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Vol XLIII.— No. 1. 

Issued July, 1922. 






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[i 1 

VOL XLIII.-No. 1. 

Issued July, 1922, 


Telephone : 

Telegraph : 


Lecture to the Institute— 

' The Outlook in Tropical Hygiene," by Andrew Balfour, C.B., C.M.G., 
M.D., B.Sc 

Sessional Meetings — 

" Central Heating in Relation to Domestic and other Dwellings," by A. H. 


Barker, B.A., B.Sc 

' The Sanitation of Places of Public Entertainment," by W. Allen Daley 
M.D., B.A., B.Sc, D.P.H 34 

" Conversion of Pail Closets to Water Closets," by A. T. Gooseman, M.Inst.C.E. 43 

' Economy in Sanitary Appliances and Methods of Drainage," by Sir Henry 
Tanner, C.B., I.S.O., F.R.I.B.A 48 

Supplement — 

Reviews of Books ... 

Meetings held 

Dominion and Foreign Notes 

Forthcoming Meetings 

Bournemouth Congress 










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" Amongst the remainder (about 160) 37 died, which yields an 
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Should the next few months bring in their train the dangerous 
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Volume XL I II. No. 1. Issued July, 1922. 




The Outlook in Tropical Hygiene, by Andrew Balfour, C.B., C.M.G., M.D., 
B.Sc. (fellow), Director-in-Chief, Wellcome Bureau of Scientific Research. 
Lecture to the Institute, Wednesday, April 26th, 1922. 

I HAVE chosen this subject because it will enable me to say something about 
the practical application of our existing knowledge to the problems of 
hygiene and sanitation which confront us, a matter with which I trust 
this Institute will soon be intimately concerned. 

The future of tropical hygiene depends upon research. Such a statement 
is doubtless a truism, but I fear its truth is, even in these days, not fully 
appreciated. Just as in the treatment of disease empiricism has often exer- 
cised a baneful influence, so in its prevention measures have from time to time 
been applied based on no sure foundation, and the result has been disappoint- 
ing both from the hygienic and the administrative standpoint. Take, for 
example, the long-continued use of lime juice as a prophylactic in scurvy. 
Countless gallons of this beverage have been consumed, chiefly by soldiers 
and sailors, and though doubtless some benefit has accrued, for it contains a 
modicum of anti-scorbutic vitamine, yet recent research has shown that our 
faith should have been placed in the kindred lemon juice, which was the 
substance originally introduced into the Navy for combating the fell disease 
of sailing ships, but for which the juice of the lime was substituted, probably 
without thought, and certainly without sound scientific approval. 

Again, consider how much time and money has been spent on so-called 
disinfectants. Long ago, when working in Cambridgeshire, I used to be 
amazed at the liberal distribution of tins of disinfectant to households plagued 
by diphtheria and enteric fever. Even then I used to wonder what possible 
service they could render beyond camouflaging the odour of some privy 
midden, but they were received with thankfulness, and, possibly, even 
employed. It was not until Barlow, in 1910, raised his voice and testified 
against some of the absurdities of fumigation and the indiscriminate use of 
evil-smelling powders and equally malodorous fluids that the general belief 
in such measures was shaken. Yet even now, despite the careful observa- 
tions of Walcott and Curtis in the United States and the mass of evidence 

2 The Outlook in Tropical Hygiene. 

which has accumulated, there are high priests of fumigation who burn sulphur 
upon the altar of hygiene and strew disinfecting powders broadcast as did 
others in the Middle Ages. 

Pray do not think that I wish to decry the value of disinfection and of 
disinfectants. I fulminate merely against the unwise use of the latter, the 
tendency to disregard the role of the patient and his immediate surroundings 
in spreading infection, and to forget, more especially in the tropics, the 
value of fresh air and sunlight as microbicidal agents. 

Empiricism dies hard, and it is strange how slowly scientific knowledge 
spreads, even in the presence of an all-powerful Press and when the facilities 
for the diffusion of information have increased a thousandfold. 

But recently a gentleman in Mauritius gravely assured me that the appear- 
ance of malaria in that island coincided with the introduction of guano from 
South America, and that this fever was undoubtedly due to the pernicious 
habit of manuring the cane fields with the dung of petrels and of penguins. 

Another, interested in the failure of the sewers of Port Louis to function 
in an efficient manner, a failure due to a faulty fall and deficient pumping 
power, seriously suggested that all would be well if, by a solution of soap, the 
interiors of the pipes were well lubricated in a manner similar to that em- 
ployed by the fashionable physician for the treatment of constipation. 

One may pardon the laity, for, apart from the lack of training, they suffer 
because Medicine has often spoken with an uncertain voice. Theories have 
taken the place of facts, and, while it would be a sad world without theories, 
a world ruled by them would become a place to excite the compassion and 
lachrymation of angels. 

Still, there can be no doubt that amongst civilised and enlightened 
communities great progress has been made, and the man in the street can 
generally discuss in an intelligent manner the etiology of the chief com- 
municable diseases to which he is likely to fall a victim, and has some 
acquaintance with methods of prevention and cure. In short, education has 
now reached such a stage amongst the inhabitants of most countries in the 
temperate zone that it may truly be said of them they live to learn, the while 
they learn to live. 

Very different, however are the conditions in the tropics. Though in 
many places there has undoubtedly been an awakening of late years, native 
populations, as a whole, still grope blindly under a pall of ignorance and 
superstition, and the most pressing need in all matters concerned with their 
sanitary progress is education. Such education, however, must be on right 
lines. In several of our Colonies I have found the catechism system in force. 
I was myself reared upon a certain Shorter Catechism, to which have been 
attributed remarkable virtues, and to the retention of which, when England 

Andrew Balfour. 3 

discarded it, the surprising development of Scotland is said to have been due. 
Hence I have no quarrel with the catechism system provided it is properly 
employed. I grieve to say the health catechisms I have seen in use have not 
been so employed. Remember they do not deal, like the Shorter Catechism 
of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, with abstruse conundrums 
admirably fitted to constitute a course of mental gymnastics. That Cate- 
chism, I take it, apart from inculcating sundry religious tenets in a logical 
manner, provided, if carefully expounded and explained, a course of mind 
training which its advocates pronounce second to none. It is, however, 
inconceivable that the Shorter Catechism should ever be illustrated, or that, 
even if it were illustrated, its usefulness would be enhanced. On the other 
hand, what the health catechisms require is graphic exposition. 

More than once I have asked a little black or brown girl to tell me what 
she knew about ankylostomiasis. With hands clasped behind her back and 
her eyes fixed apparently on the future of hygiene, she has faithfully recited 
her catechism and recounted all about the hookworm, from the larva pene- 
trating the skin to the adult female laying eggs in the intestine. But when I 
came to ask her what an ankylostome was like she was completely at sea, 
and had no idea as to whether it equalled in length an earthworm or an 
anaconda. Rarely, very rarely, have there been diagrams or pictures to aid 
the childish mind. Even these, helpful though they be, are not sufficient. 
What is really required is the provision of models, and, when it can be 
managed, demonstrations from'Nature itself. This latter method is not new. 
You may remember that it was employed by Mr. Squeers at Dotheboys Hall, 
in " Nicholas Nickleby." One pupil was made fully acquainted with what 
Mr. Squeers called the " winder " by being made to clean it, while another 
gained familiarity with what his master termed " bottinney " from being 
forced to weed the school garden. 

Coming to more recent times, many of you must recall the Sanitary 
Demonstration Centres which were established on all the fronts during the 
war, and proved both stimulating and educative . Something of this kind is 
wanted in connection with schools in the tropics wherever a serious effort 
is being made to inculcate the principles of hygiene. It should neither be 
difficult nor expensive. In many cases the pupils themselves could make 
the simple models showing how latrines and incinerators should be con- 
structed and how grease traps and soakage pits may best be fashioned. I am 
glad to say that the necessity for graphic exposition has been recognised in the 
schools at Accra on the Gold Coast. 

The cinematograph should be summoned to our aid. So far I have only 
heard of three good sanitary films. They are the rat film, " Swat the Fly," 
and " Unhooking the Hookworm," the latter two, I need hardly say, being 

4 The Outlook in Tropical Hygiene. 

American productions. I have seen them, and they are excellent, though 
both might be better adapted to tropical needs. 

There is great scope for a really good film on plague. We know much 
about plague and can combat it upon sound lines, but it is exceedingly diffi- 
cult to get native populations to co-operate with the sanitary authorities in 
campaigns against rats and fleas. They are either indifferent or actively 
hostile, but their attitude is very largely to be explained in terms of ignorance. 
Educate them, especially when young, and the difficulties will gradually 
disappear. The matter is well summed up by Mendelson in his recent account 
of plague at Bangkok. 

He says : " The only conclusion the author can come to is that education, 
though an extremely slow proposition, is, after all is said and done, the only 
possible way of impressing the people and producing permanent results. 
Practice a wise conservatism, have unlimited patience and perseverance, 
combined with an absolute faith in the righteousness of your cause, and, in 
the distant future, there will dawn a ray of sanitary light, that if properly 
nursed may even develop into a bright star." 

His astronomical simile is not, perhaps, too happily chosen, but his 
meaning is clear, and all with sanitary experience of the tropics will assuredly 
agree with him. 

At the same time in certain directions immediate active work will bring 
about rapid results, apart altogether from the question of educating native 
communities, and immediate active work is required, for people are dying 
and there is a great load of sickness and inefficiency. 

These remarks anent education have been rather in the nature of a 
digression, though one, I believe, amply justified by the importance of the 

Let us, however, now hark back to the question of research on which 
so much depends. I need scarcely remind you that this country was once 
foremost in the field. The work of Manson and of Ross, the investigations 
of Bruce, the e findings of Leishman, the labours of the Plague Commission in 
India, the successful enquiries of Fraser and Stanton, the discoveries of 
Sir Leonard Rogers, the researches of Low and of Leiper and many other 
British achievements will at once occur to you. I fear, however, that at the 
present time we scarcely occupy the same position that we did. In some ways 
this is only natural. The French, a great nation where science is concerned, 
have long been friendly rivals ; for a time the Germans with dogged per- 
sistence wrested secrets from the tropics, and though, as a colonising power, 
Germany has ceased to exist, her workers are still in the field and she is 
turning her attention to new spheres of activity. The two nations, however, 
which, so far as research into the more practical side of tropical hygiene 

Andrew Balfour. 5 

is concerned, appear to be outstripping us, are Holland and the United 
States. They are not doing so because they have better men but because 
they have at their command resources which we are denied, and also because 
they work in some ways on better lines. 

It is scarcely to be expected that, at a time like the present, our Govern- 
ments can find large funds for developing research in the tropics, though it 
is always good policy to cast the sprat and secure the salmon, but, at least 
so far as the United States is concerned, a great deal of the money which has 
been spent of late years has come from private sources. As a nation we may 
be poor, thanks to the fact that, as of yore, we have saved Europe, but it 
would appear that there must be many individuals who possess more money 
than they can well spend. The wealthy American frequently endows 
research. As Mr. Wickliffe Rose of the Rockefeller Foundation said to me 
the other day, and he should know, " there is far more fun," that is the way 
he put it, " there is far more fun to be got out of spending money for the 
betterment of mankind than in any other way." If only our British pluto- 
crats would combine to furnish the sinews of war what fun they might have 
and what might not be accomplished ! Apart altogether from the mere loss 
of life, the lack of efficiency, the labour shortage, the interference with trade, 
the waste and worry brought about by tropical maladies and more especially 
epidemics, think what they connote in the way of sorrow and misery and 
wretchedness ! 

Not long ago I saw an old Indian woman weeping bitterly because her 
son, her sole support in life, had perished because of plague. There are 
many diseases due to the ordinary wear and tear of life from which mankind 
may die more or less comfortably, and we may become, perhaps, somewhat 
resigned to such departures, for they are, to a large extent, inevitable so 
long as the human body is a machine. It is, however, a totally different 
thing when young lives and useful lives and lives which mean much to others 
are surrendered at the call of parasites which we know we can defeat if 
only means are forthcoming. We deal in a summary fashion with human 
parasites which prey upon society and on our hoarded wealth, but we are still 
somewhat callous as to the ravages of bacteria, protozoa and helminths 
amongst the inhabitants of our colonies and dependencies. 

I think if only the wealthy in the land realised the burden of distress and 
inefficiency which exists and were assured that much of it could, with their 
assistance, be alleviated and indeed abolished, their purse strings would be 
loosed and the one International Health Board supported by a Rockefeller 
would have its counterpart on this side of the Atlantic, to the benefit of 
humanity and the glory of the Empire. 

The comparison with Holland is perhaps scarcely fair, for the Nether- 

6 The Outlook in Tropical Hygiene. 

lands is a small country blessed with large and exceedingly rich colonies, 
but the Dutch, a thrifty folk, have discovered that to get the best out of these 
colonies they must make them healthy and keep them healthy, and anyone 
who has studied their activities in Java and Sumatra will agree that they are 
working to good effect. 

I have said that both Holland and the United States appear to proceed 
on better lines than we do. For one thing they are quicker to apply the 
knowledge gained than we are, a point to which I will allude immediately ; 
for another, so far at least as the Americans are concerned, they give their 
research workers a fair chance. 

In our possessions we establish laboratories, though even now there 
are not nearly enough of them, but we are apt to understaff them in a vain 
effort at economy and we swamp the scientist with routine work. 

Instead of being able to concentrate on some promising proposition 
he has to examine specimens from hospitals and private sources, he has to 
undertake sanitary examinations of all kinds of water, food, and so forth. All 
this is very necessary and useful, but from a research point of view it is 
wasteful and unwise. There is some reason for thinking that the true 
research worker, like the poet, is born, not made. There should be a niche 
for him in every large tropical laboratory and he should be left alone to 
prosecute his special work. This spells money, another reason for my appeal 
to the plutocrats, but it also spells progress. It is along such lines that 
the Americans work and the results are apparent. They concentrate on a 
problem and when they have solved it they apply the knowledge gained. 
When we have acted on the first of these principles our efforts have been 
crowned with success. Ross, at Manson's instigation, concentrated, so far 
as a niggling Indian government would permit, on the mosquito-malaria 
problem and revolutionised our conceptions. Bruce, thanks to the aid of the 
Royal Society, concentrated on Malta fever and lifted the veil of mystery 
which enshrouded it. Again he took a microscope to Zululand and proved 
that Livingstone was right in his conjectures about nagana and the tse-tse 
fly. Finally he and others, devoting themselves to the problem of sleeping 
sickness, speedily shed light on dark places. 

It is true that the harassed general worker has at times made great 
discoveries. Laveran was a busy army surgeon when he revealed the parasite 
of malaria ; Manson, the Master, who has recently passed to his well-earned 
rest, was a private practitioner when his classical researches on filariasis were 
accomplished, but it must be remembered that the struggle becomes more 
intense, that there are, nowadays, greater distractions. Moreover the super- 
man is rare. 

Another point worthy of consideration is the nature of the research 

Andrew Balfour. 7 

work conducted. A vast deal is accomplished which lias not much practical 
value. I am not one of those who think that science should work solely or 
even mainlv towards utilitarian ends. Pure science, as it is sometimes 
called, true science, as it might well be renamed, knows no boundaries, and 
moreover one can never tell what bounties may result from its pursuit. 

As Professor Fleming has said in his " Fifty Years of Electricity " : 
" If we could have peeped into the laboratories of the Royal Institution in 
Albemarle Street, London, in the autumn days of 1831 and seen Faraday busy 
with his magnets, copper wire and discs and iron bars we might have wondered 
that so much time and intelligence were not better bestowed. But, as we have 
seen, these epoch-making experiments have rendered imperishable service to 

Looking back, however, on the history of research in tropical medicine 
and hygiene there is evidence that the best results have been secured when 
the worker has directed his energies towards a definite goal and has had in 
mind some concrete advantage to be gained as the result of his labours. 
Moreover there is pressing need for research in certain directions which we 
know will prove fruitful. Apart from the fact that we wish to benefit 
humanity and aid the development of the Empire, it must be remembered 
that we are judged by what we accomplish. The lay administrator, the 
man of wealth, may not be impressed by the solution of some abstruse problem 
of high scientific value, but he is quick to note some discovery which he sees 
may have far-reaching results on the welfare of a country or the advance of 
commerce. Hence, so far as possible, it is well to be practical and to work 
on remunerative lines. 

There is another aspect to this question of the nature of the work to be 
followed. It suffers from lack of inspiration and co-ordination. There are 
two kinds of research worker. The rarer is the brilliant man gifted with 
ideas of his own which he is capable of transmuting into facts, the commoner, 
he who, lacking in imagination, is yet, thanks to his technical skill, powers 
of industry, capacity for logical deduction and well-balanced judgment, 
able to work out some thought suggested by another, to prove an hypothesis 
possibly advanced by someone quite unable to establish it experimentally, 
to unravel the confusion of some fine but faulty conception. 

We need both classes, though, of course, the first type of mind is worth 
much fine gold, for it is akin to genius. It is the case that men stumble on 
mighty truths. Chance plays a part in scientific work as elsewhere, but, 
as a rule, it is only by hard thinking and hard work that results of any 
moment are achieved. A man must be given time to think : another reason 
why the scientist should not be overwhelmed with drudgery. 

When some new method has been evolved or new truth established how 

8 The Outlook in Tropical Hygiene. 

often do we say, " Why in the world did we not think of that ourselves ? " 
A recent example may be culled from hookworm investigations. Until 
Baermann, in Sumatra, devised in 1917 an apparatus whereby hookworm 
larvae could be isolated from considerable quantities of soil no one had taken 
up the matter, and yet it is one of great value, for not only does it enable 
one to study the activities of the ankylostome in the soil, but it makes it 
possible to determine accurately the source of infestation with hookworm 
disease in any region. Baermann's pioneer work in this direction has proved 
of great service to the American investigators in Trinidad. Again, some of 
these latter, Ackert and Payne to be precise, conceived the idea of studying 
the role played by the domestic pig as a disseminator of the human anky- 
lostome, and they have shown that this animal is an important factor in 
spreading broadcast human hookworm eggs. 

It is curious and unfortunate that these ideas did not occur long ago to 
British workers, many of whom have been much more in touch with ankylo- 
stomiasis than the American observers, although it is true that quite recently 
O'Connor, in the Ellice Islands, and Legg and Rheuben in Queensland 
described ankylostomes in pigs. However this is often the case. A man 
brought into contact with an unfamiliar condition is more likely to emit fresh 
ideas regarding it than one whose perceptions have been blunted by close 
association with it. To this aspect of the case further reference will be made 
from rather a different standpoint. 

It must not be thought that I wish to decry the work which is being done 
in British laboratories. I need only mention the careful and successful 
investigations of Dr. and Mrs. Connal, at Lagos, on the transmission of Loa loa 
by biting flies of the genus Chrysops, the manifold activities of Macfie at 
Accra, the fact that Archibald, in the Sudan, has traced a form of spleno- 
megaly to bacterial infection, and that Scott, in Jamaica, elucidated the 
mystery of vomiting sickness, to show that we are by no means decadent. 
Further, have not Stanton and Fletcher, at Kuala Lumpur, worked out the 
pathology of what is apparently a new glanders-like malady, hitherto called 
Whitmore's disease or morphia-injectors' disease, but now known to have 
nothing to do with morphia and re-named Melioidosis ? 

Our work, however, does lack co-ordination. A central clearing-house is 
needed, and let us hope that the Imperial Institute of Hygiene, the welcome 
gift of the Rockefeller Foundation to Great Britain, will function to some 
extent in this direction. 

Where, however, we specially fail is in applying the results of our own 
researches and of those of other nations. Sir Ronald Ross would tell you that 
for years he has been as a voice crying in the wilderness, and there is no small 
measure of truth in this statement. Save in certain places as, for example, 

Andrew Balfour. 9 

the Federated Malay States, we have not tackled malaria as we should have 

For many years we have known how to combat ankylostomiasis, but, 
where we have not called the International Health Board to our assistant e, we 
have done little to grapple with the problem. 

Tuberculosis is one of the commonest and most deadly diseases of the 
tropics. Both it and plague are largely dependent on housing conditions, 
but, as Prof. Simpson long ago pointed out, we muddle along without town- 
planning schemes and without exercising proper sanitary control as regards 
human habitations. Happily, however, there is a welcome change in this 
direction so far as British Malaya is concerned, for there the importance of 
town-planning is now fully appreciated, as are also its manifold difficulties. 

We have long known that nlariasis is a mosquito-borne disease and that 
it might with comparative ease be greatly diminished, if not stamped out, for 
its chief mosquito vectors are of the domestic type. Yet in many of our 
colonies elephantiasis, a truly dreadful complaint, is common. 

I might easily multiply examples, but it is a depressing business, especially 
when one compares our efforts with what the Americans have done in the way 
of ridding the world of yellow fever. 

I admit it is largely a question of money, but much more than money is 
concerned. We do not always, I fear, take these matters with sufficient 
seriousness ; we are apt to lack enthusiasm and high ideals, we are in some 
ways hidebound, we pay too much respect to vested interests and the views 
of the politician. 

Moreover, those who hold administrative posts are not always suffi- 
ciently enlightened, and there is a paucity of sanitary engineers. 

The outlook is undoubtedly improving, but we are still very far from 
even a reasonable efficiency, save perhaps in certain favoured places. 

Still there is no reason to despair. The West Coast of Africa, though not 
yet a health resort, is now far from being the white man's grave it used to be. 
Trinidad has made, and is making, remarkable progress, and a good deal has 
been done in British Guiana. In Iraq, as Mesopotamia is now called, and in 
Palestine, much has been accomplished. I noted the other day with special 
satisfaction that there were no less than 14 qualified sanitary inspectors on 
the establishment of Kenya Colony. Mauritius is setting its house in order. 
Venereal disease is being combated in Uganda. A public health publicity 
campaign has been established in India, and in Delhi a most successful 
Maternity and Child Welfare Exhibition was held in 1921. So, as you will 
see, there is a bright side to the sanitary shield, and though we move slowly, in 
some ways we move surely. 

