l)n ic,y omrtb /(.ar/Ak'n./v/, tirml at tin Maoik, linn; brioy*. 
to (I'l Ibk bk.ilk.il .m' of tin. I.u .s<uillk,-H4;M(Pj llo; oa!i*kio*y in 
oiii (lo'i otooikfor'i up ouiny dcyji'i'k.s wilbio n fliw lionr 
Let I ha 4 Pdf .Sli*i;.koi (Ui.isi; (o IIov./,(nal (lie ('(oitiiiki'it willt 
it.'i ooMinltiins mid bill,*!, ma! do (ii'.i an raniiiin nio*,liiin/^ad, 
and W'k iilmnld tlnm i V[i. rii nee ikcmly tlic aiovii'. pln;oo 
oil MU wliicb am now wiliu". .kd in rkii:i*ki'i(*(’. to Monim i ■ 
beat and winteu''.*. cold, 'I bo 4ioll .Sirimn llnw.i ciuilinn 
oioily, mid i;., tliart lorr, a nioi'k nnili'rin power (limi SP’* 
Monrcoi-i of (bo kxtk'. oil vm'iuPlkOkM*i of li;in[iknitiok in our 
I'boikto iodiiMitk, Our |ooxionly to 11 liroiid open r.i.i 
imiilliward lo llio i;(|Uufor, mid beyond it, .snilicieiitly 
plain, *4 nnr ijrmiil like .Huniniev eliiniite,'«* wliile o\ir iie.ii 


BiOltl. 


SOIJI'HK RjN (Mj i/I' I V A roli. 


II 


1107 


j ness to hills and mountains covered with snow from four 
to eight montiis in u year, adequately accounts for the 

I ■ chilling “northers” ofTexars, and tlie like (dianges of tern- 
t' perature, only lessdisagreeahle in Oeor' 2 :i«. Such a climate J 

I I has somewliat peculiar ugrieulturul powers, and natural- j 
I ly develops some peculiarities in its most jnoductive lu- ! 

r bor. These peculiarities arc worthy of our best consider- ! 
j ation. j 

The first European settlers in Georgia liad a deep pre j 
I judice against negro slavery and hoped to jtrosper bettci' j 
S without it, (hatj did the Carolina.s and Virginia vrith it. I 
t Kut tlie climate of all the southern part of flie jirovince } 
was and is adapt«rd to the production of tropical jilanls in j 
the cultivation of wiiicti wliilc laliorcrs were found less j 
valuable than blacks on many accounts; and slave labor j 
was finally introduced, and established bylaw', more from j 
necessity thatt choice. Xor have the recent jirogress in i 
agricultural science, and the unprecedented exodus of ! 
emigrants from Ireland, been sufficient to iniro<lucc Irish i 
upon the now deserted sugar plantations of Jamaica. 
While millions of industrious immigrants have settled In 
the Northern States atid Canada from Europe, the planters 
of the British West Indies are without laborers, and trying | 
hard to remedy tlie loss of their slaves by the purchase of j 
('oolies from China. 

These facts are instructive, as proving how much cli- 
mate has to do with systems of labor, and the di.siribution 
of laboring people. 

Something like half of the year, wiiite persons can labor 
on plantations licre as well as in finy country, even in our j 
most Southern States, This fact is impoitunt ; for as whites 
become acclimated, and accustomed to Southern field 
work, and as their nunibers atigment much faster than 
blacks, it is obvious tijatthey v/ill extend their indu.stryto 
the production of all the staples of the South, 'i'his be- 
ing a natural result of an increase of population, i 
and the inevitable concentration of negroes upon [ 
large estates, as the country grows older, it is time ' 
to cultivate a good understanding between botii kiiids ofi 
agricultural industry. They are not antagonistic, no more | 
than the facts that one mui! eats inead arid v/earsa shirt ! 
make him the natural enemy of every other man wlio do* j 
likewLse. Let all be indu.strious wlio will, that ail may ' 
have a pdenty of both food and raiment. We need a more, 
liberal and patriotic feeling to encourage alike both white j 
and colored people to create more tiiun they consume, that 
the wealth and general improvement of the South may ex- 
cite the admiration of mankind. Advantages of climate 
and soil avail nothing unless intelligence and industry 
use them for v/ise purposes. The most valuable natura! j 
resources are often sadly abused, or misused, by an o\ej j 
desire to command at once benefit.s which properly belong ! 
to future years. It is the part of wisdom to look ahead, | 
and see the condition of things, and esptciuily of humai; I 
society, after one or two generations have come and gone, 
cultivating the land as we culti'.utc it, and illustrating itj j 
iheir labor, morals and institutions, the principles we now 
teach by precept and example. Partial and one sided 
vie'ws of grave subjects mislead thousands to the serious 
.-''jury of themselves and their posterity. Man ever rnis- 


takcshls true interest when he fails to regard the ttiteresl.s 
of otlier.s dear to them as his is to himsell, 'i'be tme policy 
is to harmonize all interests by earefully avoiding ex- 
tremes in every dir(;elion, 'I’be world whs niode for all 
of woman bom, not for a favored few. 

'I'ime, climate, and tlie natural increa ,<■ ol' .',c 1 ;ui/k‘i)i 
tiimily, to .say notliing of the wi/nderlal j»r(»gt'e!-,sof.seien- 
ence and art, arc tnuking rafjid changes in Ar.erican so- 
ciety. 'I’be census of , 'Missouri, whic’n has just, been lal.ej), 
indicutes ve,i y forcibly tlie < liange. in ag: ii'iilturu! i,,i!>or 
nov/ going on in that liirming rather tlian )hi : St:it> 

It lias a total [lojmlation offll“2,“0b, of whoi'; an. 

wiiiies, ’Ki'rl free hhadrs, and hiv«rt. 'Mn- 

increttse of the white population in -ix ye^i >. '. a., been 
over tbii ty-eiglit fter cent., or u !iil<‘ .I'e increase 

of tlie slaves bas been 1 nr only a fVartion ‘'n.er two 
jier ceiit. 'J’wo r<)unties return no hiv»*>, ; tv.ei tycoun 
lies retitni only l.bOt) altogether, the liiglast leiiehmg 
only ninety-.six, and the lowest bur eiglit, I'p to tin, 
year JH.'dJjthe increase of the slave pnpiilutioj; in rdi.ssotn i 
w'as rapid and remark. ilde, but the iiierea-je jCenis Eiow to 
be as effectually cheeked there as in Ifelawarc ar.d Mary 
land, 'i'his fact, taken in conn<'Clion with tin* comfmra 
lively small number there, and tlic great number of whites, 
seems significant of a change in the fiinunes of the State 
A letter from Jefferson city, the capital, dated, February 
fitli, to the St, Louis Demoerfd, says : 

“Large slaveholders are now selling out their lands in 
all quarters of tlie State, arid ]>reparing to move to Texas ; 
Olliers are ofiering their lands for sale, and negro buyer 
are traversing the .State, buying tip negroes for ih.e Soutit- 
ern market.” 

Even in upper Georgia, w’here e.otton i.s grown with 
le.ss facility than nearer the sea coast, lUrming Ituidr. arc 
almost given away by their owners who are anxious to 
remove with their servants to parts where the labor of the 
latter will pay better, 'J’hc liigli price of cotton and sugar 
operates as a powerful attraction toward the lami and 
climate best adapted to their production, V'iew tlie plant- 
ing interests of the South in whatever light we u\ixy,'pro 
is its most remarkable feature. Soon the “.'.it! of 
slavery” v/ill be entirely forgotten, as the lav, s of climate 
ard ofliUinau industry arc studied and understood 

L. 

IJ KNJCJ'iTS OK A(;inci — 

'!'he Soiilhcrii f'lilli vator, 

}>y:\H Cr. i,'riVAToa — Not havin'r jicnned a:', article for 
your column's for overtv/o years, I liave concluded to-day 
to .'•end you a coinmunic'ition setting forth the many bene 
fits that liave inured to rny home from agiieu'turel reading, 
and as your paper stands, deservedly, lorcinost in nearly 
all Southern tigricultural libraries, it will be undeistoixS 
that whatever of benefit or advantage I i.avc der;'/eri iw 
mainly attributable toils columns. 

I am a farmer — raised so — and the xor 'if a farmer, 
though my father was never very .Mieev .u-' in this de- 
partment, and consequently 1 grew up .strong in the be- 
, lief that all farming was but another name for drudgery,, 
and that there was nothing enlivening or attractive con- 
! nected with it. 'i’hu.s, when I began, I embarki^J in it, not 
I with any pleasure or delight, but becau.>e 1 c^^Ktld .v.-e r,t> 

I other goo<] opening for a start in business. For several 
years, 1 plodded on in the old beaten ir.'jick in vrhich I hadi 
I been reared, and seldom attempted any experiments o* 
advances in my line of business. About this time, ? f>e- 
carne encumbered v/ith an old crazy set of nnlls, which ? 
thought, by carrying on in connection v/ith the 
v/ould enable me to live, and thut; my little foc'.e 


108 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


divided in the endeavor to conduct two different businesses 
while, in reality, I was not strong enough for either. The 
cos 7 .seqi 3 enc€ was no manure at all was saved and dis- 
jEibuted, my farming operations were always delayed to 
a late date in the season, while, of course, bad preparation 
of a heavy, vret soil produced bad stands; while careless 
and imperfect tillage, with negro discrimination in thin- 
king, invariably gave me shorter crops than any other per- 
son on similar land. 

I was thoroughly convinced that farming was a poor 
business, and I became so disgusted with my bad stands 
..hat I frequently would not go in the field for weeks, leav- 
'ing its management entirely to negro supervision ; while 
■a.\y mill vras a source of perpetual disquietude. About 
"this time (5 years ago), a copy of the Southern Cultivator 
tell accidently into my hands. I there read of the plea- 
sures of farming, and how, to succeed at all in it, that deep 
plowing and thorough preparation was indispensable. I 
■subscribed for the paper and received 9 numbers at once. 
Th«k perasal opened my eyes entii'ely to new things. 
''Gladness grew in me at the discovey — there seemed to be 
.i latent joy awakened within me — and I determined to 
oievote myself to the farm and its interests. 

A.b.o.ut this, time, a friendly freshet swept my old mill 
kSam away, and I then resolved that I would spend no 
more time in mending it, ' but that I would apply my 
whole time and attention to farming. I had to 
fnegin -tander very discouraging circumstances. I had made 
crop of any consequence, while my stock had been so 
'Smii'-zly neglected that I was left without one breeding 
and 0137 empty barn and larder, together with the 
dilapidated condition of the fences and buildings were a 
ft%htfur commentary on the industry and thrift of the 
owner. In fact, there never was an individual, unless he 
imiS the victim of disease or the devotee of Bacchus, 
widi good land around him and help to cultivate it, whose 
imUR'&es presented so shattered an appearance as your un- 
worthy servant. 

Hut I began to husband manures, to haul cotton to gin 
'ter ike seed,'&c., and through the winter I amassed more 
cau'atsre than Ithought could have been gathered on the 
place in 5 years. 

I was a constant and ardent reader of the Cultivator. 
T-ltrough its wholesome influences I was buoyed up in the 
berieftiaat farming would pay, and more than that, that 
ikere was a charm, a kind of cheerful halo thrown around 
home that was beyond comparison, and that could 
stcCfee obtained in any other pursuit of life. Here I began 
.imperceptibly to love home and studied how to adorn it. 
I Eicw felt a new pleasure in watching the operations of 
iMatare manifested in the vegetable economy, and I en- 
joyed those pure and lovely draughts of pleasure which 
koiae feut the farmer ever experiences. 

i commerxed operations in deep plowing, but I found 
■that I haff no plow on my premises that I could induce to 
aio 'aNKi'k 6 inches deep. I bought one of Ruggles’ Eagle 
.l?lows in New Orleans. Here I was assailed by a new 
■dlisaster. My old neighbors assured me it never would do 
—that the very shape of the cast iron points would not 
let it in the ground. That objection, however, was soon 
slfispelled, as the plow, with two good horses, turned up six 
.iach furrows most beautifully. 

1 was then told by old veteran farmers that such plow- 
fmg would ruin my land — that it might do in Northern 
but was not adapted to mine. I asked how they 
..itaew it would ruin it '? and I was assured that every per- 
- SoYicmmd said so. I inquired for proof. No experiment 
iS-f SilaS 'kind could be produced, so I went ahead, and was 
■vlcfflouneed and laughed at by the whole neighborhood. 

I knew .my land produced almost nothing anyhow, 
I «tas resolved to believe what your correspondents 
ssM. So I broke up deep and manured as well as I could. 


Previous to that year, there were spots in my .swamp lard 
that had become so inexpressibly barren that you could 
find an acre in a spot that would not have made a bushel 
of corn. Upon these exhausted spots I expended most of 
my labor, and carted manure upon them until they were 
liberally supplied. 

For the first time in my life I made a heavy crop of 
corn, heavier than I ever anticipated. And how often, 
while walking in that field, while the dark emerald maize 
waved its rustling banners round me, did I think of your 
journal that had taught me to love my occupation and 
had enabled me to make such a change in all around me ! 
My neighbors were stumped and attributed much of the 
improvement to the turning loose the waters of the mill 
pond which had previously exerted a very pernicious in- 
fluence on the land ; but they still declared that I had got 
all out of the land, and that I could never make a <>ood 
crop again. 

I have made three crops since, and have been each time 
well repaid not only for all the manure put on but also 
for the deep and thorough plowing that I have ever since 
given. In the year 1855, the dryest season here extant. I 
made more corn on 10 1-2 acres of land than I made in 
1852 off of 45 acres, and I would not have my creek bot- 
tom land broken up on the old skinning system if it was 
done for nothing. 

In my next, I hope to be able to tell you what draining 
has done, and what underdraining will, I hope, do for me 
this year. Allow me, then, in conclusion, to say that the 
pleasure, happiness and instruction that I have drawn 
from the Cultivator could not be estimated by me in dol- 
lars and cents. May its shadow never grow less, but may 
it go on conquerring error and prejudice till our own 
Sunny South may become as productive as her climate is 
beautiful. Yours, Aristander. 

Pike Comity, Miss., 1857. 


RAISING CARVE.S. 

Editors Southern Cultivator— Much depends upon 
the object we have in view as to the method which we adopt 
in raising our calves. It is very true and reasonable that 
the way nature points out for all animals is the most pro- 
per for them. « 

There. are many modes of raising' calves, and we sup- 
pose that every man thinks his plan the best. That the 
public may have some correct data from which to judge of 
this matter, it would be well to know the different meth- 
ods — old and new — of managing calves, and then some de- 
gree of certainty may be attained. 

There is a method in many parts of the States, of separat- 
ing the calves from the dams at a day old ; others let them 
remain with the cow until weaned— when the latter is the 
case, the calf sucks so frequently the cow’s udder cannot be 
filled or distended, and consequently she gives so little milk 
it is seldom the calf is more than barely kept from starving. 
If a calf sucks from a cow half that she gives, it benefits him 
more than .though the same be fed to him. If we take a 
cow that gives “a good mess,” as the term is, and let two 
calves suck her they will frequently get quite fat with this 
chance and seem to wean better, winter better and make 
thriftier cattle than those that never suck. A couple of 
calves striving to get more milk every time, would have 
a tendency to increase the quantity, or else nature has not 
provided for this emergency as she has for others. 

When the calfis first dropped, the first object is to get 
suck, as the first from the udder of the dam in this state 
is almost indispensable to the health of the animal ; next 
the cow is milked clean twice every day, after the calf 
takes his fill, till the dam does not give more than it will 
consume ; after four weeks the calf should be turned out to 
run with the cow, to suck when hek;hooses, until when 


109 


SOUTHERN 


about nine montlis old, at which time the cow will gener- 
ally wean her calf off. 

This plan of weaning calves is adopted throughout 
nearly the whole of the Southern country, as our planters 
prefer beef to veal as a general thing. Often it happens 
that the calves do not come out of the woods until they | 
are some months old. But since the planters have began 
to improve their stock, they have began to pay more j 
attention to toe calves and many have adopted a plan to | 
raise them by hand. j 

In rearing the calf by hand, we must use every precau- j 
tion to keep iliem as near the natural condition as possible, , 
as the first year of the animal’s existence is a period ofj 
most luxuri;m.t growth, so, also, it should be the period ofj 
luxuriant feeding, as the most liberal feeding is most amply j 
repaid ; so is the slightest neglect the cause ofirreparable ! 
loss. 

We let the calf suck the dam for a day or two, after 
which milk into a bucket two or three quarts of milk, and 
after getting the calf backed into a corner, stride across it, 
inserting the fore finger of the right hand into it’s moutn 
— having, it possible, an assistant to hold the bucket for a 
few days— a.id pressing the head down with the left hand 
into it ; after a few day’s commence teaching the animal 
to hold its head down into the bucket without your finger | 
in his mcurh ; when, by perseverance and abstinence ; 
from nourishment it can soon be made to drink by itself, | 
and thus you give it skimmed milk mixed with new milk j 
and afterwards all skimmed milk, without any more trou- 
ble than placing the pail or vessed before the calt. If the 
calf is allowed too much milk for several months, it is in- 
jurious to the future development of the young. It does not 
distend the stomach properly, nor call into use its ruminat- 
ing habits. Calves thus brought up sometimes prove i 
light bellied, indifferent feeders and decidedly inferior j 
animals. j 

The calf is sometimes fed on milk at one degree of j 
temperature, and at another time on another certain de- j 
gree of temperature, varying in degrees of heat as often j 
as fed, and as often fed irregularly, and, I might say, rather | 
sparingly for three or four months, and then turned out to ! 
shirk tor itself. In this way the food must be poor, and it 
requires a greater quantity to support the solid parts of 
the body, thereby distending the capacity of the stomach 
and intestines, as the poorer the food the less the chyle to 
support the animal system, the remainder passing off in 
the excrements, at the same time contracting and stinting { 
the lacteal vessels, which convey the chyle from the mis- 
sentery to the thoracic duct. 

The chyle is a white juice in the stomach consisting of 
the finer and more nutritious parts of the food which is 
received into the lacteal vessels and serves to form the 
blood. 

Kence my conclusion, that the poorer the calf is kept 
the more the lacteal and arteiial vessels will be contracted 
and stinted, and the more the stomach and intestines will 
be distended, and, should the plan be persevered in, the 
fine points and just proportions never will nor never can 
be fully or finely developed ; no matter how wellthey may 
be kept after; although some may, by great care, be 
brought to a positive state ; but, as u general rule, it stints 
them forever. 

Again, when a calf is fed too bountifully, as is the case 
with many a; the present day, all the vessels become ex- 
tended to such a degree that the reverse cannot but be ex- 
pected; that is the vessels that carry nutrition to the solid 
pavts of the body will be so much more e.xtended than the 
intestines, that when they come to be fed as all planters 
would vrish to feed their stock, after one year of age, on 
.good fodder or hay only, the stomach and intestines be- 
come insufficient to furnish the v/ants of the lacteals, so 
that the sy mpathy of the organs will not be preserved— 


:i LT IV ATQR. 

so essential and requisite for their future advancement and 
prosperity. D 

Si'uih Carolina, Feb., JS57. 

(IIINE.SE pirGAil c am: — EETTE i: FKOU DR. 

Kobt. Battey. 

Editors Souther.v Cultiv.vtor — T he general interest 
now felt (over the entire country) in the Chinese Sugar 
Cane, and the experiments made with it by myself and 
others, has so encumbered me with letters ofinquiry that 
1 find it a serious tax upon me to reply to questions so 
often repeated. May I ask the use of a small portion of 
your space that I may speak to all at one sitting '? If there 
be any of my correspondents who are not readers of the 
Southern CuUivator, 1 trust they will at once avail them- 
selves of its benefits. 

1st. Of the precise dimensions of the mill used by Mr. 
Pet.'^.rs, I cannot speak definitely. I would select for my- 
self rollers of cast iron 18 inches in diameter and 24 inches 
in height, and of the latter dimension 4 inches should be 
devoted to the cogs and 20 inches (roughly turned off in 
the lathe) for the pressing surfaces, which should not be 
smooth, or the cane will slip and greatly retard the press- 
ing. Such a mill will harvests acres satisfactorily. 

2nd. The mill must extract 50 per cent, of the entire 
weight of the cane, or it is notieconomically adjusted. If 
it be put up in the best style, and the power is ample, 60 
per cent, is not too high a figure for the best cane. The 
mill should so perfectly accomplish its work that the ba- 
gass shall be a refuse product — so far as syrup is in ques- 
tion — after having passed the mill. It will be so broken 
and contused that it cannnot be returned to the mill with 
any advantage, and pressing it after tlie manner adopted 
for the extraction of cider would be a most unprofitable 
expenditure of time. 

3rd. “The leaves or blades” should be removed before 
pressing, and indeed before cutting the cane from its root. 
This should not be done “carefully,” as suggested by a 
correspondent, for this, in the strict acceptation of the 
term, would involve needless waste of valuable time. The 
fodder should be stripped off rapidly and tied into bundles 
as usual with corn for the reasons : first, that it is a valu- 
able part of the crop ; secondly, if left upon the cane it 
would retard the pressing and contaminate the juice with 
an additional quantity of objectionable vegetable matter. 

4th. Let me say by way of explanation to my Northern 
friends ; syrup is, with us, the juice of die cane boiled 
down to the consistence of molasses, while the latter ar- 
ticle is the drippings from granulated sugar. The first 
is a primary ,aud the latter a secondary product. The 
consistence is materially the same. 

5th. To those who desire a statement of the number of 
barrels of juice and syrup estimated for an acre, I would 
say ; measure your barrel in gallons, and by the simple 
j rules of arithmetic, divide my figures by yours, and you 
have the estimate. I give my figures in gallons as being 
more definite and more easily comprehended. 

