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il|arbartr  College  Htbrarp 


mOM  THE 

BRIGHT  LEGACY 

One  half  the  income  from  this  Legacy,  which  wat  re- 
ceived in  1880  ander  the  will  of 

JONATHAN   BROWN   BRIGHT 
of  Waltham,  Mataachusetts,  it  to  be  ezprnded  for  books 
for  the  College  Library.    The  other  half  of  the  income 
is  devoted  to  scholarships  in  Harvard  University  for  the 
benefit  of  descendants  of 

HENRY  BRIGHT,  JR., 
who  died  at  Watertown,  Massachusetts,  in  1686.  In  the 
absence  of  such  descendants,  other  persons  are  eligible 
to  the  scholarships.  The  will  requires  that  this  announce- 
ment shall  be  made  in  every  book  added  to  the  Library 
under  its  provisions. 


HISTORY 


OP 


ESTERN  IOWA 


Its  Settlement  and  Growth. 


A  COMPRBHBN81VE  COMPILATION  OF  PROGRESSIVE  EVENTS  CONCERNING 
THE  COUNTIES,  CITIES,  TOWNS  AND  VII.LAGES-BIOGRAPH- 
ICAL  SKETCHES  OF  THE  PIONEERS  AND   BUSI- 
NESS MEN,  WITH  AN  AUTHENTIC 


HISTORY  OF  THE  STATE  OF  IOWA. 


SIOUX  CITY: 

Wbstbrn  Publishing  Company. 

1882. 


U^S  'a*i??iu«a.C 


jJ^MtDCOiJ^ 


e 


DEC ;22 1920 


Daify  Journal  Steam  Print 
Stoux  CUy^  Iowa, 


PRE-FACE 


•  '  ■»  -^»^    ^  — — 

Tew  enterpriftes  are  more  liable  to  miHunderstanding  than  a  work  of  this  char 
acter.  The  main  trouble  arises  from  confoimdin^r  it  with  \tn6kn  in  general. 
^^70  A  largfe,  ele^ntly-boimd  volume — maylje  a  Hintory  of  the  World,  or  of 
Home  particular  Nation,  or  embracing  a  Rcope  of  interest  to  a  very  couHiderablc 
portion  of  mankind,  in  the  gathering  of  material  for  which  tht^  continuous  time 
and  labor  of  but  one  person  have  been  employed,  and  the  8ale^  of  which  are 
equally  extensive  and  continuous  with  the  v»*rv  g»»nenil  and  comprehtmsive  na- 
ture of  the  whole — such  a  volume,  wt»  say,  findH  purchasers  at  »o  low  a  price  as 
to  make  that  asked  for  a  work  of  the  kind  hen* with  presented  seem  dispropor- 
tionately large. 

Perhaps  it  is  a  work  of  fiction  that  is  offered  th»*  purchasing  public.  Very 
well;  the  ** Novel'*  is  sumptuously  bound,  artistically  ilhistnitecl,  and  contains  a 
great  number  of  closely  printed  pages;  yet  its  price  per  copy  is  even  less  than 
that  for  which  the  Publishers  oflfer  their  History  of  Western  Iowa.  Hence, 
not  infrequently  individuals  leap  unthinkingly  to  inadecjuate  and  necessarily 
hasty  conclusions,  such  as,  that  the  price  asked  is  exorbitant,  and  so  on,  for 
quantity.  Such  a  mode  of  overleaping  reasonableness  naturally  leads  to  de- 
preciation of  the  enterprise,  and  per  consequence,  many  highly  cnKlitable  works, 
having  begun  their  career  with  a  '^damning  by  faint  praise,**  have  ended  it  in 
unthinking  condemnation. 

Now,  it  is  not  the  intention  to  argue  or  philosophize.  We  herewith  present 
the  results  ofhalf  a  year's  diligent  labor,  which  has  occupied  the  entire  time  and  at- 
tention of  a  number  of  competent  men — labor  not  of  the  most  inviting  kind,  but 
of  a'  sort  akin  to  drudgery.  And  not  only  time  and  work,  but  money  also  to  a 
not  inconsiderable  amount,  has  been  expended.  The  Publishers  ask  you  to  re- 
member that  the  History  of  Western  Iowa  has  been  compileil  for  you;  that 
itfi  sales  are  limited  almost  wholly  to  that  iwrtion  of  country  thtj  facts  concern- 
ing which  it  recounts;  that,  were  it  possible  to  send  the  books  broadcixst  over 
the  country,  and  sell  them  in  every  dty,  village  and  hamlet,  the  selling  price 
could,  and  would,  be  proportionately  reduced.  The  work  is  intended  mainly  for 
home  consumption;  the  expense  is  large,  the  sales  disproportionately  small.  In 
presenting  this  work  to  the  citizens  of  Western  Iowa,  we  do  so  at  the  very  low- 
est possible  margin  of  profit,  and  that,  even,  problematic. 

With  these  remarks,  we  tnist  we  have  established  relations  of  friendly  un- 
derstanding with  every  candid  patron.  The  nature  iind  plan  of  the  work  were 
folly  ex  yLuned  in  the  Prospectus,  to  the  promises  of  which  we  have  endeav- 
ored strictly  to  adhere.    There  are  errors,  of  course;  no  book  was  ever  published 


6  PBEFAOE. 

that  did  not  contain  errors.  These  are  most  likely,  in  this  instance,  to  occur  in 
the  Biographical  Departments  of  the  work.  The  persons  approached  by  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Publishing  Staff  in  many  instances  themselves  unintentionally  give 
incorrect  information ;  the  historian  has  no  other  means-  of  knowing,  and  so, 
trusting  to  the  accuracy  of  the  informant — especially  as  the  matter  sought  is  of 
personal  concern  to  the  informant  himself— he  "makes  a  note"  of  it,  and  trans- 
cribes it  for  the  Histort.  Hence,  patrons  should  judge  leniently  concerning 
snoh  errors  as  may  appear;  for,  in  both  the  matter  ot  compiling  and  printing, 
no  pains  have  been  spared  to  insure  the  strictest  accuracy. 

It  goes  without  the  saying,  that  it  is  not  to  the  interest  of  either  the  Pub- 
lishers or  their  employes  to  pervert  the  facts  in  any  case  to  the  help  or  hurt  of 
any  one. 

And  so,  asking  only  a  recognition  of  the  difficulties,  risk  and  unavoidable 
obstacles  in  the  way  of  such  an  undertaking,  we  launch  the  History  op  West- 
KRN  Iowa  upon  the  sea  of  popular  favor,  confident  that  it  will  meet  with  a 
reception  in  some  degree  commensurate  to  its  merits. 

Very  Respectfully, 

THE  PUBLISHERS. 
March,  1882, 


CONTENTS. 


fPage. 

Early  Bistort  of  Iowa 9 

Indian  Wars 23 

Indian  Purchases,  Reserves 

and  Treaties 32 

Territorial  History 49 

State  Organization 59 

Agricultural  College 66 

State  University 67 

State  Historical  Society 72 

Penal  Institutions 73 

Insane  Asylum 74 

Blind  Asylums 75 

Deaf  and  Dumb  Institute 76 

Soldiers*  Orphans*  Homes 77 

State  Normal  School 78 

Asylum  for  Feeble-Minded 79 

Reform  School 80 

Fish  Hatchery 81 

Public  Lands 82 

School  System 99 

Political  Record 104 

War  Record 110 

Abstracts  of  Iowa  Laws 117 

Rules  for  Everyday  Use 149 

Population  of  Iowa 156 

Population  of  United  States 158 

Geological  and  Physical  Features .  159 

WooDBUBY  County 175 

SiouxCity 181 

Sloan 214 

Sioux  City  Biographies 217 

Sloan  Biographies 241 

Monona  County 243 

Onawa 248 

Mapleton 252 

Whiting 255 


Pag^. 