But we are tar too slow. I think I am right in sa\ ing that the first quali- 

10 The Outlook in Tropical Hygiene. 


fied British sanitary inspector to be appointed for Government work in the 

tropics was Mr. Murray, of Leith, who arrived in Khartoum somewhere about 
1906. Yet in 1891 I find that Osbert Chadwick in his recommendations on 
the general sanitation of Mauritius wrote as follows : — 

' The sanitary inspectors should be men of good education, not neces- 
sarily medical men. They should be acquainted with the general principles 
of sanitation. In the appendix [that is, to his report] will be found examina- 
tion papers set by the Sanitary Associations of Great Britain and of Scotland 
to candidates for the diploma of Sanitary Inspector or Inspector of Nuisances. 
These, though not perhaps applicable in detail to the requirements of Mauri- 
tius, will give an idea as to the essential qualifications of such officers." 

I turned to the appendix, and the first examination paper was headed 
' The Sanitary Institute, 74a, Margaret Street." Chadwick, gentlemen, was 
a far-sighted Sanitarian, and he would have been, I venture to think, 
pleased and gratified to see in the first place that the Sanitary Institute of 
his day had become the Royal Sanitary Institute, and in the second 
that it had established an examination in tropical hygiene for sanitary 
inspectors. Important step though this is, believe me, it is not enough. 
There must be in this country a course of instruction in tropical sanitation 
for sanitary inspectors. Home hygiene and tropical hygiene are two very 
different things. I grant you that the underlying principles are the same, but 
in many respects they have little in common, though it is true that they tend 
more and more to resemble each other. For one thing, the advance in 
tropical hygiene is bringing into force methods hitherto employed mainly in 
temperate climates ; for another, attention has been directed in the latter to 
the need of measures formerly limited to the tropics, as, for example, anti- 
mosquito campaigns. This makes it all the easier to train sanitary inspectors 
to some extent before they leave for the tropics, so that time will not be 
wasted when they start work, and they will be able not only to take care of 
themselves, but to carry out their duties in a much more intelligent manner 
and with due regard to their altered surroundings. 

I need not enlarge on this subject, for I have spoken and written about it 
on many occasions, hitherto, I regret to say, in vain. 

It seems to me that the establishment of the new Imperial Institute of 
Hygiene opens up a vista of hope and that such an institution might well lend 
a helping hand in the way of training sanitary inspectors destined for our 

As to the utility and value of such appointments there can be no doubt. 
As long as the right type of men are chosen we need have no fear but that they 
will prove their worth. Their success is already apparent. Consider the 14 
in Kenya. It is no longer a question of the thin edge of the wedge. There 

Andrew Balfour. 11 

are now quite a large number in the Sudan. As many as 16 are at work in 
our West Coast possessions, and I submit that the outlook is infinitely more 
hopeful on account of their presence, for they form the necessary links between 
the medical officers of health and their native subordinates, and they aid in 
that practical application of knowledge which is all-important. 

And now let us ask if there is any other way in which the efforts of our 
executive officers can be supplemented or improved ? There is, for one of the 
great drawbacks to sanitary work in the tropics is the isolation and the 
severance from centres of light and learning. A man, striving too often to 
make bricks without straw, feels himself lost and forgotten. ' Who cares," 
he says, " how I do my work so long as it passes muster ? ' Or, again, he may 
find himself up against difficulties with which he is unable to cope for lack of 
knowledge, owing to the fact that he is far from books and journals to which 
he can refer. This applies not only to men in out-stations, but to the prin- 
cipal sanitary officers at headquarters, though things are very different 
nowadays from what they used to be, thanks to the admirable " Tropical 
Diseases Bulletin," and more especially its Sanitation Supplements. What 
is wanted, however, is rather sympathy and interest in the work and advice 
by experts given on the spot and with full knowledge of the existing 

If it can only be arranged, I think it would be an excellent thing to have 
attached to the Imperial Institute of Hygiene a small band of advisers whose 
duty it would be to proceed abroad at intervals and to help those responsible 
for medical and sanitary work in all parts of the British tropics. I am quite 
sure from what I have seen and heard that such men, if of the right stamp, 
would receive a hearty welcome. Not only could they render signal aid to 
many an administrative officer, to many a clinician, to many a laboratory 
worker, to many a sanitary inspector toiling far from those resources which 
we have at hand, but they could gather a great deal of valuable information 
as to the conditions prevailing in, and the needs of, the places they visit. 

Moreover, they would bring to bear upon the local problems that fresh- 
ness of outlook to which I have already alluded and which is so valuable, and 
they might inspire and encourage those whose lot is cast in the less pleasant 
places of the earth. I can imagine no more useful type of medical mis- 
sionary and no mission so far removed from the ordinary kind of inspection, 
which too often tends to be carping and critical. It is that personal touch 
which in matters general has recently been extended to the West Indies and 
which has been so greatly appreciated and cannot fail to be of the greatest 

As giving you some notion of certain of the riddles to be read and of which 
any outlook on tropical hygiene must take cognisance, I would cite the 

12 The Outlook in Tropical Hygiene. 

question of epidemics. It is much too large a question for consideration here, 
but it is very necessary in the future that research work on epidemiology 
should be encouraged. It has to a large extent been neglected in the past 
though there have been some notable investigations, as, for example, that of 
Christophers on malaria in the Punjab, which showed that the determining 
causes of epidemics are excessive rainfall and scarcity of food. The subject 
has also received attention from Buckley, Gill and Perry in India. Carda- 
matis in Greece correlated heavy rainfall with malarial epidemicity, but there 
is still need for enquiry into the determining factors. If this is true of malaria 
it is yet more true of plague and cholera. What caused plague to assume 
epidemic proportions in 1921 and, indeed, to prevail as a pandemic ? We 
simply do not know. It may be that climatic conditions were favourable ; 
there may have been unobserved movements of the rat population ; some 
disturbance in trade routes or in commercial activities may have been to 
blame. It is useless to speculate, but it is easy to see how advantageous it 
would be to know the why and the wherefore and to be able to nip outbreaks 
in the bud. 

Cholera is another case in point. We know all about its methods of trans- 
mission, or think we do, but how explain the sudden flare of a cholera epidemic 
of great intensity and severity, suggesting a heightening in virulence of the 
virus and the acquisition of unwonted powers of spread ? 

Again, why do epidemics come to an end ? Despite the development of 
immunity there must always remain ample human pabulum for their causative 
parasites, and yet they do die out, suddenly or slowly. 

Is it possible that d'Herelle has found the key to the mystery ? His 
bacteriophage certainly exists. Does it do all, can it do all that he imagines ? 
Are there infinitesimally small parasites which prey upon the pathogenic 
bacteria, which develop along with them, attack them and slay them ? If so 
it is easy to understand how epidemics may be aborted. More research is 
required into this fascinating problem, into what is possibly an unexplored 
world of life where wonderful battles are being waged and marvellous 
victories won. 

There is no doubt about the necessity for research, but sometimes one is 
dubious if we apply properly the knowledge gained. 

Are we fighting plague altogether to the best advantage ? W T e spend 
large sums on poisoning and trapping rats. Are these measures of real 
utility ? I believe they are in certain directions, but I do not think we can 
ever hope to reduce the rat population materially, much less exterminate 
it, by such efforts. The rodent breeds too quickly. It obeys too literally 
the Scriptural injunction, " Be fruitful and multiply." It seems to me we 
must try and defeat it from what we may call the reproductive side. The 
Rodier system, as you know, is founded on such a belief, but doubts have been 

Andrew Balfour. 13 

thrown on its efficacy, and it is certainly difficult to apply on a Lai ale. 

For one thing it is no easy matter to handle rats, for another it is difficult to 
distinguish sex in the case of young specimens. This does not apply only to 
rats. In Mauritius these rodents became such a pest that it was de< ided Mime 
years ago to introduce the mongoose to cope with them. Careful arrange- 
ments were made whereby, as a start, a few male mongooses were to be 
liberated on the island. Alas ! someone made a mistake in his determina- 
of sex, and now the mongoose is as great a plague as the rats were, has almost 
exterminated the ground game, and has played havoc with the chicken roosts. 
At the Institute with which I am connected we have tried to find out 
some method, some bacterial method, of rendering rats to all intents and 
purposes unproductive. Our idea has been that by a study of the bacterial 
flora of the urino-genital tract of male and female rats there might be found 
some organism capable of causing abortion, an organism which the male rat 
might transmit to the female, an organism not dangerous to man but dis- 
astrous to the rat's family life. It is true that even were such an organism 
discovered the rat would speedily develop an immunity against it in accor- 
dance with the mysterious laws of nature which operate against extinction. 
Still, it is conceivable that such a method of attack might be of great value if 
applied when plague threatened, when the rat population was found harbour- 
ing B. pestis. Unfortunately, though at times the outlook seemed promising, 
and though the research led to some interesting discoveries, we had to admit 
failure. It is, however, a line of work which might be pursued in the tropics, 
though I fear it is not very promising. The rat problem is, I confess, one 
which has so far baffled us, and the only thing to do is to build the animal out, 
a costly and difficult matter, but one pursued with some success in Java. One 
might cite other examples, but I will only mention the very big question 
which the layman is apt to raise. 

Is there any use bolstering up feeble lives ? Are we right in striving to 
perpetuate the puny folk of the human race ? Is not the old law of the sur- 
vival of the fittest what was intended, and are we not flying in the face of 
Providence in trying to upset it ? It is not altogether easy to answer such 
an accusation, and any endeavour to do so would lead one far afield. 

Let me only say that the more we work at the problem the more we find 
that the hereditary transmission of disease plays a comparatively small part 
in diminishing our vitality. Doubtless something may still be said in favour 
of feeble constitutions from the time of birth, in support of the theory of 
diathesis. There seem to be children burn with little or no resisting powers, 
but even here how much depends on the health of the father or the mother ? 
A virile stock produces virile offspring, and we, in our measures of hygiene, 
aim at virility. 

We know beyond all doubt that what saps virility in early life is, as a rule, 

14 The Outlook in Tropical Hygiene. 

bad feeding, bad housing or infection with pathogenic organisms. Study the 
case of the poor white children in Barbadoes and Grenada if there is any 
dubiety on this score. 

Hence there can be no question but that we are right in our efforts to save 
the weakling, if only because we stamp out foci of disease in a humane manner. 
It is the duty of the physician to save life, it is the duty of the hygienist to 
preserve it. We may for a space pass through a bad period and perpetuate 
lives which lack vitality and bodily strength, but eventually we should reach 
a higher plane of efficiency and compass a better and a saner world. Again, 
let us remember that amongst these feeble lives there may be one or more 
possessing that spark of genius which means so much to mankind. A 
child's death is always unutterably sad, for no one can say what that child 
might have become. Not once in a million times would the life develop into 
anything out of the common, but there is just the chance that we lose a 
Pasteur, a Lister, some great brain, some outstanding personality, some 
benefactor of humanity. 

Therefore we do well to attack disease, dirt, destitution and drink by all 
the wise means in our power, and of these means the greatest is education, 
which, at the present time, is the most crying want in the tropics : education 
on right lines for the teeming millions of our brown and our black subjects. 
An officer of the Indian Medical Service was right when he said to me : " We 
are willing to give up to the Indian medical man everything if we can retain 
our opportunities for teaching, for research, for carrying out sanitary work." 
The same is true of Egypt. It would be disastrous to lose our hold on these 
three essentials, disastrous to the very nations who are struggling for what 
they regard as freedom. 

It would neither be fair to them nor to ourselves to remove our guidance 
and control in these matters until they have grasped their significance and 
importance. Do you recall what one of our greatest statesmen said long 

Disraeli, when introducing the Public Health Act of 1875, spoke with no 
uncertain voice. 

In a speech, famous for all time, delivered himself of these words : " A 
great scholar and a great wit, 300 years ago, said that, in his opinion, there 
was a great mistake in the Vulgate (the Latin translation of the Holy Scrip- 
tures), and that instead of saying, ' Vanity of vanity, all is vanity ' — ' Vanitas 
vanitatum, omnia vanitas ,' the wise and witty king really said ' Sanitas sani- 
tatum, omnia sanitas.' Gentlemen, it is impossible to overrate the importance 
of the subject. After all, the first consideration of a Minister should be the 
health of the people." 

I would go even further and say that, so far as the tropics are concerned, 
it should be the first consideration of the people themselves. 


Central Heating in Relation to Domestic and other Dwellings, by A. H. 
Barker. B.A., B.Sc. 

Read at London Sessional Meeting, March 14th, 1922. 

THE object of the present discussion is to throw some light on the ques- 
tion whether, and to what extent, the system of providing the heat 
requirements of buildings from a centrally placed plant can be generally 
adopted with advantage to the community. This question is obviously 
one of great complexity in view of the large number of different household 
requirements, the varying characteristics of the people occupying the house, 
the heterogeneous geographical characteristics of the localities, and the 
divergent costs and styles of living, which, of course vary widely in 
different classes. 

The idea of centralising these services to a greater or less extent, in 
such a way that one centrally placed plant shall provide all the re- 
quirements for a larger or smaller number of different dwellings, is without 
a doubt a very attractive one, especially is this the case where, as is easily 
conceivable, all the heat for these services can be secured from the exhaust 
steam or waste heat of an electric lighting plant. 

The total labour involved in attending to one apparatus is obviously 
considerably less than the sum total of the labour involved in attending to 
a large number of small ones, including the dusting and cleaning which the 
use of the separate apparatus involves. 

It seems a priori, therefore, likely that the introduction of a centrally 
placed plant in place of the separate plants would be a great public advan- 
tage. The object of the present discussion is to consider all round the 
matter and weigh up all the considerations which are not obvious at first 
sight, especially the all important one whether the proposal is economically 
possible as a general solution of our problem of the distribution of heat. 

The opinion I have myself reluctantly formed on this important point 
is that though the service would in many or most cases be a great convenience 
(not perhaps so great as is sometimes claimed) yet any general system 
of centralisation is usually impossible for economic reasons ; that the cost 
of the plant and maintenance required to carry it out must of necessity, 
in all but a very few exceptional cases, be so high that no reasonable weeklv 
sum which could be asked from a working class family, or which such a 
family would pay, would provide for the cost of the service. It is the 
reasons for forming that opinion that I wish to discuss. 

16 Central Heating. 

As the ground work on which the discussion may take place, it is neces- 
sary first to analyse with considerable care what are the actual requirements 
of houses of different classes, and to consider carefully how such require- 
ments may be most cheaply met. It will be granted that if they can be 
satisfied much more cheaply in other ways, even with a reduction of con- 
venience, the arguments in favour of a central system are gravely handi- 

All households are not run alike. Some are extravagant, others econo- 
mical. Some are systematic and clean, others are slapdash, untidy, and 
dirty. Some are wealthy, many more are poor. Some managers are good, 
others the reverse. Some persons like a very warm house, some do not. 
Some use much hot water for washing, others do not. 

It appears probable, therefore, that the requirements of each one in 
respect of heat would be different. We can only strike an average on very 
insufficient data in order to arrive at what we want. As houses of the 
working class are principally concerned, we must give our principal attention 
to them. 

It probably occurs to only few people how difficult the obtaining of 
precise data on this matter is. How many people have the smallest idea 
of the amount of heat, measured in British Thermal Units, used in their 
own houses, essentially for their own personal convenience, per day, per 
week, per month, per year, as the case may be. 

In order to obtain data of this character I am at present engaged in 
conducting a series of tests on some working class cottages placed at my 
disposal for the purpose by the L.C.C. Each of these cottages is at present 
arranged on the " all-gas " principle, with the double object of comparing 
gas with other fuels in respect of cost, and to ascertain exactly how much 
heat is actually used for different purposes in the course of every day, so as 
to find the maximum and minimum use of heat for each purpose extending 
over various periods of the year. 

For this purpose each of these cottages is specially piped. A separate 
gas pipe leads to each service, gas fire, gas circulator for heating bath water, 
cooker, and the like, and each is separately metered. Readings are taken 
from these meters, and notes made of the work done every day by the person 
in charge. That is the only way that this information can be obtained. 

We can determine with some accuracy in the laboratory the efficiency 
of the various gas appliances used. I have had the appliances in the labora- 
tory and have measured them. If, therefore, we ascertain the amount of 
gas consumed by each apparatus, knowing the rate of efficiency of each, 

A. H. Barker. 17 

we can obtain figures of the actual nett amount of heat used in practice by 
the person concerned, and thus eliminate the question of waste due to bad 
efficiency except in so far that the gas may be wasted unnecessarily. 

Knowing then the corresponding efficiency of other appliances such as 
electric, or those using solid fuel, we can calculate the corresponding rate of 
consumption of other fuels (treating electricity as a fuel for the moment, 
which, of course, it is not), and afterwards compare the calculated estimates 
with the actual figures. 

So far as I have gone, the figure, confirm those which I published in 
my little book "Domestic Fuel Consumption," a couple of years ago, figures 
which were repeated from lectures I gave to the Chadwick Trust at an 
earlier date. According to those figures the amount of heat used per day 
would work out to about 80,000 B.T.U. gross per individual of the working 
class. In those figures are comprised the fuel used for heating, hot water 
supply, cooking, and lighting, lighting being also done by gas, and the 
figures were taken during a winter of moderate severity. 

I have also ascertained the sub-division of the heat used, which is given 
in the following table, from which the proportion will be clearly observable. 
I have also figures of perhaps even greater interest showing the way in which 
the heat is used in the particular household under discussion. 

Table of Use of Heat in Economical Working Class Cottage. 
Weekly average for 13 weeks winter : — 

Total B.T.U. in fuel used 512,000 B.T.U. per week. 

Daily average 73,500 B.T.U. 

Maximum used in one week 700,000 B.T.U. 

Minimum used in one week 343,000 B.T.U. 

Average for 13 Weeks. 
Cooking, including hot water for tea ... 17-8% 

Workroom fires "\ 20-2%Total for heating 

Sitting room fires J 39-0% 59-2% 

Washing and bathing (hot water supply) 7-2% 

Lighting 15-8% 

Total 100-0% 

The four services are commonly used in the particular case under con- 
sideration as follows : — The lady occupying this cottage is a dressmaker. The 
heating required is mainly for her workroom during the day and for the 
sitting room during the evening for herself and her guests. As she has to 


18 Central Heating, 

pay for the gas herself, she keeps the consumption down by my instructions 
so that she is just reasonably comfortable, with reasonable but not excessive 
care that no gas is wasted. There is care, but nothing resembling privation. 
In the use of hot water there are about three or four small hot baths every 
week, and hot water is used for hand washing and scrubbing. Cooking is 
done for hot breakfast and dinner, and occasionally for supper. Tea is 
served at three meals. 

Considering the heating of a living room in the winter, it is commonly 
unnecessary to have the room heated throughout the whole day, or to have 
the heat distributed all over the room in equal intensity. It is even un- 
desirable except in cases where work is being done, as in an office. In such 
cases, it is obviously necessary that the rooms should be heated all over, 
but a small sitting room can be made comfortable to sit in near the fire by 
means of a relatively small fire burning an amount of gas or coal which would 
be inadequate to heat the room all over, but is enough if the occupants sit 
near the fire. 

If such rooms are treated by the method of hot water radiators the 
temperature is almost equally distributed over the whole room, and it costs 
a good deal more in heat than if a small area round the fire alone is made 
tolerably comfortable. Besides, a radiator must be kept hot in a room for a 
period of many hours a day before the room is really comfortable. A fire 
need only be lighted for the few hours the room is occupied. One can be 
perfectly comfortable in front of a fire recently lighted in a room whose 
general temperature is from 40° to 45°F. One cannot be comfortable in 
a radiator heated room below a temperature of 55° or 60°. 

It is only rarely that any heat is really necessary in bedrooms. For 
persons of ordinary physique, even those of a better class and accustomed 
to a reasonable degree of comfort, a bedroom fire is desirable for only a 
very few days of the year in our climate. In the vast majority of cases no 
person even thinks of having a bedroom fire, however cold it is. I do i?ot 
remember that I have personally ever had a fire in my bedroom for the 
past 20 years. It is rarely necessary in a working class house to have a 
sitting room warmed throughout the whole of a day. It is only in the 
evening when heat is necessary. 

My view of this question is, that to incur large expense, both on capital 
account and for upkeep, for the purposes of adding unnecessary luxuries 
to which people, especially working class people, are not now accustomed, 
seems to me to be undesirable ; and to pay for such luxuries in the present 
state of things is, for the majority of people, impossible. 

Now let us consider the requirements in respect of hot water. There 

A. H. Barker. 19 

is, I think, a good deal of unnecessary stress laid on the advantages of what 
is called " a constant supply of hot water." We may grant that it is one 
of the items of luxury or comfort in a good class establishment, but such 
a supply is in my opinion a luxury which can readily be dispensed with by 
those who need to be as economical as possible. 

It is only at particular times of the day, especially in a working class 
household, that hot water is required, and the quantity needed is really very 
small, and can be readily generated at small expense in fuel and time exactly 
as it is wanted. I can speak with some confidence on this, having very care- 
fully watched the use of hot water in such a household, excluding the hot 
water used for making tea, as this really comes under the head of cooking. 

There is a certain amount of hot water needed for washing up the break- 
fast things. Any scrubbing about the house also needs a gallon or so in 
the morning. A few pints of hot water are also needed for washing up 
after lunch or dinner, whatever the mid-day meal may be called ; similarly, 
at irregular intervals, depending on the habits of the household, for hand 
washing and for bathing. The latter is the only purpose for which any 
considerable quantity is required. An economical hot bath requires about 
7,000 B.T.U. in the water, and an extravagant one about 20,000. 

The usual way in a middle-class household of supplying these require- 
ments, and that which would be adopted in any system of central heating, 
is to keep a supply of hot water constantly circulating through pipes, 
cylinders, etc., which are commonly exposed to the cold air, so allowing 
heat to escape very rapidly. The heat when generated on the premises is 
generally by a fire in the kitchen range or otherwise, in a boiler having 
commonly a very low efficiency, from 8 to 15 per cent. Taken as a whole the 
efficiency of the entire process, that is, the ratio between the heat in the 
water actually used and that in the coal burnt to produce it, is commonly 
from 5 per cent, to 7 per cent. The result is, of course, an enormous waste. 
There are at least eight or ten hours in every day at which hot water, though 
it may occasionally be a convenience, is practically never required. 

We are driven to the conclusion that, having regard to the actual require- 
ments, the method of maintaining a constant circulation is extremely 
extravagant. Requirements can be provided for much mor< cheaply than by 
maintaining a constant circulation, though with a certain reduction of con- 
venience. The use of hot water, of course, varies greatly according to the 
character of the housewife. 