[ 6ih. In reply to many inquiries for seed of reliable qual- 
ity, 1 would say : that I have no seed beyond a very 
' small parcel which I have grown for my own experi- 
I ments. I will, however, cheerfully assist those who de- 
sire in referring them, so far as I can,, to reliable sources 
for their supplies. Parties who have such seed for sale 
would do well to let the faetbe known through your adver- 
tising columns. Bob.'-ifit B.\ttev. 

Rnmc, Oa., 18.57. 

CoR.v Fodder . — Editors Sontiiern Culttvalm — I tried 
; sowing the corn thick in the drill, for fodder, last yeaix 
and like it very much. It makes a very heavy yield, 
and much finer forage tlian the move matured blades. I 
expect to make my fodder in that way next year. 

Yours, &c.; ' G. W. W. 

, Fair Viev:^ La.., 1 857. 


110 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


Chinese Sugar Cane. — A number of farmers in this 
town and vicinity have pledged themselves to raise an 
acre or a half acre of the Chinese Sugar Cane, and to pay 
each his proportion of the expense of the machinery ne- 
cessary to grind and boil the products, to the end that the 
raising of the article in this region may be fully and satis- 
factorily tested. Dr. Chaffee, Representative at Washing- 
ton, has pledged the seed necessary to plant eight acres. 
The object is a worthy one, and it is to be Imped that the 
trial will be sufficiently thorough and extensive to be the 
basis of future action. — N()rlhamj?(on Cmirier. 


lUEPORTS OF COIHMITTEF8 — AND 
€tib3)’s Rotary DSgger. 

The undersigned Committee of the Beech Island Farm- 
er’s Club, appointed to test the performances of a “Mapes’ 
&, Gibbs' Rotary Digger,” and “Washington Plow, No. 2,” 
recently purchased by a member of this Club, 

REPORT 

That tliey have witnessed the performances of these 
implements in a loamy clay soil in excellent order to ex- 
hibit them to the best advantage. 

From the cost of the Digger (.^125 at the factory in New 
York), and from several notices of it in the Working 
a journal conducted by Mr. Mapes, one of the 
inventors, and particularly on account of an Editorial ar- 
ticle in the July number of that journal, in which it was 
stated that, with a single yoke of oxen, this implement 
would completely pulverize the soil the width of two and 
a half double horse plow furrows (assumed to he at least 
20, perhaps 30 inches) and IG inches deep, the Commit- 
tee expected to see the most remarkable and efficient ag- j 
ricultural implement yet invented — one calculated to cre- 
ate a new era in farming. 

On examining it, they found tlsat it was an attempt to 
combine the Subsoil Plow, the Roller and the Harrow in 
one. The Subsoil Flow which was attached to the beam 
in front, had a blade 7 inches wide at its greatest width 
and from the bottom of the blade to the beam was 15 
inches. The Roller, which was immediately in the rear 
of the subsoil plow, was 10 inches long and 11 in diame- 
ter. On each side of the roller were the diggers, small 
iron teeth 2| inches wide and 6 inches long. The Roller ! 
consisted of a succession of plates revolving each on a 
journal of its ov/n, and each digger or tooth did the same; 
both the roller and diggers, however, revolving in the 
rear of the plow on a common axel. We tried this imple- 
ment or machine first with one yoke of oxen, but finding 
they could not pull it when made to do its utmost, another 
equally fine yoke was added, and the work was more 
than ample for both yokes. At its be^i, this machine sub- 
soiled and rolled down (the land being in such condition 
that not a clod was made) a strip 7 Indies wide, the cen- 
tre of which w'as 121 inches deep, and the whole on an 
average of 10 inches. It could do no more. 

The Diggers at the sides entered the earth, making holes, 
on an average, 4 inches deep, and scooping out at every G 
inches, a handful of earth. The entire width of subsoiled 
and scarified land was 18 inches, and a very thin coating 
of dead grass choked it up every 30 or 40 yards. 

As good a Subsoil Plow as this can be placed on the 
plantation of any member of this Club for SG, and can be 
made to pulvenze the earth as deep and as wide with two 
good mules. The Roller is of no appreciable value; v.'hile 
the diggers, whose only possible use might be to pierce a 
clod occasionally, and which absorb at least one-half of 
the motive power, are simply a nuisance. 

The unanimous opinion of the committee is that the 
“Mapes’ and Gibbs’ Rotary Digger” is a gross imposition. 
The question was put and not one of the Committee would 
consent to accept of it as a present. 

The “Washington Plow, No. 2,” the cost of which was 


$10 at the factory, was next tried. It was found to be 
rather too much for one yoke of oxen, but two } okes car- 
ried it with ease, and it cut and turned a furrow 12 inches 
deep and 12 inches wide. For breaking up land and for 
hill side ditching and surface drain.s, it is an excel- 
lent implement. While in the opinion of tlie Committee the 
“Digger” never can be improved into a machine of any 
economic value, they think it v/ould be a very great im- 
provement to the latter valuable plow to make the beam G 
or 8 inches longer. 

All of which is respectfully submitted to the Club. 

R. BRADrORD, f 7m , 

S. Cl.ark, 'j 
H. R. Cook, 

Jon. M. Mir.i.ER, | 

Geo. B. 

J. H. Lamar, | 

T. W. WiiATf.r.v, I 

H. L.M AY.-. MN, j 

[Without expressing our own opimru on lihs, subject, 
but merely for the purpose of showing how diiTeremly 
the same matter is regarded by dilTercnt people, %ve a^> 
pend the following Report on this implement, from a 
number of gentlemen at the North, who also witnessed it 
in operation. — Eds. So. Cult.] ^ 

Mapes’ and Gibbs’ Digging Machine. — This imple- 
ment the Committee saw in u.se, and had every reason to 
be satisfied with its performance, as it leaves the soil in 
better tilth and to a greater depth, than can possibly be 
brought about by olowing, harrowing and rolling. This 
machine may be wmrked by a pair of oxen or mules, and 
will disturb as much soil in two hours to a depth of six- 
teen inches, as can be disturbed in five hours by the 
same team witli any plow to the depth of eight inches ; 
or, differently stated, it will disturb five acres to the depth 
of sixteen inches, in the same time that the same team 
can plow two acres to a depth of eight inches. The soil 
is left in a finely divided state, and the machine may be 
so set that the surface will be turned to any required 
depth from one to twelve inches, while the lower portion 
is disturbed without being elevated or mixed with the sur- 
face-soil. 

H. MeigS; Chain-. in. 

John A. Bunting, 

Thos. W. Field, J 

A. O. Moore, 

John V. Brower, 

R. L. Waterbury, 31. D., 

C. F. W-TTI.E, [ 

A. S. Walcott, 

Wm. Raynold, 

S. Blackwell, 1 

John M. Bixby, J 

■S'ev: Ynrl-^ Jan. 3d, 1857. 


GUANO. 

In answer to sundry inquiries as to the price of 
Guano, Iiov/ to know that it is genuine, what kinds are 
best, how to use it, and whether it is profitable for a farm- 
er, we offer the following remarks : 

Guano is sold by the agent of the Peruvian Government 
in New York, at $60 per ton for No. 1, in bags of about 160 
or 170 lbs,, and 500 tons or upward at once, on 60 days’ 
credit. In smaller lots, it is $65 cash. We believe that 
it is not sold in less parcels than 25 tons by the agent. It 
is a mystery to many persons how retailers sell guano at 
less than these prices. They may do so and be honest ; 
because they buy long tons and sell short ones; and, as 
it costs about 21 cents a pound, if sold at 3 oe-nts, which 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


Ill 


is the usu?.i price, it aftbrds a fair profit— say $1 a ton 
But guano, said to be genuine No. 1. Peruvian is some-, 
limes sold oy the single ton in this city, at Su5 a ton. It 
may be so, but we don’t believe it. We don't believe it, 
because men are not apt to do business v/ithout profit ; 
much more, at a positive loss At S'dO a ton, we should 
like to kno w our man, and have more confidence than we 
now have ^ ; any one in than trade in this city. It is al- 
together better lor farmers to club together and buy their 
guano direct from the agent, at his price, and be sure to 
get honest weittht and quality. In every carge of guano 
there is 51 to I'H) ions in the bottom that is damp, and 
this is sold as .k'o. '2. at about SI5 per ton less than No. 1, 
and the bags weigh 15 or 20 lbs. more, on account ol the 
water, and ticsides, it is not so good. Then we have 
“hlexican b-.,uUiO/’ which is sold at any price from SlO to 
$25 a ton. ‘ Icliabo Guano" is worth about $40. There 
are some other kinds, both genuine and manufactured, 
but none bu: Fe.'uvian can often be found at retail. What 
becomes ofal. the others, is a mystery to those who know 
that some of 'diC largest retail dealers in the city buy large 
quantities o; :;ie clieap kinds, and carl them to their store- 
house, where, for aught we can say to the contrary, they 
are still in store, waiting for a rise in the market. It is 
barely possible, hovrever, that when No. 1 and No. 2, Per- 
uvian an.u i : xiemr, Chilian and Ichabo, are emptied up- 
on the floor ingr-'.liei, the moisture of the No. 2 is absorbed, 
and the iMercican loses its color, and the whole pile turns, 
of its own aecord, into “genuine No. 1 Peruvian Guano — 
Vv'arranted.” 

We should a little rather buy of the agent at $05 than ol 
any retailer at $55, notwithstanding the warranty ; and 
that is the only way to know that it is genuine : for we 
defy the bes: judges to tell by looks, taste or smell. 

In England, adulteration of guano has been carried to 
an extent hardly to be credited by such honest traders as 
the universal Yankee nation. As it is generally supposed 
that some of that nation have learned to adulterate liquors, 
it is barely possible that they have learned to adulterate 


I 

i 


i 


i 

1 


i 

i 

I 

! 

i 

I 


I 


guano. 

As to the best kind, we cannot recommend a farmer 
ever to buy any but genuine No. 1 Peruvian guano. Other 
kinds may be worth their cost, but then again they may 
not be bett-jr than so much yellow dust. 


IIOV,' TO USE GU.-VNO. 


The best way is to sow it broadcast, without any mix- 
ture or preparation, except to break the lumps and thor- 
oughly incorporate it v.uth the soil by a light plowing or 
lieavy harrowing, and sow the land with wheat or other 
small grain and clover or grass, in all cases. If it is 
used with corn, potatoes, or other crop>s, mix it well in 
the soil, and follow that crop with another the same sea- 
son, to get the after effect of the guano. 

If applied a.s atop-dressing to grass, it should be sown 
immediately before or during a rain, or ehe mixed with i 
charcoal du.st, or plaster of Paris. It may be thus used i 
upon wheat or other small grain. ' ' 


aU.\XTiTY TO THE .\CaE. 


From 200 to HOO pounds we consider the most pi ofiia'dc 
application, though it has often been used u) ;'d. .iLtage in 
larger and s.cr.iK.r pvoportior::.. 

IS IT PROUlT.tni.E 1 


For the f urpose of renov; fmg the p.ioc st, woru-outl 
sandy-plain in the country, or soil-denuded gravel knoll, i 
it is the most profitable apphcatioii ever made by u farm- ; 
er. Upon all lands which need manure to make them ' 
produce a fair crop, it is profitable oven at the present | 
extravagantly high price. In whatever .situation it can 
be used, where other manure cannot, it is profitable : and 
it is certainly so, in very many cases, to use it instead of 
other maiwne. v/licve that has to be hauled any con.sider- 


able distance. If it wrouM be profitable to restore such a 
tract of barren sand as that, for instance, between New 
Haven and Meriden, Connecticut, to a condition which 
would produce crops of grain capable of paying all ex- 
penses, followed by a heavy crop of clover, then it would 
be profitable to apply guano to that land, for that is what 
it would do. If a farmer, can make the poorest old field 
as productive as his richest one, for an expense of $9 an 
acre, then it is profitable to use guano. Tlie same may 
be said of Superphosphate of Lime. If it is genuine it is 
valuable, and its use profitable. But bow some people 
have been cheated with this stuff ! — Ncio York Trlba'ne. 



HOW TO YAY OUT .S[Ti£ FACES. 

To lay out an acre circle : First fix a centre, and with 
a rope a.s a radius, seven rods, three links and three-eights 
long, one end attached to the centre and kept uniformly 
stretched, the sweep of it at the other end will lay out the 
acre. 

For one-quarter of an acre, a rope 3 rods and 14 links 
will be the right length. 

For one eighth of an acre, a rope 2 rods and 13 links 
will be enough. 

Triangles ; If you wish a triangle to contain just an 
acre, make each side 19 rods, bh links long. 

A triangle whose sides are G rods and 20 links 
long each, will contain one-eighth of an acre. 

To lay out an ellipse or oval ; Set 3 stakes in a triangu- 
lar position. Around these stretch a rope. Take away 
the stake of the apex of the triangle, which will be where 
the side of the oval is to come— move the stake along 
against the rope, keeping it tight, and it will trace out the 
oval. 

A square, to contain a acre, or just one hundred and 
sixty rods, should have each of its sides jus: i'2 rods 10 
feet and 17-lOths long. 

To draw an oval of a given siuc ; The long and the 
short diameter being given — say 20 feet fur the shorter, 
and 100 for the longer — divide the short diameter into any 
number of equal parts, say ten, and from each point draw 
a line parallel to the long diameter; then divide the long 
diameter into the same number of equal parts (10), and 
iVom each point draw a line parallel to the short diameter. 
Then draw a liiie from point to point where each 
corresponding line cuts the other, on the outside, and this 
connecting mark will describe the oval or the ellipse re- 
quired — Arator. 

SHEEP EAtSl.’VG IZ'i THE SOUTH. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — If I should indulge 
at tiie outset in a few introductory remarks which might 
not seem to be very appropriate to my subject, or should 
fail to meet the expectations of the readers of the OtiUi- 
tviL/- in bringing my views before them, sympathy o.n 
the part of the Editors ought, of course, to be extended to- 
wards me, as they iiTVe invited me to their columns on 
tlii.-', .s d'ieat, and lor the farth-jr reason tlial we arc both 
fond nf good mutl.in. 

We are admonished, Mess:rs. Editors, ir. Ko;y Wnt, of 
the way ward rai ablings of sheep, from shepherds being 
i-a; i.h-yed to watch over them day and night, and in proof 
of tiieir fidelity to their floclcsthey were tiic first to receive 
t;ie glad news of the birth of our Savior, and of beholding 
with their eyes the star that hung over his couch, Thio 
great event took place in the niglit time and was first re- 
vealed to the keepers of sheep (they being awake) which 
goes to prove their vigilence,day and night, in protocting. 
their flocks from beasts of prey. 


112 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


Sheep are the most innocent and unsuspecting of all do- 
mestic animals, which admonishes us they need our pro- 
tection and that they should not be suffered to roam at 
large over the woods, as other animals, without some per- 
son to look after them. I shall, therefore, as a matter of 
convenience and profit, recommend them being taken for 
safe keeping to pastures inclosed with good fences, with- 
out which no one need think of raising them to profit, as 
the days of shepherds are past. 

I have for the last eight or tew years kept on my plan- 
tation from 75 to 100 head, which has cost me nothing 
except salting them once a week and keeping up my 
fences ; besides this they have had no other care during 
fall and winter but to keep them behind my other stock 
to glean what they leave in the different fields; and I 
might have kept double the number by taking care of the 
Vvheat and oat straw, and feeding it to them, which has 
been waisted on my place every year ; and then have 
had in the spring and summer a sufficiency of pasture 
grounds to have made all fat ; sheep are less expensive in 
winter than any stock we raise, but it is indispensible to 
have good pastures in summer for them, and nothing is 
better than a Crab Grass pasture. 

My experience with sheep is, they have yielded me a 
profit by their wool of 50 per cent., independent of a fat 
lamb or sheep, whenever I wanted it. Now, Messrs. 
Editors, if we can add to our table comforts another 
wholesome dish and make 50 per cent, off of the capital 
invested, by their fleece, whoought to object to it 7 What 
profit sheep raising in the South would yield on a large 
scale I cannot say. I only preach what I have experi- 
enced myself. 

There is no better way to prepare wheat or oat straw 
for sheep, to make it palatable, than to saturate it with 
salt and water when putting the straw away. 

I think it advisable to shear sheep but once a year, say 
in tljie spring. This plan may not yield so much wool, 
but I think it would be conducive to their health. If, 
hov/ever, a disease called the rot should gel amongst them 
turn them in on a hoarhound patch, and let them stay 
there a few weeks — they will eat it freely and it will 
prove a sovereign remedy. 

I was struck, Messers. Editors, with an idea advanced 
by one of your contributors, in one of the early numbers of 
the 14th volume — that we should raise our own mules, &c. 

I give in at once to his advice, for I believe in raising 
everything on the plantation we can. But behold, in a 
subsequent number, another of your respected correspon- 
dents, in the same county, informs us: “If there was 100 
acres of stubble or pasture lands in that county, he had 
not seen the man that saw it.” I concluded at once that the 
chance for raising stock in that county was anything but 
good. The preacher that has the most effect with me is 
the one that practices what he preaches, and I say av/ay 
with all the rest. 

I will now close this imperfect communication by say- 
ing that “any man who is not fond of a fat quarter of 
lamb, nicely dressed, is no friend of mine.” 

E. JlNKINS. 

Horse Pen, Miss., 1857. 


A “liOVE” OF A KITCHEN. 

A Paris correspondent of the New York Express gives 
us Ae following bagatelle : 

“There resides in the Rue de la Chaussee d’Antin, a 
worthy lady who makes a single apartment in house more 
elegant than ail the rest combined. This grand apart- 
ment is— the kitchen. Whenever this lady receives com- 
pany, all sorts of ingenious plans are formed, and every 
description of little artifice employed to induce her guests, 
without actually asking them, to have a peep at this den 


—generally kept as much as possible in the back-ground, 
for obvious reasons, (nothing is so disgusting to a true 
epicure as the smell of cookery.) In most houses, there- 
fore, the kitchen is as far distant from ti:e drawing-room 
as possible. In this instance, on the conrrary, the local 
topography is so arranged that many persons Vv ish.ing to 
go out, mistake the door, and, just as they are about hasti- 
ly backing out, are accosted by the most dazzling of 
cooks, who cries, with a smiling air, ‘it’s the kitchen, 
Monsieur, (or Madame.) There’s no iiurm! Walk in, if 
you please!’ By this time, the glance ot tiie visiter has 
taken in all sorts of unexpected thing.s hung around the 
room, and he is induced to enter this curious boudoir 
kitchen. The walls and the floor are composed of njosaic 
brick of numerous colors — the prevailing bezng blue and 
white. Gas burners issue from rare and !)eautirul China 
saucers, or burn through the artificial wicks of antique 
lamps. The dressers and closets are covered with burn- 
ished copper, and contain the tliousand and one utensils 
of the cuisine, all shining with dazzing [-crish — ti\e knciicn 
girl being a Holland lass, spares uculier brick' dust nor 
muscle in keeping up the proud repuiation for cleanliiiesB 
of her country. What is most surprising in this model 
kitchen, is to see the saucepans and gridirons, bright as so 
many new matches, hung up with rose colored ribbons. 
Evidently these utensils consume more ribbon than even 
madame’s bonnet ! A short time ago, the friends of the 
proprietress of this unique establishment begged her to 
give a breakfast in this elegant kitchen. She consented, 
on one condition : the guests should themselves cook the 
breakfast they were to eat, and afterward they were to 
wash the dishes and put everything back in the same or- 
der in which they found it. The stipulation was stoical- 
ly accepted. Two ladies who have four or five hundred 
thousand francs a year to spend, the lady ofan admiral, a 
duchess, and the wives of two foreign ministers, were pre- 
sent on the occasion, and took part in the novel proceed- 
ings. The dish washing efforts of these fashionable but- 
terflies must have been amusing.” 

BOTTS IN HORSE!?. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — The greatest remedy 
in the world for the cure of Bolts in horses ; Take the 
root of Jerusalem Oak, or “Worm Seed,” as it is common- 
ly called, and boil it into a tea, which is easily done by 
mixing a little water with it and setting on the fire. Give 
the horse two quarts of the tea about milk warm, mixed 
with a little molasses or sugar. As it will operate on him 
like a charm by giving instant relief, and destroying the 
botts, the worm seed or Jerusalem Oak is the great sover- 
eign remedy for worms in either the human family or 
other animals and seems to have been particularly design- 
ed by the Great Creator of the Universe as such. It is 
the main ingredient which is used in all vermifuges for the 
distruction of worms in children, and is found in almost 
every farm in the United States, growing about the corn- 
ers of the fences, and is known by the great multitude of 
seed which it bears and its peculiar smell ; it has a very 
large root, and is a weed which dies in the fall and comes 
up again in the spring. 

The Botts are caused by a small nit which is deposited 
on the legs and flanks of horses in the fall season by a 
fly which resembles a bee ; the horse in biting or scratch- 
ing himself with his teeth gets the nit in its mouth and 
swallows; it almost immediately hatches and becomes a 
worm and feeds on the nutriment of the maw, until it is 
discharged with the food, when it is transformed into a 
fly. Uuiing the time the worm is in the maw, if the horse 
becomes heated by severe exercise, the worm will seize 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


113 


^aold on the maw and c.oinmence eating it, and sometimes 
in a few hours will entirely des roy it and death follows to 
the horse as tlie consequence. And there, is but little 
doubt but nine out of ten horses, die in the United States 
by this f ttal disease. Persons who own horses ought to be 
very particular and scrape off the nits when discovered on 
their horse’s legs or body, and grease well the places so as 
to prevent others from sticking. By taking a nit in your 
hand and wetting it, then rabbing it with your lingers, you 
can hatch the worm from the nit in fifteen seconds. The 
horse is a valuable animal and pays well for every atten- 
tion paid him; if properly cared for, and well treated he 
will do good service until he is thirty years old. 