Onawa  Biographies 255 

Mapleton  Biographies 257 

Whiting  Biographies 259 

Chrrokeb  County 260 

Cherokee 267 

Marcus 274 

Cherokee  Biographies 276 

Marcus  Biographies 283 

Harrison  County 285 

Mondamin 290 

River  Sioux 293 

Woodbine 295 

Modale 298 

Dunlap 301 

Little  Sioux 306 

Missouri  Valley 

Logan 314 

County  Details 319 

Missouri  Valley  Biographies.322 

Logan  Biographies 328 

Mondamin  Biographies.   ...337 

Modale  Biographies 339 

Little  Sioux  Biographies. . .  .340 

Woodbine  Biographies 343 

Dimlap  Biographies 347 

Magnolia  Biographies 354 

River  Sioux  Biographies. . .  .355 

O'Brien  County 356 

Primghar 357 

Sheldon 359 

Sanborn 363 

Hartley 365 

Sheldon  Biographies 366 

Primghar  Biographies 369 

Hartley  Biographies 372 

Sanborn  Biographies 373 


8 


ooKTEirrs. 


Page 

Obcbola  County 377 

Sibley 378 

Ashton 382 

Sibley  Biographies 382 

Plymouth  County 387 

LeMaxs 388 

LeMars  Biographies 395 

Shelby  County 403 

Harlan 405 

Harlan  Biographies 414 

Clay  County 430 

Spencer 431 

Spencer  Biographies 436 

BuENA  ViBTA  County 440 

Storm  Lake 442 

Sioux  Rapids 44S 

Alta 450 

Newell 452 

Storm  Lake  Biographies 454 

Alta  Biographies 460 

Newell  Biographies 461 

Crawford  County 465 

Denison 470 

Vail 476 

West  Side 480 

Dow  City 483 


Page 

Denison  Biographies 487 

Vail  Biographies 492 

West  Side  Biographies 496 

Dow  City  Biographies 497 

Carroll  County 499 

Carroll  City 503 

Arcadia 508 

Glidden 512 

Carroll  City  Biographies. . .  .514 

Arcadia  Biographies 518 

Glidden  Biographies 519 

Sac  County 522 

Sac  City 528 

Odelx)lt 581 

Wall  Lake 534 

Fletcher 536 

Sac  City  Biographies 538 

Odebolt  Biographies 547 

Wall  Lake  Biographies 553 

Fletcher  Biographies 555 

Ida  County 557 

Ida  Grove 558 

Battle  Creek 563 

Ida  Grove  Biographies 565 

Battle  Creek  Biographies. .  .568 


History  of  Iowa, 


DISCOVERY  AND  OCCUPATION. 

The  name  Iowa  is  said  to  signify  "  The  Beautiful  Land,"  and 
was  applied  to  this  magnificent  and  fniitful  region  by  its  ancient 
owners,  to  express  their  appreciation  of  its  superiority  of  climate, 
soil  and  location.  Prior  to  1803.  the  Mississippi  River  was  the 
extreme  western  boundary  of  the  United  States.  All  the  great 
empire  lying  west  of  the  *'  Father  of  Waters,"  from  the  Gulf  of 
Mexico  on  the  south  to  British  America  on  the  north,  and  west- 
ward to  the  Pacific  Ocean,  was  a  Spanish  province.  A  brief 
historical  sketch  of  the  discovery  and  occupation  of  this  great 
empire  by  the  Spanish  and  Frencn  governments  will  be  a  fitting 
introduction  to  the  history  of  the  young  and  thriving  State  oi 
Iowa,  which,  until  the  commencement  of  the  present  century,  was 
a  part  of  the  Spanish  possessions  in  America. 

Early  in  the  Spring  of  1542,  Ferdinand  DeSoto  discovered  the 
moath  of  the  Mississippi  River  at  the  mouth  of  the  Washita, 
After  the  sudden  death  of  DeSoto,  in  May  of  the  same  year,  his 
followers  built  a  small  vessel,  and  in  July,  1543,  descended  the 
great  river  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 

In  accordance  with  the  usage  of  nations,  under  which  title  to 
the  soil  was  claimed  by  right  of  discovery,  Spain,  havinj^  con- 
quered Florida  and  discovered  the  Mississippi,  claimed  all  the 
territory  bordering  on  that  river  and  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  But  it 
was  also  held  by  the  European  nations  that,  while  discovery  gave 
title,  that  title  must  be  perfected  by  actual  possession  and  occupation. 
Although  Spain  claimed  the  territory  by  right  of  first  discovery, 
she  made  no  effort  to  occupy  it;  by  no  permanent  settlement  had 
she  perfected  and  held  her  title,  and  therefore  had  forfeited  it 
when,  at  a  later  period,  the  Lower  Mississippi  V^ alley  was  re- 
discovered and  occupied  by  France. 

The  labors  of  the  zealous  French  Jesuits  of  Canjida  in  penetrat- 
ing the  unknown  region  of  the  W^est,  commencing  in  1611,  form 
a  history  of  no  ordinary  interest,  but  have  no  particular  connec- 
tion with  the  scope  of  the  present  work,  until  in  the  Fall  of  1665. 
Pierre  Claude  Allouez,  who  had  entered  Lake  Superior  in  Septem- 
ber, and  sailed  along  the  southern  coast  in  search  of  copper,  had 
arrived  at  the  great  village  of  the  Chippewtis  at  Chegoincegon. 
Here  a  grand  council  of  some  ten  or  twelve  of  the  principal  Indian 
nations  was  held.  The  Pottawatomies  of  Lake  Michigan,  the 
Sacs  and  Foxes  of  the  West,  the   Hurons   froii   the  North,  the 


10  HISTORY    01'   IOWA. 

Illinois  from  the  South,  and  the  Sioux  from  the  land  of  the 
prairie  and  wild  rice,  were  all  assembled  there.  The  Illinois  told 
the  story  of  their  ancient  glory  and  about  the  noble  river  on  the 
banks  of  which  they  dwelt.  The  Sioux  also  told  their  white 
brother  of  the  same  great  river,  and  Allouez  promised  to  the 
assembled  tribes  the  protection  of  the  French  nation  agiiinst  all 
their  enemies,  native  or  foreign. 

The  purpose  of  discovering  the  j^jreat  river  about  which  the 
Indian  nations  had  given  such  glowing  accounts,  appears  to  have 
originated  with  Marquette,  in  1669.  In  the  year  previous,  he  and 
Claude  Dablon  had  established  the  Mission  of  St.  Mary's,  the  oldest 
white  settlement  within  the  present  limits  of  the  State  of 
Michigan.  Marquette  was  delayed  in  the  execution  of  his  great 
undertaking,  and  spent  the  interval  in  studying  the  language  and 
habits  of  the  Illinois  Indians,  among  whom  he  expected  to  travel. 