We now come to the consideration of cooking. Here again the require- 
ments vary very greatly, and for the most part they are confined to particular 

20 Central Heating. 

periods of the day. There is the period, ten or perhaps twenty minutes, 
immediately before breakfast, an hour and a half before dinner, immediately 
before tea, and perhaps before supper. There are also occasionally inter- 
mediate periods in certain households where bread and cakes and the like 
are baked, particular seasonal demands when jam is being made, and so 

Broadly speaking, the requirements are confined to a period of a few 
minutes, or, in some cases, one or two hours immediately before meal times. 
For these purposes it is customary in most households to keep the kitchen 
fire burning throughout the whole day. The kitchen fire also serves to 
supply the hot water to keep warm the kitchen — which in a working class 
house is also the living room. The ranges are of such a type that the fire 
must be burning for a considerable period and at a vigorous intensity before 
the oven is hot enough to cook by. 

If it were necessary to put the fire out after every use, there would be 
not only the trouble of re-lighting it, but also the long period of rising tem- 
perature to be waited for before any cooking could be effected. Hence it 
is necessary in practice that with any plant of usual design, the fire should 
be going all day, especially as in many cases the fire serves for heating the 
kitchen in the winter and overheating it in the summer. In most house- 
holds the greater part of the work is carried out in this apartment. 

This brief analysis covers the requirements of a working class house. 
It is evident from what has been said that houses vary very widely in their 

Now if all such requirements are to be provided from a central system, 
it is obvious that we cannot limit the provision of appliances to the minimum 
requirements of an economical, and, it may be, a small family. We cannot 
tell what character of family may occupy the house in question. As a 
practical proposition we are, therefore, compelled to consider not the mini- 
mum but the maximum requirements ; otherwise we shall get houses oc- 
cupied by families which require more than the plant will give them. 

This is the first serious matter, namely, that maximum requirements 
have to be provided for in the design, and in such plant as is necessarily 
provided in connection with a central system, the cost of the appliances 
and also the cost of the supply of heat are, roughly speaking, proportional 
to the maximum capacity of the plant. 

There is here to be taken into account a psychological consideration of 
the greatest possible importance, namely, that if heat is provided from an 
external system of mains, and can be drawn upon by the mere opening 

A. H. Barker. 21 

of a tap or a valve, a great deal more is likely to be used than when it is 
materially visible. 

The reason is that in the one case the source of the heat can be seen, 
and the use of power, and therefore of money, is manifest ; in the other 
case it is not. Indeed many intelligent persons do not now know that the 
amount of fuel burnt in a boiler to keep a radiator system at a uniform 
temperature depends on the number of radiators turned on. 

This unfavourable condition of things is greatly exaggerated when heat 
is obtained for a fixed weekly payment. In such a case there is no motive 
for the person using the heat to shut it off or to use less than the maximum 
amount. Indeed, such is the perversity of human nature, that perhaps 
the majority of persons would use as much heat as they could, solely for the 
half conscious purpose of getting their full mcney's worth. 

If an ordinary working man's wife knows that her husband is paying 
7s. 6d. per week for heat and hot water supply to their house, she will 
take care from a perverted sense of thrift not only that she gets as much heat 
as she can, but that she uses as much hot water as possible. I have seen 
this characteristic at work in hotels with which I have been connected 
professionally, where the cost of baths is included in the nightly charge for 
a room. In these cases the hotel customers will usually use twice as much 
water every time they have a bath as is necessary, they will have four 
times as many baths as they would if they had to pay for them, and will 
frequently leave the taps running in an extravagant manner. That is a 
psychological characteristic of very great importance. 

Let us now consider what must be provided for each house if wc wish 
to give to each one the bare minimum which is necessary to enable the house 
to be satisfactorily run. 

There are two classes of heat required in a house : one of which may be 
called " high grade " and the other " low grade." High grade or high 
temperature heat is strictly necessary for lighting, and for certain cooking 
purposes. It is also necessary if anything in the nature of an open fire is 
required where intense radiation, using that term in its scientific sense, 
is necessary. 

For the cooking purposes alluded to, we must have command in the 
oven of what we will call a " temperature " of 500°, otherwise certain classes 
of cookery, roasting, baking and the like, cannot be satisfactorily carried 

22 Central Heating. 

We must be able to toast bread and to boil water. This character of 
work cannot be supplied otherwise than by supplying high grade heat, such 
as electrical power or fuel, whether in the form of coal or gas. 

Whatever else we do, therefore, we are committed as a practical pro- 
position to a set of gas mains, if these requirements are to be supplied without 
solid fuel. 

A very low grade heat (by which I mean heat at a temperature less 
than 200° F) could be supplied by means of hot water circulation from 
a central point. This kind of heat is only useful for heating by radiators, 
and may be useful for drying and similar purposes. 

What may be called " medium grade " heat (that is, heat between 
the temperatures of 200° and 300°) could conceivably be supplied in the 
form of steam. Heat of this grade could be used to a considerable extent 
for such purposes as steaming of food, or the supply of hot water, or boiling 
clothes, and the like duties, which are essentially represented by the actual 
turning into steam of a certain quantity of water. If we have heat of this 
grade we must, therefore, have a steam pipe connected to a centrally placed 
boiler and carried to all the houses in the colony. 

Such a steam pipe must be at work at least during a large part of the 
day, perhaps the whole day if it is to be of substantial and general service. 
It might conceivably be shut off during the night at the cost of severe in- 
convenience to individuals among the tenants, who require it urgently 
during the night. 

Now the maintenance of a steam pipe constantly filled with steam at 
any pressure is a formidable proposition from the point of view of cost. 
However well the pipe is coated the loss of heat must necessarily be great. 
It cannot be otherwise, whatever precautions are taken. It must be heavily 
coated or lagged and the coating must be kept strictly dry, otherwise the 
losses may be enormous. Such a loss is only possible to be contemplated 
when the steam itself is a waste product, as it is in the case of an electric 
light station, which utilises the waste steam in this way. 

Even so, steam from this source can only be delivered economically at 
comparatively low pressure. This, however, is enough to serve the great 
majority of purposes for which medium and low grade heat are required, 
water boiling, food steaming, and heating. 

There is the further practical question of the disposal of the condensed 
water. There are two ways of dealing with this matter, either to discharge 
the condensed water to the drain with as much of its heat taken out of it 
as possible, or to return it to the boiler house for pumping again into the 

The latter is, of course, the technically correct course, both because 

A. H. Barker. 23 

condensed water as discharged always contains a certain amount of heat 
which should not be wasted, and also because the water itself in the large 
quantities involved here has value. It is, therefore, wasteful to discharge it 
into the drain unless it cannot be dealt with otherwise, unfortunately to 
return it from a long distance to the boiler house is itself very expensive. 
It calls for the provision of a special pipe, which often corrodes rapidly, 
and also, in the majority of cases where the levels are irregular, for a pump, 
which itself consumes power and is expensive to provide. 

There is a further consideration that to provide steam from the exhaust 
of a turbine or other engine generating electricity reduces the efficiency 
of the prime mover, and thus causes a positive waste of very highest grade 
of heat and increases the waste of low grade heat. This would be of com- 
paratively small importance if it were possible to utilise otherwise, in an 
economical and useful manner, any substantial portion of the heat rejected 
as a waste product by the prime mover, but the considerations outlined 
above show that this utilisation is attended with enormous waste, which 
though it is in this case a waste of what is already a waste product, is never- 
theless, really waste which ought not to occur. 

Such are the conditions involved in attempting to deal with this problem 
by means of a circulation of steam from a centre. The problem would 
be much more urgent and of much greater practicability if our national 
demand for heat in our houses were greater than it is, as, for instance, in 
America. In this climate it is possible to do without this form of artificial 
heat in a house altogether, in the American climate, it is not possible. 

But even in America the position of some of the companies who have 
been formed for distributing heat over a large area (and, it must be re- 
marked, passing on their way a large number of very big apartment houses 
closely crowded together, in which of course the revenue is greatly increased 
and all the unfavourable conditions are minimised) is very shaky indeed ; 
some of them have already gone out of business. 

We have the other alternative, of course, of circulating hot water in 
pipes from the centre to the extreme end of the estate, and supplying the 
heat from these mains. This proposal involves separate flow and return 
pipes, which, in the case of a large estate, will be of large diameter, perhaps 
up to 10 or 12 in., and taking branches from these mains into the various 
houses, and there using the heat contained by the water, the cooled water 
being returned to the return main. The heat may be communicated to the 
water at the centre either from exhaust steam or otherwise. 

This proposal is a more expensive one than the steam proposal. It 
involves larger and heavier pipes. In some respects it is more economical, 
and in some respects superior in result, but it only provides what I have 

24 Central Heating. 

called " lowest grade " heat, that is, heat which is incapable of being used 
for cooking purposes, or any purpose other than low temperature warming, 
and if it is adopted, therefore, it must necessarily be supplemented by high 
grade heat from gas, oil, coal or electricity. 

The provision of high grade heat is in any case a prime necessity if any 
house is to be completely provided. Without it any high temperature 
cookery, such as roasting meat, baking or grilling, sauteing, or any operation 
of that character would not be possible. 

There is also needed a supply of very high grade heat for lighting pur- 

If we sum up all these requirements, it will be seen that it is necessary 
in any case to have a supply of high grade heat which involves either on 
the one hand electrical mains, or on the other a complete outfit of gas pipes 
leading from the centrally placed gasworks to each house on the estate. 
The alternative is, of course, the supply of solid fuel and its attendant dis- 
advantages, or the provision of oil for lamps or for cooking. 

We are thus clearly committed to at least two separate and distinct 
sources of supply, which may be typified for present purposes as (1) set of 
gas mains, (2) set of either steam or hot water mains. 

It is the cost of this double supply which is such a formidable item in 
this calculation. All these pipes must be accommodated somehow. The 
only satisfactory way in which steam or hot water pipes can be accommodated 
is in a large subway or at least a trench. The subway is unquestionably 
by far superior to any other method, but its cost is absolutely tremendous. 
In this method the pipes are suspended in a subway, up which a man can 
walk so that the pipes can be kept in proper order without disturbing the 
surface of the roadway. It is necessary for such pipes to be periodically 
inspected, and occasionally repaired where leaks develop, and in other 

If the pipes are fixed in a trench it inevitably involves the disturbance 
of the surface every time the pipes are even inspected, and a considerable 
disturbance when they are repaired. 

One practicable way of doing this is to form a more or less shallow 
trench cover with loose slabs resting in rebatted grooves at the side, which 
can be rapidly lifted when necessary. But the process of lifting a long row 
of these covers for the purpose of inspection is truly formidable, both from 
the point of view of inconvenience and of expense. The cost of such sub- 
ways and trenches is relatively enormous, and it is this high cost which makes 
the problem so difficult. 

If the pipes are hot, it is further necessary that they shall be perfectly 
free to expand and contract. The provision for this is always a great 

A. H. Barker. 25 

difficulty and expense. It implies the formation of lateral underground 
chambers, in which the pipes can be diverted in large swan-neck bends so 
as to allow the straight lengths to expand and contract without throwing 
undue strain on the joints. It is at these portions of the pipe plant, that 
leakages are common and difficult to prevent. In any case, the expense is 
great. Now it is to be carefully observed that gas pipes need no such pro- 
vision. They are buried in the earth ; they expand very little. Though 
they sometimes leak, they do not lose heat. If carefully laid they leak 
very little. They need no return pipe. 

Taking all these difficulties together, and calculating the minimum cost 
of a proper provision of a central heating plant in each case, the totals 
work out at a very formidable figure, probably £150 per house and perhaps 
more, depending on the kind of house, especially when we take into account 
the necessity for the provision against breakdown. 

The sudden breakdown of either the heating or the hot water supply 
would in these circumstances be so serious a matter that it could not be 
contemplated, and every provision should be made against such a possibility. 
Indeed, even with a central scheme, no house is really safe without the 
provision of self-contained apparatus as a standby. 

The cost of these alternatives and the complication caused at the centre 
is very great. Thus the weekly cost to provide for the return of capital 
outlay alone can hardly be less than 5s. per house per week or about £13 
per house per annum. 

We have also the cost of upkeep to consider. As has been pointed out, 
the necessity for maintaining the heat or at all times to provide for the 
requirements of individual cases is a very serious matter. It includes not 
only the cost of fuel but also large charges for labour and repairs. With 
separate plants each one can be used as and when required without involving 
any other person's plant, a very great advantage. W r ith separate plants the 
heat is not generated except when and where it is required. 

It has been closely calculated what is the minimum rent which should 
be charged for these facilities, and the minimum figure in a very advantageous 
case may be taken as somewhere about 7s. a week, or perhaps _£18 per year, 
which is 50 per cent, of the rent in London and a much larger proportion 
elsewhere. That, in my view, is a somewhat optimistic estimate. It would 
certainly not be economically possible to supply these facilities in any 
case, even of the most favourable character, for less, and my own private 
opinion is that it would be found in practice necessary to increase that 
charge considerably unless the necessity for economical use could be generally 
impressed on the tenants, which I fear would be impossible. This rent 
must be paid by the tenants all the year round, whether they are using 

26 Central Heating. 

the heat or not, even when they are away from home, otherwise the scheme 
could not pay for itself. 

Now I have no doubt that a household could supply its own require- 
ments with solid fuel or gas, but especially with solid fuel, and with good 
economical plant for considerably less than half this sum — and I am speaking 
with some first-hand knowledge. The outlay is under the tenant's control, 
and can be stopped altogether when he goes away. I do not think with the 
prejudices which seem to be inborn in a British person, but on which one 
does not wish to lay too much stress, as it may give way after experience of 
the comfort of an actual system, that a working class family would take 
kindly to heating of the radiator type. I believe as a matter of preference 
the average British person would rather have his own fire and his own 
heating and so forth under his own control rather than be dependent on an 
outside source. We are an insular and independent race, and our insularity 
and independence for good or evil is carried into the details of our daily 

Whether this prejudice would survive a trial of these facilities, it is 
impossible to say. I am, however, clear that the cost would be substantially 
increased, and it does not appear to me that the British working man's 
wife would be willing to pay the increased cost for the increased advantages, 
especially as she might not always regard them as advantages. 

The case might perhaps be different in an upper middle class, or a pro- 
fessional class house or flat, where this service might, and possibly would 
be a great boon. But there are relatively few of such houses and they are 
usually spaced so far apart, and their present occupants are so poor, that 
the practicability of applying the idea of centralising to them appears to 
be very doubtful except in the case of high class flats where it is certainly 

It does frankly seem to me, though I regret very much to have to form 
that opinion, that the only practicable form of centralising which will avoid 
both smoke and inordinate capital outlay, and will at the same time provide 
all the services that are required, and avoid the nuisance of carrying coal 
and ashes, and which will leave the cost under the control of the user, is 
a very general extension of the distribution of gas. Before gas can possibly 
take its proper place in the national economy, its price will have to be reduced 
to at least half or one- third of its present exorbitant cost. I fully believe 
such a reduction is impossible in present conditions, there have been many 
able men at work on the problem of reducing the cost of gas for many years, 
and they have up to the present totally failed to reduce it. It is principally 
for this climate and for the conditions of life in Great Britain that gas seems 
to me to meet most requirements, and that its adoption would be very 

A. H. Barker. 27 

widespread appears to be incontestable if only it could be produced and 
distributed at a reasonable rate. 

It appears to me that the only form in which the idea of centralising 
could be effectively carried out without unduly increasing the cost, would 
be in the case of quite a few houses placed close together, say a maximum 
of 12, but usually six, which would be provided with common heating boiler 
and common hot water supply boiler, and a set of mains, which would serve 
the whole of the 12. This moderate degree of centralisation need not be so 
expensive per house as the more ambitious and more widely spread scheme. 

Further, a breakdown of one of these appliances, though it would be 
excessively inconvenient for the people in the 12 houses connected to the 
system, would not cover the whole estate. It would not be necessary 
to have standbys, and all the other expensive paraphernalia necessary 
to guard against interruption of service due to breakdown. 

The houses should be selected fairly close together, say in a row, the 
boiler being in the middle house of the row, and the occupant of that house 
would take care of the stoking of the boilers. This might conceivably be 
done in certain suitable cases, but I can foresee even in this case possibilities 
of trouble. 

• ••••••• 

I have omitted to consider electrical power, not because I am not an 
admirer of that form of energy. It is by far superior to any other form 
of energy whatever — but because it is of such high grade, and is at present 
so enormously expensive as to be quite out of court, even compared with 
gas, which itself is out of court compared with solid fuel in most cases. I 
have, therefore, most reluctantly come to the conclusion that all the idealistic 
schemes of centralisation are to a large extent economically impossible, 
except when the centralising takes the form of distribution of gas, and that 
is economically impossible with gas at anything like its present price. 

Further, we have yet to learn definitely whether the Parliamentary 
sanction recently given to the provision of unlimited amounts of carbon 
monoxide in the gas will render its use too dangerous for a low class popu- 
lation. I have been a member of a Committee sitting on this question. 
My own opinion was that the percentage of carbon monoxide should not 

eed 20 per cent, by volume, as a greater proportion might be dangerous 
in the case of leakages. 

This danger, however, depends very largely on the character of the 
piping. With a cheap and ineffective method of piping the danger is no 
doubt considerable, but with a good system of piping and care in the use, 
I do not know that it need be very dangerous, although it is impossible to 
insure that there shall be no leakages. It is necessary to bear carefully 

28 Central Heating. 

in mind that the increase in the proportion of carbon monoxide in gas is the 
only way at present known whereby its price can be reduced. 

There is one other possibility which has not been explored. I do not 
know that it has ever been proposed before, but it probably must have 
been, namely, that of distributing oil by means of pipes to houses. I do 
not see any reason why this should not become a very general method of 
distributing heat by centralisation. There would without doubt be many 
practical difficulties to overcome, but I have not the smallest doubt that it 
could be done. The plant required to utilise oil would, of course, be very 
widely different from the crude oil-burning appliances which we know 
at the present day: oil stoves, cookers, and lamps of modern type look 
as though they had come out of Noah's Ark, made by a prehistoric ship 
carpenter out of old tin cans. Why more attention has not been given by 
engineers to the adaptation of the use of oil to domestic appliances is one of 
the mysteries of modern life. I cannot imagine anything which would 
be likely to bring the price of gas down with a run than a threat of com- 
petition from oil. The pipes necessary would be one-tenth the diameter 
of gas pipes, and the cost of distribution probably very small indeed. The 
dangers might, of course, be found great and suitable apparatus would 
have to be invented to use oil, but if these conditions can be overcome the 
use of oil might have almost all the advantages of gas without the huge 

I fear that the subject matter of this paper will be disappointing to 
the many enthusiasts who regard the idea of centralisation of all such services 
with very great favour. I should like to assure such persons that I myself, 
if I conceived it technically possible, should be as enthusiastic as themselves. 
I can conceive of nothing more convenient or satisfactory than to be able 
to draw the essential requirements from a system of semi-public mains, 
but I have been so long in contact with the cost side of this matter that I 
am most reluctantly driven to the conclusion that as an economic proposition 
it is impossible, especially in this climate. 

If the climate were much more severe than it is, there would be a greater 
need for these services, and it would then become practicable to ask, say a 
working man, to pay £16 or £18 a year for keeping his house warm, and 
supplying him with hot water for 12 months, but I cannot see any working 
man of my acquaintance, and I know a great many, being willing to pay 
any such sum for a service which he can provide for himself for a matter 
of £5 or £6. 

Discussion. 29 

Mr. C. Ingham Haden (Trowbridge) said he did not share the opinion 
which Mr. Barker had formed with regard to the cost of the Central Supply 
of Heat. 

The Services should be considered separately and collectively, [fa tenant 
of a small house had to provide fuel for the supply of hot water, it would prob- 
ably cost 3s. per week. He had worked out the cost for a district installation 
serving 220 houses, and had shown that a weekly charge of Is. 6d. per house 
covered the cost. That was about the smallest number of houses whi< h 
could be economically served from a central boiler house, owing to the 
of labour, which had to be spread over the total number of houses. In 
Manchester two schemes were being carried out, one of which was designed 
to serve 2,000 houses from the central boiler house. A part of the first section 
was in operation, and the charge made was, he believed, Is. 6d. per week ; 
that was the amount calculated for the complete scheme. The capital out- 
lay, including builder's work, was met by the saving in cost by the omission 
of the separate boilers, etc., in each house. 

Mention has been made of the quantity of water which would be used if 
an unlimited supply could be obtained. The experience at Manchester showed 
that an average of 50 gallons per house was used, which, with an average 
population of five persons per house, gives an average of 10 gallons per head 
per diem. It was suggested that spring taps should be provided for the sinks, 
so as to save waste of water, but ordinary taps were provided, and it was 
found that the tenants, instead of using bowls in the sinks for washing-up, 
rilled the sinks with water, consequently there was the risk of waste in that 

It was also suggested that the account for running expenses should be 
made up quarterly, and a rebate allowed for users if any saving was effected, 
as that would tend to economical use of the water. To provide for hot water 
heating in the houses would entail an additional charge of about 3s. per 
week, but this could only be economically effected in conjunction with a com- 
bined scheme for lighting and heating. 

Near Birmingham a number of houses had been fitted with independent 
apparatus for heating and hot water supply, where provision was made for 
shutting off the whole of the heating during the summer months, and the 
results were generally considered satisfactory by the tenants, and these had 
1). en in operation now a few years. 

The author's main points were based upon experiments carried out in 
connection with two small houses, but he frankly admitted in some cases the 
idea of centralisation was not only " very attractive," but " certainly 

It was not fair for a general opinion to go forth that centralisation was 
economically impossible when the basis deals only with workmen's cottages. 

It having been stated that an economical bath required 7,000 B.T.U. in 
the water, the speaker pointed out that with a geyser having a 75 per cent, 
efficiency, with gas costing 4s. per cu. ft., the cost of the bath would be 0-9 
pence. With an independently fired hot water service apparatus, using 
coke at 50s. per ton, the bath would cost -32 of a penny, and even adding 
100 per cent, for losses, the total cost would be -64 ot a penny. 

30 Central Heating. 

He agreed that it was necessary to provide in every household a certain 
amount of high grade heat, which could be obtained either by gas or elec- 
tricity, as well as the low grade heat for heating and hot water supply. 