Symptoms op Botts. — The horse become restless; 
stamps with his feet ; switches his tail ; will lie down 
and wallow frequently, and look back at his flank. When 
this is the case you may be sure it is the Botts, unless the 
horse is greatly .swelled in body, from the cholic. The 
above remedy wdl euro in thirty minutes, if properly ap- 
plied. I have knewn it to cure in ten minutes. 

Wm. B. Trotter. 

Pehruary^ 1857. 


THE COTTON GIN— ITS ORIGIN, &c. 

EctTORs SocTHHR?r CuLTiTATOR — In a back number of 
your valuable journal, over the signature of “Antiquary,” 
is an article puporting to give the origin of the Cotton Gin ; 
which, upon reading, “leaves one in doubt whether the 
«take that m\Ae the track was going in or coming out.” 
The writer urges Boll’s claim to the invention, but before 
he closes his communication he tells us that Whitney 
actually commenced suits against Bull and others who 
were using in the United States Court. And he 

states, furthermore, “whatever doubt may exist in relation 
to Boll’s claim to the invention of the gin, there is but 
little doubt but that ho is entitled to the credit of the first 
packing screw.” 

Now, if “ Antiquary’^ entertains doubts in reference to 
Bwll’s claim, why longer fail to give credence to the tes- 
timony of so many dituinguished witnesses in favor of 
Whitney 1 Whal unproclaimed revelation is there, that 
we should discard iho testimony of such men as Edward 
Everett, and the pul)lic generally 1 Our great solicitude 

to bestow Uie merit of die invention upon the true dis- 
coverer ; and to see the same recorded on the pages of 
history by the free historian of free America with thegold- 
deo j^en of Truth, so that our history may be what all 
kist-iry ought, tlml in which virtue, merit, and genius may 
stand out in their own unfading beauty, the admiration 
a«d model ofthe world I A discovery which has caused 
the Guhuie of this beautiful staple, cotton, to rise from its 
languishing condition (owing to the great difficulty of 
separating the seed from the fibre) to be the sole mono- 
poly in the Southern States, ‘should be treasured up by the 
r«ing genraiion as a happy epoch in the progress of 
science- The name of the inventor of such a machine 
should not be of d‘>ubiful memory with us (who arc the 
recipients of the manifold blessings arising from such 
invention.) If Bci.i, was the inventor of a machine, the 
prototype of our pre^nt Cotton gin, let us all unite in 
vindicating his cause. And to prove to “Antiquary” that 
I am like a thousand others only anxious to stop the cavil- 
ing on tills matter and to bestow the honor on the meri- 
torious, 1 would say that I am as willing to see the laurel 
wreathed about the memory of Mr. Bull as Mr. Whitney, 
provided it be due. But until “Antiquary,” of Pike, 
has adduced facts to substantiate Bull’s claim, we 
shall continue to bestow the honor upon Whitney — where 
we believe the rising generation will accord it. 

Respeetfviily, J. C. R. 

O.iaioiia, DTiss , 1 357. 


CHINESE SUGAR CANE — SORGHO SUCRE. 

TRANSLATED FOR THE “WORKING FARMER,” BY M. S. OLCOTT. 

During the past year, I have made the public acquaint- 
ed with the various products obtained from the stalks of the 
Sorgho Sucre, and have shown how this plant should be 
cultivated. I think it well to enumerate the results which 
have been arrived at since that time, to say a word con- 
cerning the causes of the failures related by various ex- 
perimenters, either in culture, extraction of sap from the 
stalks, or distillation of (juice that runs from the 
crushed canes.) 

The trials made in the middle and Southern provinces 
of France, have confirmed my previous assertion that the 
cultivation of the Sorgho and that of Indian Corn, were 
strongly analogous. Nevertheless, several agriculturists, 
unwisely thinking to sensibly increase the yield of stalks, 
have practiced numerous floodings of the field. The eonj 
sequense has naturally been, that the sap yielded by the 
stalks under such circumstances, has only given on dis- 
tillation three per cent, of alcohol, in place of the 
five per cent, usually furnished. This unpleas- 
ant result is due entirely to the too great quantity of wa- 
ter contained in the stiilk at the time of cutting. I repeat 
here, what I have previously urged, that if irrigations are 
necessary when the soil is dry, we should not ab»se this 
nor practice it too late. 

The experiments have proved, contrary to what I have 
maintained, that the stalks should be gathered when th^ 
seed is first ripe. In the South (of France) it is done i® 
September. If the stalks are cut too soon, the juices they 
contain are proportionately less saccharine ; if they are cut 
too late, they yield a smaller quantity of sugar. 

At various depots, the alcohols arising from the disfel- 
lation of the expressed juice of the Sorgho, have been re- 
jected because they had an unpleasant taste. This is 
solely due to the crude methods of manufacture. Thus, if 
in place of crushing the stalks with an ordinary wiate- 
press, they had used a regular eane mill similar to those 
in use in the colonies, and which M. Cail, of Paris, ex- 
hibited at the World’s Exposition, the yield of sap, in- 
stead of being 35 or 40 per cent., would have been iaa- 
creased to 50 or even 60 ; if instead of leaving the to 
remain undisturbed fiDrseveral weeks after expression, k 
were at once submitted to distillation, they would never 
have had cause to complain of its having passed from the 
saccharine to the acid fermentation. 

But it is not sufficient to crush the canes, or to have a 
special crushing mill ; it is likewise necessary to submit 
the do^asx (crushed stalks) to the action of an hydraiflac 
press. 

Finally, to sura up, the stalks must be cut when the 
grain is ripe, crushed as soon as possible, and the distil- 
lation of the v^so^u (juice) speedily attended to with sttiG 
able aparatus ; those used by the farmers who have ob- 
tained their alcohols with bad flavors, being very far ftrom 
complete. The stalks may also be dried, for the sugar 
is well preserved in the medullary structure. 

The facts gathered this year concerning the produete 
yielded by the Sugar Sorgho, enables me to state that we 
can rely upon 60,000 kilgrammes per hectare of stalks, 
30,000 Llegrammes sap, and 1,500 litres of alcohol at 50 
“centes” of very fine flavor, and without essential oik. 
In Champagne even 3,000 litres were obtained fast 
autumn. 

The da^asiS (crushed eanes) may be fed to horned cat- 
tle. 

As to the yield of seed, it varies from 40 to 50 hectolkres 
per hectare. 

Ail other things being equal, the Sorgho Sucre is kova 
this time forth destined to assume an important mak 
amongst the crops of the South (France) and Algeria. I 


114 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


remain convinced that, if well cultivated and well treated 
in distilleries, it will be for certain countries what the su- 
gar beet is for the provinces of the north of Europe. I do 
not despair of hearing soon that its culture is introduced 
in Martinique, the Isle of Bourbon, &c. We know that 
this plant is an annual, and that the xesou which it yields 
contains eight to ten per cent, of raw sugar analogous to 
that from the cane. 

If this plant, which surprises one by its height and the 
beauty of its stalks, be not distined to be cultivated in 
France for its sugar-bearing qualities, it is indisputable 
that it may still be regarded as one of our very best forage 
crops. Cut in July, in the more central portions of 
France, it affords an abundant green forage, sprmgs 
agairi f and sires in Oct-ober an excellent second crop. We 
do not elsewhere posses amongst thegrassess, plants which 
offer such advantages. 

I repeat that the hulls of the seeds contain a coloring 
matter of a blueish violet shade, which M. Secard, of Mar- 
seilles, has successfully used in the dyes for cotton and 
linen goods, Gitst.we Heuze, 

Professor of Agriculture in the 
Imperial School at Grignan. 

JowH-al cC Agricv.li-nre PrafAque] 

Kilogramme 2 lbs. 5 1-2 drachms. 

Hectare 2 1-2 acres. 

Litre 2 1-9 wine pints. 

Rema«ks. — U nlike the Diascorca Batat-as, which has 
met with very general censure from our experimei'iters 
last season, the Sorgho has fully met the expectations of 
its most sanguine friends. As it becomes more generally 
known, and new experiments are instituted upon it, we 
predict that it will meet with more extended favor. Its 
good qualities may be enumerated as follows : 

1. Its cultiaation Is uo more troublesome than that of 
eom. 

2. It grows to full height, and will doubtless perfect its 
seed as far north as the latitude of Halifax, 

S. It is a very profitable forage crop, giving two crops 
— one in July, die other in October — of a green fodder 
superior to sweet corn. 

4. It yields 26 bushels of seed per acre, w'hich make 
a fine meal, and the hulls of which afford a good dye 

stuff, 

5. It, together with this seed, gives also one thousand or 
more pounds of excellent sugar per acre, and at the same 
ume fifty -five gallons of molasses or syrup. 

6. It gives on distillation about 300 gallons of alcohol at 
50 centesimal. 

7. The crushed stalks may be fed to cattle, who are 
very fond of it, 

8. If used to make syrup only, it ha-s yielded to Mr. 
Peters at the rate of 468 gallons per acre. 

9. The molasses may be distilled into rum, brandy 
and a beverage similar to cider. 

Without being champion to the extravagant speculations 
of some of our friends, we cannot but believe that the in- 
troduction of die Sugar Sorgho into America is of vast 
importance to our political economy, and we think the 
day not far distant when its manufacture into sugar, and 
distillation into the various alcoholic compounds, will be 
largely undertaken in the Northern and Southern States. 

In the letter which we translated for the Workmg 
Fanner last spring, M. Avcq^uin says that the brandies, 
rums, &c., yielded by it, can in no wise compare with 
4he Cognacs, but Professor Heuze, in the above article, 
maintains that this inferiority is entirely due to imperfect 
methods of manufacture. We shall see, however, in the 
future which view is the correct one. 

The samples of syrup made by us at the Westchester 
Farzn School, were of very fine quality, equal, we think, to 


good maple syrup; and that given to us by Col. Peters, of 
Georgia, tasted not unlike molasses candy, or the cooked 
syrup on baked pears. 

We esteem it our duty to afford every information in 
our power concerning the Sorgho, and shall translate from 
time to time the remarks made upon it in the French 
journals, H. S. Olcott. 

EMIGRATION. 

A correspondent of the Charleston S'anAa^d, writing 
from Texas, makes the following sensible remarks in re- 
lation to emigration ; 

“ Instead, therefore, of persuading the young men of 
South Carolina to leave their native Stale, I would say tO' 
them, “turn your attention to every new branch of busi- 
ness that is honorable and remunerative. Build up manu- 
factories of every kind. Introduce the culture of every- 
thing that yields a large return from a small extent of land. 
Use your boundless extent of water to irrigate your lower 
lands and make them yield five to ten fold as much as 
they are now doing. Plant groves around your dwellings 
to shield you from the miasma that rises from the creeks 
and rivers. In short, do everything that is necessary to 
j increase and multiply the resources and ir.dependenc€ 
j and power of South Carolina.*’ 

I We have, on more than one occasion, within a few 
j years been compelled to give the parting hand to most 
useful and valued citizens of our district, who were about 
seeking more desirable homes, and a greater yield for 
their labor, in the distant lands of West. And we also 
have been called upon to record the melancholy fate, and 
perhaps, too, to learn of the wreck of fortune of those 
who relinquished abodes, smiling with health, plenty ami: 
prosperity, in their maternal and native Carolina. An 
uncalled for or imaginary dissatisfaction, or, may be. a 
thirst for more I’apidly increasing gain we fear, in too 
many cases, prompts the actors. 

The soil and the various departments of mechanical and 
industrial pursuits in South Carolina, all of which tend to 
the development of our resources and the building up of 
our commercial importance and State-rights independence,, 
still hold forth inducements and rev/ards for the invest- 
ment of enterprise and capital. 3Iany are the noble and 
never-failing streams, coursing our native valleys and em- 
bodying within themselves the element of power neces- 
sary to put in motion the driving machinery and busy 
loom, whose waters of wealth have been permitted to 
flow on, yielding no increase. The soil, too, with a proper 
and judicious system of cultivation, has never failed tc 
render a remunerative return. 

Why, then, will the sons of Carolina, who have been 
nurtured in her lap and reared to mannood beneath her 
genial sun, desert her standard, and lend iheir enterprize 
and means to enriching and building u[) other lands'] 
Gratitude, and respect and veneration for iier honored 
name, if nothing else, should deter them — JVakk- 
nian. 


Cheap Board Fence. — The following vril! be found to 
be a cheap and lasting fence: Posts si.\ feel long, holes 
dug 15 or 18 inches deep; then have the posts set in and 
well rammed. Next, throw up an embankment at least 
two feet high this will make a narrow ditch as deep as 
the foot of the posts, thereby preventing decay. It will 
also drain the land considerably. Two boards— one a 
foot wide, the other eight inches, with a cap board four 
inches wide, on top, will be high enough for a common 
fence. It can be easily seen that a fon- e made in this 
way will last longer than any other Gnoe made of wooc-,. 
and the first cost is but little more th.an a i'.ommon r.ig-zii^- 
I rail fence. R. W. S., (A Farmer. 

I Canada Wesl, 1657. 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOl 


115 


I. EVE T, I X INSTRUMENT . 

Editors -Soutiikrv Cultivator — The annexed sketch 
of a Level which I have for many years made use of in 
taking levels on my hillsides, will, perhaps, from its sim- 

"A 



pliclty, eheapness and accuracy, be of some use to our 
farmers in laying off vineyards, orchards or roads, etc. 

A, A, are two glass tubes ; phials from which the bot- j 

-3 1 


J 



toms have been filed off arc as good eis any, so that the 
glass be clear and white, 

B.cB, B. B, is a tin tube, which any tinner wdll make 
for 25 cts.; its inner diameter should be a little larger than 
the diameter of the glass tubes : it should be water tight 
at the joints. 

D, is a socket, intended for the stick (E), which latter 
can be of any length. Now pour water (slightly colored) 
in one of the phials; it will, of course pass into B, fill k 
and rise into the other phial, and, of course, the two sur- 
faces (C, C,) of the water will be on a perfect level with 
each other, whatever be the quantity of water poured in, 
and whether the stick (E) be planted in the earth perpen- 
dicularly or not. 

The second sketch will show its use without requiring 
further explanation. The line A, B, being the line of 
level and the uprights (?•!, N, 0, P,) being sticks put up at 
suitable distances. 

A single inspection of these plates will show at once 
that nothing can surpass the accuracy of this instrument, 
however coarsely it may be made, while the truthfulness of 
most other levels depends on the mathematical cor- 
rectness of the make. 

We cannot too e^irnestly urge the imjxirtance of the use 
of the level to the farmer. The present method 

^ of plowing hill sides any and all ways is ruinous 

to bottoms and hill-sides. 

I could point out a dozen fields, once fertile and 
watered by fine springs, which are now convert 
ed into arid sand-banks, while deep gullies on the 
hill sides attest whence the sand came from ; and 
the springs, and indeed in many instances fine 
runs of water, have completely disappeared. 

A. C. 


Soitiil Laroli ,u/ . iMarch. 1851 


TlIE.iTi’CtiNT 


S-'OR DOGS, 
Slieor. 


IIORSE.S, AND 


6V/ — A.'vsw me to nfTer to your correspondent ‘'Wid- 
geon,'' me folio .ving Minple cures. 

I'.l.^rKMPF.R IN DOGS. 


DIARRllOIA IN SHEEP. 

I have found rock salt to be an efiectual corrective. For 
field stock, lumps of it must be put into “box troughs,” 
with only one side open, v/hich must always be turned 
away from the wind, on account of the rain. 


I have fu;-!j:l from experience that a large tablespoonful 
of common s vlt elfeets a cure, if given at the commence- 
ment of the dis .Mse. If the first dose be not sufficient, it 
nsav be repeated alter the lapse of one day. 

.1 A UNDICE IN DOGS. 

Some time since a large thorough-bred retriever, belong- 
ing to a friend, hid the misfortune to be poisoned, but 
fatal effecls \v.<-r i prevented by nature compelling him to 
vomit very i.'ee'y. d'hree full days afeewards, being in- 
formed that hail not purged since vomiting, I was 

induced to apply <i railier severe remedy, in the shape of 
two drops oi croioii oil on the tongue, at the same time 
giving directions !br liis diet to be plain, and of a liquid 
nature, (^n the se -ond day after administering the cro- 
ton oil, the aiiinjai iiad peificiiy recovered his usual 
I'.eakhy state. 

As ratv eggs -irn said to be an alleviation, if not a cure 
for this disease in t'lr- human .subject. 1 h.ave no doubt they 
VTOuld be eqac.lly effectual with dogs, 

WORMS IN ItORSE.S. 

One plrtofcold drawn lin.seed oil will be found an ef- 
fectual cure: but remember that perfect rest must be given 
while it rern.ain.s in the stomach. The worms will surfeit 
themselves wifi! the oil, and so die, when they will be dis- 
charged ia the .:ou . .se of nature. 


SUBSTITUTE FOR CLASS IN CUCUMBER FRAMES, tC. 

The following is in answer to one of your correspon- 
dent.s ; — Procure some strong canvass, and brush it over 
with boiled linseed oil while in a hot state, allowing it to 
dry thoroughly previous to the next application. Three 
coats will be sufficient. It being presumed that the 
wooden frame is already made, stretch the canvass, and 
nail it on carefully. D. C., 

[Li jMortoni’ Practical AgricuUure. 

Wood A.she.s saturated with chamber lye, forms 
an exceedingly valuable manure. .By attention to the 
saving and mixing of these two materials, a quantity of 
rich manure may be annually obtained at the homestead 
of every farm, equal in quantity and high fertilizing pro- 
perties to a ton of Peruv ian Guano, costing fifty or sixty, 
dollars . — Ohio Valley Varuier. 

£h^A correspondent of the Boston TranscripL says 
the Chinese linden, or lime in addition to its being the 
very best and most beautiful shade tree, i.s of great impor- 
tance as a destroyer of the common house fly. In the 
season of house flies he had found that almost innumerable 
quantities of dead house flies were, in the morning, under 
the branches of linden, amounting to thousands upon 
thousands, the surface around being literally covered vridt 
them. 


116 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


TEXAS ITEMS. 

We fi.nd the following items of interest in lateiiiumbers 
of the Texas State Gazette, and other journals : 

gythe apples of Arkansas and Missouri are among 
the imported and costly luxuries of interior Texas. We 
have paid 60 cents per dozen in Austin. The Editor of 
the Tdegro.pk, while at Palestine, writes to his paper : 

= T noticed in town yesterday three wagon loads of Ar- 
kansas apples, which had been brought about 400 miles 
to be disposed of here at 50 cents per dozen. It is about 
time that the people of Texas were rendering themselves 
in this respect also independent of foreign produce. Ap- 
ples can be grown here as well as in Arkansas.” 

We desire to see the experiment fully tested at least. 

Corn! Corn!! — The enormous prices given for corn 
in this city, being as high as $1.50, per bushel, should in- 
duce farmers to bring in supplies before the price falls. 
Now is the lime for a fine harvest. We learn that parties 
are about proceeding to Eastern Texas, to buy up for this 
place. They intend to shell the corn and send it in sucks. 

I^^he Galveston Civilian says: — “We have on vari- 
ous occasions announced the fact, that the trade in Texas 
cattle, horses and mules, with Missouri, was growing 
mto importance. Last spring a friend of ours drove 560 
horses and mules from southwest Texas to Missouri, and 
sold them. On Tuesday last, he ngain passed through 
this city with fifteen thousand to invest in another drove. 
In all, he has driven caballados tlirough four or five differ- 
ent springs.” 

|^“The Nueces ValUy thinks it too hazzardous to at- 
tempt sheep raising in "Western Texas on a large scale. 
The flocks will perish with disease. The Valley has chief 
reference, we think, to the lower or Gulf portion of West- 
ern Texas. Higher up the country, several experiments 
have been successful. We believe that among these, we 
may mention the sheep ranch of Col. Kendall in Comal 
county. 

ll^^The steam Plow attracts much a^^tion at present 
and some of our agricultural friends advise us that they 
intend trying it in Texas. By recent improvements, this 
machine is also used for ditching, trenching, planting, 
hauling out and spreading manure, hauling farm products 
to market, &c. By throwing the wheels out of gear, ma- 
chinery is propelled by it, a pump is worked; a thresh- 
ing run, corn sheller, stock mill, feed cutters, &c. This 
is all comprised in Hussey’s late patent. 

Manure. — Experiment shows that the same amount of 
manure which has been covered nine inches deep with { 
earth so that no evaporation can escape, will produce four 
bushels more wheat to the acre than that which has lain 
exposed to the weather. Keeping manure covered, then 
when wheat is a dollar and a half a bushel, will add six 
dollars to the value of the products of every acre of land 
growing wheat, 

Halamara, has purchased mowing ma- 
chines, horse power presses, annealed wire to bale with, 
&c , and proposes to commence the making of hay on the 
Corpus Christi prairies on a large scale. The musqnit grass 
grows on these prairies, and as we all know is one of 
nur most nutritious grasses. It is thought the investment 
will pay. If it does, we can ship from Texas an indefin- 
ite amount of the article. 

g^^It is greatly feared that the severe frost on the 18th 
inst.j has injured the stubble cane in our sugar region. 
We hope not. Our sugar planters already have had a 
hard lime of it. 


REPORT ON COTTON. 

BY HON, JOHN P, KINARD. 