About  this  time  the  French  Government  had  determined  to 
extend  the  Dominion  of  France  to  the  extreme  western  borders  of 
Canada.  Nicholas  Perrot  was  sent  as  the  agent  of  the  govern- 
ment, to  propose  a  grand  council  of  the  Indian  nations,  at  St. 
Mary's. 

When  Perrot  reached  Green  Bay,  he  extended  the  invitation  far 
and  near;  and,  escorted  by  Pottawatomies,  repaired  on  a  mission 
of  peace  and  friendship  to  the  Miamis,  who  occupied  the  region 
about  the  present  location  of  Chicago. 

In  May  1671,  a  great  council  of  Indians  gathered  at  the  Falls 
of  St.  Mary,  from  all  parts  of  the  northwest,  from  the  head  waters 
of  the  St.  Lawrence,  from  the  valley  of  the  Mississippi  and  from 
the  Red  River  of  the  North.  Perrot  met  with  them,  and  after 
grave  consultation,  formally  announced  to  the  assembled  nations 
that  their  good  French  Father  felt  an  abiding  interest  in  their 
welfare,  and  had  placed  them  all  under  the  powerful  protection  of 
the  French  Government. 

Marquette,  during  that  same  year,  had  gathered  at  Point  St. 
Ignace  the  remnants  of  one  branch  of  the  Hurons.  This  station,  for 
a  lonec  series  of  years,  was  considered  the  key  to  the  unknown  West. 

The  time  was  now  auspicious  for  the  consummation  of  Mar- 
quette's grand  project.  The  successful  termination  of  Perrot's 
mission,  and  the  general  friendliness  of  the  native  tribes,  rendered 
the  contemplated  expedition  much  less  perilous.  But  it  was  not 
until  1673  that  the  intrepid  and  enthusijistic  priest  was  finally 
ready  to  depart  on  his  daring  and  perilous  journey  to  lands  never 
trod  by  white  men.  Having  implored  the  blessing  of  God  upon 
his  undertaking,  on  the  13th  day  of  May,  1673,  with  Joliet  and 
five  Canadian-French  voyageurs,  or  boatmen,  he  left  the  mission 
on  his  daring  journey.  Ascending  Green  Bay  and  Fox  River, 
these  bold  and  enthusiastic  pioneers  of  religion  and  discovery  pro- 
ceeded until  they  reached  a  Miami  and  Kickapoo  village,  where 
Marquette  was  delighted  to   find  *'  a  beautiful  cross  planted  in  the 


HISTORY   OP   IOWA.  11 

i  middle  of  the  town,  ornamented  with  white  skins,  red  girdles  and 
bows  and  arrows,  which  these  good  people  had  oilVred  to  the  Great 
Manitou,  or  Grod,  to  thank  Him  for  the  pity  He  had  l>estow(?d  on 
them  during  the  winter,in  having  given  them  abundant  chase.'*  This 
was  the  extreme  point  beyond  which  the  explorations  of  the 
French  missionaries  had  not  then  extended.  He  called  together 
the  principal  men'of  the  village,  and  informed  them  th;it  his  coni- 

S 'anion,  Joliet,  had  been  sent  by  the  French  Governor  of  Canada  to 
iscover  new  countries,  to  be  added  to  the  dominion  of  France; 
but  that  he,  himself,  had  been  sent  by  the  Most  High  God,  to  carry 
the  glorious  religion  of  the   Cross;  and    assured   his  wondering 
hearers  that  on  this  mission  he  had  no  fear  of  death,  to  which  he 
Icnew.he  would  be  exposed  on  his  perilous  journeys. 

Obtaining  the  services  of  two  Miami  guides,  to  conduct  his 
Jittle  band  to  the  Wisconsin  River,  he  left  the  hospitable  Indians 
on  the  10th  of  June.  Conducting  them  across  the  portage,  their 
Indian  guides  returned  to  their  village,  and  the  little  party  descended 
the  Wisconsin,  to  the  great  river  which  had  so  long  been  so 
anxiously  looked  for,  and  boldly  floated  down  its  unknown  waters. 
On  the  25th  of  June,  the  explorers  discovered  indications  of 
Indians  on  the  west  bank  of  the  river,  and  landed  a  little  above 
the  mouth  of  the  river  now  known  as  Des  Moines,  and  for  the  first 
time  Europeans  trod  the  soil  of  Iowa.  Leaving  the  Canadians  to 
guard  the  canoes,  Marquette  and  Joliet  boldly  followed  the  trail 
into  the  interior  iEor  fourteen  miles  (some  authorities  say  six),  to 
an  Indian  village  situated  on  the  banks  of  a  river,  and  discovered 
two  other  villages,  on  the  rising  ground  about  half  a  league  dis- 
tant. Their  visit,  while  it  created  much  astonishment,  did  not 
seem  to  be  entirely  unexpected,  for  there  Wiis  a  tradition  or 
prophecy  among  the  Indians  that  white  visitors  were  to  come  to 
them.  They  were,  therefore,  received  with  great  respect  and 
hospitality,  and  were  cordially  tendered  the  calumet  or  pipe  of 
peace,  'f  hey  were  informed  that  this  band  was  a  part  of  the  Illini 
nation,  and  that  their  village  was  called  Monin-gou-ma  or 
Moingona,  which  was  the  name  of  the  river  on  which  it  stood. 
This,  from  its  similarity  of  sound,  M  irquette  corrupted  into  Des 
Moines  (Monk's  River),  its  present  name. 

Here  the  voyagers  remained  six  days,  learning  much  of  the 
manners  and  customs  of  their  new  friends.  The  new  religion 
they  boldlv  preached,  and  the  authority  of  the  King  of  France  they 
proclaimed  were  received  without  hostility  or  remonstrance  by  their 
savage  entertainers.  On  their  departure,  they  were  accompanied 
to  their  canoes  by  the  chiefs  and  hundreds  of  warriors.  Mar- 
quette received  from  them  the  sacred  calumet,  the  emblem  of 
peace  and  safeguard  among  the  nations,  and  re-embarked  for  the 
rest  of  his  journey. 

In  1682,  LaSalle  descended  the  Mississippi  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico 
and  in  the  name  of  the  King  of  France  took  formal  possession 


12  HI8I0RY  CF  IOWA. 

of  all  the  immense  region  Avatered  by  the  great  river  and  its 
tributaries  from  its  source  to  its  mouth,  and  named  it  Louisiana, 
in  honor  of  his  master,  Louis  XIV.  At  the  close  of  the  seven- 
teenth  centurv,  France  claimed,  by  right  of  discovery  and  occu- 
pancy, the  whole  valley  of  the  Mississippi  and  its  tributaries,  in- 
cluding Texas,  as  far  as  the  Rio  del  Norte. 

In  1719,  Phillipe  Francis  Renault  arrived  in  Illinois  with  two 
hundred  miners  and  artisans.  The  war  between  France  and  Spain 
at  this  time  rendered  it  extremely  probable  that  the  Mississippi 
Valley  might  become  the  theater  of  Spanish  hostilities  against  the 
French  settlements;  to  prevent  this,  as  well  as  to  extend  French 
claims,  a  chain  of  forts  was  begun,  to  keep  open  the  connection 
between  the  mouth  and  the  sources  of  the  Mississippi.  Fort  Or- 
leans, high  up  the  Mississippi  River,  was  erected  as  an  outpost  in 
1720. 