In connection with generating stations, economy could be effected, that 
question was discussed at length at joint meetings of the Electrical Engineers 
and the Heating and Ventilating Engineers, and the opinion was expressed 
that existing generating stations which might be disbanded under a central 
scheme, should be utilised as heating stations, generating electric current 
as a by-product. 

The author stated that if the gas mains leaked they did not lose heat. 
As the main point in the paper was the utilisation of gas for heating pur- 
poses, the loss of gas by leakage was losing the very essence of heat. 

The cost of central plant, the author thought, would probably work out 
at £150 per house. Mr. Haden considered that this was too high a figure, 
and said that in one scheme the complete hot water service system worked 
out at £27, exclusive of builder's work, and that the additional cost of a 
heating system would probably be about £50 per house. 

In comparison with the suggested cost of 7s. per week, one complete 
scheme was described which was to include all services from one central 
station, namely, electric lighting, electric cooking, central heating and hot 
water supply, and the inclusive charge per week for all these services was to 
be 6s. 8d., and it was considered by the Committee of the work people who 
were appointed to consider the matter that this would work out to their 
advantage. Unfortunately, through financial difficulties, the complete 
scheme had to be abandoned after a small number of houses were erected. 
It was intended to provide meters for the electric current merely as a check 
upon its use, but no variation was to be made in the charge. 

A case was also mentioned of a number of houses in the north which were 
supplied at an over-all rate with electricity for lighting purposes, and though 
meters were provided, it was found that the current was not used extra- 

The price of gas was certainly higher than it ought to be, and the author 
had omitted to consider electrical power as its high cost put it out of court. 

Mr. Haden pointed out that it was in connection with combined plants 
for lighting and heating that the best results could be obtained, and that 
given a definite number of houses the heat load for such would be more than 
sufficient to give all the electric power required for lighting, not only the 
houses, but the roads in the neighbourhood, and believed that if Mr. Barker 
had carefully studied the question from this point of view he would have 
given a rather different opinion to that expressed in his paper. 

Major A. J. Martin (London) pointed out that for at least thirty years 
central heating had been a practical proposition in America, but in New York 
they were not dealing with houses built twelve to the acre. As a matter of 
fact, they in this country had their own schemes of central heating in the 
form of gas and electricity, and he did not see how they could be improved 
upon. If only they could get the price of electricity and gas reduced, it would 
not be worth while in ordinary conditions considering schemes for the dis- 
tribution of heat from central stations. 

Discussion. 31 

Mr. H. H. Creasey (London) said he thought that Mr. Barker's reference 

to Dr. Leonard Hill's opinions had an important bearing on the subject. 
As our bodies are constructed by Nature to accommodate themselves to sud- 
den changes of temperature, it seemed obvious that living for a number of 
hours daily in a house with a constant (sometimes too high) temperature in 
every room was a wrong principle, and would result in a detrimental effect 
upon our health. He emphasised the value of radiant heat upon health, and 
mentioned that one proof of that was the fact that at children's hospitals, 
babies and young children in a collapsed condition are frequently laid in 
front of a glowing fire, either coal or gas, to help to bring them round or to 
retain life. At the hospital for sick children, Great Ormond Street, gas fires 
were in use in the wards. 

The paper dealt with houses suitable for the working class. The gas 
industry considered that one coal fire should be installed for constant and 
heavy duty as gas was probably at the moment too expensive for the tenants 
to afford for this purpose, but gas fires should be installed for the rest of the 
rooms where the need for their use was intermittent. Such schemes were 
being installed in various parts of the country, and were much superior to any 
system of central heating, either communal or otherwise. 

The author remarked on the expense of the pipe system for communal 
central heating schemes. A serious point in that connection was the fact 
that the working class women almost throughout the country have demanded 
gas cookers. Therefore, if gas was to go in for that purpose, why should it 
not be used for other purposes in the same house, as two sets of pipes are too 
costly, and, as Mr. Barker said, you cannot cook by hot water pipes. At 
Islington a central water heating installation for domestic hot water in a 
housing scheme had been under consideration, but the cost of putting it in 
proved prohibitive, as an installation of gas water heaters and gas cookers 
was available at a very much lower cost, and was accordingly installed. 

Mr. Haden had referred to what he called the " jealousy " of a gas com- 
pany because it would not run mains in one case unless they had more of the 
business than was offered to them. He supposed that meant the gas company 
would not run the mains free of charge, he would point out that gas under- 
takings were not philanthropic societies, but had to work on a commercial 
basis, and the scheme referred to would probably not have been a commercial 
proposition to the gas undertaking unless they had a better share of the 
business. They would not refuse to run the mains at all, but no doubt could 
not bear the cost of them under impossible commercial conditions. Gas 
was very requisite, and as the housing scheme could not stand the cost of 
two systems and two sets of pipes, something had to be dropped, and it 
was not gas. To his mind Mr. Haden, in defending the communal hot water 
scheme, had admirably illustrated Mr. Barker's point, against himself. Mr. 
Haden said that at one of the schemes, they had introduced safeguards to 
prevent the waste of hot water. That at once disclosed a weakness. 

Mr. Alwyn A. Jones (London) said that frankly he was disappointed 
with Mr. Barker's attitude on the question of district heating; the paper 
said central heating, but obviously meant district heating, for he had always 

32 Central Heating. 

thought of him as an advocate of new ideas in the heating and ventilating 
world. What was required was constructive, not destructive, criticism. 
America had, for over 40 years, possessed many very successful district 
heating stations, but it also had, it is true, some that were not so successful. 
If they looked into the latter it was found that they belonged to the early 
experimental stages. In America, of course, heating apparatus was more 
common than in this country owing to the lower temperatures of their winters, 
but if they could lay on hot water to houses, etc., in this country, as they did 
cold water, gas and electricity, it would be more generally adopted here. 
If the American practice was more thoroughly studied it would be found that 
most of our difficulties had already been solved. District heating was not 
unknown in this country, and Mr. Haden had already referred to the Blackley 
and Gorton Estates in Manchester, where the rent was only increased Is. 6d. 
per week. If there was any truth in the old saying," What Manchester says 
to-day, the country will say to-morrow," district heating was coming. The 
difficulty of running the mains had been mentioned, but was the difficulty 
insurmountable ? He wished it was possible to obtain some authoritative 
figures of the cost of continuously cutting up the pavements, etc., in London, 
for repairs and renewals of electric cables, gas and water mains, etc., apart 
from the annoyance caused by those upheavals. If this cost over a number 
of years could be capitalised it might go a long way towards the cost of pro- 
viding a duct for all service pipes. He thought the difficulty was exaggerated, 
for it had already been done on the north side of Holborn Viaduct, where there 
was a so-called underground street containing pipes and cables. The question 
of waste, owing to the desire to get value for money, could be easily obviated 
by metering like other services. The same complaint could be made about 
gas, and the reason gas was not more often used was that instead of using it 
as an intermittent means of heating the users got comfortable and failed to 
turn it off, and also left it burning to save the trouble of lighting again. The 
next gas bill either made them more economical, or they gave it up altogether. 
The same would apply to heating. Break-downs were exceptional, and the 
other services were put right without causing great inconvenience, so it would 
be possible in this case. In exceptional cases it would be possible in houses 
using electricity for lighting, to have a heater as a stand-by, and similarly 
in gas lighted houses, a gas heater, using either temporarily from the 
lighting service. The subject required more enquiry and consideration, 
and, perhaps, that meeting was one way of ventilating it. 

Mr. J. G. Clark (London) said, with regard to the reference to Carbon 
Monoxide in gas the paper suggested a limit of 20 per cent. He would not 
discuss at the moment whether or not that figure of 20 per cent, had any 
special merit. The question was practically irrelevant at the present 
time because the average of British gas engineering practice was such that 
the Carbon Monoxide was well below what the paper set down as a limit, 
though it may be mentioned that in the States 30 per cent, is regarded as a 
safe limit, and is worked to without disadvantage to public health. 

If this remark was read in conjunction with the Professor's allusions to 
gas, it would readily be seen that the great usefulness of gas, as a fuel, was in 
no way impaired by the presence in it of Carbon Monoxide. 

Discussion. 33 

Professor Barker replying to the discussion, said, in the cottages in 
which his experiments were carried on, everything was at present done by 
gas, and each separate service was metered. He believed he would be 
able to supply all the requirements for 2s. per week. Mr. Haden quoted 
an instance where the cost was £27 for the hot-water supply and £50 for 
the heating, but he would like to know how much was allowed for inter 
and depreciation. — (Mr. Haden : Six per cent.). — They could not borrow 
money for six per cent., and where did the depreciation come in ? He 
would allow 12 per cent, for interest and depreciation, and that would 
not include repairs, and if they took everything into account he did not 
think his figure of £150 would be found far wrong. He would like to 
see the figures of a central-heating system which had run for five years 
continuously. He had not been referring to houses separately supplied with 
boilers and radiators, but his remarks were directed to district heating. 
Central heating in a house, if it were not overdone, was a great joy, but 
it was not good for the people who lived in the house, because he 
believed Nature did not intend people to be kept too warm by external 
means, but rather to generate and regulate their own heat inside their own 
bodies, for which purpose those bodies were specially designed. 


The Sanitation of Places of Public Entertainment, by W. Allen Daley, 
M.D., B.A., B.Sc, D.P.H., Medical Officer of Health, Blackburn 

Read at Blackburn Sessional Meeting, March 17th, 1922. 

THERE is a vague feeling at the present time that places of public 
entertainment are responsible in some way for the spread of infection : 
this is no doubt due firstly to the increasing popularity of such places, and 
secondly, to attention directed to them during the recent epidemic of 
influenza. It is well known that influenza, in common with all diseases 
spread by droplets of secretion from the nose and throat, is liable to be 
contracted in a crowded assembly ; and these places, along with trams and 
trains, were regarded by some with great suspicion. The influenza was, 
at that time, world wide, and was serious in places where neither trains, 
trams, nor picturedromes existed, but, nevertheless, it is desirable that we 
should do everything possible to make them conform to a high hygienic 

Further, the Actors' Union approached the Minister of Health some time 
ago and complained of the insanitary accommodation provided for the 
artists in some theatres, especially in the Provinces : they referred particularly 
to the want of proper lavatory accommodation, insufficient ventilation, and 
the dirty state of the dressing-rooms. 

Again, the Education Act of 1918 gave to Local Education Authorities 
the responsibility of caring not only for the education of child artists, but 
also of supervising the conditions under which they worked, and the lodgings 
in which they were housed. 

For many years in the large towns the plans of new places of entertain- 
ment have been shown by the Borough Surveyor to the Medical Officer of 
Health, and the Licensing Authority have called for his report before granting 
or renewing a license ; this has not, however, been done in every case. In 
August, 1920, a circular was sent by the Minister of Health to all sanitary 
authorities urging that special attention be paid to this matter. 

The possible dangers to health in a crowded building are not confined to 
the risk of contracting infectious disease in the usually accepted sense of the 
term. If the building is badly ventilated a cold in the head or bronchitis 
may result : a headache will almost certainly follow, and the effects of an 
evening's relaxation will be tiredness and irritability instead of improved 
health and strength. One must also consider injury to health as a result of 
exposure to inclement weather in a queue : the danger to life if exits are 
insufficient and fire should break out, and, in the case of picturedromes, eye- 

\V. Allen Daley. 35 

strain. The importance of the subject will be realised when it is pointed out 
that in Blackburn alone — (a town of 130,000 inhabitants) the th< and 

music halls accommodate 4,963 persons, and the picturedromes 9,720. All 
have at least seven shows a week : some thirteen : altogether there are 122 
performances weekly. Assuming that on the average the accommodation is 
three-quarters full, the weekly attendance will be 104,500 : if only half-full, 

With regard to the prevention of infectious disease, it is desirable that 
children in arms should not be admitted, as if measles or whooping cough are 
contracted at an early age, a fatal termination is not unlikely. The 
objection will be raised that if a working class mother cannot take her baby 
with her she cannot go to a place of amusement at all, but I submit that 
though this is a hardship it is one of the penalties of maternity. Further, 
it is found in practice that it is most exceptional for a mother to have no-one 
in whose care the child can be left, and there is no difficulty, as a rule, in doing 
this when the mother wants to go out to work. Referring to older children, 
it is advisable that when the schools are closed because of an epidemic, 
children apparently of or below school age should be excluded from all 
public assemblies. In grave epidemics of influenza, such as that of October, 
1918, it is a matter for serious consideration whether or not all places of 
entertainment should not be closed : there should at least be long intervals 
between the performances. 

The question of queues is generally dealt with by the provision of a crush 
hall ; it is essential that this should be ventilated properly, or the effect on 
health will be worse than if they waited in the street. The Licensing 
Authority can always be relied upon to require sufficient exits for emergency 

m case of fire. 

I devote the rest of this paper to the : (a) Sanitary require- 
ments m the auditorium ; (b) Sanitary requirements for artists ; (c) Special 
points in connection with picturedromes ; (d) Dancing halls. 

Sanitary conveniences for each sex should be available on each floor of 
the auditorium. They should be efficiently ventilated, and, if possible, 
separated from the main building by a ventilated passage. They should be 
sufficient in number having regard to the congestion which may occur during 
the interval. Experience suggests that there should be one water closet 
tor each sex and one urinal stall for every 450, or less, persons for whom 
accommodation is provided. 

The most important sanitary requirement is efficient ventilation, and 
definite standards must be laid down. A standard of floor space usually 
adopted is that of the London County Council, namely, 5J square feet per 
person where backs or arms are provided to the seats and 4J where they are 

36 Sanitation of Places of Public Entertainment. 

not : this is exclusive of the space in corridors and at the sides. In Blackburn 
the floor space per person varies from 4 to 7 square feet, including corridors, 
and the approximate cubic space from 75 to 186 cubic feet. Dr. W. H. 
Davison, reporting on picturedromes in Birmingham, states that the cubic 
feet of air space provided per person varied from 50 to 172 : he recommends 
a minimum of 120. 

In a building such as a theatre or picturedrome natural ventilation by 
open doors and windows is obviously impossible, though they should be 
used as far as practicable ; it is possible to admit air without light into the 
darkened enclosure by hopper ventilators fitted into the walls, or into the 
shutters which close the windows. The inlets should be large, so that the 
velocity of the air through them will be small. They should be some six feet 
above the floor and the flow of air should be directed upwards. 

For satisfactory ventilation powerful extraction fans are also necessary : 
they must be silent and kept on throughout the performance, not put on only 
during the interval to clear the smoke. It is not uncommon when a visit 
of inspection is paid to find the fan " temporarily " out of order ; it should 
be so fitted as to show a subdued light when the fan is working. 

I think it must be recognised now that a standard of ventilation based 
on the carbon dioxide content is not likely to be satisfactory, and that as 
the feeling of comfort or discomfort in a room depends on the cooling power 
of the air, any standard adopted should measure this cooling power. A 
satisfactory method of doing this is by Professor Leonard Hill's Kata- 
thermometer. The time taken for the temperature to fall from 100° F. to 
95° F. is measured with a stop watch ; the shorter the time the better the 
ventilation. The mean of a series of 5 readings is taken and is divided into 
the " constant " obtained for each thermometer by experiment : the higher 
the quotient, which is the cooling power (in milli-calories per second per 
square centimetre of surface), the better are the atmospheric conditions : 
this reading is called the dry Kata-reading. The experiments are repeated 
with a moistened piece of muslin over the bulb of the thermometer, and the 
result is calculated in the same way and called the wet Kata-reading. Pro- 
fessor Hill recommends that the minimum standards for efficient ventilation 
should be 6 for the dry Kata and 18 for the wet. Doctors Porter and Cluver, 
reporting to the Municipal Council of Johannesburg, recommend standards 
of 5 and 16, but meteorological conditions there cannot be compared with 
those here. We have made experiments with the Kata-thermometer in 
several of the Blackburn places of entertainment and in the Assembly Hall 
of the Public Halls, when about 1,000 people had been there for an hour. 
The Public Hall reading was 6.2 dry, 19.7 wet, and the readings in the other 
places varied from 5.5 to 6.7 and from 16.16 to 18.95. In one, as will be 

W. Allen Daley. 37 

inferred from the maximum readings, the conditions were very satisfactory, 
in most of the others no cause for complaint could be made. 

The observers recorded their impressions of the ventilation before taking 
the readings and observed definitely that where the dry Kata reading fell 
below 6 the atmospheric conditions were not comfortable. I would suggest, 
therefore, that a reasonable standard of ventilation for places of public 
entertainment would be that recommended by Professor Hill, namely, a 
dry Kata-thermometer reading of 6, and a wet Kata-thermometer reading of 
1 8. In buildings where there may be difficulty now in reaching that standard, 
the ventilation could be improved sufficiently by the installation of another 
or a more powerful extraction fan and by the enlargement of the air inlets. 
Arrangements should be made for doors to be widely opened between the 
performances, and, as far as practicable, during the interval. 

An enterprising firm has put on the market a volatile disinfectant which 
is placed in an electrically heated container ; it is claimed that it will destroy 
pathogenic bacteria at a distance of many feet and is non-irritating to the 
audience ; the latter claim is not altogether justifiable, and in a hall in which 
it was tried during the recent influenza epidemic a member of the audience 
complained that he was being " gassed." If a really non-irritating but 
potent gaseous disinfectant could be obtained I am sure it would be largely 
used. Many picturedrome managers pin their faith on the squirting into the 
air during the interval of a perfumed solution which is alleged to have dis- 
infectant properties. This helps to clear smoke away and is liked by the 
audience ; its scientific value as an improver of the ventilation is very small. 

The best disinfectant of all is sunshine, and if the rays of the sun could be 
allowed to enter every part of a theatre or picturedrome daily little else in the 
way of disinfection would be necessary. Unfortunately many of these places 
are built without any windows at all ; in several, at my suggestion, a large 
window has been placed at one side, and it has soon paid for itself by a saving 
in the cost of electricity used by the cleaners in the mornings. 

Allied to the* subject of ventilation is the maintenance of a suitable 
temperature and a satisfactory amount of moisture in the air. The best 
temperature is from 60° F. to 65° F., but a margin of a few degrees on either 
side is not very important ; the temperature in a picturedrome has been 
observed to rise 7° F. during the course of the performance without any 
alteration in the supply of heat from radiators. A low pressure hot water 
system is usually used and is generally quite efficient. To cool a building 
in very hot weather and to control the humidity require an elaborate plant 
with air ducts and fans ; if the building can be provided with cross ventila- 
tion this is generally, however, unnecessary. Relative humidity should, for 

38 Sanitation of Places of Public Entertainment. 

comfort, be not more than 65% or less than 35% ; in the Blackburn picture- 
dromes it varied from 58% to 78%, the latter being associated with a dry 
Kata reading of 5.5, and a wet one of 16 ; the conditions were decidedly 

Methods of cleaning are important. For upholstery and carpets the 
most satisfactory is by means of a vacuum apparatus ; wooden seats and 
linoleum should be scrubbed at least once a week and swept with a wet 
brush daily. Linoleum or composition is the best floor covering ; carpets 
should be limited to strips along the gangways ; if not vacuumed they should 
be taken out and beaten at least once a week. 

Accommodation for Artists.— Even in first-class theatres the provision 
made behind the scenes is very different from what popular imagination 
pictures. In most theatres many of the dressing rooms are approached by a 
long flight of stone stairs ; the walls are whitewashed or colour washed ; 
only in the very best are both hot and cold water laid on to the dressing rooms, 
and the only furniture consists of a dressing table, a mirror, a form or a few 
kitchen chairs, and a number of coat hooks. This, however, is not a matter 
of health and would not have been mentioned but for popular misconception 
of what a " green room " is. The provision of at least one sanitary con- 
venience with lockable door on each floor, and of hot and cold water, would 
seem to be essential. If children are employed, their dressing room should 
be as near the stage as possible. 

Eye-Strain in Picturedromes. — Owing to the fact that attendance at 
picturedromes is so popular with children, and as their increased use for 
educational purposes is likely, it is necessary for us to consider fully how eye- 
strain can be avoided. In adults when the eye is no longer growing the danger 
of damage is not so great. Fortunately, a Committee of experts repre- 
senting Ophthalmic Surgeons, the Cinema Industry and the Illuminating 
Engineering Society have been investigating this subject and have come to 
the conclusion that the principal cause of eye-strain is prolonged looking 
upwards at the pictures at too acute an angle ; another important cause is by 
observing the pictures from a point so far to the side that the picture is 
somewhat out of focus. 

Subject to a reservation by the representatives of the Cinema Industry, 
the Committee recommend : — 

(I.) That the angle of elevation, subtended at the eye of any person 
seated in the front row, by the length of the vertical line dropped from the 
centre of the top edge of the picture to the horizontal plane passing through 
the observer's eye shall not exceed 35°, the height of the eye above the 
floor-level being assumed to be 3 ft. 6 in." 

W. Allen Daley. 39 

(II.) That provided Recommendation (I.) is complied with, the angle 
between the vertical plane containing the upper edge of the picture, and the 
vertical plane containing the observer's eye and the remote end of the 
upper edge of the picture, should not be less than 25°." 

In most existing picturedromes these recommendation- are not complied 
with, and as it means, in effect, that no-one shall sit nearer the screen than 
1J times the height of the top of the picture above eye-level, it would, 
undoubtedly, involve considerable hardship on some licensees. 1 would 

tmmend, therefore, that these standards apply to all newly licensed 
picturedromes, but that in existing buildings where the full requirement 
would involve serious diminution of seating capacity permission be granted 
to use the front seats for adults only ; all children should be accommodated 
in seats which comply with the recommendations of the Committee. It is 
recommended, too, that no unscreened source of light shall be visible to the 

Bad focussing, " flicker," film defects, either scratches or worn sprocket 
holes, movement of the picture owing to instability of the projection 
apparatus, and very rapid screening of the pictures are all causes of eye- 
strain which can be readily rectified. An average rate of projection of 1,000 
feet of film in 15 minutes is most suitable for the eyes. 

The question of special matinees for children may be mentioned. Pro- 
vided the films are well chosen, no over-crowding allowed, and the time of the 
performance limited to 90 minutes, it would be better for the children than 
taking them to a performance designed primarily for adults. This is, of 
course, subject to there being no epidemic of infectious disease at the time. 

Dancing Halls.— These come within the jurisdiction of the Licensing 
Authority if a music licence is applied for. The provision of sanitary and of 
cloakroom accommodation is sometimes very inadequate in these places, 
and the means of ventilation are either unsatisfactory or are not used. 