This great staple, which is continually increasing in 
importance, and ascending step by step, with gigantic 
strides, has well nigh attained that high position which 
has been claimed for it, that “Cotton is King.” Its influ- 
ence is felt everywhere, in every department of trade, in 
commerce, in politics, in Government, and in every 
branch of human pursuit. It claims and possesses a direct 
or indirect power, and thus it is that “Cotton maybe call- 
ed King.” A few years ago, its production was only a 
bantling, a small speck in the agricultural horizon. Who 
would have believed thirty-five years ago, that the produc- 
tion of the then insignificant, but now great staple, should 
hare increased from a few hundred thousand bales to equal 
to five millions of bales, as compared with the size of bales 
then packed for market 1 It has gone on gaining power; 
developing the resources of our country ; building our rail- 
roads, ships, steamboats, and, in fact, every enterprise, 
either North or South, East or West, owes its success, 
in some way or other, to cotton ; and, notwithstanding 
the rapid and unparalleled increase in production, the 
price has, with a very few exceptions steadily paid tb« 
producer remunerating rates. 

Unlike any other production of agriculture, time and 
experience has shown that cotton possesses the singular 
characteristic of creating its demand. It is a singular 
fact, and worthy of important note, and a fact too that has 
never been satisfactorily accounted for in the commercial 
world, and, we believe, it has never been attempted by 
any other class, save commercial men, that the more cot- 
ton produced, the higher price is obtained for it. This 
fact has been fully demonstrated by all the hugest crops 
that have been produced, that higher prices have been uni- 
versally the result, unless effected by extraordinary coun- 
terbalancing influences, such as war or revolutionary dis- 
turbances. 

The present crop, [1855] islikely to be largest ever pro- 
duced in the U. S., and will doubtless reach four millions of 
bales, and yet we see Fair Upland rulhig at the higL 
figure of 12 cents per pound. This part of the subject 
might be discussed at great length. We shall, however, 
content ourselves at present w'ith the above facts, leaving 
our agricultural friends to deduct from it wiiatever of truth 
or interest it may contain. Another view of the subject 
presents equally strong points upon almost the opposite 
premises, and which, to my mind, is the most reasonable 
and most probable to take place. It is the following : 

It is a fact undeniable, that there is but a small portion, 
of our globe, upon which cotton can be successfully 
grown; and when we take into consideration the rapid 
annually increasing consumption of this great staple, and 
the absolute circumscribed limits of culture, is it not rea- 
sonable to suppose, that within a very yeai*s, con- 
sumption will have gained so much upon the production of 
cotton, that the world will be astonisiied to find that they 
have as yet known nothing as to its true value 1 I re- 
peat. then, that the strong probability is much in favor of 
a very large increase as to price, even within our day ; 
and, should we be spared the lot of three score years and 
ten, to see the ruling rates of cotton quite ns common at 
from 15 to 20 cents, as are the current rates of to-day and 
of last year. So much then as to the probabilities of the 
course of prices, — now as to the mode of culture, best 
seed, &c.; and, 

1st. There can be no general rule that will apply to the 
cultivation of cotton ; for what will suit one year, will not 
suit the succeeding one. Much, very much, depends upon 
seasons. But the successful planter !iiu.>t make showers 
and sunshine all subservient to his mode of operations. 

2nd. If a farmer will watch his crops closely, he wil 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


soon ascertain what soil suits best for the successful cul- 
ture of cotton, and what sort of manures, the quantities, 
&c., suit certain soils the best. 

It is known to most of my acquaintances that I cultivate 
the poorest lands, and that I have, perhaps, been one 
amongst the successful cotton planters of the district; and 
whatever success I may have attained, I attribute to a 
close observation of the soils and manures most valuable 
to those soils, and best adapted to the culture of cotton. 
IMy exjierience is, that the gray sandy soil is best adapted 
for the reception of guano, and will give back to cotton a 
greater percent, than other kinds of manure. 

My plan is to prepare ray lands well by thorough deep 
plowing, and bedding high. About two weeks before I 
am ready to commence planting, I prepare my guano 
with equal parts of charcoal, and then open a deep nar- 
row furrow, depositing about 150 pounds of the mixture 
of guano and charcoal per acre. This 1 cover up with 
light furrows, until ready to plant, then open and plant 
my seed, which I do about the 1st to 20th April, and cover 
with the ordinary board or harrow, or with the forked 
plow, if the land is sufficiently smooth to admit of it. The 
distance of rows is the next matter; that depends entirely 
upon circumstances. The calculation should be made as 
to the probable size of the stalks, with view that the limbs 
should only slightly interlock, when grown, so as not to 
De too much crowded, nor so wide apart as to be waste of 
ground Next, as to proper culture. This is, also, a diffi- 
cult task, as that depends very much upon the season. 
The most important matter that I have ever found in the 
cultivation of cotton, is the first hoeing or chopping out; 
and my conclusion are that as soon as the cotton is up, 
and of sufficient size, say three to four leaves, it should 
be chopped through, leaving four or five stalks in a bunch 
about twelve inches apart — followed next by the plow. 
After you get over your crop in this manner, turn back 
and thin out to a stand, leaving one stalk in a hill. On 
this plan I have succeeded on the poorest sandy lands of 
Newberry districts, in making regularly every year 800 
to 1000 lbs. per acre. After it is cut down to a stand, the 
plow does pretty much the balance of the work. I vary 
the different kind of plows as circumstances may dictate. 

1 believe, though, the bull-tongue or scooter to begin with 
— and, afterwards, the old-fashion shovel and sweep — 
answers the best general purposes. As to how late cotton 
should be worked, depends also upon contingencies; 
some seasons cotton should be worked very late ; and 
then, again, this plan would prove disastrous. The same 
reasons and remarks may apply to topping. We, there- 
fore, can only be governed by circumstances. 

Picking should be commenced as soon as a hand can 
pick from GO to 100 lbs. per day, and followed up closely, 
so as to gather it before being stained or injured by bad 
weather; and, in order, too, to obtain good prices early 
in the season, when prices are always the highest. Great 
care should be taken in ginning, and properly packing. 
Every farmer who makes ten bales of cotton should have a 
good gin of his own. The fine short-toothed gin is much 
tne best, as in ginning it does not cut nor injure the staple. 
Next, good gunny bagging should be procured, and have 
your cotton well baled, say with six good ropes. The 
bales should weigh not less than 4U0 to 450 lbs. 

In the proper place, I have omitted to mention the best 
kind ot seed. There are so many varieties of seeds, it is 
difficult to .say which Is the be.st ; but my experience is, 
that the pure Pettit Gulfis the best variety for our section. 
The Boyd's Prolific has been recet)ily introduced into this 
district, and yields finely; but I am of opinion that it is 
only an improved variety of the pure cid Pettit Gulf. — So. 
Ca. Agricidt urisl: 

3^*A11 subscriptions to the Son! erji CuKivator be,gin 
with ti;e January number. j 


117 


WOOD ASHES A FEKTILIZEK, 

Ik nearly all soils, ashes are beneficial to cult-ivated: 
plants, but more so on gravelly land than clay ; the latfei 
being formed of granite rocks, naturally contains potash' 
turnips, bcfks, carrots, potatoes, &c., contains a very large- 
amount of alkalies, and to such ashes are found to be very 
beneficial, But the immediate benefit of ashes is most 
perceptible upon leguminous plants, such as peas, beans, 
and clover, &c. On grass land it destroys moss, sorre'i 
and all our sour plants. On poor, thin soil, it should be 
mixed with peat, muck, barn-yard and other organic or 
vegetable manures. Lime is excellent for wheat or corjm 
These two crops grow well wherever clover vAlI grow,, 
in calcareous soils. Barley requires a rich loam, finely 
pulverized. It will not grow well on a sandy or soft soil, 
It will always do well on land suitable for turnips. A 
strong clay, well pulverized and dry, will yield a goocl' 
crop. Clay soils always contain more or less brae. 

Wood ashes are a most excellent manure, and can bt 
used to adv^antage on almost all soils or crops. Orchards 
fatten oit them. Unleached, they act rapidly and power- 
fully; leached, they act more slowly, but continue to- act 
for many years after being applied. The mechanical 
effect on soils is to render sandy lands more compact and- 
retentive of water, while they separate and render friable 
heavy clay. Some fitrmers apply ashes as a top dressing; 
This will do very well on pastures and meadows, bus 
they should be plowed under previous to planting or sow- 
ing, so that the roots of the plants may thereby be fed. 
Salt, lime, and plaster may be mixed with ashes to advant- 
age for almost any crop, and upon all soils. Our people- 
should be careful to save all their ashes and apply them 
to their lands, and even burn them with the view of fur- 
nishing themselves with a sufficient quantity to mak-e- 
liberal applications of them to their lands, with such other 
manures as they can raise, annually and systematically. 
This is done in Edgecomb county, N. C.. with astonishing, 
success. Let all it — Arafnr. 


NOTES ON 15EE.S— ilEPEY TO MR. DIcGEIIEE,.. 

Editors Southern Cultivator — In th.e few notes I 
have had the honor of submitting to the readers of your 
journal, I purposely refrained from referring to the many 
disputes at present going on between some of the Bee 
keepers, because I thought inquirers wou^d be better sa- 
tisfied with one fact than a thousand fancies. Opinions 
are valuable only when they have truth for their founda- 
tion. The question whether bees deposite in their cells 
the identical substance gathered from the flower, os' 
whether it undergoies any change before deposited, may 
be mooted to the end of time ; and so far as lam person- 
ally concerned, I am free to acknowledge that it mak^s- 
very little difference, protdded that which I take froix tire 
comb is good honey. The disputed points lam willing tC' 
leave in the hands of experienced naturalists, but the nevr 
theory stalled by your correspondent, Mr. McGekee, I 
cannot allow to pass unnoticed. He expresses his serious 
doubts that bees collect honey from flowers, and intimates 
that honey dew is their sole dependence. Now, how any 
man of observation can have any doubt on a matter so-’ 
very plain, and one so easily ascertained, is certainiyr 
very remarkable. Has he never seen his bees visit flow- 
ers, and leave them unprovided with farina I Has he- 
never noticed again that his bees are oftener seen on those 
little flowers that scarcely have any pollen I If bees go 
about flowers for the only purpose of gathering bee bread,. 

! is it not equally reasonable to say that butterflies, an'.* 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


J118 


the other many insects seen about them, are there for a 
reason 1 No person denies that bees do gather 
honey from honey dew, but the other idea is entirely new, 
and if Mr. Mc-Gehek will look a little closer, he will be 
compelled to acknowledge i)i.s erior. 

Mr. McGehee seems to think that to the ignorance 
or neglect of the bee keeper is to be attributed the losses 
sustained by the ravages of the moth. While I am wil- 
ling to grant that care will do much for the welfare of the 
hive, 1 have been in the business long enough to know 
that it is impossible to keep the miller from entering the 
hive; and that just as soon as the eggs are deposited, all 
the care bestowed cannot arrest the evil. Various plans 
have been suggested to prevent birds and June-bugs from 
attacking cherries, figs, and grapes, but they sttil take j 
(iheir share. If it is so difficult to prevent a thing done in | 
©pen day, how much more so to devise a plan to destroy | 
the moth, Vithose operations are carried on in secret. j 

One portion of Mr. McG. s communication I do not ex- i 
actly understand. He says his hives yield him ten dol- 
lars per stand. Does he pursue the old plan of removing 
the top and cutting away the honey 1 If so, he is far be- 
hind the age. Mine generally average me about thirty j 
pounds per hive, but then I never interfere with the lower j 
section, leaving that for the exclusive use of the bees. 
Were I to take a portion of tliat, certainly I would get 
swore honey, but in the same ratio I would injure the pros- 
perity of my apiary. j 

In speaking of robbing, Mr. McGHnuusays thismay be j 
(done immediately after swarming season, when you can { 
rob with safety all but the young hives. With me I never j 
think of taking honey till liie celLs are perfectly sealed j 
over, which will commence i.-ikiruz place in June. I have ! 
often had young swarms to fill both sections. The honey 
which, Mr. McG. says, may be taken from the upper 
jsart of the hive, I would not consider good. That which 
i take IS always new and ota perlec’t whiteness and alto- 
gether free iVom bee bread, young bees, &c. 

Mr. McGehee seems to doubt the propriety of cultivat- 
htg anything for bees to feed on. If I thought that flow- 
ers did not afford honey, I might entertain similar doubts; 
but thinking differently, I would still recommend the sow- 
ing of a small patch of buckwheat, or which would be 
still belter, v/hite clover. j 

Other portions of Mr. McG 's communication inculcate I 
very erronecas principles, but having noticed the most 
obieciionabie, I shall let the others pass ; with the single 
remark, that if he will abandon some of liis old fashioned 
notions, lie wilt make a wortliy coadjutor in a very laud- 
able cause. Re.spectfully, V. L.dr.'.sTE. 

Cedar Grccih. near Avgunlo ^ yio.rr'k^ 1837. i 

WHAT A MAN WANTS 1.0 S WIFE T(!= KNOW. | 

There are certain things a rn m wants his wife to know, 
which are never learned at Ladies’ Serai naries, and too 
setdom, we fear, at home. One would like his wife to 
know ho’w to make a shirt. Ever so riclu it would lie a 
comfortable sensation to think' that she made it, yet there 
are some who cannot even sew on a button. To be able 
to COOK a beefsteak projterly, nr roast a joint to a turn — 
to make a savory sauce, or dish, a fricasee — to cook one’s 
hasbrmd a good dinner, in short, if need be, is what every j 
v/oman ought to know, and what very few do know, uii- I 
til obliged to learn it. It is a solemn fact, that not one 
marriageable girl in twenty can make a really good cup 
of coffee. 

It is all very well to study French, without ever being 
able to read or speak it with any facility — to learn six or 
eight sciences up to confused smattering, unavailable from 
the fear of making blunders, to learn music and drawing 
for the parlor and drawing room ; but a man w^ants more 
itiiaw flue in a wife; and the sensible lover is often fright- 


ened away from an amiable girl by a display of accomp- 
lishments, which indicate the lack of more useful acquire- 
ments . — Rural American 


THE OLD HOUSE. 

There’s a spot that I love, there’s a home that I prize 
Far better than any on earth ; 

It is bound to my heart by the holiest ties; 

And I prize, oh ! how fondly, its worth — 

’Tis not beauty, nor splendor, endears it to me, 

Oh no ! for its grandeur hath flown : 

But ’tis fondest affection that binds me to thee — 

My old home — my dear happy home ! 

Oh ! home — what dear magic is in that sweei sound , 
How closely it speaks to the heart: 

What a world of deep tenderness in thee is found; 

Oh ! who from such treasure could part 1 
Could barter the joys of a sweet home of love, 

For a path in a strange world unknown ; 

Could seek for vain pleasures and heartlessly rove. 

If they knew the real value of home I 

Some sigh to be wealthy, some seek to be great, 

Some envy what others can do ; 

But oh ! I’m content with my lowly estate ; 

For the hearts all around me are true; 

And ties that are nearest and dearest to me, 

And hearts that are truly mine own. 

With fondest affection now bind me to thee. 

My old house — iny dear happy home ! 


THE FAKHER AND HIS HOME. 

It has always been a matter of wonder to us that the 
farmer should care so little for himself, the members of 
Ills family, and his home — that he should hold tasteful 
and beautiful things in contempt — that he can abide no- 
thing which is not useful, according to his idea of useful- 
ness, and that he should sacrifice comfort evermore to 
cash. The large majority of farmers have but two tests 
by which to tr)^ men and things ; can they work — are 
useful 1 They bring up their boys and girls with the 
idea that work is the great thing — the more work a boy 
or Cl girl can do, the higher they rise in the scale of excel- 
lence. When they marry, they must marry a girl who 
can work. If she is “very smart” s’le is considered u 
prize. The prevalent fancy is particularly pleased if she 
lias been known to lift a fivc-pail kettle from the fires and 
get out a large washing before breakfast. It is all work, 
work, work — nothing but work. She commences her 
life ambitiously, determined to be as smart as her neigh- 
bors, does everything about her house, herself, bears 
children, takes care of them, and actually wears out her 
life with work, and, after death lives in the memory of 
her friends, as a woman wlio was “mighty smart at work” 
in her day. 

A fanner's home is .rarely beautiful and tasteful in its 
externals. So almost universally is this the case, that 
when an instance is found it is the theme of unwonted 
delight, and the cause of special remark. The barn very 
likely fronts the house acro.s.s the street. 

Carts and wagons stand upon ground which sliould be 
occupied by shade trees. There is no door-yard. There 
are no flowers, Everything is for use— every thing sug- 
gests work, and work oniju There is no indi'-ation ofa !de 
above this work — nothing to sliow the existence ofa want 
above eating and drinking. The soul necessarily grovv.s 
small under the cull pressure ofa life like this. It is a iif'e 
contemptible and unworthy in every respect in which it 
may be regarded. If this unmiodfuliiess of comfort, and 
the polite amenities life, were the result of simple indifler 
ence, the case would be more hopeful; but there largely 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


iia 


pievails a degree of contempt for these things, which 
proves tl'iat perverted notions have become inbred and 
well nigh ineradicable. Many a farmer whom we know, 
Holds in the utmost scorn all show of polite life. The 
man who talks bluntly, and helps himself at table with- 
out show of baslifulness, and holds the parlor in con- 
tempt, and turns up his nose at flowers, and rejoices in 
the thickness of skin upon iiis hands, and isn’t ‘‘stuck 
up,” is tlie popular man. What wonder is it that a boy 
brought up in this way, who accidently gets a sight dur- 
ing absence at school, or on a visit, of a different and 
more exalted kind of life, should leave the farm, for other 
pursuits and places as soon as possible 1 

We love the life of a true man who is a true farmer. 
His lot is the noblest and sweetest — the most from free siclt- 
ness and care that falls to mortals. But this stereotyped 
talk about the desirableness of a farmer’s life, as it pre- 
vails in most localities, is the veriest gammon e\ er uttered. 
The farmer should be a gentleman. Some of them — nay, 
many in the aggregate — are gentlemen — and they make 
the noblest aiticle of the kind we have. There is nothing 
in the farmer’s profession that should make him awkward 
and boorish in the least. We trust that the young men 
now coming upon the stage will be something more than 
drudges — men who will take position in society — men 
who will delight to make their homes beautiful and com- 
fortable, and who will do their share to throw the charm 
around the farmer’s life which belongs to it — comfort, 
eonvenience, beauty, taste — the charm which shall make 
the life attractive to those who ate bred in it, and which 
will secure for it the talent which now seeks a more con- 
genial atmosphere in other fields. — Spring/i-eld RepvMi. 


THE cultivator— FODDER PULUNO, Ac. 1 

Editors Southern Cultivator — I have induced two of ; 
my friends to subscribe to the Cultivaior, and they are | 
much pleased with it. I wish all its subscriber.? would | 
agree to pay two dollars instead of one, that you might en- | 
large the sheet and illustrate it move fully. ' 

Last summer, several friends engaged to try with me! 
the effect of pulling corn upon the weight of grain 1 un- j 
fortunately was taken .sick at the time of “saving fodder,” j 
and consequently made no experiment. My friends did, j 
however, (three in number), and the result was that the 1 
one who noticed the greatest difference found it to be three | 
pounds on the bushel. 

The weight of unstripped corn was (01 lbs.) sixty-four 
pounds per bushel. 

The stripped corn was (Gl lbs.) sixly-one pounds per 
bushel. 


On the 23d of July 1 marked a cotton dower. On the 
I2ih of September it was an open boll. 

From form to flower days. 

From flower to open boll 51 •“ 

From form to open boll 90 days. 

I believe this occurs under the most favorable circum- 
stances. Various casualties reduced me to only one form 
and one blossom out of several of each, to nb.serve. The 
present year I will be more careful, mark more largely 
and note carefully, and if you think it of any interest will 
forward you the results, Providence willing. 

BiioOfC. 

Uhciiy Co., Go., 1857. 

L-ROUAD PEAS «R PINDAR.S, 

Editors Southern Cultiv.a tor — I see in your.Ktnuary 
number a letter from Texas, the gentleman signing his 
name “F. B.,” stating that he wanted to raise the Ground 
Pea, but did not understand the manner of cultivating. 
As I have liad some experience in cultivating them for 
stock to advantage, I have concluded to write to you. 
If you think it wortli anything, you can piubiisu it ; if not, 
throw it away. 

In the first place, about the middle of Febr.taiy, I select 
the poorest field I have, and lay off the rows, three 
feet apaiT, and bed it up with a turning plow and opess 
this bed with a scooter, say five inches wide ; I the« drop 
the peas (in the hull) in this furrow about eighteen iRches 
apart, and cover them with a scooter by running on each 
side of them; I then let them lie there until the hull be- 
gins to crack; I then run u board over them. The board 
is about IS inches long and about 7 wide, and i inch 
thick with a small notch cut in the middle of it. and is at- 
tached to the jilow stock in the same manner as the plow. 
This answers for one working, and enables tne pea to 
come up better. As soon as they come up so that you 
can see them across the field, if they are grassy, take 
a turning plow and side them with the bar of the plow 
next the pea, tlirowing the dirt entirely in the middle and 
leaving the pea to stand on u ridge about 5 inches wide. 
Keep the gra.ss off this ridge by hoeing until the pea be- 
gins to blossom; then take a large scooter aiid plow the 
row out good with it ; after that cultivate entirely with a 
sweep, running farther and farther from the pea every 
time you worlc them. Be careful not to break off llie 
vines after they have rotted down, for they Viull make 
more in the grass than they will after they are thus toi-e 
up either witli a plow or hoe. This is th.e be't manner of 
making ground peas I ever tried. .PoNti. 

March; 1H57. 


That would not pay for the waste of fodder in leaving it 
fo dr)'’ on the stalks. vVe do not strip fodder in this sec- ! 
tion until a yellowish tinge is perceptible on the field of 
corn. Some might remark that that was the incipienecy 
of decay. That may be ; but our horses prefer it then to 
Northern hay, and there is an inappreciable loss in the I 
weight of the grain. 