The  Mississippi  scheme  was  at  the  zenith  of  its  power  and  glory- 
in  January,  1720,  but  the  gigantic  bubble  collapsed  more  suddenly 
than  it  had  been  inflated,  and  the  Company  was  declared  hopelessly 
bankrupt  in  May  following.  France  was  impoverished  by  it,  both 
private  and  public  credit  were  overthrown,  capitalists  suddenly  found 
themselves  paupers,  and  labor  was  left  without  employment.  The 
effect  on  the  colony  of  Louisiana  was  disastrous. 

While  this  was  going  on  in  Lower  Louisiana  the  region  about 
the  lakes  was  the  theater  of  Indian  hostilities,rendering  the  passage 
from  Canada  to  Louisiana  extremely  dangerous  for  many  years.  The 
Englishhad  not  only  extended  their  Indian  trade  into  the  vicinity  of 
the  French  settlements,  but  through  their  friends,  the  Iroquois,  had 
gained  a  marked  ascendancy  over  the  Foxes,  a  fierce  and  powerful 
tribe,  of  Iroquois  descent,  whom  they  incited  to  hostilities  against 
the  French.  The  Foxes  began  their  hostilities  with  the  siege  of 
Detroit  in  1712,  a  siege  which  continued  for  nineteen  consecutive 
days,  and  although  the  expedition  resulted  in  diminishing  their  num- 
bers and  humbling  their  pride,  yet  it  was  not  until  after  several  suc- 
cessive campaigns,  embodying  the  best  military  resources  of  New 
France,  had  been  directed  against  them,  that  they  were  finally  de- 
feated at  the  great  battles  of  Butte  des  Morts,  and  on  the  Wiscon- 
sin River,  and  driven  west  in  1746. 

The  Company,  having  found  that  the  cost  of  defending  Louisi- 
ana exceeded  the  returns  from  its  commerce,  solicited  leave  to  sur- 
render the  Mississippi  wilderness  to  the  home  government.  Ac- 
cordingly, on  the  10th  of  April,  1732,  the  jurisdiction  and  control 
over  the  commerce  reverted  to  the  Crown  of  France.  The  Com- 
pany had  held  possession  of  Louisiana  fourteen  years.  In  1735, 
Bienville  returned  to  assume  command  for  the  King. 

A  glance  at  a  few  of  the  old  French  settlements  will  show  the 
progress  made  in  portions  of  Louisiana  during  the  early  part  of 
the  eighteenth  century.  As  early  as  1705,  traders  and  hunters  had 
penetrated  the  fertile  regions  of  the  Wabash,  and  from  this  region, 


HISTORY   OF   IOWA.  13 

at  that  early  date,  fifteen  thousand  hides  and  skins  hiid  been  col- 
lected and  sent  to  Mobile  for  the  Euro|>ean  market. 

In  the  year  1716,  the  French  population  on  the  Wabash  kept  up 
a  lucrative  commerce  with  Mobile  oy  means  of  traders  and  voyag- 
eurs.     The  Ohio  river  was  comparatively  unknown. 

In  1746,  agriculture  on  the  Wabash  had  attained  to  greater  pros- 
perity than  in  any  of  the  French  settlements  besides,  and  in  that 
Year  six  hundred  barrels  of  flour  were  manufactured  and  shipped  to 
New  Orleans,  together  with  considerable  quantities  of  hide,  peltry, 
tallow  and  beeswax. 

In  the  Illinois  country,  also,  considerable  settlements  had  been 
made,  so  that,  in  1730,  they  embraced  one  hundred  and  forty  French 
families,  about  six  hundred  "converted  Indians,''  and  many  trad- 
ers and  voyageurs. 

In  1753,  the  first  actual  conflict  arose  between  Louisiana  and  the 
Atlantic  colonies.  From  the  earliest  advent  of  the  Jesuit  fathers, 
up  to  the  period  of  which  we  speak,  the  great  ambition  of  the 
Prench  had  been,  not  alone  to  preserve  their  possessions  in  the 
West,  but  by  every  possible  means  to  prevent  the  slightest  attempt 
of  the  English,  east  of  the  mountains,  to  extend  their  settlements 
toward  the  Mississippi.  France  was  resolved  on  retaining  posses- 
sion of  the  great  territory  which  her  missionaries  had  discovered 
and  revealed  to  the  world.  French  commandants  had  avowed  their 
intention  of  seizing  every  Englishman  within  the  Ohio  Valley. 

The  colonies  of  Pennsylvania,  New  York  and  Virginia  were  most 
affected  by  the  encroachments  of  France  in  the  extension  of  her 
dominion;  and  particularly  in  the  great  scheme  of  uniting  Canada 
with  Louisiana.  To  carry  out  this  purpose  the  French  had  taken 
possession  of  a  tract  of  country  claimed  by  Virginia,  and  had  com- 
menced a  line  of  forts  extending  from  the  lakes  to  the  Ohio  River. 
Virginia  was  not  only  alive  to  her  own  interests,  but  attentive  to 
the  vast  importance  of  an  immediate  and  efl^ectual  resistance  on  the 
part  of  all  the  English  colonies  to  the  actual  and  contemplated  en- 
croachments of  the  French. 

In  1753,  Governor  Dinwiddle,  of  Virginia,  sent  George  Wash- 
ington, then  a  young  man  just  twenty-one,  to  demand  of  the  French 
commandanfa  reason  for  invading  British  dominions  while  a  solid 
peace  subsisted."  Washington  met  the  French  commandant, 
Gardeur  de  St.  Pierre,  on  the  head  waters  of  the  Alleghany,  and 
having  communicated  to  him  the  object  of  his  journey,  received  the 
insolent  answer  that  the  French  would  not  discuss  the  matter  of 
right,  but  would  make  prisoners  of  every  Englishman  found  trading 
on  the  Ohio  and  its  waters.  The  country,  he  said  belonged  to  the 
French,  by  virtue  of  the  discoveries  of  La  Salle,  and  they  would 
not  withdraw  from  it. 

In  January,  1754,  Washington  returned  to  Virginia,  and  made 
his  report  to  the  Governor  and  Council.  Forces  were  at  once  raised 
and  Washington,  as  Lieutenant  Colonel,  w^as  dispatched  at  the 


14  HISTORY   OF  IOWA. 

head  of  a  hundred  and  fifty  men,  to  the  forks  of  the  Ohio,  with  or- 
ders to  '^finish  the  fort  already  begun  there  by  the  Ohio  Company, 
and  to  make  prisoners,  kill  or  destroy  all  who  interrupted  the  Eng- 
lish settlements." 

On  his  march  through  the  forests  of  Western  Pennsylvania, 
Washington,  through  the  aid  of  friendly  Indians,  discovered  the 
French  concealed  among  the  rocks,  and  as  they  ran  to  seize  their 
arms,  ordered  his  men  to  ffre  upon  them,  at  the  same  time,  with 
his  own  musket,  setting  the  example.  An  action  lasting  about  a 
quarter  of  an  hour  ensued;  ten  of  the  Frenchmen  were  killed, 
among  them  Jumonville,  the  commander  of  the  party,  and  twenty- 
one  were  made  prisoners.  The  dead  were  scalped  by  the  Indians, 
and  the  chief,  bearing  a  tomahawk  and  a  scalp,  visited  all  the  tribes 
of  the  Miamis,  urging  them  to  join  the  Six  xJations  and  English 
against  the  French.  The  French,  however,  were  soon  re-enforced 
and  Col.  Washington  was  compelled  to  return  to  Fort  Necessity. 
Here,  on  the  3d  day  of  July,  De  Villiers  invested  the  fort  with  60O 
French  troops  and  100  Indians.  On  the  4th,  Washington  accept- 
ed terms  of  capitulation  and  the  English  garrison  withdrew  from 
the  valley  of  the  Ohio. 