In conclusion I summarise by suggesting that when a Licensing Authority 
is considering applications for licensing places of public entertainment 
they should take into consideration the following regulations : — 

1. Children in arms should not be admitted to theatres or picture- 

2. When schools are closed because of the prevalence of infectious 
disease, children apparently of or below school age should not be admitted 
to such places. 

3. In times of grave epidemics of diseases such as influenza, which are 
spread by the assemblage of peopl- . powei should be given to the Sanitary 

40 Sanitation of Places of Public Entertainment. 

Authorities to regulate the intervals between performances or even to 
prohibit them. 

4. Sanitary conveniences should be in the proportion of three for every 
450 of the accommodation provided, i.e., one W.C. for women and one 
W.C. and one urinal stall for men. 

5. In all new buildings 120 cubic feet of air space should be allowed per 

6. Windows to admit sunlight should be placed in all theatres and 

7. Cross Ventilation should be provided whenever possible; inlet 
ventilators should be installed and should remain open throughout the 
performance ; this applies to the bars, sanitary conveniences, and crush 
lounges, as well as to the auditorium. 

8. A silent extraction fan or fans should be provided and should be 
put into action at regular intervals ; that it is working should be demon- 
strated by the lighting of an electric lamp in circuit with the fan. 

9. The building should be flushed with air every morning and between 
the performances, and, as far as possible, during the interval. 

10. The standard of ventilation to be required should be : — 

A dry Kata-thermometer reading of not less than 6, and a wet 
Kata-thermometer reading of not less than 18. 

11. The temperature should be maintained between 57° F. and 68° F., 
and the relative humidity between 35% and 65% of saturation. 

12. The whole of the upholstery should be cleaned by a vacuum cleaner 
at least once a week ; the floor should be washed weekly and wet brushed 

13. Sanitary accommodation and a supply of hot and cold water should 
be provided for the artists on every floor containing dressing rooms ; 
accommodation for children should be as near the stage as possible. 

14. In all new picturedromes the angle of elevation should not exceed 
35°, and the lateral angle 25° ; in all existing premises children should be 
prohibited from sitting in positions where these angles are exceeded. 

15. The other causes of eye-strain in picturedromes should be eliminated. 

16. Proper ventilation and adequate sanitary accommodation should 
be required in dancing halls. 

In conclusion I must express my thanks to Inspector Kenyon, of the 
Blackburn Health Department, who has carried out the Kata-thermometer 
experiments ; to Mr. T. Shaw, B.Sc, who assisted him, and to the writers 
of the two valuable reports on this subject' mentioned below : — 

Discussion. 41 

Report by Dr. W. H. Davison, Assistant Medical Officer of Health, 
Birmingham. " An Inquiry into the Ventilation of Cinematograph 
Theatres," March, 1919. 

Report by Dr. Charles Porter, Medical Officer of Health, Johannesburg, 
and Dr. Eustace H. Cluver, Professor of Physiology, Johannesburg, Septem- 
ber, 1921. 

The Illuminating Engineer, June, 1920. ' Interim Report of Joint 
Committees on ' Eyestrain in Cinemas.' " 

Mr. Reginald Yorke (Blackburn) pointed out that for the past 25 years 
he had almost lived in theatres and cinemas, and he declared without hesita- 
tion that they were not the polluted places pessimists would have them 
believe. As to insanitary dressing-rooms in provincial theatres, there might be 
such places, but he had never seen them. They usually had large windows, 
which were kept tightly shut by the artistes themselves. As far as his experi- 
ence went, proper lavatory accommodation was provided for each sex on 
each floor. Special attention was paid to the cleaning of theatre dressing- 
rooms, which were not drawing-rooms, and would compare very favourably 
with similar accommodation to be found, for example, at public baths. He 
agreed that plans of new places of entertainment should be passed by the 
medical officer as well as by the surveyor, and he had no doubt that in the 
future this practice would become universal. Draughts spelt ruin to a house 
of entertainment. Proprietors devoted considerable attention to the question 
of ventilation, but it was difficult to get a perfect temperature, as they did not 
know beforehand the size of the audience. It had always been his policy to 
debar children in arms from his houses, but he was not sure that to exclude 
children during epidemics would have the desired effect. Audiences would 
not sit for any length of time unless they could rest their feet on carpet. At 
considerable cost he was making experiments with rubber carpets. He had 
never heard of any case of eye-strain. The question of redundancy of cinema 
licences ought to be carefully watched. 

Alderman W. Kenyon (Blackburn) said one great point in regard to 
places of amusement was cleanliness. He could vouch for the fact that the 
dressing-rooms in Blackburn were far better than some about which they had 
been told. 

Dr. F. G. Haworth (Darwen) said they could not prove how many cases 
of infection during an epidemic were due to attendance at a cinema. The 
difficulty with regard to cinemas was that they were not sufficiently light to 
secure sanitary conditions, and they ought to have windows which would let 
in fresh air and sunlight. When school were closed on account of infection 
children should not be allowed in picture palaces. 

42 Sanitation of Places of Public Entertainment. 

The Chairman (Prof. Kenwood) subscribed to everything that Dr. Daley 
had said. If it were practicable to carry out all the suggestions he had made 
the result would be all to the public good. At the same time it was impos- 
sible to listen to Mr. Yorke without being impressed with the fact that here 
was a case where they could not apply their knowledge entirely. Mr. Yorke 
had referred to satisfactory ventilation as being unsolved, but he did not 
think it was unsolved in halls which would bear the provision of mechanical 
ventilation. He differed from Mr. Yorke when he said that the closing 
of cinemas would have no effect in the event of an epidemic. 

Dr. Daley, in reply, said it was undesirable that a place of 
entertainment should be draughty, because they recognised that it 
would have no patrons, but at the same time he urged that it was possible 
to have efficient ventilation without draughts. In considering the state- 
ments made as to the good health of those engaged in the cinema trade 
it must be borne in mind that individual susceptibility varied greatly : 
it would be futile to argue that scarlet fever was non-infectious simply 
because doctors and nurses generally escaped infection. The difference 
between Mr. Yorke and himself was, after all, very small indeed. 


Conversion of Pail Closets to Water Closets, by A. T. Gooseman, M.Inst. 

C.E., Borough Engineer, Blackburn. 

Read at Blackburn Sessional Meeting, March 17th, 1922. 

VARIOUS devices have been tried from time to time for the removal of 
decomposing matter. All the elements known to the ancients have 
been laid under tribute, fire, air, earth and water, but to-day it is generally 
recognised that the water carriage system is the most effective for the speedy 
removal of matter liable to decompose, the storage of which, even for a brief 
period, near our doors, may be attended with dangerous consequences. 

It is interesting to note that the water carriage system was in vogue 
centuries ago. The ruins of Pompeii show that latrines existed which were 
supplied with water and from which the drains conveyed away the polluting 

In this country prior to 1815, it was illegal to pass faecal matter into sew< rs. 
Such matter was usually accumulated in cesspools. It was not until the year 
1847 that the first Act of Parliament was passed which made it compulsory 
to pass faecal matter into sewers. 

I claim that in Lancashire we have some of the most progressive Munici- 
palities in the Kingdom, who have provided their communities with an 
excellent water supply, Sewage Disposal Works, Public Baths, Public 
Buildings, Refuse Destructors, Hospitals, etc., but many towns have still 
in existence thousands of those " fly factories " in the privy and pail closet. 

Sanitary laws are intended to give power to communities which single 
individuals cannot possess, and in this country these laws, to some extent, 
are permissive, so that we see in some districts the Law is rigidly enforced, 
whilst on the other hand, community after community is still found living 
in the most insanitary conditions. 

It is over 50 years since that sanitary abomination, known as the privy 

midden, was practically abolished and pails substituted in this town. The 

progress of those days is partly responsible for the delay in converting the 

existing pail system to the water carriage system. Two years ago 1 had a 

nsus taken of the closets in Blackburn, and the numbers were as follows :— 

Pail Closets, 9,278; Slop Water Closets, 2,541 ; Privies, 81 ; Fresh 

Water Closets, 26,457— Total, 38,357. 

Over 20 years ago the Blackburn Corporation under an Act of Parliam. nt 
obtained borrowing powers for the conversion of pails, privies, and slop 
water closets into water closets. Under this Act the Corporation also 
obtained powers to have conversions other than privy middens and cess- 
pools earned out, and at the same time to pay half the cost, providing 
the Corporation had not previously required alterations to be made in the 

44 Conversion of Pail Closets. 

closet accommodation of the premises concerned. In the case of any such 
previous alterations, if the owner could prove that these were carried out at 
the Corporation's request, the expense of any further alteration would be 
borne by the Corporation. 

Up to the commencement of last year the method adopted by the Corpora- 
tion in order to have these conversions carried out, was by agreement with 
the property owners, the Corporation contributing a certain part of the cost. 
At that time it was £3 15s. for each conversion of a pail or slop water closet 
to the W.C. system, but nothing was allowed by the Corporation for the 
conversion of a privy midden. 

The average number of conversions carried out per year was only 50. 
The Corporation were dissatisfied with this rate of progress and decided, 
unanimously, to prepare a Scheme for the wholesale conversion of pails to the 
Water Carriage system. There were certain objections at the outset, but on 
going into these it was found the obstacles were imaginary. 

It was suggested that our water supply was not sufficient to deal with the 
increased number of W.C.'s, but it was found by experiment in Blackburn 
that one conversion will only increase the consumption of water in the town 
by 15 gallons per day, and, therefore, 10,000 conversions would mean only an 
increased consumption of 150,000 gallons per day, which, in view of the fact 
that our average daily consumption of water is 4,000,000 gallons, would be a 
mere bagatelle. 

It was also contended that our sewers were not large enough to deal with 
the extra quantity of sewage, when the conversions were completed, but as 
our dry weather flow of sewage is 4,000,000 gallons per day and it is necessary 
to carry in our sewers at least 6 times the dry- weather flow, i.e., 24,000,000, 
the increase of 154,000 gallons of sewage, which the conversion scheme was 
found by experiment to entail, would be so small in comparison with the 
bulk that it could be ignored. In addition to this the practice in Blackburn 
during many months in the year has been to deposit the whole of the contents 
of the pails into the sewers at two places, and, therefore, there was less 
objection to its being spread over the whole of the sewers in the Borough than 
to concentrate it at one or two spots as has been the practice. 

On the present rate of wages it would cost the Corporation £7,759 per 
annum to collect and dispose of the pail contents which existed 12 months 
ago. When the whole of the conversions are completed it will probably 
have cost the Corporation £60,000 in grants. 

They have borrowing powers for 25 years for this work. The interest and 
sinking fund of this amount at the present rate of interest is £4,444 per 
annum, and therefore, after allowing for a few pails on the outskirts of the 
town which cannot be converted, and which will cost £150 per annum to 
collect, the Scheme will show a saving of £3,000 per annum to the rate- 

A. T. Gooseman. 45 

payers; so then is a good margin to work on to allow for any fall in pri< 
Furthermore, after 25 years the interest and sinking fund on this amount 
will have been exhausted, and from that time onwards this scheme will 
entail no further expenditure from the rates, although the benefit of the 
financial saving and other advantages will still be enjoyed by the R;i 

In addition, if the conversion of a pail closet costs the property owner, 
say, £6, the substitution of a W.C. for a pail surely enhances the value of the 
property by more than this amount, and my experience is that in the majority 
of cases the tenant is only too pleased to pay a few coppers a week extra in 
rent, which will more than repay the landlord on his outlay, in order to live 
under more sanitary conditions. 

When the various difficulties were removed the first step the Corporation 
took to abolish the pail system was to meet the property owners with a view 
to arriving at an agreement with reference to the financial allowance which 
should be made in respect of conversions carried out by the owners under 
private contract, and after several interviews, in order to get the scheme 
commenced, the Corporation arranged to offer £8 to the owner who converted 
a pail to the W.C. system. At the same time, it was decided to engage a 
Staff of men under me to carry out such conversions as were not completed 
by the owner within one month after the notice to convert had been served, 
which incidentally enabled the Corporation to know the exact cost of the 

After a short time we found that £8 was considerably more than half the 
cost of the work, as the average total cost of the first batch converted by 
direct labour was only £12 . lis. This was partly due to the decrease in cost of 
materials and wages and the Corporation grant was accordingly reduced to 
£6 . 10s., a further reduction being subsequently made to £6, and on the first 
of this month the grant was again reduced to £5. 

In order to encourage this work being carried out as speedily as possible, 
and at the same time to give the private Contractor a fair chance, the Corpora- 
tion contribution has been slightly more than half the average cost. Of the 
total conversions completed, the Corporation have only carried out 17 per 
cent, by direct labour, as the owners have preferred to take advantage of the 

The result has been that although this scheme was only actually com- 
menced a little over 12 months ago, over 6,000 conversions have been 
completed, leaving only 3,000 pails now outstanding in the Borough, which we 
contemplate will be converted within the next few months, as over 1,000 
conversions were completed during last month. 

Prior to commencing work on the Scheme a map was prepared showing 
the privies and pails in existence in the Borough, and it was decided to serve 

46 Conversion of Pail Closets. 

notices in the Districts on the outskirts of the Borough first, working gradually 
in towards the centre. 

The effect of this method of procedure was that as the Scheme progressed, 
the area in which pail closets were still outstanding became more and more 
concentrated centrally and comparatively near the Depot at which the 
contents of the pails was emptied ; consequently, the number of men required 
to be employed on the collection of pails could be reduced, not only in pro- 
portion to the number of pail closets converted, but still further in view of 
the considerably reduced area to be dealt with, and it was found when half the 
Scheme had been completed that it was only necessary to employ 3 drivers 
and 9 pail men to do the work, whereas 12 months previously 9 drivers and 
20 pail men were employed. 

When the Corporation pay part of the cost of conversion it is subject to 
the work being carried out in compliance with a Standard Specification. 
I do not give the details of this Specification, but will mention some particu- 

Before commencing this work we specified that the height of the Cistern 
was to be not less than 4 ft. 6 in. from the top of the closet seat. If these 
regulations had been adhered to it would have meant, in the majority of 
cases, lifting the roof of existing closet structures, and we found, by experi- 
ments that almost as good a flush could be obtained with a reduced height of 
3 ft. 6 in. above the seat. The Specification was altered accordingly, which 
effected an average saving of £2 per conversion, which, when taking into 
consideration the number of conversions, being carried out, was a considerable 
saving to the property owners and the Corporation. 

Another important point is to see that the weight of the W.C. basin is not 
less than 40 lbs., and that the whole work is carried out in compliance with the 
regulations of the Waterworks Committee. 

In the past in the event of Industrial Disputes in towns where privies 
and pails exist they were a grave menace to the public health, as they were 
left for a considerable time without being emptied pending the settlement 
of the dispute, and as the pails primarily existed in working class districts, 
it was the industrial classes themselves who ran this great danger which will 
now be removed. 

It may be suggested that the time is not opportune from a financial 
standpoint to carry out this important reform, but I am hoping that I have 
shown you that the time was never more ripe for doing this work, as the 
Ratepayer, the Taxpayer, the Property Owner and the Tenant will benefit. 

At the present time there is an exceptional amount of unemployment. 
Local authorities are carrying out schemes to find work for the unemployed 
which will add considerably to the rates and taxes. 

The conversion scheme when completed will displace 30 men, but at a 

Discussion. 47 

time when work is most required it has provided mosl useful woi k for 100 i 
p< r week who would otherwise have been receiving doles, and it is better to 
pay wages for such useful work than doles for enforced idlem 

rhe most important advantage to be gained is, however, from a health 

point of view, as every privy and pail closet constitutes a serious menace to the 
health of the people, the emptying of same is a constant source of pollution 
to the soil, and the affected soil is trodden into the houses by the people. 

That eminent Sanitary Engineer, the late Mr. Baldwin Latham, stated : 
" In all ages wherever civilisation has advanced to any degree of refinement, 
sanitary measures were invariably adopted. Alexandria, Carthage, Jerusalem 
and Rome each had a complete system of sewers and waterworks. When the 
civilisation of the Egyptians, Jews, Greeks and Romans faded the world 
passed through dark ages of mental and physical barbarism. For a thousand 
years there was not a man or woman in Europe that ever took a bath. No 
wonder there came the wondrous epidemics of the middle ages to cut off one 
quarter of the population of Europe. But even when the middle ages had 
passed away and the Sun of Civilisation was again rising over the gloomy 
darkness of these centuries what a heritage of filth-produced diseases still 

Money considerations are often of greater importance than the questions 
of life and health, thus literally fulfilling those lines written by the poet, 
Burns : — 

" Man's inhumanity to man 

" Makes countless thousands mourn/' 

Mr. R. WOLSTENHOLME (Blackburn) contended that if the Sanitary 
Authorities compelled a property owner to convert his property from the 
Pail to the Water Carriage system on the ground that the conversion was for 
the public health and benefit, then the public ought to pay for such con- 
version out of the rates, and the owner ought not to have to place the cost 
of such conversion on his tenant in the shape of extra rent, seeing that the 
general community would participate in the resulting prolongation of life 
and better health. 

Counxillor E. Porter (Blackburn) inquired whether it was not a fact 
that landlords were putting up the rents, and that the increases would remain 
for ever. He observed that by the extra rent the landlord would recover his 
cost in ten • >r fifteen years, and would then go on receiving the increased rent. 
He was pleased the local authority were making the conversions. 

\<ii lor T. Sharples (Blackburn) ed with the contention 

that the community should pay for the conversions when they were for the 
benefit of the community. 

Councillor A. Townsend (Blackburn) said the Corporation had behaved 

• rously to property owners in the way of grants in connection with con- 
versions. It was not a sound argument that because the local authority 
desired public improvements the cost should be borne by the rates. 


Economy in Sanitary Appliances and Methods of Drainage, by Sir Henry 
Tanner, C.B., I.S.O., F.R.I. B.A. (vice-president). 

Read at London Sessional Meeting, April 11th, 1922. 

WHEN I was asked to undertake to open a discussion on " Economy 
in Sanitary Appliances and Methods of Drainage," I did so without 
considering what was really involved, especially when those before me 
probably for the most part have a more intimate knowledge of present 
practice. Also when the local bye-laws are no more adhered to by the 
authorities themselves under the pressure of the Housing Department 
of the Ministry of Health, which has, if I may say so, cut down the require- 
ments to the bare bones. 

The question therefore arises, are the bye-laws, model and otherwise, 
to be brought down to the new level ? 

Economy should not be judged entirely by present saving in money. 
Some economies lead to higher maintenance expenses, and these should be 
avoided if possible ; but assuming that a public body has to bear the cost, 
then economy should be considered in connection with efficiency and low 
maintenance expenses. 

The model bye-laws issued by the Ministry of Health, upon which most 
of the local bye-laws are based, contemplate separate connections with 
sewers from each house ; but this has been departed from, and as many as 
12 or 14 houses are drained together, and have but one connection. This 
would lead to difficulties, but so long as the houses remain the property 
of one body no harm arises. The economy, therefore, results in the saving 
of 12 or 14 manholes less one, with certain lengths of drains, and in money 
from £10 to £12 per house. 

When the separate system of sewering is adopted the cost per house is 
increased owing to the duplication of the parts, such as branches, traps 
and vent pipes, and the average increase of cost may be put at £10 per house. 
On the other hand, the rates are saved the cost of dealing with excess of 
water and rainfall, which can be turned into a stream or ditch which may 
be adjacent. 

Needless to say that drains should be laid in direct straight lines, and 
to the shortest routes ; but manholes are required at each change of direc- 
tion in soil drains, and attention should therefore be directed to the possi- 
bility of omitting this expensive item. Of course, this is more easily done 
when there are few breaks in the frontage lines, either at the front or the 
back. For instance, in one case there might be 4 manholes to 10 houses ; 
in another case, 2 manholes to 8 ; in another, 3 manholes to 10 ; while 

Sir Henry Tanner. 49 

in yet another there are 6 manholes to IS. It will therefore b seen thai 

economies can be effected by a careful consideration of the layout. 

Rodding eyes should be brought up to the surface at the end of ea< h 
line of pipes, and in a separate system the number is doubled. 

The number of gullies depends, to some extent, on the internal arrange- 
ment of the house, but efforts should be made to bring together waste and 
rainwater pipes, not only to save the cost of gullies, but of the connections 
between the gullies and the drains. The bye-laws provide that sink and 
bath wastes should discharge into a channel discharging over a trapped 
gulley. This channel, while costing money, is objectionable, as the waste 
water leaves a deposit on the exposed surfaces, and adds to the items requiring 

The requirements of the Housing Department's specification can hardly 
be improved upon in the way of cutting down, but it is unnecessary, in 
my view, to use British Standard tested pipes, and the joints are better 
without gaskin ; and I should prefer that the Portland cement for jointing 
should be mixed with three parts of sand. This, well trowelled, would 
make a perfectly watertight joint, and would be less liable to air cracks 
than cement, either pure or mixed with an equal part of sand. 

Curbs are not required around gullies when paving is provided, but only 
when the soil or path is loose, and liable to be washed into them. 

The manholes described are of the minimum size, but being, as a rule, 
shallow, they afford sufficient space for access ; but the covers which have 
been supplied under the D.B.M.S. are on the side of lightness, which is not 

The ventilating pipes, to be in accordance with the bye-laws, should be 
of the diameter of the drain, and not less than 4 in. With a number of 
houses on one system there may be 6 in. drains, but it would be absurd 
to provide a 6 in. ventilating pipe, and in an ordinary system a 3 in. pipe 
should suffice, and a 4 in. for any reasonable number of houses on a system. 

In housing schemes dealing with considerable numbers, it is by no means 
certain that a irap is needful in the connecting drain, and its omission 
would certainly avoid the possibility of a stoppage, and a rodding eye would 
meet the requirements of the case. 

I will now deal with the interior of the house. The most important 
economy that might be effected here would be to provide for the w.c, bath 
and lavatory, if there be one, on the ground floor. By this means soil pipes, 
lengths of waste and vent pipes, could be avoided, and the arrangements, 
including services, very much simplified. The w.c. could be approached 
by a lobby at the back or side entrances. 


50 Economy in Sanitary Appliances and Drainage. 

It is not easy to estimate what the saving would amount to, and it would 
somewhat depend upon the arrangement, but it would be considerable. 