I was induced to engiige in these experiments from 
articles in the CidticaLor oy careful and observing men 
vshowins a very great loss to those who .stripped their 
torn. To tiiose in the section of your correspondent I 
would say, cultivate grass; but to those in niy section I 
would say, “strip” your corn and raise the grass too, if 
you can. 

Another experiment of interest to Sea Island Cotton 
pkmters living on the coast, I made myself. 

On the 23d of July I marked a form (square to Upland 
plamers.) On the 1st rff September it was a blossom. 


Sorghum S.ACCUARATUM.-The BulktiH tT lOjtum:, 

of Puri.s, has a notice in its September number of the 
North China Sorgho a Sucre, or Sugar Millet, from the 
pen ofDr. Tunel, Secretary of the Agricultural Commit- 
tee of Toulon ; he says that in the vine growing proprie- 
taries in that region, the juice ofthe Sorgho has been pro- 
fitably mixed and fermented with the juice of the grajve, 
and witliout impairing the flavor of the w'ine produced. 
He, also, speaks of another species of Sorgho to whicli 
Leopold Wray gives the name of Sorgho al 'Irnphy, or 
Sorghum of the Caffres ; it is an earlier variety' than the 
Chinese, audits cereal product is mere abundant , hence 
51. Nayot who grows it successfully at Martinique, says 
that the grain is there ground into flour which is snore 
nutritive than rice, and is preferred by the Coolies there 
to rice, as palatable food; its leaves also make an abun- 
dant and excellent forage, and the juice of 'J*.e canes, Ute 
best of rurn, — Gcnc^ste Pctrmyer. 


120 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 



Ctiltiktor. 

AUGUSTA, GA : ' 

T0I>. XV. ?^0. 4. APRII., 1857. 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

“Sugar Making. — W, B. T. — The newpamphlet of C. M. 
Saxton & Co., noticed elsewhere, contains some of the 
anformation you desire. We believe a Mr, Millkr, of 
Savannah, can furnish a Mill with 3 horizontal rollers, to 
he worked by 2 horses or mules, for .$'2‘25. As wc pro- 
gress in the raising of the Chinese Sugar Cane, the neces- 
sary machinery will be much simplified and more cheap- 
ly furnished. See article headed “Sugar Cane Mills,” &c. 

Snap Beans. — C. — One of the best and earliest is the 
*'Early Valentine.” 

Gardening Book. — E. J. G. — White’s “ Gardming for 
the South, is the book for you. It costs $1.25 post paid. 
Enclose us $‘2.25 and we will send it and the Cultivator. 

Fruit vs. Meat. — N. F. — A medical friend advises tts 
not to eat so much meat during warm weather, but to sub- 
stitute fruits — also, never to cat meat and fruit together. 
What do all the other doctors say 1 

Pruning. — L. — If you prune trees just as the buds are 
swelling, it will retard the blossoming several days, and 
often save your fruit from late spring frosts. 

Aristander, of Pike County, Miss., will confer a favor 
■hy sending his full address to the Editors. We trust he 
will not suffer the pen he wields so deftly to lie idle. His 
articles on Drainage will be very acceptable to our readers. 

“Pond” will accept our thanks for the Watermelon 
seed, which we will plant. 

S.OUIS E. EERCKMAN8, Esq., -PEAR CULTURE 
in the 8ontb. 

Any lingering doubts of the superiority of the climate 

the South for the production of the very choicest 
Pears, are about to be solved by the careful experiments 
of our friend, Louis E. Bbrckmans, Esq., formerly of 
Belgium, but now of New Jersey. It is well known that 
M. Berekmans has devoted the greater part of his life, as 
3in amateur, to the culture of fine Fruits, and that he was 
she friend and successor of Van Mons and Espertn — 
whose extensive experiments with Seedling Pears he has 
«arneslly and perseveringly continued. His collection of 
these Seedlings, alone, numbers over Twenty Thousand, 
■from which we have every reason to expect some Pears 
of inestimable value for American culture. These seed- 
lings, and samples of all his other specimen varieties of 
Fruits, M'. Berekmans intends transferring from New 
Jersey to the more genial climate of the South, the coming 
autumn j and, with that view, has purchased a very suit- 


able and attractive situation adjoining “ Fruitland ytui - 
sery,'^ (near this city,) where he de.signs establishing a 
Southern specimen Orchard, in which he will critically 
test all the most promising varieties of native and foreign 
Fruits, but more especially the Pear, which has always 
been his favorite study and specialty. 

Having ample means and leisure — the most unbounded 
and tireless enthusiasm, and the stored experience of over 
a quarter of a century, as capital to begin with, M. 
Berekmans cannot fail of giving our Fruit culture a fresh 
and vigorous impulse ; and we feel confident that his 
accession to our ranks will be hailed with the liveliest 
gratification by all Southern Pomologists. 

INTRODUCTION OF THE CHINESE SUGAR 
Cane, South. 

As some untmthfnl statements respecting the introduc- 
tion of this valuable new plant have been put forth by cer- 
tain persons, it may be well to set the matter at rest by a 
few facts. D. J. Browne, Esq., of the Patent Office, is un- 
doubtedly entitled to the credit of first introducing the 
seed into this country, having brought over from France 
about 200 pounds in the fall of 1854. Previous to any 
knowledge of the seed of Mr. Browne, however, and be- 
fore we knew that any such seed was in the possession of 
the Patent Office, one of the editors of this paper (D. Red- 
mond) obtained, through Parker, White & Gannett, of 
Boston, a few ounces of the seed, which this enterprising 
house had just imported from France, This seed was 
planted early in the spring of 18-55, and had grown knee 
high before wc were aware of the Patent Office distribu- 
tion. Some of the original seed was distributed by us to 
Dr. Robt. Battey, of Rome; R. Peters, of Atlanta; 
Robt, Nelson, (then of Macon); J. Van Buren, of Clarks- 
ville ; Col, John Bonner, of Hancock county, and 
many other agricultural and harticuliural gentlemen 
of this and the adjoining States — nearly all of whom 
were sufficiently impressed with its value to save 
seed for more extensive planting last year (1856.) 
The syrup and forage experiments of Gov. Hammond, of 
South Carolina, Mr. Peters and Dr. Bobt. Battey, of 
Georgia ; ourselves, and many others, were all based 
upon the products of this seed ; and any attempts of other 
individuals to circulate reports to the contrary are too base 
and unfounded for further notice. If any credit attaches 
to the introduction of the Chinese Sugar Cane into 
general culture in the South, the writer claims it; and if any 
discredit is attached to it, he is also willing to accept it. So 
much for a rather small matter, to which we should not 
Irivc thus alluded, had not one or two individuals taken 
the trouble to nmrepresent it. 

As to the varieties of the Sorghum Saeckarahm., or 
Chinese Sugar Cane, we are not aware that the several 
importations of the seed thus far made into America, 
have exhibited any particular difference of product. 
There are, we believe, as many as fifteen different varie- 
ties of the Sorghum Saccharotum , and it remains for eare- 
ful experimentalists to prove which of these will suit our 
soils and climates best. We doubt whether a more usefut 
variety than we now have, for ail purposes, can be ob- 
tained ; but this matter is now in a fair way of solution ; 
as we understand that Mr. Wray is coming over from 
Paris immediately with all his South African varieties, for 
careful trial in the Southern States. We shall watch the 
result of these and all other trials of this plant with great 
interest, and report all important facts connected with the 
subject to our readers. D. k, 

Errata. — On page 106, second column, ninth line from 
bottom, after word “remain,” insert “as they are, that the 
serial currents may also remain.” 



121 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


OLK BOOK TABLE. 

Amkrican Pomological Socikty, Proceedings of the 
Sixth Session, held in the city of Rochester, September, 

1856. Boston : Published by the Society. 

This volume contains full details of the most interesting 
and important meeting yet held by the Society, and thiows 
much light upon the progress of Fruit Culture in America 
This most delightful branch of rural industry is rapidly 
extending itself in cTcry direction, and there is every 
prospect that our country will, in a few years be the 
Orchard of the World. We of the South are peculiarly 
favored by nature for the prosecution of Pomology, and 
can safely and profUabl^ devote to it a portion, at least, of 
our study, time and capital. It is true that we need a dif- 
ferent selection of varieties and a different system 
of culture from those of the North, in many respects ; 
and it is, therefore,', necessary not only that the South 
should fester and sustain Pomological Societies of her 
own, but that we should, h-rent\er, be more fully re- 
presented in the National Council ot Pomology. The 
next meeting of the American Society is to be held in the 
city of New York in the fall of 1858, and ue t^ust 
that the North and South will there meet together in 
friendly rivalry for the smiles of Pomona 

The President of the Society, Hon. Marshall P. Wil- 
der, will accept our best thanks for the copy of Proceed- 
ings before us. 

C«iN£.sE Sdgar Caxb and SroAR Makikc. By Chas. 
F. S'l’AXsBURY, A. M, Late Commissioner at the Indus- 
trial Exhibition, London. New York : C. M. Saxton 
& Co., Agricultural Book Publishers, 140 Fulton st. 

1857. 

The present is the third or fourth volume whieh has op- 
peered on this subjeel daring the past few months. It 
contains much information on the raising and crushing 
of the cane ; boiling, clarifying and crystallizing of the 
juice, &c , and (with the exception of a trivial ulteration 
in the Report of Col. R. Prthrs) seems to be all correct 
It may be obtained per mail from the publishers for 35 
cents; and we commend it to all who desire to extend 
their knowledge of the Chines* Sugar Cane and its pro- 
ducts. 

Thb M 1 .S.STSSIPPI Plajttrr axd Mkchanig. Devoted to 
Agriculture, Horticulture, and the Mechanic Arts. 
DAVtfi ■&/ VViLLiAMi, Proprietors. L Harpkr, LL. D , 
Editor. Published monthly at Grenada, Miss., at §1-50 
per annum. 

This new laborer in the Southern Vineyard, starts with 
the right spirit, and a determination to do good service in 
the cause of agricultural improvement. We welcome it 
mo&t cordially, and wish it the most gratifying success. 

TO COBKE.SPONDEXTS. 

Oua table fairly groans benenth the weight, not only of 
valuable and appreciated communications for our paper, 
but also orders for agricultural books, trees and shrubbery, 
grafts, seeds of various kinds, letters asking information, 
&c., &c. We have worked almost every night the past 
winter, until the “small hours,” and yet we are far in 
arrears with our correspondents. The long days of early 
summer, however, are now at hand, and we hope soon to 
be fully even again. It is, of course, impossible for us to 
answer, per mail, all the letters we receive, but where 
such answers are indispensably necessary we will en- 
deavor to do so. For the present, we crave the indulgence 
of our friends, and pledge them our best efforts for the 
foture. 


SUGAR CANE MILES, BOILERS, Ac. 

The wide-spread cultivation of the Chinese Sugar Car.e, 
gives rise to a general desire for more particular informa- 
tion respecting crushing mills, boilers, &c.,and we, tnere- 
fore, gladly avail ourselves of the kindness of a friend to 
furnish the following statement from a manufacturer of 
Mills, Mr. A. N. Miller, of Savannah, Ga. 

1 st. Cost of a ‘2 roller, vertical mill, 18 inches long and 
24 inches diameter, S 1 00. This includes rollers and bear- 
ings. The addition required will be to elongate the shaft 
in the driving roller so as to allow for a spur bevel wheel 
to be placed on when steam power is to be used. 

2d. The cost of a 3 roller mill will be $150, including 
bearings. 

3rd. A 3 roller horizontal mill of the size named above 
with sides, frames and pan, will cost $350. We make a 
snug 3 roller mill, rollers 12 inch diameter and 2 feet long 
with frame and pan, complete spur and pinion, for horse 
power, at .$225. These have proved large enough to 
answer a good purpose in Florida for 200 or 300 acres, 
and will keep a battery of hve pans supplied. 

4th. We do not make the pans and kettles. Mr. B. H. 
Weed, of Savannah, has them on hand. 

5th. A verticals roller mill, with cast frames and paii, 
will cost the same as a horizontal ($350), which (horizon- 
tal) is much preferable. 

Another gentleman of Savannah writes; 

“ I have seen Mr. Weed, and the prices of Boilers are as 
as follows ; — 60 gallons, $13 ; 60 gallons, Slu; 80 gal- 
lons, $18 ; 100 gallons, $21 ; 150 gallons, S'3o. 

A late number of the JnhUigem'e/' also furnish- 

es the following : 

SORGHO SUCRE— HOW TO MAKE SUGAR. 

The introduction of this article into our country, has 
called for an exercise of our mechanical talent to bring for- 
ward something to meet ihe experimenting demand for 
new sugar mills. In passing through the Insiitute Fan 
my attention was attracted to a singularly constructed re- 
volving machine running upon three rollers; but, upon 
close examination, Ifoandit to be a Chinese Sugar Cane 
Mill, invented by Mr. Hodges, of Cincinnati, Ohio, who 
has been so successful in improving the Little Giant Corn 
Mill, and has also, laltly, invented a most complete agrt- 
eulturnl staam boiler, one of which is also in operauoa at 
the Fair. 

This Sugar Mill is certainly of a most novel construc- 
tion. It oonsisls of three vertical cast iron rollers, sup- 
ported between strong cast plates, resting upon a inangti- 
gular wood frame about eight feet on its sides. 1 . ndei 
each corner is a large truck wheel so adjusted when 
working as to revolve in a circle, the shaft of one of the 
rollers occupying the centre of the frame and clutched fast 
to a luuber below, preventing its turning, while the otner 
two, being geared into it at the lop, are made to revolve 
around it as the whole fi ttme is turned by the horse. On oae 
corner is a feed table, from which a man feeds the cane, 
which, having been acted upon by the two rollers, passes 
out upon a table on the other corner, which is removed as 
ofien as a sufficient quantity accumulates. Tlie juice passes 
down through the bed plate and is received in a vessel 
made for that purpose. In a few minutes the tr-ck wheels 
can be cHanged and the clutch removed, and the wtioie is 
ready to travel. There being no heavy beams to raise, 
posts to set, or over-head sweeps to jirovide, and at the 
same time so easily transported from place to place, it 
will prove to be just the thing needed by our farmers at 
this particular time, and from the ciieapness of the article 
it must meet with ready sale. All interested in this line 
are advised to give it an examination. 


SOUTilERN CULTIVATOR. 


i->2 • 

ACJRlCUIiTUKAI. GEOROGA. 

To intelligent cultivators, there is no study more usetul 
and interesting than that of Geology in its relations to ag- 
riculture. Aided by analytical chemistry, a critical 
knowledge of the natural arrangements of different rocks, 
and of their constituent elements, enables one to decide 
in his own mind with considerable confidence as to the 
value of any given soil, formed mainly from the debris of 
known strata. Occasionally, an important exception to 
Vi^hat might be expected in a particular locality occurs ; 
and then it deserves to be recorded for the advancement 
of agricultural science. Having recently met with a case 
of this kind, we will briefly state the facts for future refer- 
ence. 

Spending a few hours not long since at Union Point, on 
the Georgia Railroad, we were invited by Mr. J. B. Hart, the 
gentlemanly proprietor of the Hotel there, to visit with 
him a field which, as he said, was remarkable for its pro- 
ductiveness. So far as we observed from a superficial ex- 
amination, there was nothing peculiar in the clay, sand, 
stone, or rocks of that place to distinguish it from other 
red soils in the neighborhood. There were, however, 
numerous specimens of a peculiar mineral on the surface 
of the ground that appeared to hare been precipitated 
from water which had percolated through the underlying 
earth and rocks. On analysis this mineral yielded over 
lifsy per cent, of lime mechanically united with clay and 
the peroxide ofiron. Whether the presence of this lime 
had any agency in causing the peculiar fruitfulness of the 
field, each reader will draw his own conclusion; we have 
no doubt on that point. Our difficulty was to account for 
the presence of so much lime in that geological position. 
Neither quartz, felqm.r nor mica (the minerals that form 
granite) contains more than traces of lime. Porcelcdn 
upar, however, differs from albite (soda felspar) in having 
lime in addition to soda ; while hornblende is, well knov/n 
to contain so much as from 12 to 14 per cent, of lime in 
Its composition. But sicnitic hornblende yields its cal- 
careous base very reluctantly ; and we are not aware that 
bosaltic hornblende exists anywhere in the vicinity of 
Union Point. As both of these rocks are important in an 
agricultural point of view, we will give their constituent 


elements : 

Basaltic 

Sienitie 


Hornblende. 

Hornblende. 

Silica 

.. ..42 24 

45.09 

Alumina 

.... 13.92 

12.18 

Lime 

.. ..12.24 

13.83 

Magnesia 

.. ..13.74 

18.79 

I rotoxide of iron 


7.32 

Oxide of Manganese . . 

0 23 

0 22 

Tluoric acid 

■ 

1.50 


o j 

S 1 

99.53 


By examining the above figures, it will be seen that 
ricither variety of hornblende contains either potash or 
soda ; and it may be .stated in this connection that mica, 
which abounds in both potash and magnesia, but in differ- 
ent varieties, contains neither lime nor soda. Albite is 
the only primitive source of soda, v/hich is so abundant 
in the ocean and on all continents. Hornblende is un- 
questionably the prlncip;;] soarce of all lime in soil.?: amd 


stratified rocks ; but, unfortunately, if universal fertility is 
desirable, neither hornblende, nor aqueous deposits oflime 
in any form are as general and abundant as cultivators 
may wish. The fact, however, that something like marl 
is sometimes found where least expected, should encour- 
age planters to search for calcaieous minerals wherever 
they may be located. Any substance appearing like 
marl or rock, that will effervesce on the application of 
vinegar, or some stronger acid, most likely contains lime. 
In granitic regions, such minerals are less frequently 
found than in more recent formations, or in districts of 
stratified rocks. Water that has passed over limestone 
in masses, often dissolves and carries with it this mineral 
to distant parts where the earth is nearly destitute of cal- 
careous matter. In a similar manner, rivers collect from 
ten thousand different and distant sources, fertilizing 
salts of potash, magnesia, soda, and iron, which are de- 
posited on all bottom lands overflown in their course to 
the ocean. Where such fluviatile deposits are arenaceous, 
all soluble salts are more subject to be speedily removed 
by rains, than where clay rather than sand predominates. 
Whoever would deepen his soil on common agricultural 
clay, should stir the ground well to the depth he wants 
the roots of his crops to penetrate. Shallow tillage ap- 
plied to land of superficial fertility, only aggravates the 
evil by making the soil thinner still ; while deeper plow- 
ing deepens, first the roots of plants, then the mould and 
finally the available miaeral food of crops even on poor 
land L. 


Satticultuial Stjjnttatiit. 


PEAR CUETURR IN THE SOUTHo 

Eon'oRs Southern’ Cultivator — Will you or some 
one of your correspondents who possess practical know- 
ledge on the subject, give us, througii the columns of the 
Cultivator, some information on the culture and manage- 
ment of the Pear Tree in our Southern country — both 
Standard and Dwarf— the varieties most suitable for our 
clin)ate and best adapted for home use, or for market crop ; 
for summer use or for keeping through the winter? 

The Pear tree has been very much neglected at the 
South, while at the North and in Europe it stands highest 
in favor among choice fruits. 

The culture of fiuit for market is opening a new field for 
the enterprize of our people, and let us, by comparing 
notes, and seeking out information from all who have 
paid attention to the subject, obtain the best guide for lliese 
who are ready to embark in the undertaking. The experi- 
ence of Northern and European fruit growers, though it 
might aid us somewhat, is not altogether what we want. 
Our climate and our soil differ materially. What with 
them would be a fall fruit, would ripen with us in mid- 
summer. There may be varieties which are well adapted 
to their seasons which Mmuld not thrive witli us. Let us, 
therefore, have the experience of all practical fruit grow- 
ers here at the South. 1 would like to see several columns 
of the Cultivator every month devoted to Southern Pomolo- 
gy ; to the culture and management of fruius, with lists of 
all the most approved varieties. 

Will you not give a helping hand to this suggc-stio:. I 

a. 

South Caroline/., 1S5G. 

[We will cheerfully comply with the wishes of our corres- 
pondent. The raising of fine Pears, Grapes, Peaches, 
Apples, &c., in the Soutli for shipment to Northern and, 
perhaps, European markets, is destined to occupy the 
time and capital of a great number of our people; and 
that, at no distant day. An enterprising end fO(,tcfi,l 


SOUTHED N C L L Tl\ ATOll. 




neighbor of ours is making the Pear a speciality, having 
started an orchard of over 1000 trees as a beginning; 
and another, who has been most appropriately styled the 

“Pmr King, ’ has liundreds ot the choicest varieties, and | thought it best to give each one the Cheiokee name of 
more than tic-cn fy thousand Seedling Pears yet to be proved, j either the Indian or the stream where it originally grew. 

We shall shortly publish a series of articles on the culture j The Ducket, Cumack’s Winter Sweet and Maverick's 


perfect beauty, but as coarse grained atid as insipid as 
the Buff. 

The foregoing list of apples were nearly all originally 
found jirowing in old Cherokee Indian fields, and I iiave 


I Winter Sweet were found on the land of white men, and 
j I, therefore, have not given them Cherokee Indian names. 


of this particular fruit by one of the best living pomolo- 

gists, whose introductory appeared in our January num- ; balance of winter varieties that compose my orchard 

ber. "V/e feel the deepest interest in Fruit Growing in the j which I think first best arebut few, to wit; Yellow Crank, 

South, and will take a pride and pleasure in making the j Green Crank and Vincent; of these I know nothing of 

Odtha:«r tl,e medium of coramunicalin? all valuable I i 

i some amateur had them who is fond of a variety ot high 

g names and a long imposing catalogue. 
Respectfully your co-laborer, 

Silas McDowell. 