This  attack  of  Washington  upon  Jumonville  aroused  the  indig- 
nation of  France,  and  war  was  formally  declared  in  May,  1756,  and 
the  "  French  and  Indian  War"  devastated  the  colonies  for  several 
years.  Montreal,  Detroit  and  all  Canada  were  surrendered  to  the 
English,  and  on  the  10th  of  February,  1763,  by  the  treaty  of  Par- 
is— which  had  been  signed,  though  not  formally  ratified  by  the  re- 
spective govemmjents,  on  the  3d  of  November,  1762 — France  re- 
linquished to  Great  Britain  all  that  portion  of  the  province  of  L 
isiana  lying  on  the  east  side  of  the  Mississippi,  except  the  is/and 
and  town  of  New  Orleans.  On  the  same  day  that  the  treaty  of 
Paris  was  signed  France,  by  a  secret  treaty,  jceded  to  Spain  all  her 
possessions  on  the  west  side  of  the  Mississippi,  including  the  whole 
country  to  the  head  waters  of  the  Great  River,  and  west  to  the 
Rocky  Mountains,  and  the  jurisdiction  of  France  in  America,  which 
had  lasted  nearly  a  century,  was  ended. 

At  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  war,  by  the  treaty  of  peace 
between  Great  Britain  and  the  United  States,  the  English  Govern- 
ment ceded  to  the  latter  all  the  territory  on  the  east  side  of  the 
Mississippi  River  and  north  of  the  thirty-first  parallel  of  north 
latitude.  At  the  same  time.  Great  Britain  ceded  to  Spain  all  the 
Floridas,  comprising  all  the  territory  east  of  the  Mississippi  and 
south  of  the  southern  limits  of  the  United  States. 

At  this  time,  therefore,  the  present  State  of  Iowa  was  a  part  of 
the  Spanish  possessions  in  North  America,  as  all  the  territory  west 
of  the  Mississippi  River  was  under  the  dominion  of  Spain.  That 
government  also  possessed  all  the  territory  of  the  Floridas  east  of 
the  gieat  river  and  south  of  the  thirty-first  parallel  of  north  lati- 
tude.    The  Mississippi,  therefore,  so  essential  to  the  prosperity  of 


HISTORY   OF   IOWA.  15 

the  western  portion  of  the  United  States,  for  the  last  three  hun- 
dred miles  of  it:'  course  flowed  wholly  within  the  Spanish  domin- 
ions, and  that  government  claimed  the  exclusive  right  to  use  and 
control  it  below  the  southern  boundary  of  the  United  States. 

The  free  navigation  of  the  Mississippi  was  a  very  important 
question  during  all  the  time  that  Louisana  remained  a  dependency 
of  the  Spanish  Crown,  and  as  the  final  settlement  intimately  af- 
fected the  status  of  the  then  future  State  of  Iowa,  it  will  be  in- 
teresting to  trace  its  progress. 

The  people  of  the  United  States  occupied  and  exercised  juris- 
diction over  the  entire  eastern  valley  of  the  Mississippi,  embracing 
all  the  country  drained  by  its  eastern  tributaries;  tney  had  a  na^ 
ural  right,  according  to  tne  accepted  international  law,  to  follow 
these  rivers  to  the  sea,  and  to  the  use  of  the  Mississippi  River  ac- 
cordingly, as  the  great  natural  channel  of  commerce.  The  river 
was  not  only  necessary  but  absolutely  indispensable  to  the  pros- 
perity  and  ^owth  of  the  western  settlements  then  rapidly  rising 
mto  com9iercial  and  political  importance.  They  were  situated  in 
the  heart  of  the  great  valley,  and  with  wonderful  expansive  ener- 
gies and  accumulating  resources,  it  was  very  evident  that  no  power 
on  earth  could  deprive  them  of  the  free  use  of  the  river  below 
them,  only  while  their  numbers  were  insufficient  to  enable  them 
to  maintain  their  right  by  force.  Inevitably,  therefore,  immedia- 
tely after  the  ratification  of  the  treaty  of  1785,  the  Western  peo- 
ple began  to  demand  the  free  navigation  of  the  Mississippi — not 
as  a  favor,  but  as  a  right.  In  1786,  both  banks  of  the  river,  below 
the  mouth  of  the  Ohio,  were  occupied  by  Spain,  and  military  posts 
on  the  east  bank  enforced  her  power  to  exact  heavy  duties  on  all 
imports  by  way  of  the  river  for  the  Ohio  region.  Every  boat  de- 
cendingthe  river  was  forced  to  land  and  submit  to  the  arbitrary 
revenue  exactions  of  the  Spanish  authorities.  Under  the  admin- 
istration of  Governor  Miro.  these  rigorous  exactions  were  some- 
what relaxed  from  1787  to  1790:  but  Spain  held  it  as  her  right  to 
make  them.  Taking  advantage  of  the  claim  of  the  American  peo- 
ple, that  the  Mississippi  should  be  opened  to  them,  in  1791,  the 
Spanish  Government  concocted  a  scheme  for  the  dismembership 
of  the  Union.  The  plan  was  to  induce  the  Western  people  to  sep- 
arate from  the  Eastern  States  by  liberal  land  grants  and  extraor- 
dinary commercial  privileges. 

Spanish  emissaries,  among  the  people  of  Ohio  and  Kentucky,  in- 
formed them  that  the  Spanish  Government  would  grant  them  fa- 
vorable commercial  privileges,  provided  they  would  secede  from 
the  Federal  Government  ejist  of  the  mountains.  The  Spanish 
Minister  to  the  United  States  plainly  declared  to  his  confidential 
correspondent  that,  unless  the  Western  people  would  declare  their 
independence  and  refuse  to  remain  in  the  Union,  Spain  was  deter- 
mined never  to  grant  the  free  navigation  of  the  Mississippi. 


16  HISTORY  OF   IOWA. 

By  the  treaty  of  Madrid,  October  20, 1795,  liowever,  Spain  form- 
ally stipulated  that  the  Mississippi  River,  from  its  source  to  the 
Gulf,  for  its  entire  width,  should  be  free  to  American  trade  and 
commerce,  and  that  the  people  of  the  United  States  should  be  per- 
mitted for  three  years,  to  use  the  port  of  New  Orleans  as  a  port  of 
deposit  for  their  merchandize  and  produce,  duty  free. 

In  November,  1801,  the  United  States  Government  received, 
through  Rufus  Kinj?,  its  Minister  at  the  Court  of  St.  James,  a 
copy  of  the  treaty  between  Spain  and  France,  signed  at  Madrid, 
March  21,  1801,  by  which  the  session  of  Louisiana  to  France, 
made  the  previous  autumn,  was  confirmed. 

The  change  offered  a  favorable  opportunity  to  secure  the  just 
rights  of  the  United  States,  in  relation  to  the  free  navigation  of 
the  Mississippi,  and  ended  the  attempt  to  dismember  the  Union 
by  an  effort  to  secure  an  independent  government  west  of  the  Al- 
leghany Mountains.  On  the  7th  day  of  January,  1803,  the  Amer- 
ican House  of  Representatives  adopted  a  resolution  declaring  their 
"unalterable  determination  to  maintain  the  boundaries  and  the 
rights  of  navigation  and  commerce  through  the  River  Mississippi, 
as  established  by  existing  treaties." 