The bye-laws require soil pipes and the vents from same to be 4 in. in 
diameter. This, of course, is excessive for one w.c, or even for several ; 
but in the case of cottages 3 in. should be enough, the length being only 
about 3 yards, while the vent would be continued of the same diameter. 
If the w.c. were on the ground floor the trap would be connected direct with 
the drain 4 in. in diameter. 

The bye-laws require every w.c. to have one outside wall and a window 
not less than 2 ft. X 1 ft. This is, I consider, too small, and it should 
be at least double this size in area. The bye-laws also provide for an air 
brick for constant ventilation. This might be omitted. 

There are numerous patterns of w.c/s, but economically priced ones 
of cane-glazed stoneware can be obtained of quite as good shape from 
practical considerations as the more expensive ones, and when cost is 
important an ordinary cane and white pan and trap meet the case. The 
wood rim or seat should be hinged. 

The water waste preventers can be obtained in large variety, but a 
pull and let go arrangement is the best. The cistern should fill quickly, 
and there should be the minimum of working parts. The patterns called 
" Japkap " and " Harriap " are apparently the most desirable of those on 
the market at the present time, and are noiseless, which is particularly of 
importance in small buildings having thin partitions, such as cottages. 
For economy the down pipe can be of steel, with a slip joint. A putty 
and canvas joint to the arm of the pan is best, and as economical, if not more 
so, than other forms. 

There is nothing to suggest in the way of economy as regards baths and 
lavatories, except in the price of the articles themselves, and as these have 
fluctuated considerably during recent times it is of little use discussing 
prices till the time arrives for purchasing. 

The D.B.M.S. patterns are about the cheapest forms that can be obtained, 
and the green glaze the most reliable. 

The sanitary arrangements of buildings in towns have to be considered 
from a somewhat different point of view. The buildings are often crowded 
together, and the drainage bye-laws of the L.C.C. cannot very well be departed 
from, but there is considerable waste on occasion. For instance, in business 
premises the whole of the sanitary cooking arrangements, etc., may be on the 
top floor, and rainwater, soil and waste pipes have to be carried down and 
ventilated separately. It seems to me that the same arrangement might 
well be adopted at the upper level as would be used if the system were slung 
to the sub-basement ceilings, and so save the cost of two pipes out 

Sir Henry Tanner. 51 

<>i three, as well as the difficulty entailed in finding suitable i ours< - foi such 

purpose, particularly in the case of steel-frame buildings. 

Under these regulations inside soil pipes have to be oi lead with wiped 
joints, while waste pipes may be of iron or stoneware. It seems to me that 
iron might be equally well allowed if desired. From a practi< al poinl oi view 
lead has the advantage of facility in surmounting difficulties of route, bul 
selection might well be left to the building owner, having regard to t\ 
required to be put upon the system. 

Where there are a number of w.c.'s it is often impossible to place them 
all against an outside wall with a separate window, but so long as they are 
enclosed with partitions about 7 ft. high, well below the ceiling and in a 
well-ventilated space there is no harm in waiving these requirements, as i^ 
often done. 

It would, however, be false economy to use light or badly constructed 
cocks and other brass fittings. 

The relaxation in bye-law 7 s authorised under the Housing and Town 
Planning Act of 1919 ceases to operate on the 31st July. It would be inter- 
esting to know what action will be taken, if any, in regard to relaxation after 
that date. 

With regard to water supplies, the Metropolitan Water Board do not seem 
to consider economy in any way, and I venture to think that some expense 
might be avoided. 

The service pipes are all to be of certain prescribed weights, whether 
they are under the pressure of the Board's mains or merely that of a few feet 
from the cisterns. It is obvious that a considerably lighter weight could 
suffice under the latter condition, and some mean should be allowed between 
the weights given for service pipes and those pipes having open ends, say 
4! lbs. for \ in., 7 lbs. for j in., and so on. 

Lead, copper or iron pipes are permitted according to the Regulations, 

ept where, in contact with the ground, but pressure is used to cause the 
lead service to be taken to the tanks. At the present time there would be 
considerable economy in using iron from near the ground line. 

Then, again, the Board require all cocks and W.W.P.'stobe tested by it 
and stamped. This is not done for nothing, and involves cartage and 
certain small fees which add to the cost per house. Separate warning over- 
flow pipes are required to each lavatory basin. This is costly if there is a 

The officers of the Board appear to be very conservative and hard to move 
to sanction new patterns. Something needs to be done to facilitate these 

If the W.W.P/s are of wood, lead lined, the lining has to be of the same 

52 Economy in Sanitary Appliances and Drainage. 

weight as for ordinary storage cisterns ; 3 lbs. is sufficient for the small 
size of a W.W.P. 

The Housing Board specify storage tanks of 40 gallons, but in one case 
that I am aware of 120 gallons was required ; and it was only after much 
negotiation and loss of time that the matter was adjusted between the two 
Boards, and 60 gallons was decided upon and the system converted into a 
constant one. 

The standard demanded for cocks should be definite, so that there may 
be no difficulty in makers understanding what would be the minimum and 
the type which would be accepted, and some arrangements made by which 
al] these articles might be approved and stamped before being put on sale. 

Mr. Edward Willis (Chiswick) thought it was a mistake to exercise too 
much economy on any[matters of drainage or plumbing, which were, as far as 
possible, kept out of sight, since, until illness resulted, defects often remained 

He was in agreement with^the principle of adopting combined'drainage^for 
several houses or blocks when properly and scientifically designed, butjie 
would emphasise the absolute uselessness of the channel for rainwater pipes. 
It was much better for such pipes to discharge, in his opinion, directly over 
gullies, and a similar procedure was equally desirable for bath or sink wastes 
when trapped, or all could be taken to a central gully or grease trap. 

He very much deprecated the omission of safes under w.c.'s, baths and 
cisterns, since the initial cost of the safe was often money much more economi- 
cally spent than repairing ceilings due to leakage. 

The Housing Department had undoubtedly made some] improvements, 
one of which was the projecting rainwater and soil pipe, but he regretted 
they had allowed the quality of materials for drainage purposes to be 
reduced to a lower standard. 

He agreed with Sir Henry in the absurdity of requiring abnormal thickness 
for service pipes where the pressure would be always low, in consequence 
of the same being determined by the height of the building in which used. 

Mr. J. Osborne Smith (London) said he was glad some weak and wasteful 
sanitary bye-laws had been referred to. While retaining the spirit, high aims 
and sound principles which have come down to us through the bye-laws, we 
must improve the methods and details in the direction experience points out 
and economy dictates. For example : Hard and fast rules must not be 
applied to dissimilar conditions. By careful planning traps and gullies, soil 
and waste pipes, drain chambers, length of drains, etc., can be reduced to a 
reasonable minimum. 

Concrete was not universally required to ensure a sound bed for stoneware 
drains, and rarely for iron drains. 

Discussion. 53 

Large costly covers to chambers on drains are unnecessary ; small bu1 
si i <>ng covers, sufficient for ordinary access, cost much less. 

Sweeping arms and other effective alternatives to chambers can be formed 
in suitable positions at less cost. 

In many positions metal trays are not required under the new Univei saJ 
pedestal closet apparatus and modern baths. 

Precautions to prevent syphonage are usually much more costly than they 
need be 

Prof. E. R. Matthews (H.M. Office of Works) differed from Sir 
Henry Tanner regarding the omission of tarred gaskin in the jointing of 
sanitary pipes, and considered that this material should be used. As to the 
cement jointing, it had been his custom to use a 2 to 1 mixture (2 of sand and 
1 of cement). When using " neat " cement he had frequently noticed that 
the expansion and contraction of this material had caused slight cracks in 
the collars to occur. 

He advocated the introduction of disconnecting traps, but considered that 
much saving would be effected if, instead of building a disconnecting chamber, 
a trap was put in with a vertical pipe leading to the surface. He illustrated 
this by a sketch. 

In certain housing schemes it had been his custom to insert one trap for 
every 10, and in exceptional cases every 20 houses, and he found that this 
was satisfactory, and a great deal of saving in the cost was effected by it. 

As to the testing of drains by water, he had tested (by water) pipes that 
had been laid in a trench, and found no leakage whatever, but after filling in 
the trench he had observed that the pipes would not stand the water test, 
although the head was the same. It was more necessary to test the pipes 
after the ground had been filled in than it was to test them in the open trench, 
although the latter practice was usually adopted. It was useful to test them 
in both ways. 

With regard to air pipes he was afraid that many people did not under- 
stand their precise function. Quite recently he inspected a public building 
seven stories high, with ranges of w.c.'s on each floor and a large kitchen on 
the top floor, but he found that the air pipe was only 3 ins. in diameter, the 
consequence being that on the sub-ground floor syphonage was continually 
taking place, and this was only remedied after an additional 4 in. air pipe 
had been installed. Architects were usually in the habit of putting in air 
pipes which were much too small. 

With regard to the separate system of sewers, experience had taught 
him that a duplicate system of sewers was generally advisable, but he had 
found that very often a separate system had been put in when there was 
no need for it as the soil sewers had not sufficient to do. 

The open channel for the waste pipes to discharge on to, he thought very 

In many housing schemes a 6 in. drain had been laid when a 4 in. one 
would have been sufficient. 

Mr A. P. I. Cotterell (London) said that having during recenl years 

i much of the sanitary economy of other countries, he deprecated an 

economy in sanitary appliances and methods of drainage because they were 

54 Economy in Sanitary Appliances and Drainage. 

so vital to the amenities of the dwelling. There was a great temptation to 
save in this way but to spend in others where the result of the expenditure 
is more pleasing to the eye, and it would be better to save on house decora- 
tion rather than on house drainage. 

At the same time there were doubtless many appliances and methods that 
could be simplified without sacrificing efficiency. In this connection there 
was the intercepting trap, an item involving considerable expense, and one 
of the weakest points of the system. A Government Committee had already 
reported that where the sewerage system was in good order this trap might 
well be omitted, and there were many towns where the advice could be 

He drew attention to a form of jointing of pipes shown at the Sanitary 
Congress at Belfast, the Tubous Joint. It consists of a canvas sausage or 
sack filled with semi-liquid cement that is tucked and caulked into the joint, 
the remainder being made good with cement and sand in the usual way. He 
had used many miles of it, and found it both efficient and cheap. 

Mr. Fred Osborne Smith (London) said that considerable economy 
coupled with greater efficiency could be secured by simplifying the present 
complicated system of plumbing in soil pipes, waste pipes, anti-syphonage 
pipes, etc. He had had the advantage of having under constant observation 
for several years such simplified plumbing in actual use in public buildings, 
military hospitals, and private dwellings, and although he was prejudiced 
against it at the beginning and was always on the look out for defects, he was 
easily able to eliminate such as were found, with the result that the scheme 
was most successful and greatly appreciated. Without going into the 
numerous details, he mentioned the use of the cast iron soil pipe inside the 
building (the pipe being of rather heavier design than the present L.C.C. 
soil pipe, for bath, sink and lavatory waste, as well as the w.c, saving 
additional and unnecessary pipes and gullies. 

He had designed the drainage and sanitary arrangements of a large office 
building in which he had a range of six w.c.'s on each of ten floors entirely 
without anti-syphonage pipes, and all pipes were 4 ins. diameter. The 
arrangement was a 4 in. vertical soil pipe from drain to above roof, a 4 in. 
horizontal branch at each floor level to receive the contents of the individual 
closets, and a 4 in. vertical pipe from basement to above roof connected to the 
upper ends of the horizontal branches. The closets were sy phonic, and the 
water for each flush was 4 gallons. The waste pipes from the basins were 
arranged similarly, but with 3 in. diameter^ galvanised screwed iron pipes. 
The rainwater pipes discharged into gullies. 

There were syphonic closets on the market which were cheaper than 
the wash-down pattern and less noisy in action, but were prohibited by the 
local authorities, and the water companies do not approve the flushing cistern. 
He had had the type of closet and cistern under observation and daily use for 
many years without being able to detect a single sanitary defect, although 
wishing to be able to do so. The slight defect with the flushing cistern was 
such as was found with all water valves, the seating sometimes becomes 
defective, allowing waste of water. That, however, was a common defect 
with bib taps over sinks, baths and lavatory basins. 

Discussion. 55 

It was time the 20-year old bye-laws were brought up to date. Our 
knowledge, experience and execution have improved since they were created, 
and those who have travelled and had the opportunity of studying other 
systems and of designing and executing schemes which combine the good 
points of these other systems arc only too conscious of the shortcomings of our 
own system for the sanitation of buildings. 

Ignorance and prejudice are always opposed to progress, and experien< e 
in demonstration must overcome this opposition. 

Local authorities were largely responsible for excessive cost and lack of 
efficiency in domestic sanitation. 

Gulleys with open channels leading from sink and bath waste pipe was a 
case in point, and was a most filthy and insanitary arrangement condemned 
20 years ago, but still often requested by the powers that be. 

Gaskin in cement joints was worse than useless, and should never be 
used. The cement which may escape at the inside of the joint should be 
carefully cleaned out as the work proceeds. The use of gaskin makes foul 
drains and weak joints. Neat cement, in his experience, made the best 
joints, but it must be of the right temperature. 

Iron covers to drain chambers were generally too large. He remarked 
that, as he had to go into the chambers he designed, he arranged that he 
could get in with the least amount of inconvenience. That was accom- 
plished by using a cover with an opening 24 ins. by 13 ins. placed in such a 
position that the step irons did not obstruct the way, and that the shoulders 
could pass through without twisting the body into almost impossible attitudes. 

Mr. Albert Duck (Woolwich) was doubtful as to the value of Portland 
cement in connection with the jointing of drainage work. The use of Port- 
land cement had developed into a kind of fetish. This might be excused if 
results justified it, but one finds that after drains have been laid but a short 
time, it is extremely doubtful whether they will pass a water test, and in 
many instances they are decidedly defective. The elaborate encasing of 
drains in concrete does not add in any way to their effectiveness, but renders 
them more inaccessible for either investigation, repair or alteration. A 
solvent for Portland cement would be a valuable material, something that 
would readily disintegrate it. He had made enquiries from scientific men as to 
the possibility of its discovery, but had not received very hopeful reports. 
There was sometimes an extravagant duplication of manholes and not enough 
use made of junctions, and there was one other thing that appealed to him, 
the elaboration of pipe work, anti-syphonage pipes, etc., one often s< 
The 'question arose as to whether all the elaboration and intersection of 
pipes was really necessary. He had a doubt in the matter. 

Mr. C. Austin (Holborn) failed to see how combined drains would save 
manholes, as there should be one at the junction of each house drain with the 
common drain. What was saved" was the intercepting trap and cost of 
connection to the sewer, which, in the case of a wide road and deep sewer, was 
considerable. How could a w.c. on the ground floor save the cost of a soil 
pipe if each house had a ventilation pipe at the head of the drain which could 
also be a soil pipe without further expense ? 

56 Economy in Sanitary Appliances and Drainage. 

The L.C.C. Bye-laws required amendment in the interests of economy 
as well as common-sense Certain notable defects, viz., lack of definition, 
to wit, what was a w.c. ? Was a urinal a w.c. ? Was a range of closets with 
low partitions in one room a w.c. or was each separate compartment one ? 
If so, the Bye-laws required a window to each, thereby compelling the whole 
series to back against an outer wall, whereas a large window at the end would 
economically ventilate them all. 

The bye-law as to windows barred skylights. In the centre of London 
it was often virtually impossible in making alterations to buildings which 
covered the whole of their sites and were hemmed in by other similar struc- 
tures, to find room for w.c.'s against outer walls ; there were no outer walls 
excepting in such positions that, on account of the value of the floor space 
for offices, showrooms, etc., in the interests of economy w.c.'s must be 
built with skylights, and there was no reason why they should not be quite 

A speaker remarked why should so many inspection chambers be required 
(at junctions and changes of direction). While discussing the use of Port- 
land cement he informed the meeting that on an occasion of a drain being 
choked it took two men so many hours to open up a drain at a junction. 
He answered his own question ! 

The object of ventilation in many instances was to prevent " air- 

There were many arguments against the use of intercepting traps. They 
were the first points to get choked. With good house drains the absence of 
such a trap was all for the benefit of the sewer, which would be ventilated 
through the house drains. So much meaningless horror of " sewer-gas " 
existed. There was really no such thing in the case of ordinary sewage in 
ventilated sewers ; the air in the house drain itself was more offensive. 

Mr. R. C. Jull (Tunbridge Wells) agreed that in making cement joints to 
drains, neat cement or even cement and sand in equal proportions was not 
necessary, and advocated 1 part of cement to 3 or even more of sand, with 
the addition of one of the modern waterproofing compounds. The chief 
drawback to all cement joints, however, was that the drain so constructed 
was perfectly rigid, and the slightest movement of the soil caused fracture. 
A joint formed of some material that would give a little with the movement 
of a clay soil was what was really needed. 



Founded 1876. 


Modern Sanitary Engineering.* 
Part 2. — " Sewerage." 

This section of the work entitled " Modern Sanitary Engineering," is 
probably one of the best text books on sewerage, as it embodies sufficient 
theory with practice gained by the experience and scientific knowledge of 
the author. 

The book not only is a real storehouse of information for the student, 
but the skilled engineer can equally find useful notes on general practice. 

There are, however, some minor criticisms of a constructive character 
which might be well considered when subsequent editions are being pub- 
lished, in order to add to the usefulness of the work. 

Chapter 1, dealing with " The General Principles of Sewerage Design." 
might usefully include the legal position of Local Authorities in relation to the 
work outside as well as inside their districts. The clauses in the Public 
Health Acts dealing with same might be reproduced. 

In Chapter 2, dealing with the " Evolution of a Scheme," the Support of 
Sewers Act, and how it affects sewerage in mining areas, would also be an 

Chapter 3, entitled " The Size of Sewers and Quantity of Sewage," 
mentions the experience of the late Mr. de Courcy Meade at Manchester, in 
connection with storm water, and it would appear that some mention of 
British rainfall could be usefully added, as an analysis of such figures in any 
district should be helpful in designing storm water sewers pending other 
detailed information. 

The velocity of flow in sewers is dealt with in Chapter 4, and the hydraulic 
mean depth or hydraulic radius, which is often a pit-fall for students, is well 
explained, together with some useful charts. 

In Chapter 5 the subject of sewer flushing is well discussed, and some 
practical absurdities pointed out. Automatic flushing tanks are recom- 
mended, but the disadvantages of same, or the necessary attention required, 
does not appear to have been emphasized. 

In the next chapter, detailed information on sewer excavations is avail- 
able, whilst trenching, transporting and tamping machines are mentioned, 
but these paragraphs could be amplified, as English makers are now ap- 
proaching this question. 

The construction of pipe and brick sewers occupies the next two chapters, 
and calls for no special comment. These are followed by a useful chapter 
on sea outfall sewers. 

* Modern Sanitary Engineering, Part II., Sewerage, by Gilbert Thomson, M.A., 
F.R.S.E., M.Inst. C.E. 8vo., 205 pp., llustratcd. London, 1921. Constable & 
Co., Ltd. Price 18s. 


The vexed question of sewer ventilation is dealt with in Chapter 10, man- 
holes and lamp holes in Chapter 11, and street gullies in Chapter 12, all of 
which give useful practical information, but on page 137 it is a pity circular 
corners have not been indicated on the diagram as being more suited to 
modern conditions than those shown, when the gullies would have been 
taken somewhat further back and interfered less with the wood paved or 
granite pitched crossings over the carriageway. The diagrams of gullies 
could also have been usefully amplified. 

Chapter 13 deals with inverted syphons, about which a good deal of 
misapprehension exists. 

The author admits in Chapter 14 that the mechanical raising of sewage 
is outside the compass of this small volume, but he gives some useful notes 
on mechanical efficiency, source of power, uses of compressed air and elec- 
tricity, Humphrey and other pumps, Shones ejector, and Adam's sewage 
lift, all of which notes can be read with interest. 

Chapters on " Storm Overflows," " Connections to House Drains," 
" Specifications and Schedules," and the " Drainage and Sewerage of Hous- 
ing Schemes," complete a volume full of interesting information and in 
readable form. E.W. 

Crowley's Hygiene of School Life.* 

Without limit is the domain of public health. Some twenty years ago the 
student aspiring to that rare qualification, a diploma in sanitary science, 
had about six text books in hygiene from which to make a choice. Any one 
of these books contained sufficient information for examination purposes. 
To-day the monograph seeks a place in the sun — and rarely finds it. In the 
making of books there is no end. School hygiene is, perhaps, the least of 
the offenders. 

In Crowley's Hygiene of School Life, there is, at least, no aggravation 
of the offence. It is not a new book or even one that is re-written. It is 
true that there is a fresh chapter on juvenile employment, and an additional 
dedication ; the latter might be mistaken for something quite different. 

Dr. Crowley wrote a clear comprehensive and readable book, but the 
fourth edition ought to have been brought more fully up-to-date. J.C. 

Elements of Hygiene and Public Health.! 
In the preface to the first edition of this book the author admitted that 
the subject-matter had been largely borrowed from the works of other 
writers. Having regard, however, to the fact that that edition was ex- 
hausted in less than two years after publication, it would appear that he had 
produced a book exactly of the type desired by the students in India, for 
whom it was intended. The second edition is somewhat larger than the 
first and contains several new chapters, and, like the first, it will, no doubt, 
be greatly appreciated by those for whom it is intended. It may even, as 
the author hopes, be adopted as a text-book in the medical colleges of India. 


* Crowley's Hygiene of School Life, by C. W. Hutt, M.A., M.D., D.P.H. Fourth 
Edition revised. 8vo., 450 pp. London. Methuen & Co., Ltd. Price 6s. 

f Elements of Hygiene and Public Health, by J. P. Modi, L.R.C.P. & S. 8vo., 
497 pp. Calcutta and London, 1920. Butterworth & Co. Price 10s. 


Public Health, Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology.* 
These two books represent the fourth edition of Dr. Aitchison Robertson's, 
Manual of Medical Jurisprudence, Toxicology and Public Health, that last 
appeared in single volume form in 1916. In the preface to each the author 
claims that the contents have been " thoroughly revised and brought up-to- 
date." In the volume relating to Public Health particularly, complete 
success does not appear to have attended his efforts in these directions, and 
the student who prepares for his examination exclusively upon this manual 
may find himself making statements likely to startle his examiners, if they 
happen to be persons practically concerned in public health administration. 

C. P. 

Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Its Etiology and Treatment.! 