Sugarioicn F'ann, Macon Co., N. C., 1857. 

P. S. — There are a variety of opinions in regard to the 
apple I introduced as the “Nickajack” being the same as 


information on this sulject to our readers. — Eds. So. j goundin 


CfLT 


FRFII’^K.ANI) NUKSERY CATAL<)(^ 
f-in .'^eedliusr Apples best. 


JE — .SOI 

cYf. 


'II- 


D. REnM, VD, Praitlund Narscnj Augusta, Ga.\ 

Dear Sir : — 1 have just received I die “ Summerour.” The appearance and quality are cer- 
and examined your Catalogue of Fruit and Ornamental I i 

VT, J *• .1 J • ■ , i difference in the color ot the flesh as well as its taste. I 

Trees, and am .mpelled to give expression lo my hearty ! -f 

approval ot the course you are persuing in confining j ,,gxt Georgia Fair, where I purpose exhibiting both the 
your collection of Apples to a few and select varieties, ! apples. S. McD. 

and with >^pecial reference to their adaptation to our South- i . — 

* THE PEACH TREE — PROF. MAPE8* SY.STEia. 

evn .States. : 

It is a fast well known to Po.mologlsfs that though the j Wh copy the following excellent suggestion from the 
diiTereni, varieties of the Apple and the Peav embrace a | Horticnliwist, and a late number of the Wmking Farmen- 
great many hundreds of each, nevertheless, all those of the j We Imve seen Peach trees pruned in this way on the farm 
very best iiuality could be comprehended in a selec- j of Mr. Peters, in Gordon county, Ga., that surpassed ia 
don of oO fro.n each fiimily of these fi uits, leai ing the entire | vigor and beauty any that we liaveever noticed e'sewhere; 
long lists of the balance of second and ordinary quality ; , , . . w- t ’ 

and yet ncmiy all nurserymen persist in pmuding in their Newark, N. J..- 

long catalogues the high sounding names of hundreds of his superior skill and management. We have 

varieties of inferior quality and utterly unworthy ofculti- adopted it in all our new orchards. Let our readers give 
valion. I repeat it, f atimiie your judgment and resolu- | ^ . 

tion in thus depe.i ting from a custom so very common 
and injurious to the science of Pomology. 

Lhe'Zli years experience I liave had in making an or- 
chard of Winter Apples, my utter failure in the com- 
mencement by planting Northern varieties, and my ulti- 
mate success finally, by commencing anew with 8ouih- 
ern Seedlings, inspires me with confiience to speak bold- j 
ly and posiiiveiy on this subject 
assert the 


ON THE CULTURE OF THE PEACH. 


j BY .S -A MU EL T. 


JO.VES, THE CEDARS, 
YORK. 


•STATEN ISLAND, NEW 


As yon were pleased, in a late number, to intro.Iucc 

T , , some approbatory remarks upon my management of the 

], therefore, confidently i, , 

^ leach, It may not oe nninlercsting to some of your re.io- 
ers to have a statement more in detail. It is not unusual 
to hear of the degenerncy of the Peach tree — iliat it 1-. 
moie subject to disease than formerly, an i especially the 
if/'l/oirs—i\nd that the duration ot' ilie tree, in vigorou-, 
liealtli, is limited to some six or seven years. 1 have even 
heard the belief expressed, that the ifell urs was uansinit- 
ted, from generation to generation, by budding from trees 
^apparently iiealthy, and, also, that the infection vva.> 

I luude to spread from one tree to anmher. 

In my judgment, founded noon the experience of maiD'’ 
years, liiesc ideas are erroneoii.s not less than liiey arc m- 
jurions and dis*'Ouraging to the. propagatimi and wn' be 
ing oftlie tree 'I hrough ilie exercise of a little 'n.re a:; 1 
atieniion on the part of the grower, which is but a s.nall 
la-tuin for the generous load.s of delicmu.s f. uu yearly .■'iir 
nislied by ilds tree, 1 have been enabled i.. preserve nrost 
of them in lull vigor for a period uf upY^-rds of aixtram 
year.s 

'I'hc system I have followed first co.umi ti'-es in the n'r-.> 

The Becholor is large, render, juicy ami hri.tle i and V,..x I '’'il T" '"‘'’r!'' 

BuRSN.who is good author]., -, prenounccs i. the i ggS '1^ jop or ceulral brata-hc.s. turec or 

best of Autumn Apples ; witli care, howcvei . it keeps | 

well until March. i *We have also fine Soutliern Seedd^g Apples fron'r dm 

The Cullawhee i.s the 'V->-gA'5/ of all opples that grow : a I l)order> of Florida — D I 


the very latest and be.st Northern variety of 
Apple.s sou.h of 3M, north longitude, will be tiothing 
but an aniunin apple, and not hang well on its tree at tliat. 

I will also make another pompous a.ssertion, that I have 
now in my orchard twelve varieties of native Southern 
Seedling Winter Apples that cannot be surpassed for excel- 
lence of quality by any other variety in the United Stales, j 
Besides the varieties which 1 cl ,ini a , my own selection, J. i 
Van Buren, of Clarksville. Ca , has extender! his research- 
es far sou'll of the field of my opeiMuons, and has niade a 
valuable collection ot lute v .rieties of the Ajiple, which, ! 
no doubt, will grow and flourish side liy side with the j 
orange and the fig in Louisiana and Florida.* Tlie ad- i 
ditions 1 h.ive made to the liit of native Southern Seed- 
ling Winter .Apples, by bringing them to noti.-e, are tiiese: 
— Equinelely; Junaluskee; Carnack's Winter Sweet; 
AlavericU’s Winter Sweet; Cullasaga: Elarkee; Lucket; 
Niclcajack, if not a Summerour, Bachelor, and Cuiia- 
whee. 

All the above varieties are late keepers but the two last. 


124 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


four laterals, at a height not exceeding two or two and a 
half feet from the ground. This system is constantly fol- 
lowed in after years, which disposes the tree to grow 
with hollov/ centre, admitting light and air more thorough- 
ly among the branches, and greatly facilitating the gather- 
ing of the fruit and the future prunings. These latter may 
be performed during the winter, early spring, or, moder- 
ately, during the summer, so as not to endanger the pre- 
mature bursting or running into wood, of the buds destin- 
ed to furnish fruit the following year. By means of an 
ordinary walking stick, furnished with a hooked handle, 
the topmost branches, even of trees prunned with hollow 
centres, may be bent down, and made accessible from the 
ground, until the the limbs become too rigid to bend, 
through extreme old age. Ihis is by no means a small 
advantage, when among many hundreds of trees, it is con- 
sidered that the full flavor of the fruit so much depends 
upon gathering it precisely at the proper period of matur- 
ity, and through which an examination by the touch may 
be had with facility of each separate fruit. 

The next, and more important consideration, is to res- 
train the tree from exhausting itself by its too generous 
crops of fruit, and which can only be done, with facility, 
by diminishing the number of fruit-buds at the winter or 
early spring pruning. My constant instructions at this 
time, are “not to spare the knife,” being w'ell persuaded 
that it is necessary not only to the longevity of the trees, 
but also to the size and quality of the fruit. As the fruit 
is borne only upon the wood formed during the proceed- 
ing year, the rule is, first, duly to attend to the hollow 
form of the tree, which should be constantly maintained, 
and secondly, to head back each fruit-bearing branch to 
at least one-half its extent. The crop is thus easily kept 
within reasonable bounds, and if, after the lapse of many 
years, any of the main laterals become too rigid, or too 
much extended, new ones may be allowed to grow in 
their place, and the old ones then withdrawn. The vigor 
and growth of the tree seem to be surprisingly increased 
under this restraining system, as are also the size and 
quality of the fruit. 

The third important point is, to guard the tree from its 
insidious and deadly foe, the worm. For this purpose, 
two examinations of each tree should regularly be made 
— one in the month of May and the other in September. 
Fortunately, the presence of the worm may easily be dis- 
covered at or just beneath the surface of the ground, by 
the oozing of the gum, and, if not duly attended to, will in 
a short time occasion the destruction of the tree by cutting 
around the bark, and thus diminishing or totally destroy- 
ing comunication between the tree and its roots. The 
worm is most speedily and effectually destroyed by scrap- 
ing and probing them away through the aid of an ordin- 
ary oyster-knife, which is usually pointed and formed 
with a double edge. With such an instrument, a person 
may go through many hundreds of trees in a day, when 
the system is regularly attended to as above described, and 
it will be found that, with such care, but here and there 
only will a tree be infested and require attention. 

As the Peach tree is so generous in its growth, and in 
its exhuberar.t crops, it is necessarily a great exhauster of 
the soil, and must have the support of proper manures. It 
is also essential to its prosperity that the soil should be 
kept open, and free from grass or weeds. I have found 
that the cultivation of many kinds of root crops requiring 
manures and frequent stirring of the soil, such as potatoes 
beets, turnips, &c.,. are quite consistent with the health 
and vigor of the tree, but that, when the soil becomes 
bound through a dense growth of grass, which excludes, 
light and air from the roots, it soon dwindles, becomes 
sickly, takes on the yelloics^nnA dies. At the period of 
Uoiung of the f nut, a large demand for silica is made 
upon the soil, which must necessarily be dissolved, and 


conveyed through the roots, trunk, and branches, in a 
soluble state. It is probable that, along with carbonic 
acid, some kinds of alkaline manures, such a.s lime, or a 
mixture of one-third potash and fwo-thirds salt, contribute 
most powerfully to aid the efforts of the tree in effecting 
its solution, and, with this view, I have caused a handful 
or two, according to the size of the tree, to be applied upon 
the soil, and forked in to the distance of about three or four 
feet around each one, at the time of the examinations for 
worms in May and September. A dose of guano to the 
same extent, in lieu of the above, is also excellent. 

Under this system, which is by no means expensive or 
burdensome, I am well repaid by regular and large crops 
of the finest fruit. I have never had a case of the yelloios 
unless, through some oversight, a tree has been neglected 
at the examination for worms, and the application of the 
alkaline manures has been omitted. 

In my judgment, this disease i.s owing entirely to a 
want of attention or neglect of one of the important points I 
have adverted to, and when a tree, through neglect, has be- 
come affected with the yello'ics, I have in no instance 
known it to extend to the other trees upon which atten- 
tion had been duly bestowed. 

Prof. Mapbs, of the Working Farmer, seiys : — 

The above, from the HorticuUnrist, accords mainly 
with our expeiience, but differs in some particulars. We 
will repeat these differences with a view to profit by the 
observations of others which may be called out in reply. 

PRUNING. 

When taking the Peach tree from the nursery row, we 
find its growth unequally distributed, the greater number 
of branches occurring towards the next row, and the les- 
ser towards the-next tree in the same row. We therefore 
remove all the branches and cut down the main trunk to 
two and a half feet. When put out in place, the brunches 
will be thrown out equally in all directions. This being 
done in the spring, at each succeeding spring we cut 
back the new growth two-thirds its length, always cut- 
ting next to a wmod or triplet bud, and never next to a 
fruit bud. By this method the tree has many instead of 
a few branches; they are short and nearer the trunk, 
forming a round low head, and fruit borne on the ends of 
branches cannot bend them below the horizontal position, 
as we have found that even when trained, the slightest de- 
pression below the horizontal line causes their decay. 

PLANTING. 

Having observed that fine fruit could only be obtained 
from trees around which the soil was thoroughly disturbed 
in early spring, we have thought it judicious to dig holes 
four feet in diameter and four feet deep, fillirig the hole 
with surface-soil, and not returning any of the sub-soil, 
but spreading it on the surface to become ameliorated by 
sun and air. We always place the tree one inch higher 
out of the ground than we found it in the nursery row, as 
it will probably settle half an inch or more the first year, 
and Its cotyledons should never be covered with soil, or 
each of them will contain a peach- worm in a short time. 

PEACH WORM. 

We have used the various methods of dosing with boil- 
ing water, removal with a wire, application around the 
earth-collar of the salt and lime mixture, all or either of 
which seems to be perfectly effective. 

Mr. James Galbraith, Gardener, ofNewark, who is most 
accomplished as a Horticulturist, paints the earth-collar of 
the Peach tree with a very thin coating of the black mix- 
ture used in Newark for preparing cloth for wagon tops, 
and he finds this a sure preventive against the peach-worm 
and of no injury to the tree. 

CULTIVATION, &C. 

The soil must be disturbed around Peach tree.s in '-cry 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


early spring, or they never yield full crops without self- 
exhaustion. We have used no other manure during the 
last few years, than the potash phosphate ofLime. 


THE .STIiAWEEllKY. 

Editors Southern Clh.tivator — Your correspondent, 
“J. F. M.” must have read the opinions of some wise 
Eastern and Western Botanists, who say; “there are no 
pure starninate or pistillate plants,” though a man half 
blind can distinguish the blossoms at the distance of 10 
or 15 feet. At an early day, we had male and female 
plants only. I had an eighth of an acre in Strawberries, 
and had to go to market to buy fruit of an illiterate market 
woman who never read a book in her life, but raised five 
times as much fruit on the same space of ground as 
others could. Aware of this, her neighbors, when she 
thinned out her plants in the fall and threw them on the 
road where they travelled, picked them up and planted 
them ; and the result was, they never bore a single berry. 
The old woman’s object was to deceive them. 

When 1 was green enough to believe in the old wo- 
man's sexual character of the plant and published it, my 
doctrines were ridiculed beyond measure. But our mar- 
ket gardeners, aware of ilte old woman’s success, became 
converts, and the fruit went down to one-lhird its former 
price. From seed nearly all are pure male or female plants. 
A portion perfect in male organs (stamens), and more or 
less perfect in female organs (pistils) and oear more or 
less perfect fruit, more or less deformed ones, and more 
or less entirely barren. These, hermaphrodites, are the 
only kind known in Europe, till enlightened by our mar- 
ket woman, as the great Linnaeus and his followers held 
the doctrine. Wise men could not be expected to believe 
an ignorant market woman, wiser than themselves. I 
would advise “J. F. M.” to get our seedlings, the Prolific, 
McAvoy’s Superior, and the Extra Red. The first is 
hermaphrodite, and the only plant we have ever seen that 
bears a full crop of large, perfect fruit, ft not only is atten- 
tive to its own flowers, but to all flowers in its vicinity, and 
pistillate plants require no other impregnator in the gar- 
den. The males, having no children to aitend to, run at 
random, and soon kick all the women out of bed. If the Pro- 
lific should do this, the cultivator would sustain no loss, as 
no pistillate is as vigorous a grower. None bears a larger 
crop or larger fruit. McAvoy’s Superior I deem the best 
of all pistillates. But she is not a Mormon. She is not 
willing to be one of the hundred wives, even to the head 
priest. If far separated from plants with male organs, 
many berries are imperfect. I should plant every third 
bed or row with the Prolific. Many deem a rich, loose 
loom, best for Strawberries. I mix with my rich garden 
mould, one half of the poorest and stilTest clay I can find, j 
The result is, plants of much larger growth, that stand dry ! 
weallier, bear more and larger fruit, and the plants are I 
never thrown out of the ground in the spring, when the I 
ground thaws. The Extra Red is not equal to the Piolific j 
and Superior in quality, requiring more sugar. The fruit i 
is all of good size, of great beauty of color, and an im- ! 
rnense bearer, and very valuable as a market fruit. The { 
Superior, if taken to market, requires to be taken Muth j 
care, as the fruit is not firm. Thei'e are but few of these i 
•Seedlings yet cultivated for market, as they are a recent | 
production and seldom, if ever seen in market, as it is sold ! 
oy Mr. Heath and others, and private families, at an ex- ' 
tra price. Mr. IMcAvoy, Mr. Schneike, 31r. Ernest, Mr. ' 
Jackson^ Mr. Pentland and Mr. Kelby, and many other ^ 
gardeners, have them for sale. The Prolific, the Superior j 
and Extra Red were from seed I raised by impregnating ■ 
Hovey’s Seedling with the largest English hermaphrodite. 


IUj 

McAvoy planted the seed, and gave some of the plants, by 
my direction, to my tenant, iMr. Schneike. The Prolific 
was among a groat number of plants sent him by Mc- 
Avoy, and was first known as Schneike’s Seedling. A 
premium was oftered by our Horticultural Society for a 
Seedling Pistillate, superior to Hovey’s Pistillate, or any 
other pistillate, ofS'oU, and after afulltest, it was awarded 
to Mr. McAvoy. N. Longworth. 

Cincinnati. Ohio, 1857. 

P. S. — I have seen berries of the [Longworth’s] Prolific 
and Superior that measured b inches. 

FIG Cl ETUKE — FliUIT IN FEOIfIDA, iSrc. 

Wu are indebted to Mr. iMAaoN, of iMonticello, Florida, 
for an article on the cultivation of Figs. Want of space in 
our columns compells us to confine ourselves to some ex- 
tracts from his communication. We fully agree with him 
when he observes that “every farmer, from the great to 
the small one, may adorn his orchard with this delicious 
fruit.” We also should recommend, as in all fruit trees, “c 
rational and moderate pruning of the Fig tree anid, Ike se- 
lection of the most projitable varieties, since they grow equal- 
ly well from scions.'" 

That figs can be resorted to as an article of o.ctual food^ 
there is not the least doubt, since we know, as Mr. M. 
states, that Greeks used figs as a portion o f their al- 
lowance." Slaves in Greece were often kept on figs as the 
Arabs live on Dates. 

Mr. Mason recommends drying the figs in ovens. This 
may be a necessity during the rainy season in Florida ; 
but it is not so here; and figs dried in the sun are muck 
better, nor does this process require much more time. 

The author of the article complains of a deficiency of 
fruit through most parts of Florida. This remark agrees 
with the experience of a friend who lately spent some 
weeks in different parts of that State. He says : 

“It is a strange fact that so few fruits are cultivated in 
a State where the use of fruit would prove so beneficial to 
the public health. Peaches and figs grow easily and bear 
prolusely in this sunny soil, so well fitted for the peach 
tree, and moreover they almost always escape the spring 
frosts so iniurions to our own orchards. The oranges 
this side of Palatka are a very uncertain product. Most 
of the celebrated orange groves are bitter or sour fruits, 
and it is to be feared that the same insect which destroys 
most of the orange trees in the extreme south of Georgia 
and north Florida, will soon find its way to the interior 
and southern part of the last named State. For the pre- 
sent winter a great number of orange trees and oleanders 
have been killed or badly injmed as far as 30 miles south- 
west from Ocala. It is indeed surprising to witness in all 
climates that stange propensity of men to cultivate tropical 
fruits which seldom succeed;and are destroyed at least once 
in 10 or 15 years, while it would be easy to stock farms 
and plantation with fruits of easy raising and certain 
yielding. Amateurs try to cultivate the banana, so easi- 
ly killed by the least frost, and requiring in all cases a 
covering or protection during the winter months. I have 
seen a native Florida apple seedling tree of fineappearance 
and well suited to the climate. Why should Southern apples 
not succeed in the rich soils ot the hammocks 1 Vv’^e can 
see no reason for that. People are too prone to admit 
theories when there aie no facts to sustain these. Many 
of my acquaintances who supposed the Apple and the 
Pear could not succeed in Florida, candidly acknowledged 
that they had never tried, nor 'witnessed any trial of the 


1*26 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


kind. That Cherries atid Currants might not do well 
there, is very possible and almost probable; although 
silicious soils are required for the health of cherry trees. 
But Peaches, Strawberries, Figs, Apricots, Nectarines, and 
Grapes are certainly better adapted to that climate than 
to any of our middle States. The only objection is the 
prevailing trade wind rains, which often spoil the grapes 
and the second crop of strawberries; but this is not al- 
ways the case, and some varieties could be selected either 
very early or very late which might escape the influence 
of those rains. 

“I cannot recommend too much the constant use of 
ripe or dried fruit in a climate where bilious diseases are 
so prevalent, and where the main food, winter and sum- 
mer, is bacon Fruit is not only a blessing but a ne- 
cessity for Southern climates, and nature by a wise dis- 
pensation has scattered innumeral)le species of fruits 
over the warm latitudes, while there is none in the 
polar regions where fish, meat, grease and oil, are requis- 
ites ofaniuial life, and foutid in ptrofusion all over the 
Arctic regions,'^ 


OKNAMJeNrAL TJtlili.S AND SHKUBS FOR 
the South. 

Editors Scd^kkrn Cultivator — Surely we live in a 
blessed cfunate! Nature has, indeed, overwhelmed us 
with its ricf) gifts; for while our Northern friends with 
great difficulty eau keep a Tea Rose, or even a Fig tree 
jn pot alive during the snow storms of their severe winters, 
these and many other kinds of trees and plants grow al- 
most spontaneously tnid very lu.xuriantly in our gardens. 
But what ha.ve we done to assist Nature in embellishing 
our homes 1 Very little indeed; nay! I may as well 
say: notking : f>)r the e.xceptions aie “few and tar be- j 
tween ” 

It is the amtii'ion and ruling passion of our planters to I 
brag of the miuibcimU' tfieir bags of cotton; no matter | 
whether locir huuse is surrounded with brooni.-iedge and : 
.lamestown weed growing in to their door ;uid all kinds of; 
weeds liibog up their fence corners. 1 know that many a | 
nam desoiscy tiic idea of planting a flower-garden, or sur- ' 
rouiuilng his d welling widi ornamental tree.s and shriiOs, | 
hec;mse tiiey cannot at pleasure l)e turned into Dimes and | 
Dollars. But, surely i they will be turned into moiicy. 
perli.ips even to ^ turtLine, thoiiiih ioiperceptibly. They 
will iiiake onr wives, chifiien and i. lends leel contented 
and happv, mid c.iMse ns to etqoy in.-nya deligiitful hour 
with our fi jiJc, instead of hunting tor mea.ier fde.tstires 
away fro o b.onic 

Le.r jiowever, hope that, although it /,oos /cxlc thus a 
ispiiil ot ioiprovciiieiit iiM-s dawiied upon tts, as ini Inchca- 
lion of;<dv-ir>e,ing civiliz uitm. 

ft is to t!ie iidif-s that we are indebte.tl for all the eiiibcl- 
jishnieni oi <iii; hotnes — out of doors as w:-!! jis in-doors 
Pi'Oviderce g:i ve itoiu a higher, a inocc piire a pprt ctofon 
of the beaulifs in ?vainre, and u hilc, ili- imsb.oid s only 
care i.s fn’ ii)« eatable produce of ill'- gaivlcn ( trnit and 
-vegr tallies ' ilictr “ iieifcr h.-dves' kemiy enjoy the 
higher Die isures ai'f.rded by beaotifal iho.vco. Poor 
bacuelor.-^ - i pU y voti, for you do not know but bidi'of tiie 
pleo.sUfes oi tins life. 