In  the  same  month,  President  Jefferson  nominated  and  the  Sen- 
ate confirmed  Robert  R.  Livingston  and  James  Monroe  as  Envoys 
Plenipotentiary  to  the  Court  of  France,  and  Charles  Pinckneyand 
James  Monroe  to  the  Court  of  Spain,  with  plenary  power  to  ne- 
gotiate treaties  to  effect  the  object  enunciated  by  the  popular 
branch  of  the  National  Legislature.  These  envoys  were  instructed 
to  secure,  if  possible,  the  cession  of  Florida  and  New  Orleans,  but 
it  does  not  appear  that  Mr.  Jefferson  and  his  cabinet  had  any  idea 
of  purchasing  that  part  of  Louisiana  lying  on  the  west  side  of  the 
Mississippi.  In  fact,  on  the  2d  of  March  following,  the  instruc- 
tions were  sent  to  our  Ministers,  containing  a  plan  which  express- 
ly left  to  France  ''all  her  territory  on  the  west  side  of  the  Mississ- 
ippi." Had  these  instructions  been  followed,  it  might  have  been 
tnat  there  would  not  have  been  any  State  of  Iowa  or  any  other 
member  of  the  glorious  Union  of  States  west  of  the  ''Father  of 
Waters.'' 

In  obedience  to  his  instructions,  however,  Mr.  Livingston 
broached  this  plan  to  M.  Talleyrand,  Napoleon's  Prime  Minister, 
when  that  courtly  diplomatist  quietly  suggested  to  the  American 
Minister  that  France  might  be  walling  to  cede  the  whole  French 
domain  in  North  America  to  the  United  States,  and  asked  how 
much  the  Federal  Government  would  be  willing  to  give  for  it. 
Livingston  intimated  that  twenty  millions  of  francs  might  be  a 
fair  price.  Talleyrand  thought  that  not  enough,  but  asked  the 
Americans  to  "think  of  it."'  A  few  days  later,  Napoleon,  in  an 
interview  with  Mr.  Livingston,  in  effect  informed  the  American 
Envoy  that  he  had  secured  Louisiana  in  a  contract  with  Spain  for 
the  purpose  of  turning  it  over  to  the   United  States  for  a  mere 


HISTORY  OF   IOWA.  17 

noiniual  sum.  He  had  been  compelled  to  provide  for  the  safety 
of  that  province  by  the  treaty,  and  he  was  ••anxious  to  give  the 
United  States  a  magnificent  bargain  for  a  m3re  triflu*/'  The  price 
proposed  was  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  million  franco.  This 
was  subsequently  modified  to  fifteen  million  dollars,  and  on  this 
basis  a  treaty  was  negotiated,  and  was  signed  on  the  30th  day  of 
April,  1803. 

This  treaty  was  ratified  by  the  Federal  Government,  and  by  act 
of  Congress,  approved  October  31.  1803,  the  President  of  the 
United  States  was  authorized  to  take  possession  of  the  territory 
and  provide  for  it  a  temporary  government.  Accordingly,  on  the 
20th  d;iy  of  Saptember  following,  on  behalf  of  the  President, 
Gov.  Clairborne  and  Gen.  Wilkinson  took  possession  of  the  Louis- 
iana purchase,  and  raised  the  American  flag  over  the  newly  ac- 
quired domain,  at  New  Orleans.  Spain,  although  it  had  by  treaty 
ceded  the  province  to  France  in  1801,  still  held  quasi  possession 
and  at  first  objected  to  the  transfer,  but  withdrew  her  opposition 
early  in  1804. 

By  this  treaty,  thus  successfully  consummated,  and  the  peace- 
able withdrawal  of  Spain,  the  then  infant  nation  of  the  New 
World  extended  its  dominion  west  of  the  Mississippi  to  the  Pacific 
Ocean,  and  north  from  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  to  British  America. 

If  the  original  design  of  Jefierson's  administration  had  been 
accomplished,  the  United  States  would  have  accquired  only  that 
portion  of  the  French  territory  lying  east  of  the  Mississippi  River, 
and  while  the  American  people  would  thus  have  acquired  the  free 
navigation  of  that  great  river,  all  of  the  vast  Jind  fertile  empire  on 
the  west,  so  rich  in  its  agricultural  and  inexhaustible  mineral 
resources,  would  have  remimed  under  the  dominion  of  a  foreign 
power.  To  Napoleon's  desire  to  sell  the  whole  of  his  North 
American  possessions,  and  Livingston's  act  transcending  his  in- 
structions, which  was  acquiesced  in  after  it  was  done,  does  Iowa 
owe  her  position  as  a  part  of  the  United  States  by  the  Louisiana 
purchase. 

By  authority  of  an  act  of  Congress,  approved  March  26,  1804, 
the  newly  acquired  territory  was,  on  the  1st  day  of  October  follow- 
ing, divided:  that  part  lying  south  of  the  33d  parallel  of  north 
latitute  was  called  the  Territory  of  Orleans,  and  all  north  of  that 
parallel  the  District  of  Louisiana,  which  was  placed  under  the 
authority  of  the  officers  of  Indiana  Territory,  until  July  4,  1805, 
when  it  was  organized  with  territorial  government  of  its  own,  and 
80  remained  until  1812,  when  the  Territory  of  Orleans  became  the 
State  of  Louisiana,  and  the  name  of  the  Territory  of  Louisiana 
was  changed  to  Missouri.  On  the  4th  of  July,  1814,  that  part  of 
Missouri  Territory  comprising  the  present  State  of  Arkansas,  and 
the  country  to  the  westward,  was  organized  into  the  Arkansas 
Territory. 


18  niSTi  Ri    OF  IOWA. 

On  the  2d  of  March,  1S21,  the  State  of  Missouri,  being  a  part 
of  the  territory  of  that  name,  was  admitted  to  the  Union.  June 
28, 1834.  the  territory  west  oif  the  Mississippi  River  and  north  of 
Missouri,  was  made  apart  of  the  Territory  of  Michigan;  but  two 
years  later,  on  the  4tn  of  July,  1836,  Wisconsin  Territory  was 
erected,  embracing  within  its  limits  the  present  States  of  Iowa, 
Wisconsin  and  Minnesota. 

By  act  of  Congress,  approved  June  12,  1838,  the 

TERHITORY  OF   IOWA 

was  erected,  comprising,  in  addition  to  the  present  State,  much  the 
larger  part  of  Minnesota,  and  extending  north  to  the  boundary  of 
the  Bntish  possessions. 

THE  ORIGINAL  OWNERS. 

Having  traced  the  early  history  of  the  great  empire  lying  west 
of  the  Mississippi,  of  which  the  State  of  Iowa  constitutes  ft  part, 
from  the  earliest  discovery  to  the  organization  of  the  Territory  of 
Iowa,  it  becomes  necessary  to  give  some  history  of  the  Indians  of 
Iowa. 