The author opens with a well-written and comprehensive historical and 
ethnological survey of the disease from the earliest times — as far back, at 
any rate, as 2,000 to 3,000 B.C. 

He then proceeds to consider the essential etiology of the disease, and, 
affirming that tuberculosis is " either .... caused from beginning 
to end by the tubercle bacillus or is pre-eminently a constitutional disease," 
decides emphatically in favour of the latter alternative. 

Dr. Muthu, and other members of the same school of thought on this 
subject, focus their attention on certain phenomena connected with the 
etiology of tuberculosis, to the exclusion of others equally convincing and 
obvious to persons of different views from theirs, but which do not fit in 
with their scheme of causation. 

Most of us are still content to believe that infection from without by 
Koch's bacillus is the deciding factor in the disease, but Dr. Muthu seems to 
favour Bechamp's view that tuberculosis in animals is the expression of poor 
soil and poor nutrition, and not of infection from without, for he says that 
the facts already before us " give us the right to surmise " : — (1) " That 
micro-organisms arise for the most part from within from the altered condi- 
tion of the blood." (2) " That this altered state of the blood lias been 
brought about by a vicious environment .... causing the sapro- 
phytes to take on pathogenic properties which make for diseased processes." 
(3) " That, in turn, these pathogenic organisms, by a more favourable en- 
vironment, can become saprophytes and harmless, which coincides with the 
return to health." 

Dr. Muthu is extremely well posted in the literature and statistics of his 
subject, and his references to authors and authorities are unusually full and 
accurate. The completeness of his bibliography, too, adds materially to the 
value of his work. 

Some excellent hints are given with regard to diagnosis, especially in the 
earlier stages of the disease, but the author has to confess, like other workers 

♦Manual of Public Health and Manual of Medical Jurisprudence, by \Y. ( r. 

Aitchison Robertson, M.D., D.Sc, F.R.C P I . IR.S.E. 8vo., 260 and' 414 pp. 

London, 1921. A. & C. Black, Ltd. Price 8s. 6d. and 10s. 6d. 
f Pulmonary Tuberculosis : Its Etiology and Treatment, by David C. Muthu, 

M.U., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 8vo., 381 pp., illustrated. London, 1922. Balliere, 

Tindall cS: Cox. Price 12s. 6d. 


in the same field, that " what one sees in clinical practice is an apparent 
irregularity, inconstancy, and confusion in the various periods and stages, 
and in signs and symptoms." 

With regard to treatment, he has much to say that is wise and helpful, 
especially concerning the best methods of applying the vis medicatrix natures 
in the shape of open-air treatment. Of fresh air he says that " of all the 
agents used in the sanatorium treatment, fresh air comes first and foremost." 
" The whole of the treatment is based upon it." 

Of tuberculin treatment he truly observes that " the experience of 
medical men, gathered from many sources, goes to show that tuberculin in- 
jection has no specific value in the treatment of tuberculosis." 

Strange to say, in view of his general attitude, he advocates the use of 
inhalation in the treatment of tuberculosis phthisis, and furnishes four 
prescriptions for inhalant mixtures. 

He has something to say upon almost all the usual subjects recognized 
as having any bearing upon the causation, the prevention, and the cure of 
tuberculosis — subjects as diverse as housing conditions and auto-suggestion. 

His views and his comments cannot be further considered here for lack 
of space, but, while differing from him radically on certain matters, we are 
fain to confess that his book is replete with information and suggestion, 
and well worthy of careful study. 


The White Cross of St. John.* 

This is the third edition of Col. Blackham's lecture, which was first pub- 
lished in 1907. The lecture gives an historical account of the Order of St. 
John of Jerusalem, and the various buildings occupied by the Order in 
Palestine, Malta, Cyprus, Rhodes, France, Italy, Spain, Austria and England. 
The Order was dissolved by Henry VIII. , but revived in 1827, and its ambu- 
lance work started in 1877. 

Those who wish to study the history of the Knights will find many in- 
teresting particulars of the origin and objects of the Order. 

The purchase of the old sixteenth century gatehouse at Clerkenwell 
restored a portion of the original headquarters in England to the Order, 
and forms a valuable link with the past. 

Dr. N. Corbet Fletcher, M.B., Be, has added a chapter on Notable Ambu- 
lance Dates and Facts, giving an outline of the splendid work done by the 
Ambulance Corps during the great war. 

The little book makes a strong appeal for personal service and support 
for this excellent institution. 


* The White Cross of St. John, by Colonel R. J. Blackham, C.B., C.M.G., CLE., 
D.S.O., M.D. 8vo., 91 pp. London, 1921. Dale, Reynolds & Co., Ltd. Price, 
3s. 6d. 



Since the last issue the following examinations have been reported : — 

Belfast, May 5th and 6th. 

Manchester, May 12th and 13th. 

Leeds, May 19th and 20th. 

Liverpool, May 26th and 27th. 

Cardiff, June 16th and 17th. 
For Inspectors of Meat and other Foods : — 

London, April 28th and 29th. 

Birmingham, June 9th and 10th. 

At these examinations 297 candidates presented themselves, and the 
following were awarded certificates : — 

Sanitary Science as applied to Buildings and Public Works. 
Briggs, James Troke, Wakefield. Morris, William, Withington. 

Clarkson, Ernest Hodgson, Horbury. Naylor, Fred Crowther, Pudsey. 
Liversage, Joseph Norman, Man- Smith, Cyril John, Newport, Mon. 

Chester. Swift, Stewart, Stretford. 

Moore, Lewis Jack, Torquay. 

Maternity and Child Welfare Workers. 
Lloyd, Edith Mary, Yeadon. 

Women Health Visitors and School Nurses. 

Appleton, Winifred Mary, Thirsk. Matthews, Rosa Louise, Crumpsall. 

Bennett, Gertrude, Leeds. McDermid, Kate Millicent, 
Brazier, Elizabeth Ellen, Leeds. Darlington. 

Carr, Marion Amy, Darton. Morris, Pattie, Hyde. 

Clancy, Agnes, Eccles. Oates, Alice, Newport, Mon. 

Cobb, Gertrude Annie, Leeds. Shout, Myra, Salford. 

Compton, Annie, Haydock. Simmons, Edith, Manchester. 

Constable, Charlotte, Leeds. Oakes, Lois, Belfast. 

Da vies, Beatrice Maud, Llantwit- Oram, Elsie Rebecca, Halifax. 

Vardre. Orr, Mary Eleanor, Belfast. 

Ellerington, Mary Eleanor, Owen, Mary Catherine, Oldham. 

Eccles. Priestley, Sarah Evelyn, llrad- 
Elliott, Martha Smith, Wethcrhy. ford. 

Fleming, Mary Hannah, Rochdale. Robinson, Gertrude Evelina 
Furminger, Evelyn Hessii-:, Man- Whiteley, (ross Hills. 

Chester. Robson, Mary Brown, Halifax. 

Gee, Amena Nita, Todmorden. Savage, Mary, Leeds. 

Gray, Gladys Mary, Darlington. Snowden, Lillie, Darton. 

Hinchliff, Mary Jane, Bradford. Webb, Olivia, Bristol. 

Hutton, Beatrice May, Halifax. Worsley, Annie, 5/. Helens. 
Martin, Marjorie Sinclair, Belfast. 



School Hygiene, including Elementary Physiology. 

Armstrong, Henrietta Gordon, 

Barker, Bertha, Liverpool. 

Boyd, Kathleen Winifred, Liver- 

Calver, Ida Jeanette Morrison, 

Cavanagh, Florence Gertrude, 

Carder, Molly, Liverpool. 

Cook, Hilary, Bedford. 

Fielding, Doris, Liverpool. 

Gander, Daisy Irene, Liverpool. 

Grant, Ethel Marion, Liverpool. 

Hobkirk, Sylvia Jeanette, Liver- 

Hodson, Christine Edith, Liver- 

Holford, Constance Madelaine, 

James, Phyllis, Liverpool. 

McNaught, Muriel Wyatt, Liverpool. 

Myers, Gertrude Kathleen, 

Nye, Vera Eileen, Liverpool. 

Ogden, Winifred Mary, Bristol. 

Parker, Jeanie Smith, Liverpool. 

Powell, Enid Mary, Liverpool. 

Rawcliffe, Annie, Liverpool. 

Read, Dorothy Margaret, Liver- 

Robinson, Margaret Eleanor, 

Sharp, Margaret Duffus, Liver- 

Sharpley, Edith Marjorie, Liver- 

Smuts, Malie, Harrogate. 

Waghorne, Gwendolen Mary, 

Wild, Kathleen, Liverpool. 

Woodman, Emily Jane, Liverpool. 

Younghughes, Eleanor, Liverpool. 


Almond, John Charles, Darwen. 
Bailey, William Asa, Keighley. 
Barrett, William, Street. 
Beckett, John Leslie, Liverpool. 
Biddle, W'illiam John Hancorne, 

Brooks, Ralph, Street. 
Burrell, Albert Joshua, Sheffield. 
Byatt, George James Beech, 

Cobb, Constance Isabel, Leeds. 
Dale, Harold William, Sefton Park. 
Da vies, Sarah Maud, Swansea. 
Davison, Joseph, Belfast. 
Denniff, Edith, Sheffield. 
Dupont, Henry James, Neath, 
Edwards, Eva Mary, Blackley. 
Entwistle, Robert Mangnall, 

Fackrell, Jane, E. Kirkby. 
Feather, Thomas, Oxenhope. 
Foster, George Knill, Okehamp- 



Gage, Dorothy, Axminster. 

Gornall, Leslie Ashworth, Raw- 

Greenhouse, Harold Joseph, 

Griffiths, Evan John, Cardiff. 

Hazleton, Florence, Sunderland. 

Holmes, Harry Wilkinson, 

Hooper, John George, Llandilo. 

Hornby, Harold, St. Annes-on-Sea. 

Hough, Henry Thomas, Wallasey. 

Hughes, Trevor, Caerau Maesteg. 

Kelly, Frank Schofield, Horsfortk. 

Lea, Ernest, Warrington. 

Lewis Philip, Pontyrhyl. 

MacMahon, Letitia, Belfast. 

Micallef, Paul, Liverpool. 

Norris, Arthur, St. Helens. 

Oversby, Vincent, Bradford. 
Parry, William Arthur, Llandilo. 
Pearson, Robert Dean, Darlington. 
Pizzuto, Alfred, Liverpool. 


Ramsden, George, Pontefract. 
Reynolds, Alfred, Belfast. 
Smith, Florence L., Swinton. 
Smith, John, Wakefield. 
Turner, Thomas, Stalybridge. 
Wade, Basil, Castleford. 

Wilkinson, John Fran< is, Sheffield. 
Williams, Tudor, Pontypridd. 
Win field, Robert Orchard, 

Wood, Edwin, Stockport. 

Inspectors of Meat 

Barnes, Alfred Edward, Spark- 

Bill, Richard, Stafford. 

Blackmore, Frank William, 

Callen, Vincent C. G., Molesey. 

Chalcraft, William, Walsall. 

Chant, David Robert James, Car- 

Crandell, William, Wimbledon. 

Croker, C., Capt. R.A.S.C., Devon- 

Davis, Harry, Redditch. 

Gray, Edward Henry, Caversham. 

Kempton, Arthur Richard, S. 

Kilby, Bernard William, Deptford. 

and Other Foods. 

Knight, Alexander John Henry, 

Capt., R.A.S.C., Clasgow. 
Male, Arthur, London. 
Neale, William George Colling- 

ham, Stoke Newington. 
Pearce, Harry Archibald, Wal- 

Prior, John Nelson, Westerham. 
Reynolds, Alec, Watnall. 
Richards, Edward John, 

Smith, Victor Wynn, Farnborough. 
Steeden, Edward James, Leyton- 

Steele, Ernest, London. 
Stubbs, John Bushby, Capt.R.A.S.C, 

Williams, Ivor Owen, Dowlais. 


We have had the pleasure of welcoming to the Institute : — 

Mrs. Menyhert Szanto, of Budapest, who came to arrange for the display 

of an exhibit in the Museum, illustrative of Social Service in Budapest. 

Alderman J. Soundy, of Hobart, Tasmania, who is making enquiries 

regarding Municipal Administration in England. 




The Introductory Lecture to the Autumn Courses of Lectures will be 
delivered by Louis C. Parkes, M.D., D.P.H., on September 25th, at 5.30 p.m. 

The Course for Sanitary Officers will commence on September 27th ; 
for Health Visitors and Child Welfare Workers, on September 29th ; for 
Meat and Food Inspectors, on October 6th ; and for Army Officers and 
Professional Men on November 6th. 

Sessional Meeting. 

Cardiff. — Friday, October 13th, at 4.30 p.m., in the Town Hall, 
Discussions on " Health Education of Children," to be opened by J. S. 
Peebles, L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S., D.P.H., Medical Officer of Health, Bridgend 
U.D.C., and on " Open Air Schools," by E. E. Morgan, M.C., A.R.I.B.A., 
Borough Architect, Swansea. At 4 p.m., the Lord Mayor is kindly arranging 
to entertain the members and others to tea. 

On Saturday, October 14th, visits will be made to places of local interest. 

Health Week. 

His Majesty the King, and Her Majesty the Queen, have graciously 
accorded their patronage to Health Week, which is to be held from October 
8th to 14th. The Right Hon. The Lord Mayor of London has consented to 
act as Chairman of the General Committee. 

Members of the Institute are invited to co-operate in promoting the 
success of the movement. Those prepared actively to assist are asked to 
send in their names to the Secretary. 

In Sanitary Science as applied to Buildings and Public Works, for Sani- 
tary Inspectors, Maternity and Child Welfare Workers, Women Health 
Visitors and School Nurses, and School Hygiene, including Elementary 
Physiology, will be held at : — 

Glasgow, June 23rd and 24th. Derby, Oct. 13th and 14th. 

Birmingham, June 30th and July York, Oct. 20th and 21st. 

1st. Manchester, Oct. 27th and 28th. 

London, July 14th and 15th. Melbourne, Victoria, November. 

Trinidad, B.W.I., July. 
For Inspectors of Meat and other Foods : — 
Leeds, July 7th and 8th. 



The Thirty-third Congress of the Institute will be held in 
Bournemouth, from July 24th to 29th, 1922. 

President of the Congress. 
P.C., D.S.O., M.P. (Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire). 

Order of Proceedings. 

SATURDAY, 22nd July, 1922. 
The Congress Reception Room in the Municipal College will be'[open at 
12 noon. 

SUNDAY, 23rd July. 

11.15 a.m. Service at St. Peter's (the Parish Church) attended by the 

Mayor and Town Council. Preacher, The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop 

of Birmingham. 

MONDAY, 24th July. 
1 .0 p.m. Reception of Members and Delegates by His Worship the Mayor. 

Public Luncheon, Town Hall. (Tickets 5j- each.) 
3.0 p.m. Opening of the Health Exhibition in the Hants Drill Hall, by His 

Worship the Mayor. 
5.0 p.m. Inaugural Address to the Congress, by the President (Major-Gen. 

the Right Hon. J. E. B. Seely, C.B., C.M.G., P.C., D.S.O., M.P., at the 

Town Hall. 

The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Radnor in the Chair. 

TUESDAY, 25th July. 
8.15 a.m. Breakfast at the invitation of the National Temperance League, 

in the Lounge, Town Hall. 
10.0 a.m. Meetings of Sections and Conferences in the Municipal College. 
Section A. — Sanitary Science. 

Conferences of Engineers and Surveyors, Veterinary Inspectors and of 
Health Visitors. 

2.30 p.m. Excursion by Motor to the New Forest via Christchurch, Hinton 
to Wilvery Post. Separate here, and half of cars proceed via Brocken- 
hurst, Lyndhurst, Lymington, Milford-on-Sea to Highcliffe Castle for 


Garden Party. Second half proceed via Burley, Ringwood, Avon Valley, 
to Heron Court for Garden Party. {Tickets 7j- each.) 
8.0 p.m. Popular Lecture, by Prof. Leonard Hill, M.B., F.R.S., at the Town 
Hall. The Earl of Malmesbury will preside. 

WEDNESDAY, 26th July. 

10.0 a.m. Meetings of Sections and Conferences in the Municipal College. 
Section A. — Sanitary Science. 
Section E. — Industrial Hygiene. 
Conferences of Veterinary and Sanitary Inspectors. 

1.15. Invitation of the Bournemouth Rotary Club to Luncheon at Princes 
Hall, Grand Hotel. {Tickets 316 each, limited to 100.) 

2.30 p.m. Motor Excursions via West Cliff Drive, Canford Cliffs, Shore Road, 
for a visit to inspect the following works, and, by the kind invitation of 
the proprietors, tea will be provided : — 

(1) Messrs. Thos. Wragg & Sons, Ltd., South Western Pottery, 


(2) Messrs. Sharp, Jones & Co., Bourne Valley Pottery and Rock 

Concrete Tube Works, Parkstone (limited to 100). 

(3) Messrs. Carter & Co., Ltd., Encaustic Tile Works, Poole (limited 

to 100). 
3.15 p.m., return at 5.45 p.m. Alternative Boat Trip to Swanage. {Tickets 

2/3 each, exclusive of Pier Tolls.) For Reception by the Chairman of 

the Swanage Urban District Council. A. C. B. Lloyd, Esq., M.A. 

(Limited to 100.) 
8.0 p.m. Conversazione and Reception, by the Mayor and Corporation of 

the County Borough of Bournemouth, at the Town Hall. 

THURSDAY, 27th July. 

10.0 a.m. Meetings of Sections and Conferences in the Municipal College. 
Section B. — Engineering and Architecture. 

Section C. — Maternity and Child Welfare, including School Hygiene. 
Section D. — Personal and Domestic Hygiene. 
Conference of Representatives of Sanitary Authorities. 

2.30 p.m. (1) Motor Excursion via Meyrick Park, Winton, Kinson, Canford 
Village to Waterworks at Wimborne and Alderney ; (2) Trip via Over- 
cliff Drive, Branksome Park, Canford Cliffs, Sandbanks, Poole Park to 
Gasworks at Poole. {Tickets 6j- each.) 
Reception and Tea by the Bournemouth Gas and Water Co. 

8.0 p.m. Special Concert at the Winter Gardens, and Special Film on the Rat 
Pest and Extermination, kindly lent by the Vermin Repression Society. 


FRIDAY, 28th July. 
10.0 a.m. Meetings of Sections and Conferences in the Municipal College. 

Section B. — Engineering and Architecture. 

Section C. — Maternity and Child Welfare, including School Hygiene. 

Conference of Medical Officers of Health. 

1.0 p.m. Closing Meeting at the Municipal College. 

2.30 p.m. Circular Drive via Boscombe Overcliffe Drive to Southbourne, 
Tuckton Corner, Carbery Avenue, King's Park, down Holdenhurst 
Road to Cooper Dean's Corner ; turn left to Kinson, Bear Cross, New- 
town, top of Constitution Hill to Poole ; for Reception by the Mayor and 
Corporation of Poole. {Tickets 6j- each.) 

7.30 p.m. Congress Dinner at the Grand Hotel. (Tickets 10 j 6 each.) 

SATURDAY, 29th July. 
10.30 a.m. Boat Trip (1) All Day Trip to Southampton. Invitation from 
the White Star Line to inspect the " Olympic," similar invitation from 
the Cunard Steamship Co. to inspect the " Mauretania," and tea will be 
provided for 500 by each company. (Boat Trip Fare 7 j- each, exclusive 
of Pier Tolls. Luncheon 5j-.) 

In lieu of the Boat Trip to Southampton arrangements have been 
made for those who would prefer to go by road for — 

Motor Trip (2) via Christ church, Lyndhurst to Southampton, 
returning via Rufus Stone, Ringwood to Bournemouth. (Motor Trip 
Tickets 7 16 each. Luncheon 51-.) 

All Motor Coach Excursions will start from the Municipal College (in the 
Meyrick Road), and Boat Trips from Bournemouth Pier. 

The Bournemouth Corporation have granted facilities as follows : — 

Golf. — Meyrick and Queen's Parks (links). (For further particulars 

please apply to W. H. Harrison, Esq., Branksome Hall, who has 

kindly consented to arrange details.) 
Bowls. — Bowling Greens at Alum Chine, Argyll Gardens, Boscombe 

Cliff, King's Park, Knyveton Gardens, Meyrick Park, Southbourne 

and Winton Recreation Ground. 
Tennis. — Courts at Alum Chine, Argyll Gardens, Boscombe Gardens, 

Central Gardens, Knyveton Gardens, King's Park, Meyrick Park 

and Winton. 
Piers. — Free admission to Bournemouth and Boscombe Piers. 
Trams. — Free use of Corporation Tramcars on production of Congress 



. > 



Elected May, 1922. 


• Sanitary Science Certificate. 

to Maternity and Child Welfare Workers' Certificate. 

§ Sanitary Surveyors' (India) Certificate. 

X Sanitary Inspector's Certificate. 

m Meat Inspector's Certificate. 

v Women Health Visitors and School Nurses' Certificate. 

5 School Hygiene Certificate. 

1922. May *Coppock, Vincent, a.m.i.s.e., " May field," 
Whitchurch, Cardiff. 

1922. May *Golding, Harold Campbell, 81, Old Church 
Road, Clevedon, Somerset. 

1922. May Haslam, John Fearley Campbell, m.b., ch.b., 
d.p.h. (Assist. M.O.H.), Government Public 
Health Department, Georgetown, British 

1922. May §Kulkarni, Tammaji Narayan, g.b.v.c, Veteri- 
nary Surgeon, cjo Superintendent, Civil 
Veterinary Department, Bombay Presidency, 
Kalyan Veterinary Dispensary , Poona, India. 

1922. May Maynard, Captain Charles Edward, M.C. 
m.inst.m. & C.E., p.a.s.i., Engineer, Surveyor 
and Sanitary Inspector, R.D.C. Offices, 
London Road, Hailsham, Sussex. 

1922. May §Pillai, P. Velu, Sanitary Surveyor, cjo Kesava 
Pillai, Neyyattinkara, Travancore State, India. 

1922. May *Richards, William John Rowe, 83, Mortimer 
Road, Kensal Rise, N.W. 10. 

1922. May Wanhill, Lieut. Col. Charles Frederick, 

R.A.M.C.(R.), M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., D.P.H. , Assist. 