As matter <>f co'ur.se, di.'Ci imination mtist be made sn 
the selection of shi unbery, winnhi-r tn'.coded for a tmail 
front yartj, a large garden or even a park. 

It would, ho.vevn-r, ie.-td ineloofaf if I iiere altemjitetl to 
give lidos for Icnid.-^cafie gartienitig. a subject to wh.icn 1 
will retorn at Kvune otlitr time. For the ijenehl of the 
ladie.s, I'icipfore, I will at present merely ctiumera'ic such 
licc-^ iiiid slii'u'os a.s are wor.h_>' of a [d-ace tti a Southern 
ga"dcn; 


j from Brazil in 1837, and is alw’ays treated as a green-hou.se 
j plant. It is rather tender in this latitude, but does well a 
I little farther south. Here the lop is always killed in the 
I winter, but a little litter or a pile of soil drawn up over 
‘ the stump will protect it sufficiently, and its beautiful deep 
! orange colored, bell-shaped flower, distinctly veined with 
dark crimson, will amply repay this little extra care. Of 
the several varieties raised from seed A. venosum 
far surpasses the original species in size, brilliancy of 
color and regular form. Another variety, A. mantwraiuw , 
deep pink, striped with white, is very beautiful, but as yet 
I quite rare. Leaves palmate, deep glossy green. Three 
j or four feet high and very erect. 

j Amorpha fruiicosa . — A native Southern shrub, with 
long, upright, dark purple spikes of flowers, with brown 
stamens, which gives it a very pretty appearance. Its 
greatest fault is that it is indigenous. Five or six feet 
high. 

Affi-i/gdalus persica. the Peach — This tribe, besides fur- 
nisging the delicious fruit, also gives us several highly or- 
namental shrubs and trees. The little A. pumila, general- 
ly called “dwarf almond,” is one of the earliest blooming 
j shrubs, producing its beautiful double rose-like flowers in 
I long wreaths. The double Flowering Peach growing to 
j the size of a tree and covered early in the spring with 
I magnificent pink colored double flowers, is well known 
i Two new varieties, however, the double wffiite bbssotned 
• and the double crimson colored, have recently been intro- 
! duced from China, and these three varieties, when planted 
together, unquestionably form a most magnificent object; 
and should be found in every garden which will admit of 
trees of such size. 

Cidijcanthus fioridus^ Sweet Shrub. — Another vveil 
known, though highly esteemed native shrub. C. macro- 
cn,rpa \s a new variety with bright scarlet flowers and very 
rare yet. 

Copparis spinosn, the well known .shrub from which the 
Capers are obtained. It is a ihoniy, trailing plant, some- 
wluit resembling a bramble, with nice white flowers 
This shriil:» has no great beauty to recommend it, but be- 
ing parti mlarly adapted to dry aiid rocky bills it may be 
eai()!oyed in larger gardens, to cover ^Llch unsightly 
places, atid may be useful in yielding the well known 
condinieiU called “Ca[iers," witicfi is the flower buds 
steeped ill vinegar. 

Cr.'ris cuaao'ctisis, “Redbu.l” — a well known tree in our 
1 wood. There is a variety ol‘ ibe Europiean “Redbud ' 
i with while flowers, winch forms a fine contrast. Bota 
i areoiily lit fiir huge wardens 

■ Cfii<)iid.:dhus 1 1 d I a US ttce, so ca’ledk was 

j finineriy known under the name of Ca'i,' iingiKS pni-:i>.:- 
i It closely reseaiiilts ttie Sweet Shrub, but the flowers, 
j whicii ale highly odoriferous, are jiiodnced Very early m 
i tiic spring and are pale yellow. Five or six feet high. 

I Propagated by layers. 

i •Jfiti'ai.'.ttl.hus II rg! uica, (('Id ni.tn's beard) is a w«-ll 
I know'll an i jU'etty native shrub, which needs no deserip- 
i lion. 

i Cti'loiiii' fo/MOMca ( pjowering Quince), blooiHing. as it 
j does, very early ni .March or e-fteii even in Fenruary, 

! when flowers are scarce, is a great ornaiucnt in a gar - 
! den. 'i'htieai'c varieties with pink, and with double ilow- 
I ers, bi’.t tiiey cannot c.oine up to tlie ongina! species 'vV.tit 
j scar'et ilowci s to reg.ud to beamy and ell'i ct. 'i'hey am 
I best pi-ojugaied wall cuitinits of the root. 3 or 3 itiches 
j iong, and such cuttings wiil ofttii bloom in a few weeks 
; after (liey arema'de. This shrub is often called Pyruc^ -ia 
i, pionica, 

! scnld-a, from .fapiin. witii futmiifu! w-ute bell- 

' shajred ilowers in elongated ch.i-ters, ami produced in 
; itreat abaudai-.c- in A.pril and May. Four to six fbcf 


A';..:: 


iu'v — this floe shrub was latro-luced ; in; 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


127 


Dcut::ia gracilis, from East India, resembles the former, 
but is smaller. Both of them are propagated by cut- 
tings. 

Fa,gus sylvalica. — Who wouldn't know the majestic | 
Beech tree, of our forests I Nobody, however, might i 
think of planting it as an ornamental tree near a residence j 
There are several beautiful varieties, as the “Fern-leaved" | 
and the “Weeping Beech,” but the finest is the “Blood j 
Beech,” so called on account of its dark blood red foliage, j 
In a large garden or park, and in scener}’’, among trees 
of a light green foliage, it forms a most striking contrast, 
and in such localities it is almost indispensable. Grows 
50 to 60 feet high, and must be propagated by grafting on j 
the common Beech. j 

Forsythia viridissima. — This beautiful shrub, of recent j 
introduction, was first discovered by Mr. Robt. Fortlni-:, | 
in China. Very early in the spring, say in February, it ! 
IS loaded with bright yellow bell-shaped flowers, graceful- 
ly di'ooping, and blooming before the leaves have appear- 
ed. Easily propagated by cuttings. Grows 4 to 5 feet 
high. 

Gcnisia Emcrus, also called Coronilla, a low trailing 
shrub whose slender branches are covered wdth bright 
yellow, pea-shaped flowers, blooming for a very long i 
time. Easily propagated by seed and layers. Two feet | 
high. Robkrt Nelson. | 

Frm^and Augusta, Go.., 1857. ; 

( To be Continued .) | 

FaiMKDY roR Borbrs. — N. S. Smith, ot Buffalo, says, j 
in the Country Gentleman, that he has found the follow- | 
mg an effeetual remedy for the borer: j 

Make a mound of soft earth around the root, rising 
about six inches above the place where the borers are at 
work. Then saturate this mound with a strong brine, 
made of common salt. Make the application twice within | 
four weeks, any time when the ground is not frozen. Old j 
pork or beef brine is just the thing. j 

Mr. Smith says the brine is taken up by the tree, and ! 
thus destroys the insects. He adds that it should be ap- ! 
plied cttutiously to young trees, and we fully agree with | 
b>.m. I 

MIGRATION OF PEANTS. | 

Botanists have long been convinced that the facts con- j 
nected with the diffusion of plants may often be explain- 1 
ed by an inquiry into the structure of their seeds, the I 
lightness of these, and their capability of transportation j 
by winds ; by their texture preserving them from destruc- j 
non in the waters of the ocean ; by the prevalence of par- | 
ticular currents in the air or sea; or by the pres- j 
ence or absence of mountainous barriers, or other i 
obstacles to their dispersion. It has been observed | 
that the God of Nature has provided a variety of methods j 
for the diffusion of seeds. iMany such have been noticed 
by naturalists, and their operations have been illustrated 
by facts well ascertained. The most important are 
doubtless winds, or rivers, or marine currents. The form- 
er convey the lighter kinds of seeds to an incalculable dis- 
tance, and the latter are well known to transport others 
occasionally from the most remote countries. Besides 
these more genera! causes, it is well known that seeds are 
often conveyed from foreign countries which were trans- 
ported in commerce. Various plants are well known to 
have been introduced in Europe by the accidental mixture 
©f their seeds with rice brought from the Flast Indies, and 
these tropical countries have interchanged some of their 
productions in the same w'ay. Some seedt, are capable of 
preserving their vitality in the stomach of birdft, and are 
thuc propngated. Such are the mistR^oe and junipei. A 


number of facts are upon record which prove that the mi- 
gration ot plants by means of currents in the ocean to dis- 
tant shores, wdiere, if the climate is congenial to them, 
they form new colonies, is not a matter of conjecture, but 
a thing which actually takes place. Several remarkable 
instances of this description are recorded in the Ama.cci- 
tates Acadeinlccc. It is stated that the seeds of several 
plants of equinoctial countries are occasionally collected 
in the Hebrides. — Prichard's PhiisicoJ History of Man- 
hind. ' ■ ' 

Me take pleasure in submitting the following 
proposition to our readers. The work of Col. Turner 
will supply a want badly felt, and cannot fail of obtaining 
a large circulation : 

NEW BOOK— “COTTON FEANTEH:*;’ MANUAL’* 
l*ro 3 » 083 tion to Educate Poor Bvuys. 

M-rsrs. Editors: — Please do me the favor to announce 
that 1 have in press a volume which will prove very in- 
teresting to cotton planters, and the Southern people gen- 
erally. This book being a compilation merely, I can 
speak of it with more confidence than I might under other 
circumstances. It is entitled “ The Colton PloMtcr.s’ 
Manual," and is made up of nine chapters. Chapter Ist. 
“The Ordinary Method of Cotton Culture;” ‘dd, “ I)r. 
Cloud’s Improved System;” .3d, “The Natural Flistory 
of the Cotton Plant, its Species and Varieties;’’ 4th, “The 
Analysis of the Cotton Plant, with Suggestions as to the 
Proper Manures;” 5th, “Diseases and Insects Injurious 
to the growth of Cotton;” 6th, “ Tiie Different Uses of 
the Different Parts of the Cotton Plant;” 7th, “ Professor 
McKay’s History of the Cotton Trade from 1825 to 1850;” 
8th, “ Report of the State Department of the Cotton Trade 
from 18.50 to 1855;” 9th, “History of Cetton and the 
Cotton Gin ;” “ Memoir of Whitney.” 

As to the culture of cotton, I simply give, in the Man- 
nol, papers from the most distinguished and successful 
cotton planters, such as Colonel Chambers, of Georgia, 
Governor Hammond, and Mr. Summer, of South Carolina, 
Dr. Cloud, of Alabama, Dr. Philips, of Mississippi, and 
others. 

The balance of the chapters are compiled from sources 
equally unexceptionable. The whole subject of cotton 
culture, cotton manufactures, cotton trade, and cotton 
everything, is brought before the reader in a condensed 
form, and it will be very difficult to raise any question 
concerning cotton in any of its thousand ramifications, 
which does not find a solution in thi.s volume. The sta- 
tistics embraced in it will be found invaluable to editois, 
politicians and statesmen. 

The book will be issued about the firat of Pdarch by 
C. M. Saxton 6c Co , Agricultural publishers, of New' 
York, at the low price of S'l, sent to any address, postage 
prepaid. 

Having long felt the necessity of a more practical sys- 
tem of education for boys than now exists in Georgia, I 
have lately, in conjunction with another, established a 
school at this place, to which I will give much of m)' 
attention, though not actually engaged in teaching. I 
propose to devote tlie interest on ail the money I make 
by the publication of “ CoUon Planters' Mznno.1," 
for the space of five years, to paying the tuition of a? 
many worthy boys who have not the means of obtaining 
an education, as the interest on the amount, whatever it 
may be, will warrant. The education of boys needs some 
stimulus, since it is generally overlooked in the mania for 
female colleges, whicii sorely afflicts the country. 

Gentlemen of the press in Georgia, and elsewhere, will 
oblige an ex-editoriai brotiier by the publication of this 
letter, and calling attention to the book, or by a simple 
announc^’incnt of tli'i- fortliccmiag volume. By doing so, 


128 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


and sending me two copies of their paper, to the post 
office from which this is dated, I am authorized to say that 
they will receive from the Messrs. Saxton a copy of the 
CoUmi PULnlers' yiamtal, free of postage. 

J. A. Turner, 

'Cujrnvjoldy Putnam. Co., Ga., Jan. 27, 1857. 


REMARKS ON THE FEBRUARA" NU3IBER OF 
tbe SoutheiTi Cultivator. j 

Editors Southern Cultivator — The leader, a lecture j 
on labor, by Dr. Lee, is, in tiuth, a leader well deserving i 
its name. When it is known that Dr. Lee has had a “fin- j 
ger in” getting up the agricultural statistical tables in New ' 
York, and in the Patent Office, laboring to have a full and ! 
correct detail; when it is remembered that Dr. Lee was | 
well abused by certain Northern folks, then we will be 
better able to appreciate this lecture, as far as it goes. 
Capital is It; and passing strange that all of our folks 
hare failed to see that the census reports, and statistics, 
give all that is made, and then all that is made from that, 
and even perhaps all from that again, thus valuing the 
article in hay, then when fatted as beef, then in leather 
and lastly in shoes. 


^‘Cott-on Spinning, &c.” — Who could be so indifferent 
to the weal of the South not to desire this f Yet, planters, 
don’t be in haste. It is not done yet. Make up a bonus 
and test it. Don’t attempt it unless you count tlie cost. 
It can be done, it will be done; but perhaps not yet. 
Much labor and expense has to be incurred. Pretty 
things on paper sometimes hare a thorn when handled. 

^^Rnral Archiln,ctnre, Ac.” — When will our people make 
their homes more pleasing to themselves and their fami- 
lies than elsewhere, and thus save some youth from all 
the evils of bad company and temptation 1 Is it not 
cheajrer to give the youth so many delights at home that 
absence is painful, than to keep home the most irksome 1 
Thus much to those who can only act from interest. To 
the philanthropist, the patriot, I appeal as a Christian 
to his brother, and ask him to try neatness and order, im- 
proved buildings and stock, flowers and shrubs, fruits and 
birds and fishes, and all that makes home more lovely and 
see its effect on the neighborhood. I could talk till the 
morning dawn ; but why, ihi.s age — the California age — 
runs v/i!d on making money and measuringa man’s worth 
by his love for a dime. 

^ A;^ruuUurc in Gemgia.''^ — “Gsoaeu” is a progressive 
man, and so he ought to be; his State has done much, and 
I hope he will cause the Executiva Committee to put their 
minds to tbe work and strike out for improving — not fol- 
low in tbe rtmtine. I would add to Ids suggestions : pro- 
cure the best plows, (ye^irly), hoes, planters, scrapers, 
gin, press, and seed, and te.st, thmugli a searching emm- 
mittee, and puidish for the good of the m-asses. Of course 
the Committee would be careful in ordering not to he 
gulled. Yit, mativ of the best would l>e sent gratis, 
knowing that that Committee would test fully before rc- 
p Ttiiig. i would aliei su»g<»sf the Castor Bean, Sun 
Flower, testing bark of ths Cotton fur rope, twine and 
p.iper. 

The people of the South look to the Executive Cnnirait- 
tee of the Southern Central Agricultural Society ! ! ! 

Gentlemen, [ ask the application ofall your thought. 

'‘Peas far Hgs'’' — Lard from hogs when fully fatted on 
peas, as also the pork, is as white, as firm and will show 
in July or August with lard, &c., from hogs fed on corn 
or sweet potatoes 

“■Ansv'-ers fa Con-espondenis'' — “Plows and Plowing” — 
“The best turning-plow” I “know of” is the “Brinley 
Plow,” made in Simpsonville, Ky., cost at Louisville, on 
board steamboat, S'6..50. “T. E. C. Brinley, Simpson- 

ville, Xy.” This, for such stiff land as I work, will do 


! 


I 


f 


better work and last longer than any of some twenty 
varieties now on my farm. 

'‘PLa.dic Cott/m . — James M. Legare, of Aiken, S. C., 
will make to himself a fortune and be a benefactor to the 
South. Cotton will yet be king, commerce to the con- 
trary notwithstanding. v 

‘'Cotton Crop of 1856.” — Gen. McQueen is, no doubt, 
as all leading men of South Carolina are, first-rate, but 
his figuring is too small by 2 to 4 hundred thousand. The 
crop will run between 2,900,000 and 3,000,000 bales. 

Yours with all respect, &c., 

A Friend. 


CUBAN 8UGAR PLANTATION. 

A correspondent of the Syracuse Courier gives the fol- 
lowing interesting account of one of the largest sugar 
plantations in Cuba : 

This estate is very properly sailed the “ Flor de Cabas,” 
(Flower of Cuba.; There are other estates as large or 
larger, but none that liave such perfect machinery, and 
which have laid out so much money for that, and on 
buildings. There are about one thousand acres of land, 
nearly three-quarters of which are under cultivation with 
sugar-cane, the balance being devoted to gracing and 
planmin fields. The product of this estate, of course, 
varies with different years; thus, last year, owing to the 
rains, they could not cut all their cane, and it fell short ; 
but its present average crop is 10,000 boxes and 1,000 
hogsheads of sugar, and its gross income at present prices 
will be from SJ'^hOOO k) 1*350,000. Of this enormous 
sum about one half is absorbed by interest on its debt, 
and by its annual expenses. There are 650 hands — 350 
negroes and 250 Chinese. The resi are overseers, cart- 
rnen, coopers, engineers, etc. There are 80 ox-earls for 
drawing the cane to ihe mill, and 600 oxen, four being 
used to every cart, and they are relieved twice a day. 
There are many buildii^s in this village, for it >s almost 
like one. Besides the sugar house, there is the dwelling- 
houses for the owner and for the overseers, tbe drying- 
houses, the hospital, the baracoons for the slaves, and 
even a nursery for the children of the slaves. 

The sugar- house here is the principal attraction, and it 
18 an enormous affair. It is all one floor and covered by 
a single roof, end its inHirior is somewhat similar to that 
of some of our large sugar refineries in New York Thcie 
are two large rolling mills for crctsliing the cane, each 
with three rollers six feet long, one placed on the lop of 
two, the cane feeding itself and passing under otte and 
over the other two rollers, it cemes out squeezed almost 
dry, and as flat as n sheet of paper, the juice runs down 
into trough.s. These rollers are s«t very close, within an 
eighth of nn inch nf each other, and the pressure is enor- 
mous. To drive these rollers there is an engine of fifty- 
horse power. 'I he juice is then carried by pumps to a set 
of fourteen kettles, wfiere by steam it is condensed, and 
then it runs tfirough a btvly of tvarbon, or burnt bone, isfo 
another set of cisterns : it is then carried to a vacuu.m 
pan, where it is evaporated, then fiver a set of copper 
pipes for condensntioti, again through the charcoal for 
cleuoloriug, then into another vacuum pan, where it i.-* 
boiled to a cryslabzing point. Jl is then carried off to 
another part of the buildiiiff, and by copper ladles is 
emptied into the sugar moulds, holding about sixty pound.s 
each, wherein another day it is ready for claying. This 
process is only followed where it is intended to make box 
sugar, which is always ckiyed, while that packed in hogs- 
heads is called muscovado, and is packed info the casRs 
in a green state, where it is then allowed to purge itself 
for fifteen or twenty days, and is then ready for shipme.'it. 
On this estate they make mostly clayed or box sugar; ami 
the process of claying is this: The moulds containing tire 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


129 


green sugar are placed on a long floor in a room holding 
from 800 to 1,000 moulds; the point of the mould is be- 
low the level of the floor, which is made with square holes 
for their support; after the sugar has set in the moulds, 
the plug at the bottom is taken out, and on the base or 
upper flat surface of the sugar is placed a quantity of 
black pasty clay, which has the property of distributing 
the water very equally through it. The clay is wet and 
the water filters slowly through the body of the sugar, 
carrying with it all color, and leaving the base of the 
eone perfectly white. The process is repeated several 
times, and the sugar is kept in this house for about twenty 
days. It is then turned out of the moulds into large open, 
flat, wooden trays, and the different layers of strata of 
sugar is divided by a negro with a large cleaver into white, 
brown and yellow, that nearest the point is still colored 
with molasses and not very dry. These several classes 
are all kept by themselves, and the sugar is dried either 
by the sun or by ovens, and then packed into boxes hold- 
iug abobt 400 pounds each. These are then nailed and 
strapped by pieces of green cow-hide in narrow strips, 
the boxes weighed, branded, and ready for transport to 
market. 


! 


THE JAPAN PEA. 


Slr : — The extensive circulation of your paper makes me 
desirous of calling, through it, the attention of agricultur- 
ists and others to the merits of the Japan Pea, or Ca.jan- 
ics bicolor. It is a native of the East Indies and Japan, and 
has had but a limited trial among agriculturists here yet, 
but still enough to demonstrate its perfect adaptation to 
our climate and soil, its great productiveness, its excel- 
lence and wholesomeness as an article of diet, and its 
easiness of cultivation. I have sold all that I have raised 
the present season at S4.50 per bushel, and think they 
have been more profitable than three crops of Indian corn. 