According  to  the  policy  of  the  European  nations,  possession 
perfected  title  to  any  territory.  We  have  seen  that  the  country 
west  of  the  Mississippi  was  first  discovered  by  the  Spaniards,  but 
afterward,  was  visited  and  occupied  by  the  French.  It  was  ceded 
by  France  to  Spain,  and  by  Spain  bacK  to  France  again,  and  then 
was  purcha.sed  and  occupied  by  the  United  States.  During  all  that 
time,  it  does  not  appear  to  have  entered  into  the  heads  or  hearts  of 
the  high  contracting  parties  that  the  country  they  bought,  sold  and 
gave  away  was  in  the  possession  of  a  race  of  men  who,  although 
savage,  owned  the  vast  domain  before  Columbus  first  crossed  the 
Atlantic.  Having  purchased  the  territory,  the  United  States 
found  it  still  in  the  possession  of  its  original  owners,  who  had 
never  been  dispossessed;  and  it  became  necessary  to  purchase 
again  what  had  already  been  bought  before,  or  forcibly  eject  the 
occupants;  therefore,  the  history  of  the  Indian  nations  who  occu- 

Eied  Iowa  prior  to  and  during  its  early  settlement  by  the  whites, 
ecomes  an  important  chapter  in  the  history  of  the  State,  that 
cannot  be  omitted. 

For  more  than  one  hundred  years  after  Marquette  and  Joliet 
trod  the  virgin  soil  of  Iowa,  not  a  single  settlement  had  been  made 
or  attempted;  not  even  a  trading  post  had  been  established.  The 
whole  country  remained  in  the  undisputed  possession  of  the  native 
tribes,  who  roamed  at  will  over  her  beautiful  and  fertile  prairies, 
hunted  in  her  woods,  fished  in  her  streams,  and  often  poured  out 
their  life-blood  in  obstinately  contested  contests  for  supremacy. 
That  this  State  so  aptly  styled  ''  The  Beautiful  Land,"  had  been 
the  theater  of  numerous,  fierce  and  bloody  struggles  between  rival 
nations,  for  possession  of  the  favored  region,  long  before  its  settle- 
ment  by  civilized  man,  there   is  no   room  for  doubt.     In    these 


HISTORY   OF   IOWA.  19 

sayage  wars,  the  weaker  party,  whether  aggressive  or  defensive,  was 
either  exterminated  or  driven  from  their  ancient  hunting  grounds. 

In  1673,  when  Marquette  (discovered  Iowa,  thelllini  were  a  very 
powerful  people,  occupying  a  large  portion  of  the  State;  but  when 
the  country  was  again  visited  by  the  whites,  not  a  remnant  of  that 
once  powerful  tribe  remained  on  the  west  side  of  the  Mississippi, 
and  Iowa  was  principally  in  the  possession  of  the  Sacs  and  Foxes, 
a  war-like  tribe  which,  originally  two  distinct  nations,  residing  in 
New  York  and  on  the  waters  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  had  gradually 
fought  their  way  westward,  and  united,  probably,  after  the  Foxes 
had  been  driven  out  of  the  Fox  River  country,  in  1846,  and  crossed 
the  Mississippi.  The  death  of  Pontiac,  a  famous  Sac  chieftain, 
was  made  the  pretext  for  war  against  the  Illini,  and  a  fierce  and 
bloody  struggle  ensued,  which  continued  until  the  Illinois  were 
nearly  destroyed  and  their  hunting  pounds  possessed  by  their 
victorious  foes.  The  lowas  also  occupied  a  portion  of  the  State 
for  a  time,  in  common  with  the  Sacs,  but  they,  too,  were  nearly 
destroyed  by  the  Sacs  and  Foxes,  and,  in  "  The  Beautiful  Land, ' 
these  natives  met  their  equally  warlike  foes,  the  florthem  Sioux, 
with  whom  they  maintained  a  constant  warfare  for  the  possession 
of  the  country  for  many  years. 

When  the  United  States  came  in  possession  of  the  great  valley 
of  the  Mississippi,  by  the  Louisiana  purchase,  the  Sacs  and  Foxes 
and  lowas  possessed  the  entire  territory  now  comprising  the  State 
of  Iowa.  The  Sacs  and  Foxes,  also,  occupied  tne  most  of  the 
State  of  Illinois. 

The  Sacs  had  four  principal  villages,  where  most  of  them 
resided,  viz:  Their  largest  and  most  important  town — if  an 
Indian  village  may  be  called  such — and  from  which  emanated 
most  of  the  obstacles  and  difficulties  encountered  by  the  Govern- 
ment in  the  extinguishment  of  Indian  titles  to  land  in  this  region, 
was  on  Rock  River,  near  Rock  Island;  another  was  on  the  east 
bank  of  the  Mississippi,  near  the  mouth  of  Henderson  River;  the 
third  was  at  the  head  of  the  Des  Moines  Rapids,  near  the  present 
site  of  Montrose,  and  the  fourth  was  near  the  mouth  of  the  Upper 
Iowa. 

The  Foxes  had  three  principal  villages,  viz:  One  on  the  west 
side  of  the  Mississippi,  six  miles  above  the  rapids  of  Rock  River; 
another  about  twelve  miles  from  the  river,  in  the  rear  of  the 
Dubuque  lead  mines,  and  the  third  on  Turkey  River. 

The  lowas,  at  one  time  identified  with  the  Sacs,  of  Rock  River, 
had  withdrawn  from  them  and  become  a  separjite  tribe.  Their 
principal  village  was  on  the  Des  Moines  River,  in  Van  Buren 
County,  on  the  site  where  lowaville  now  stands.  Here  the  last 
great  battle  between  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  and  the  lowas  was  fought, 
in  which  Black  Hawk,  then  a  young  man,  commanded  one  division 
of  the  attacking  forces. 


20  HISTORY   OF  IOWA.  . 

The  Sacs  and  Foxes,  prior  to  the  settlement  of  their  village  on 
Rock  River,  had  a  fierce  conflict  with  the  Winnebagoes,  subdued 
them  and  took  possession  of  their  lands.  Their  village  on  Rock 
River,  at  one  time,  contained  upward  of  sixty  lodges,  and  was 
among  the  largest  Indian  villages  on  the  continent.  In  1825,  the 
Secretary  of  War  estimated  the  entire  number  of  the  Sacs  and 
Foxes  at  4,600  souls.  Their  village  was  situated  in  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  the  upper  rapids  of  the  Mississippi,  where  the  beautiful 
and  flourishing  towns  of  Rock  Island  and  Davenport  are  now  situ- 
ated. The  beautiful  scenery  of  the  island,  the  extensive  prairies, 
dotted  over  with  groves;  the  picturesque  bluffs  along  tne  river 
banks,  the  rich  and  fertile  soil,  producing  large  crops  of  corn, 
sq^uash  and  other  vegetables,  with  little  labor;  the  abundance  of 
wild  fruit,  game,  fish,  and  almost  everything  calculated  to  make  it 
a  delightful  spot  for  an  Indian  village,  which  was  found  there,  had 
made  this  place  a  favorite  home  of  tne  Sacs,  and  secured  for  it  the 
strong  attachment  and  veneration  of  the  whole  nation. 