County and School Medical Officer, The Shire 
Hall, Hereford. 


JAger, Leonard, 15, Van Dieman's Road, 

Baddow Road, Chelmsford. 
JBartlett, Tom, White Lion Inn, Brinklow., 

near Rugby. 
% Bowers, Josiah, 22, Recorder Street, Swansea. 
*Cargeeg, Raymond Arthur, Labouchere Road, 

South Perth, Western Australia. 
% Chester, Miss Henrietta, Grey land House, 13, 

Esplanade, Whitley Bay, Northumberland. 
I Clarke, Herbert, 10, Jubilee Street, Nottingham 
1922. May JmCLiNCH, Herbert George, 64, Blackwood Grove, 

8807 1922. May sCodde, Miss Eleanor, 20, Newport Road, 

Chorlton-cum- Hardy, Manchester. 

490 7 
















8 790 


sees !922. May {Cromwell, Edwin Oliver, Edgehill'Holtwhites 

Hill, Enfield. 

8785 1922. May tjDarroll, Miss Aileen Frances, Leintwardine, 


8786 1922. May {Else, Charles Glossop, Park Lodge, Fritchley, 

near Derby. 

8787 1922. May tjGillett-Gatty, Miss Emma Katharine, 30 

Retreat Place, Hackney, E. 9. 

8788 1922. May {Gower, Albert William, " Chalfont," 7, Blen- 
heim Park Road, South Croydon. 

1922. May w{Hey, Arthur, 2, Hastings Avenue, Bradford. 
1922. May {Hill, William Ernest, 57, Meldon Terrace, 
Heaton, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

8791 1922. May {Hinchliffe, James, The Castle, Town Bottom, 

Meltham, near Huddersfield. 

8792 1922. May ^Husbands, Miss Thirza Isabel, 106, Humber 

Road, Blackheath, Kent. 

8793 1922. May {Jones, Reginald Alick, 104, Sangley Road, 

Catford, S.E. 
8734 1922. May {Keen, Charles Henry Holland, Surveyor's 

Office, Minehead, Somerset. 
1910. June t;Knipe, Miss Sarah Caroline McCall, 2, Quentin 

Road, Blackheath, S.E. 13. 
1922. May {McLeish, David Mitchell, Balmalcolm, Kin- 

rossie, Perthshire, Scotland. 
8778 1922. May Mitchell, Robert, " Newcairnie," Lintrathen 

Gardens, Dundee, Scotland. 
1922. May {Moore, Joseph, 42, Armstead Road, Beighton, 

near Sheffield. 
1922. May Naug, Panna Laul, Supervisor of Works, 

Drainage Department, Calcutta Corporation, 

2/3, Sitaram Ghose Street, Calcutta, India. 

8797 1922. May {Paull, Charles Frederic, 2, Kelly Street, 

Auckland, New Zealand. 

8798 1922. May tjRhead, Miss Ethel Pearl, 14, Arodene Road, 

Brixton Hill, S.W. 2. 

8799 1922. May {Smith, Harry Kempe, 7, Glaskin Street, South 

Hackney, E. 9. 

8800 1922. May {Stevens, Ernest William, 4, Pulteney Terrace, 

Pulteney Road, Bath. 

8801 1922. May {Stevenson, Roland, 61, Beechhill Road, 

Eltham, S.E. 9. 

8802 1922. May tjSymes, Miss Margaret Winifred, Dorset Cottage, 

Wootten Grove, Sherborne, Dorset. 

8803 1922. May {Taylor, George Kaye, 66, Filey Road, Scar- 


8804 1922. May t/Turk, Miss Daisy J., Springfield Infant Welfare 

Centre, S.W. 8. 
"*"■■ 1922. May {Udell, Miss Florence Nellie, Walnuttree House, 

Sudbury, Suffolk. 


8 795 

8 796 










1922. June 
1922. June 
1922. June 
1922. June 

1922. June 

1922. June, 

1922. June 

1922. June 

1922. June 

1922. June 
1922. June 

1922. June 

1922. June 

1922. June 
1922. June 

8816 1922. June 
8844 1920. Oct. 

8817 1922. June 





Elected June, 1922. 


Bedington, Alfred Christopher, a.m.inst.c.e., 
p.a.s.i., Salisbury House, Newquay, Cornwall. 

Bumpstead, Albert Dennis, a.r.i.b.a., p.a.s.i., 

70, Heath Gardens, Twickenham. 
*Cooke, Junr., William Levingston, 39, May- 
flower Road, Clapham, S.W. 9. 

Desbleds, Edouard Marc, a.m.inst.c.e., Civil 
Engineer, Curepipe, Mauritius. (10, South- 
wold Mansions, Maida Vale, W. 9.) 

Gupta, Prafulla Kumar Sen, l.m.s., Sebhati, 
District Khulna, Bengal, India. (Shakespeare 
Hut, Keppel Street, W.C. 1.) 
Haworth, Frederic George, m.b., cm., l.r.c.s.e., 
d.p.h., (M.O.H. and S.M.O.), Health Offices, 
Darwen, Lanes. 

HUTSON, John, M.B.E., B.A. ; M.B., CM., D.P.H. , 

Government Public Health Inspector, Harmony 
Hall, Barbados, West Indies. 
JmJoNES, David Phillip Walter, Health Office, 
Shanghai Municipal Council, Shanghai, 
*Liversage, Joseph Norman, 24, Crowthom. 
Road, Ashton-under-Lyne, Manchester. 
Lynam, Charles Roy, Barthomley, near Crewe. 
*Morris, William, 2, St. Brendans Road, With- 

ington, Manchester. 
*Naylor, Fred Crowther, 21, Whitelands, The 
Lanes, Pudsey, Yorks. 
Pritchard, Harry Albert, Sanitary Plumber 
and Heating Engineer, 5a, Great George Street, 
Park Street, Bristol. 
Singh, Man, cb.e., (glasc), b.a., Dhan 
Lodge, Amjer (Rajputana), India. 
* % Swift, Stewart, 7, Sunny Side, Longford 
Park, Stretford, Near Manchester. 


JAlmond, John Charles, 48, Prospect Avenue, 

Darwen, Lanes. 
^Bownass, J. R. Zanazzi, 18, West Claremont 

Street, Stockbridge, Edinburgh. 
JBrewster-Gow, Harold G., Sanitary Inspector, 

Shanghai Municipal Council, Shanghai, 

China. (The Cottage, Heme Hill Mansions, 

Heme Hill, S.E. 24.) 






881 'J 



8 820 





















882 7 






8 811 















8 832 






8 834 












JBurrell, Albert Joshua, 90, City Road, 

JByatt, George James Beech, 145, High Street, 

Longton, Stoke-on-Trent. 
JCullis, Miss Annie Louise, 195, Brook Hill, 

JDuffield, Reg.-Q.M.S., George Henry Ed- 
ward, The Depot, The Middlesex Regiment, 

Mill Hill, Middlesex. 
JFeather, Thomas, 6, Hawksbridge Lane, 

Oxenhope, Yorks. 
7jForsyth, Miss Amy Millicent, Quinis'i Tober- 
mory, Argyll, Scotland. 
JGreenhouse, Harold J., 21, Knutsford Street, 

Seedley, Manchester. 
JHanley, John, 15, Potter Row, Edinburgh. 
X Holmes, Harry Wilkinson, Prince George 

Street, Skegness. 
7jHutton, Miss Beatrice, M., 7, Clare Road, 

v Johnson, Miss Gwendoline Margaret, 148, 

Redland Road, Bristol. 
Latif, Mohamed, Sanitary Inspector and Camp 

Officer, Bombay Improvement Trust, P.O. 

Dharavi 17, Bombay, India. 

^Meadows, Mrs. Marion Florence, Fields Hill, 
P.O. Kloof, Natal, S. Africa. 

JMerkle, Jonathan Keiller, Sanitary Inspector, 
Sheet Anchor, County of Berbice, British 

z;Mertens, Miss Edith L., Ingram House Club, 
Stockwell Road, S.W. 9. 

J Moore, Walter Alexander, 159, Brownhill 
Road, Catford, S.E. 6. 

JNorris, Arthur, 54, Dentons Green Lane, St. 
Helens, Lanes. 

JOversby, Vincent, 18, St. Mary's Road, Laister- 
dyke, Bradford. 

J Pearson, Robert Dean, 40, Rockingham Street, 

z/Russell, Miss Marion T., 22, Mount Pleasant, 

Coteley, near Bilston, Staffs. 

JSaxdi lands, John Whyte, //. Albert Place, 
Lath Walk, Edinburgh. 

Sheehan, Richard Greig, Sanitary Inspector 
and Surveyor, Stewart Avenue, Bo'ness, Lin- 
lithgow, Scotland. 



8813 1922. June 

8837 ^22. June 

8814 1922. June 

8838 J922. June 
8843 1918. June 

8839 1922. June 

8815 1922. June 

8840 1922. June 

8841 1922. June 

Singh, Ram Rakshpal, Overseer in charge of 

Sanitary Works, 316/L, Jamshedpur, District 

Singhbhoom, via Tetanagar, India. 
JSmith, John, 88, Pindersfield Road, Wakefield. 
Taylor, Frederick Arthur, r.p.c, 22, Bury 

Street, Unthank Road, Norwich. 
JWade, Basil, 18, Medley Street, Castleford, 

^Walker, Miss Marian E., The King Edward 

VII. Order of Nurses, Dorothy Centre, Kroon- 

stad, O.F. State, South Africa. 
JWhite, Reginald John, 2, Monmouth Place, 

Upper Bristol Road, Bath. 
Whitney, Miss Florence Mabel, 11, Morella 

Road, Wandsworth Common, S.W. 12. 
zAVhyte, Miss Anna Christine, 120, Domestic 

Street, Holbeck, Leeds. 
JWorley, Walter James, 2, Navarre Road, East 

Ham, E. 6. 


It is with regret that the Council have to record the death of the following 
Honorary Fellow, Members and Associates : — 

Hon. Fellow. — Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, M.D., of Paris. He 
was the actual discoverer of the malarial parasite of man, and he devoted 
his life to research work, more particularly in relation to tropical diseases. 
He was a member of the Academie de Medecine and of the Academie des 
Sciences, an Officer of the Legion of Honour, and an Honorary Fellow of 
many Foreign Medical and Scientific Societies. In 1907 he was awarded 
the Nobel Prize for Medicine, and he was elected an Honorary Fellow of the 
Royal Sanitary Institute in 191 1 . For the past 25 years he had been engaged 
in laboratory work at the Pasteur Institute of Paris where he was a Professor. 

Members. — Charles Samuel Beeston, of Ysceifiog, Holywell, who had 
been a member for 28 years. 

Robert Lindsay, who was for many years the County Sanitary Inspector 
for Mid-Lothian. He had been a member of the Institute for 24 years. 

Associates. — James William Fraser, of Port Chalmers, New Zealand. 

Albert Macey, of Pengam, who had been an Associate for 27 years. 




Pressure or Gravity. 

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Candy Filter Co., Ltd., 

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Telegrams Cimolite, Sowest, London. 


Westminster, London, 

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Army and Navy Stores.) 
















[ vi. ] 


of the well-known types supplied for many years 
by Messrs. JOHN JONES (CHELSEA), Ltd. 
are now being made and supplied by us. 


Also Sanitary Fittings to suit Buildings 
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Silver and Bronze Medals for Water Closets at Royal Sanitary Institute Congress and Exhibition, Folkestone, June, 1921. 







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[ vii ] 


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[ viii ] 






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Fire Clays, Fire Cement and Refractories of every description, Acid 
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The chief reason for the remarkable success of these cisterns is due to the 
fact that they are a specialised product — the plant for manufacturing is specialised, 
which keeps the costs of production to the lowest point and enables a standard of 
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An impartial examination of the " NIAGARA" and "JAPKAP" cisterns will 
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U. When you need Hydraulic Drawn Lead Traps and Bends, the best brand 
is " SPART'DAEL." The name for Cast Lead Closet Connectors, Flushpipe 
Connectors, Sockets, Soil Pipe Terminals, Sink Cones, and all Die-castings in Lead 
for Plumbers' use is " KROW-DAEL" 

H. WASTES with Brass Backnut and Union, and fitted with Rubber Plug, or 
with Brass Grate, for SINKS, BATHS and LAVATORY BASINS, are best made 
in Die-Cast, Hard Metal Alloy, our trade name for which is " ALBAMETTA." 


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Sterilizing Water Supplies and Sewage Works Effluent, 

Cleansing and Deodorising Drains, Urinals, Water Closets 
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Sterilizing Linen and Excreta in Hospitals 

General Disinfection in Schools, Asylums, Hospitals and 


The United Alkali Co., Ltd., 


Telegrams: "UBIQUE, LIVERPOOL." Telephone: BANK 9280. 


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Daily from 9.30 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. ; on Mondays till 7 p.m. 

Descriptive Catalogues of the Sections of the Museum are in course of pre- 
paration. Those already published, price 6d. each, are "House Drainage" 
Infant Hygiene "— ' Sanitary Appliances and Waste Preventers " — 
Parasites and Flies, which cause Disease of Man." 

[ xi 1 

Destroy your Refuse 


by means of a 

anlove's Incinerator, 

Large numbers supplied to Asylums, Hospitals, Sanatoria, 

Infirmaries, Prisons, Workhouses, Public Institutions, 

Factories, Hotels, Mansions, etc., etc. 


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r xii ] 

The Royal Sanitary Institute 




will commence 

On SEPTEMBER 25th, 1922. 

For Particulars apply to 

E. WHITE WALLIS, Secretary, 
90, Buckingham Palace Road, London, S.W. 1. 


r h a r m The Pipers Perth 

^ n j\ n. in ig LLS RATS and mice 

A Biological Expert writes : 

" Rodine's charm lies very evidently in its 
super-attractiveness, which I have never known 
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rodents will only succumb to a real poison, 
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rat nuisance. Fascinating and fatal. 

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Special Quotations on Quantities. 

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| Chemical Examination j 
of Water, Sewage, 
Foods, and other 
| Substances 

1 J. E. PURVIS, M.A. 

= and T. R. HODGSON, M.A. 

= Second and enlarged edition 

^ Demy 8vo. 20s. net 

= The success of the first edition has given an op- ■ 

= portunity to the authors to make the book still more ■ 

= useful to students. They have included in this ■ 

= edition a considerable amount of fresh matter and ■ 

= newer methods of analysis. 

Ej " The names of the authors are a guarantee that = 

= the subject will be dealt with both from a theoretical = 

s= and practical point of view. . . . The volume :: 

H before us, although going into technical details == 

=5 important for students and Public Analysts, is == 

= written in such a way that anyone interested in the = 

= subject and with a knowledge of practical chemistry = 

= cannot fail to appreciate the work." 

The Sanitary Record on the first edition . := 

| Cambridge University Press \ 

Fetter Lane, London, E.C.4 
C. F. Clay, Manager 


[ xiii 


SIXTH EDITION (Reprinted). Thoroughly Revised. With 2 Plates and 89 other Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 

22s. 6d. net ; post free, 23s. 6d. 


By LOUIS C. PARKES, M.D., D.P.H. London University, Consulting Sanitary Adviser to H.M. Office of 
Works, &c. ; and HENRY R. KENWOOD, C.M.G., M.B. (Edin.). D.P.H. , E.C.S., Examiner in Public Health to the 
Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, London ; Chadwick Professor of Hygiene in the University of 
London, &c. [Lewis's Practical Series. 

" One of the most readable books on this now large subject that one can put one's hand on . . . has been 
thoroughly revised." — The Medical Officer. 

SEVENTH EDITION. With 6 Plates and 87 Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 15s. net. ; post free, 15s. 9d. 


By HENRY R. KENWOOD, C.M.G., M.B., D.P.H., F.C.S., Chadwick Professor of Hygiene in the University of 
London, ; Examiner in Public Health to the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, London, &c. 

[Lewis's Practical Series. 
" An admirable text-book, well suited to meet the requirements of candidates for the Diploma in Public 
Health and all who are interested in Preventive Medicine." — Dublin Journal of Medical Science. 

EIGHTH EDITION. Thoroughly Revised. F'cap. 8vo. 5s. net, postage 3d. 


for the use of Candidates for Public Health Qualifications. 

By B. BURNETT HAM, M.D., M.R.C.S., D.P.H. (Camb.). Revised by HENRY R. KENWOOD, C.M.G.. M.B., 
F.R.S. (Edin.), D.P.H., F.C.S., Chadwick Professor of Hygiene and Public Health, University of London. 

"A warm word of congratulation may be given to Dr. Kenwood for the admirable judgment he has 
shown in his editing and bringing of the book up to date." — Journal of the Royal Sanitary Institute. 

FIFTH EDITION. Revised and enlarged. With numerous Illustrations.; post free 8s. 3d . 


By ALBERT TAYLOR, Sanitary Inspector, City of Westminster ; Late Demonstrator to the Students of The Royal 

Sanitary Institute. 
" There is probably no better work of the kind in the English language." — fournal of the R.A.M.C. 

*% Complete Catalogue of 'Publications post free on application. 

London : H. K. LEWIS & Co. Ltd., 136, Gower Street & 24, Gower Place, W.C. 1. 

Telegrams : " Publicavit, Eusroad, London." Telephones : Museum 1072 & 2853. 




Are cordially invited to visit 
Hants Drill Hall, Holdenhurst 
Road (near the Congress 
Meeting Rooms). 


& ECONOMICAL. . . . 


[ xiv ] 

The Farringdon Works and 

jWanufacturtng i&amtarp engineer* 


Pontifex's Patent "Easy Cleaning" Bath 



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Our Patent "MASHER" FLOAT, which takes the 
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The Farringdon Works & H. PONTIFEX & SONS, Ld. 

Manufacturing Sanitary Engineers, 

[ xv ) 




Old Canal Works, 

• • 

Slums and Sunshine 

A Clean Home in A Clean City 


Every Child's Birthright 

There would be fewer " born 
blind' ' babies if city con- 
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The Gas Undertakings of the 
Country are doing their bit 
to solve the slum problem. 

Write for leaflet, entitled 



[ xvi 1 


Condemn their dangerous and disease 
laden Sanitary arrangements. 



July 24th — 29th 



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Sole Makers of LOVIBOND'S 
Patents and Apparatus for 

COLOURS of all Substances, 

Including a New form of Apparatus for the 
Quantitative Estimation of Colour Blindness. 

Dr. Dudley Corbett's Radiometer for 

use with Sabouraud and other 

Dr. George Oliver's Haemoglobinometer 

and Haemacytometer. 
Lovibond's Apparatus for estimating 

Colour and Turbidity of Potable 

Lovibond's Apparatus for standardising 

Merchantable Petroleums. 
Lovibond's Apparatus for standardising 

Aniline and other Dyes. 


in connection with the 

33rd Congress of the Institute, 


JULY 24tk-29th, 1922. 

Applications for Space and full particulars 
can be obtained from THE SECRETARY, 


90, Buckingham Palace Road, 

London, S.W.I. 


Humane Slaughter of Animals for Food. 


The Reading Magistrates Decision. 

Having given this matter careful consideration and weighed 
all the evidence put before us, we have come to the conclusion that 
the summonses against the four defendants should be dismissed. 
We find that the Bye-Law is unreasonable because it is partial and 
unequal in its operation as between different classes of the commu- 
nity. Further, we are of opinion that the Bye-Law is unreasonable 
because it applies to all animals without distinction, and we find as a 
fact, after hearing the evidence submitted to us, that killing pigs 
by hoisting and sticking is not less humane than by shooting. We 
also find as a fact that the meat of pigs killed for bacon purposes by a 
mechanically operated instrument is more likely to deteriorate for 
curing than is meat of pigs killed by hoisting and sticking. We also 
find that there is no material danger from a mechanically operated 
instrument if properly used with ordinary care. In dismissing the 
summonses we order the informant to pay ten guineas costs in each 
case. " The Reading Mercury, 14th January, 1922. 

The Judgment of the Lord Chief Justice. 

The Lord Chief Justice, in giving judgment, said that there was 
imposed upon the Corporation of Reading the statutory duty of making 
Bye-Laws for the licensing, registration and inspection of slaughter- 
houses and knackers' yards, and for preventing cruelty therein. A 
prosecution was instituted under Bye-Law 9, and in the result the 
Justices came to the conclusion that the Bye-Law was unreasonable 
on various grounds, which were set out in the special case. It had been 
suggested that the Bye-Law was bad in itself, (1) because it prescribed 
a particular method of slaughter when various methods were equally 
open to, or equally free from objection ; and (2) because on religious 
grounds, if that was the right expression to use, an exception had 
been made in the Bye-Law in reference to a particular portion of the 
community. In his opinion there was no substance in either of those 
criticisms. Applying, as he did, the principles laid down by Lord 
Russell in Kruse v. Johnson (supra) he could see no grounds whatever 
on which, so far as the law was concerned, the Bye-Law was open to 
objection. The appeal would therefore be allowed, with costs, and the 
case would be remitted to the Justices with a direction to them to 
convict. " The Times," 15th June, 1922. 

Full particulars on this subject can be obtained from :- — The Royal Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 105, Jenny n Street, London, S.W. 1. 


[ xix ] 


Activated Sludge 


for the 

Purification of Sewage and Trades Waste 

Has been adopted by five Government Departments, and 
by Manchester, Worcester, Tunstall, Reading, and by the 
London County Council and other towns in Great 
Britain ; also by towns in India, South Africa, 
Australia, Canada, Denmark, and other countries. 

We have enquiries for the Process from all parts of the world 
because : — 

1. It is hygienic, aerobic throughout, and without smell. 

2. Tanks are self-cleansing, the surplus sludge being ejected 


3. Existing tanks may be converted for the treatment of 

sewage, thus saving heavy expenditure in the building 
of new tanks. 

4. It dispenses with filters and secondary settlement. 

5. It reduces area and dimensions of tanks required. 

6. It involves practically no loss of fall and often reduces 


7. It converts the Sludge into a valuable fertilizer. 

The Process is protected by many patents both at Home 

and Abroad. 

We have received the Highest Award (Silver Medal) at the Health Exhibition of 
the Royal Sanitary Institute, held at Birmingham, July- August, 1920. 

Write for Leaflet R.S.L(I). 

Address all enquiries to— 


Telegrams: Telephone: 



[ xx 1 


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I xxi 

WiGHTMAN ' Ltd., "Old Westminster Press," Regency Street, S.W 1