They may be plmted about the same time as corn, are j 
well adapited to field culture in rows two or three feet 
apart and about a foot apart in the rows ; they do not re- 
quire a very rich soil, and forming a stiff bushy stem they 
need no poles to support them. They are also free from 
bugs so common among other peas, and are fit for house 
use all the year round ; they appear well adapted for 
ship’s stores, for which they are used by nations that cul- 
tivate them, and I would recommend a trial of them for! 
the use of the military and naval departments of the j 
government, as occupying much nutriment in a small 
space and requiring no other preparation for cooking than I 
soaking about 24 hours in cold water. j 

Yours, C.4LEB W. PuSEY, | 

[in N. Y. Tribune. | 

Foreslville , Chewier CovMty, Pa,. i 

. ^ I 

BriEDINCf CISTERNS. 


Every plantation that is scarce of water can have the j 
deficiency supplied by properly constructed cisterns, and | 
always have an abundance for stock and all other pur- 1 
poses. It is generally conceded that pure cistern water is 
more healthy and better adapted to the wants of man 
generally, than spring or well water that is strongly 
saturated with lime-stone. I will give my method of con- 
structing cisterns, and with which 1 have uniformly been 
very successful. 

To build them where you have clay or gravel founda- 
tion, it is necessary to commence your excavation circular 
digging down about three feet perpendicular, then make 
an off-set of eight inches all around, on which to rest the 
arch, v/hich must be constructed of brick and made eight 
inches thick. After having determined the depth you 
wish it, proceed to dig about half the depth perpendicular, 
the balance finish up in the shape of the larger end of an 
egg ; next, proceed to turn the arch, leaving an opening in 


the centre about eighteen inches in diameter, then careful- 
ly clean all the loose earth that may have fallen in, and 
you are now ready for cementing. 

Let the sand for the first course be coarse, cleanly wash- 
ed and gravelly ; for the second coat the same will do to run 
through a fine corn meal seive. To prepare the cement 
take two parts of sand to one part of first quality hydrau- 
lic cement, namely : Louisville, Rosendale. or Roman; 
either will do. Be very careful not to mix more at a time 
than the plasterer can use without having to add water a 
second time. After you have first coated it, let it stand 
about one week to set : after which apply the second coat. 
If the cement is of good quality your cistern will do to use 
in about two weeks after. 

Should it be necessary to blow your cistern out of rock 
you will have to make a lining of brick or stone, (either 
will do) being very careful to fill up all the backing with 
solid wall; as you value a good cistern, do not trust to 
pudddling or ramming behind with dirt. 

I give you the following table of sizes and capacity of 
cisterns in barrels, each barrel containing thirty-one and 
a half gallons : 

Barrels. Gallons. 


7 feet in diameter by 7 

feet deep. 

52 

4 

8 

8 

78 

00 

8^ 

9 

a 

98 

12 

9 

10 

a 

122 

18 

9^ 

11 

a 

150 

16 

10 “ 

12 

n 

182 

12 

11 “ 

13 


240 

6 

12 “ 

14 

u 

308 

00 


From the above table you can readily determine the 
size of any cistern you may determine to build. — Temies- 
see Farmer. 


EXPERIMENTS WITH THE CHINESE SUGAR 
Cane. 

Editors Gencssee Farmer — On the 5th of ?Jay, I planted 
some seed of the Chinese Sugar Cane, in rows three feet 
apart. It came up, and I thinned it out to six inches in 
the row. It grew to the height of eight to ten feet. I fed 
part of it to my cows and hogs, and they eat it with great 
avidity. On the 16th of September, I cut 40 stalks, and 
pressed the juice out by passing them through a pair of 
tinsmith’s rollers ; the produce was 7 quarts of juice, 
which I boiled to one quart of good syrup, or at the rate of 
18 1 ^ gallons per acre. 

I concluded to try it again, in order to determine at 
v/hat stage of its growth the stalks contain the greatest 
amount of sugar. On the 2.3d of October, the seed being 
fully ripe, and after some light frosts, 1 cut up (jO stalks, 
stripped off the leaves and pressed the canes as before, but 
as the rollers are very small, fully ten per cent, of the juice 
remained in the stalks ; I also spilled four or five quarts 
of the juice. After all mishaps, the result stands thus; 
weight of 60 canes, 102 lbs,; juice, 14 quarts; good ma- 
lasses, 62 pints ; dry fodder 4 lbs; seed, 6 quarts. Rate 
per acre of cane, 49,368 lbs.; juice 1 ,694 gallons; mo- 
lasses, 332 gallons and 3 quarts; dry fodder, 1,936 lbs; 
seed, 90 bushels — good seed weighs 40 pounds to the 
bushel. 

Farmers keep up your spirits, for the sweet times are 
coming. R. D., 

A farmer near Crediton, in England, who had suf- 
fered much from the devouring of his seed wheat by rooks 
adopted the expedient of strychnine, and steeping several 
bushels of wheat in the liquid, which he afterwards sowed 
in a field. The result was, the field was soon strewed 
with the dead bodies of these destructive birds, of 
which several bushels were collected. 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


l ;:{0 


‘BEES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT.” 



[In oar last aar/oer, page IS, we were obliged to omit 
a portion of lUr, M .CbetiKK s article, owing to the non-ar- 
rival of the cats; which, wiiii the description of his Hives, 
we now take pleasure in furnishing ; J 

No. 1 , the body of my gum, holds .3 pecks; the upper 
apartment o; No. ‘2 holds 2 pecks more. Nos. 2 and 3 
show the front view of the complete gum — No. 2 shows 
the gum witii t::e head on, the Imdy of the gum and un- 
der the upper apartment — and this is the condition of rny 
‘>-um for receiving a new swarm, and it remains so until • 
next .spring o: even later, unless the bees have tilled it to j 
the bottom ; wheal remove the head, using cotton snroke ; 
to drive the bees somewhat do wn, taking what pure honey j 
they have; and t.hen I place the head on top ot the upper | 
apartment, as per No. 3, the head and upper apartment be- j 
ing held on by a tapering stick (a), which passes through j 
2 laths, one narled to each side of the gum, not a nail being ' 
used about the .bead ; the draw pin holds all cn tight and I 
enug. The bees will then fill the upper apartment with j 
pure honey, un.::nxed with bee-bread. This plan gives i 
double the arnoan: of honey, and all or nearly all pure. ' 
Now for the why and wherefore. ! 

The bees, when hived in No 2, will place the pure hon- } 


ey at the top of the body of the gum, establishing their | 
brood combs in the middle of tiie hive, as described by 
the dotted circle, and which occupies about half the hive 
and the bees deposit the bee-bread near their young, which 
is their principal food ; and, having their combs once thus 
esiabiislied, they will continue to raise their young in the 
same combs for four or five years, and would never re- 
move tiieir brood combs but for the fact that the cells, by 
the oft-repeated raising of young in them, become too smah 
to answer the purpose any longer, and the queen will 
then sciitter her eggs to any other part that will answer 
and for this cause! kill them' at. 4 years old, or sooner, if 
new hives are abundant. 

Now, after the gum is filled (that is the body of the 
gum) it will be perceived that the honey apartment wiii 
occupy only about a quarter of the body of the gum ; thei; 
at the first robbing, by adding to the honey apartment a 
half bushel more space, where the bees will not deposit 
bee bread, is the great advantage of my style of gum. 
which is the simplest, and cheapest of any plan I know of 
that answers the same pui'pose. 

Nos. 4 and 5 show a side view of the gums — No. 4 
has the head on the body, and No. 5 the head on lop. 


SouTii.CRM FnaiT. — Our attention has been directed to 
the letters of a correspondent of the Jowr tuu of Conihicra: ^ 
iVorn Chicago, HI , in which the writer, speaks of tlie su- 
perior liavot' and size of Southern Pears sold in that mar- 
ket. He says th.'V. he lias been twice appointed on com- 
mittees to the qualities of Northern fruit, but has never 
eaten such before, particularly the Bartlett and Duchesse 
d’Angouleme. They are raised ut LaGrange, NIiss., 
which is the seat of Col. John Hebron, 8 miles from Vicks- 
burg. His lear orchard consists of 20,000 bearing trees 
and of 35,000 w'sich are growing. The product of his 
fruits of several kinds the last year will reach ,^30,000. 
His markets are New Orleans, St, Louis, Louisville, Cin- 
cinnati and Chicago. In the latter places a single Barlett 
Pear early in the season retails among the wealthy at 50 
cts. each. We are astonished more than ever that such 
little attention is paid to the culture of fruit by Southern 
planters in a cli,rnate more than all others adapted to the 
Peach, the Pear, the CJrape and the Fig, and many varieties 
of Apples and other fruit — Spar/o, Gcnrs. 'icin. 

PiKMOVLNG E'l vERGREENs. — There is no season for re- ■ 
moving evergreens in the ovJinary way like tiuit when 
the buds are lust swelling and the roots pushing out new 
fibi’es. There are fifty dilYerent opinions about the best 
lime to plant evergreens. The above may be taken as ours 
and it is not given without plenty of trials of other inodes. 
We except, of course, moving the trees with a large frozen 
ball during w.inler — but one which is only occasionally 
practiced. These who can get their trees with a ball of 
earth attached, during this winter, should not put oft’ so 
very benefic’.en,- an undertaking. — E.rc^aiogc. 


Co^trosTS. — Lime is a substance which it is an error to 
use with composts in which we have barnyard manure; 
it is equally an error to mix lime with any compound rich 
in ammonia. The tendency of lime in all composts is to 
promote decomposition and to waste nitrogen, which es- 
capes b)'' union with hydrogen under the form of am- 
monia, which is the very treasure of the dung heap, and 
of most other manuring substances. — 3'Ior/mrii Praciico.l 
AiiricnUurc. 


S'l'iRRiNG THE Soit, (X Dry We.\tiier. — Never stir 
sandy soil in dry weather, except to kill weeds. When 
sandy soil is dry, stirring it increases its dryness. Clay 
soil should bestirred in dry weather, enough to keep it 
perfectly pulverized. The pulverized eartli at tlie surface 
acts as a mulch to keep the moisture below. All soil 
which is now perfectly fine is made more dry by being 
moved. But clay soils, when ruin comes, becomes w - 
crusted. Tne crust should be frequently made fine ay 
the rake or hoe— -0/Lb Fcurmcr. 


The PT. S. Ngricuei'CR-M. Society held its annu.d meet- 
ing at Washington oa the 1 -Itli .January, and the res , f 
was deemed highly satisfactory to the members who vs e 
present. Hon. Nlr. Guthrie, Secretaiy of the Treasury, 
and Hon. Humphrey Marshall, were the dchgates from 
Kentucky, and were authorized, on behalf of Louisvnie, 
to guarantee $20,000, to secure the Society from loss, f 
the next exhibition should he held in that city, arid ac- 
cordingly it was decided, to hold it there — A < .■ ■ti 

Parpirr. 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR 


A Chkap FKNGt;. — Being short of rail timber, and 
Jiedges require so much labor and patience, I have tried 
the following method of economizing, with perfect sue - 1 
cess. Plow and shovel up a ridge six feet wide and two | 
feet high ; then lay stones or blocks for the end of the j 
rails to rest on, 1 ft. thick or more ; this makes it 3 ft. liigh | 
to the rail. Four rails high with poles along the middle j 
well locked or staked, make it as high as eigtit or nine in j 
the ordinary way. It should be well banked up to the i 
bottom rail, and seeded down to gra.ss. ITogs cannot get i 
a foothold to creep through, neither can cattle knock it ! 
down or jump over, as the shoveling leaves a deep furrow j 
on each side. — Gcne^iee Farimr. { 


Extraordinary Pka. — We have in our office the long- 
est specimen of a pea that we ever saw. The pods mea- 
sure 221 inches, and contain 20 peas in each. They 
were grown by Mr. Austin Babb, in the upper part of 
this district. Mr. B. informs us it is very prolific both in 
vine and fruit, and he thinks it will be found a most ex- j 
eellent renovator of the soil, as well as food for animals, j 
The pea is larger than the common cow pea, but we think ! 
it is of the same species, — Lo.urensvillc Herald. | 


Innitstic ©ranniii^ khIi : 

Cure for Cholera Ln’fantfm. — The following is said | 
to be a most efficacious remedy for tlie cure of this fatal | 
and distressing disease among children, which pa.rents i 
would do well to cut out for reference : 

Take a pound of wheat flour, wrap it tightly in a cloth, 
and boil it for three hours. When cold, cut off the muci- i 
lage and a ball is left resembling chalk. This is to be ■ 
given to the patient in boiled milk, mixed with a small; 
quantity of good port wine. The milk must be pure, , 
and not from swill fed cows. The remedy is simple and ■ 
within the reach of all. i 

To Bleach MLLsr.iNs and White Clotii.es Beautiful- ! 
LY. — Take one pound of Chloride of Lime, and pour on to \ 
it in a jar one gallon of water ; stir it well with a stick for i 
i fifteen minutes ; then let it settle and pour off the clear j 
1 liquor into clean bottles, and cork up for use. A tumbler- j 
: ful added to a tubful of water, in which the clotlies are 
rinsed, will add very much to their whiteness. This : 

I must be made in a stone vessel. 

To Make Leather Tarnish. — To 1 quart of strong j 
; alcohol add one-half pound of gum shellac, 1 oz. rosin, : 
I and one-fourth oz. camphor. Set in a warm place, with i 
|i frequent stirrings for several days, or until all is dissolved ; | 
! then add 2 oz. lamp black with a little alcohol — and it is | 
; ready for use, and as good as the best. If too thick, thin i 
■ with alcohol. : 

Vinegar. — Vinegar may be made from cider mucli i 
I quicker and better by diluting it one-fourth with soft water j 
and exposing a large surface to the air, by filling the cask j 
about two-thirds full and exposing it to a temperature of ! 
about 77°. ^ I 

It may be made much quicker and cheaper by the fol- 
lowing : — Molasses and whiskey, each one gallon ; water, 
thirty gallons ; cider, five gallons; brewer’s yeast, one- 
half gallons ; expose as above. | 

To Clean Kives avith Expedition and Ease. — Make : 
a’strong solution of the common washing soda and water; ; 
after wiping them, dip the blades of the knives in the | 
solution, then polish on knifeboard. The same would of j 
course be effectual for forks. This simple method will no j 
doubt greatly diminish the dislike which some servants ^ 
have of this part of domestic labor. . 


vn 


Convulsions in Children. — Dr. H. G Davis says : “In 
a few cases of convulsions in children, wheel have ar- 
rived so late as to find the little paiient, to appearance, 
in uriiculo mortis, and feeling that whatever was done 
must be done instantly, I have applied to the chest a nap- 
kin wet in quite boililing hot water. It was applied for 
a second, perhaps then after being raised, for two or three 
seconds the application repeated, thus jus; failing short of 
injuring tiie skin. The effect wms in every instance to 
cause tliC child to take a full inspiration soir.ewhat like a 
sigh, the pulse immediately returning ■vvl-.ei: :c had been 
entirely lost at the wrist.” 

To Clarify Cider. — Mix together oi.e ■ o/jart each of 
lime and clean dry ashes, and two quarts of new milk. 
Pour tliese into a hogshead of cider just Lorn the press. 
In ten hours it will be fit to rack. 


Simtitistinriits. 


ITE W YORK STATE AGRICVTLTTIRAL 
Works, by Wheeler, Melick <3^ Co. 



Doable Poi'cr, and Combined Thresher and Vi'^nroicer in opera- 
tion. 


"TT rE arc Manufactnrer.s of Endless Chain Uall'vaY ^lorse Poat- 
T T er.s, and Farmers’ and Planters’ Machinery for Horse PoAver 
nse, and are owners of the Patents on, and principal makers of the 
followiuff caJ.nable MACHINES : — Wheeler’s Patent Single Horse 
Power, and Overshot Thresher with Vibrating Separator. This is 
a One Horse IMachine, adapted to the wants of modimn and .smalt 
grain growers. It separates grain and chaff from rhe straAv, and 
tlireslies about IdO bushels of wheat or twice as many oat.s j^er day. 
without changing hor.ses — b}' a change nearly double the quantity 
may be threshed. Price 8128. 

Wheeler’s Patent Double Horse Power, and Overshot Thresher 
with Vibrating Separator. This Machine islike ‘he preceding, but 
larger, and for two hprses. It does doidilc the ■■'. :>; k of the Single 
Machines, and is adrtfsted to the wants of iai u-' and meoinm grain 
growers, and persons aaTio make a bu.s in (■>.', oi .’■-- oshing. I’rice 
-8160. 

Wheeler's Patent Double Horse Power, ami Vo ; -,od Thre.-rher 
and Winnower. [.ShoAvn in the cmt.] Tliis N ;o o a Two Horse 
Machine ; it threshes, separatc.s the grain fr<m> U.e straw. an<l'.viii- 
uows it at one operation, at the average rat<- of inb bashei- ofwlicar 
and 300 bushels of oats per day. In out-door vto; k, and for (ler.-^onv 
Avho irake a bu.sincss of threshing, it h .an l um^uallod 3lachine. 
Price -8245. 

Also Clover Ilullers, Peed Cutters and 8;>-.vkig Machines. 

Our Horse Powers are adapted in a 1 re.^-pet ts to driving every 
kind of Agricultural and other Maclnne.-, li admit of beirg'- 
driven by Horse Fewer, and our Thoshers may be driven by any 
of the ordinary kind.s of Horse Powers m use — eit'.e-^ are sold separ- 
ately. 

'|2^'^To 2 )er.sous Avishing more information and applying Iw m.ail, 
we will foiward a circular containing such details as purchaser .i 
mostly want — and can refer to gentlemen having our machines, in 
every .State and Territorj'. 

*AOnv tirm have been engaged in maiuifaotin icg this cla.ss of 
Agricultural Machinery, 22 year.*, and have had longer, larger and 
more extended and .sucees.sful experience than any other House . 
All our Machines are waivantedto give entire satisfaction or m.ay 
be returned at the expiration of a reasonable time for trial. 

tli Orders from any part of the United States and Territories, or- 
Caiiada, accompanied with satisfactory references, will be filled 
with i)romptness and fidelity. And iJIachine.s securely packed, 
will be forwarded according to in.«trucf ion.«, or ))y cheapest and bc.sc 
routes. WIIEELEP, MELICK dc CO., 

April.57— It Albany, N, Y. 


I 


132 


SOUTHERN CULTIVATOR. 


CHINESE SUGAR CANE. 

J UST received direct from France, the ffenuimc SEED OF 
SOllGHO SUCRE, or CHINESE SUGAR CANE, for sale iu 
quantity or small nackets. 

Our spring stock of SEED is very full, and of the most valuable 
varieties in cultiv.ation. 

J^^Seed Catalogues, and Pamphlets containing information in 
reference to the Chinese Sugar Cane, will be furnished on applica- 
tion, or forwarded to those wl'.o enclose us a ijostage stamp tor 
each. OURTIb & COBB, Seedsmen and Florists, 

Aprils? — ^t 348 Washington st., Boston. 


“SORGHO SUCRE,” or CHINESE SUGAR 
Caiie : 

I TS History, Proper Method of Culture and Manufacture— Value 
as a Syrup or Sugar Making and Fodder Producing Plant, &c., 
&c., including Reports of many Practical Experiments in tlie South 
and other portions of the United States. Compiled trom vaviou.s 
authentic sources, by D. RedmonT), Assistant Editor of the South- 
ern Cultivator. 

Copies of the aboye Pamphlet and PURE SEED furnished 
by PLUMB & Leitnkk, Augusta, Ga.. See their advertisement in 
anther column. 

LANDS IN SOUTH WESTERN GEORGIA 
For Sale. 

fl^HE Subscriber otfers for sale six impi'oved PLANTATIONS, 
i containing from 7o0 to 2,000 acres each. Land fresh and m 
eultiA’ation. 

Also 35,000 acres unimproved LANDS, situated in Dougherty 
and Baker coisuties. 

The whole of these lands were carefully selected, and cannot 
be surpassed for certainty of crops and durability. Terras easy. 

The Railroad from Macon will be completed to Albany . y 1st 
Sept, next; thus giving easy access to all of the above named 
lands. Old settled plantations situated in Georgia or Alabama, 
withui ten miles of a railroad, will be taken in exchange, if desired, 
at their market value. W. AV. CHEEA'^ER, 

Albany, Ga., Get. Wth. 1850. Nov5G— tf 


COTTON SEED. 

BGSHELS — Olive — very pure. Price fifty cents a 
H H bu.sbel at my gin, or forwarded to cash orders at fifty 
cents per sack extra. Also, 1,000 bushels “Crowder,” etptally pure 
atrcl very productive, an early opener, grooving and making till late. 
The young bolls do not dry up on the stalk, nor does it shed as other 
varieties do. Address DR. A. AA’'. AA'ASHBURN, 

Kov 56— 6t Yazoo City, Alississippi. 


STOCK FARM FOR SALE. 

I WISH to sell nry STOCK FARAI, situated immediately at the 
Depot on the Alemphis &. Ohio Railroad, and also on the Mem- 
phis a.nd Sommerviile Plank Road, 11 miles east of Memphis, con- 
taining 610 acres ; oOO acres in cultivation, the remainder finely 
timbered, all under a new^ and substantial fence. A good two- 
story frauiied D\velling, framed Negro Houses, and Sta.bles for 20 
horses and 100 head of cattle. I am now selling from my dairy 
:S5 worth of milk per day. There are 15 acres weU set in Fruit 
Trees of choice qn.