North  of  the  hunting  grounds  of  the  Sacs  and  Foxes,  were  those 
of  the  Sioux,  a  fierce  and  warlike  nation,  who  often  disputed  pos- 
session with  their  rivals  in  savage  and  bloody  warfare.  The  pos- 
sessions of  these  tribes  were  mostly  located  in  Minnesota,  but 
extended  over  a  portion  of  Northern  and  Western  Iowa  to  the  Mis- 
souri River.  Their  descent  from  the  north  upon  the  hunting 
grounds  of  Iowa  frequently  brought  them  into  collision  with  the 
Sacs  and  Foxes;  and  after  many  a  conflict  and  bloody  struggle,  a 
boundary  line  was  established  between  them  by  the  Government 
of  the  United  States,  in  a  treaty  held  at  Prairie  du  Chien,  in  1825. 
But  this,  instead  of  settling  the  difficulties,  caused  them  to  quarrel 
all  the  more,  in  consequence  of  alleged  trespasses  upon  each  other's 
side  of  the  line.  These  contests  were  kept  up  and  oecame  so  unre- 
lenting that,  in  1830,  Government  bought  of  the  respective  tribes 
of  the  Sacs  and  Foxes,  and  the  Sioux,  a  strip  of  land  twenty  miles 
in  width,  on  both  sides  of  the  line,  and  thus  throwing  them  forty 
miles  apart  by  creating  between  them  a  "neutral  ground,"  com- 
manded them  to  cease  their  hostilities.  Both  the  Sacs  and  Foxes 
and  the  Sioux,  however,  were  allowed  to  fish  and  hunt  on  this 
ground  unmolested,  provided  they  did  not  interfere  with  each  other 
on  United  States  territory.  The  Sacs  and  Foxes  and  the  Sioux 
were  deadly  enemies,  and  neither  let  an  opportunity  to  punish  the 
other  pass  unimproved. 

In  April,  1852,  a  fight  occurred  between  the  Musquaka  band  of 
Sacs  and  Foxes  and  a  band  of  Sioux,  about  six  miles  above  Alcona, 
in  Kossuth  County,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Des  Moines  River. 
The  Sacs  and  Foxes  were  under  the  leadership  of  Ko-ko-wah,  a 
subordinate  chief,  and  had  gone  up  from  their  home  in  Tama 
County,  by  way  of  Clear  Lake,  to  what  was  then  the  ''neutral 
ground.''  At  Clear  Lake,  Ko-ko-wah  was  informed  that  a  party  of 
faioux  were  encamped  on  the  west  side  of  the  East  Fork  of  the  t)es 


HISTORY   OF   IOWA.  21 

Moines,  and  he  determined  to  attack  them.  With  sixty  of  his 
warriors,  he  started  and  arrived  at  a  point  on  the  east  side  of  the 
river,  about  a  mile  above  the  Sioux  encampment,  in  the  night,  and 
concealed  themselves  in  a  crove,  where  they  were  able  to  discover 
the  position  and  strength  of  their  hereditary  foes.  The  next  morn- 
ing, after  many  of  the  Sioux  braves  had  left  their  camp  on  hunting 
tours,  the  vindictive  Sacs  and  Foxes  crossed  the  river  and  suddenly 
attacked  the  camp.  The  conflict  was  desperate  for  a  short  time, 
but  the  advantage  was  with  the  assailants,  and  the  Sioux  were 
routed.  Sixteen  of  them,  including  some  of  their  women  and 
children,  were  killed,  and  a  boy  14  years  old  was  captured.  One 
of  the  Musquakas.  was  shot  in  the  breast  by  a  squaw  as  they  were 
rushing  into  the  Sioux's  camp.  He  started  to  run  away,  when  the 
same  brave  squaw  shot  him  through  the  body,  at  a  distance  of 
twenty  rods,  and  he  fell  dead.  Three  other  Sac  braves  were  killed. 
But  few  of  the  Sioux  escaped.  The  victorious  party  hurriedly 
buried  their  own  dead,  leaving  the  dead  Sioux  above  ground,  and 
made  their  way  home,  with  their  captive,  with  all  possible  expedition. 

pike's  expedition. 

Very  soon  after  the  acquisition  of  Louisiana  the  United  States 
Government  adopted  measures  for  the  exploration  of  the  new  ter- 
ritory, having  in  view  the  conciliation  of  the  numerous  tribes  of 
Indians  by  whom  it  was  possessed,  and,  also,  the  selection  of  proper 
sites  for  the  establishment  of  military  posts  and  trading  stations. 
The  Army  of  the  West,  Gen.  James  \Vilkinson  commanding,  had 
its  headquarters  at  St.  Louis.  From  this  post.  Captains  Lewis  and 
Clarke,  with  a  suflBcient  force,  were  detailed  to  explore  the  unknown 
sources  of  the  Missouri,  and  Lieut.  Zebulon  M,  Pike,  to  ascend  to 
the  head  waters  of  the  Mississippi,  Lieut.  Pike,  with  one  Ser- 
geant, two  Corporals  and  seventeen  privates,  left  the  military  camp, 
near  St.  Louis,  in  a  keel-boat,  with  four  month's  rations,  on  the 
9th  day  of  August,  1805.  On  the  20th  of  the  same  month,  the  ex- 
pedition arrived  within  the  present  limit  of  Iowa,  at  the  foot  of 
the  Des  Moines  Rapids,  where  Pike  met  William  Ewing,  who  had 
just  been  appointed  Indian  agent  at  this  point,  a  French  interpreter 
and  four  chiefs  and  fifteen  Sac  and  Fox  warriors. 

At  the  head  of  the  rapids,  where  Montrose  is  now  situated,  Pike 
held  a  council  with  the  Indians,  in  which  he  addressed  them  sub- 
stantially as  follows:  '*Yoiir  great  Father,  the  President  of  the 
United  States  wished  to  be  more  intimately  acquainted  with  the 
situation  and  wants  of  the  different  nations  of  red  people  in  our 
newly  acquired  territory  of  Louisiana,  and  has  ordered  the  General 
to  send  a  number  of  his  warriors  in  different  directions  to  take 
them  by  the  hand  and  make  such  inquiries  as  might  afford  the  sat- 
isfaction required."  At  the  close  of  the  council  he  presented  the 
red  men  witn  some  knives,  whisky  and  tobacco. 

Pursuing  his  way  up  the  river,  he  arrived,  on  the  23d  of  August, 
at  what  is  supposea,  from  his  description,to  be  the  site  of  thepres- 


22  HISTOKY    OF   IOWA. 

ent  city  of  Burlington,  which  he  selected  as  the  location  of  a  mili- 
tary post.  He  describes  the  place  as  being  "on  a  hill,  about  forty 
miles  above  the  River  de  Moyne  Rapids,  on  the  west  side  of  the 
river  in  latitude  about  41  degrees  21  minutes  north.  The  channel 
of  the  river  runs  on  that  shore;  the  hill  in  front  is  about  sixty  feet 
perpendicular;  nearly  level  on  top;  four  hundred  yards  in  the  rear 
IS  a  small  prairie  fit  tor  gardening,  and  immediately  under  the  hill 
is  a  limestone  spring,  sufficient  for  the  consumption  of  a  whole  reg- 
iment." In  addition  to  this  description,  which  corresponds  to  Bur- 
lington, the  spot  is  laid  down  on  his  map  at  a  bend  in  the  river  a 
short  distance  below  the  mouth  of  the  Henderson,  which  pours  its 
waters  into  the  Mississippi  from  Illinois.  The  fort  was  built  at 
Fort  Madison,  but  from  the  distance,  latitude,  description  and  map 
furnished  by  Pike,  it  could  not  have  been  the  place  selected  by  him 
while  all  the  circumstances  corroborate  the  opinion  that  the  place 
he  selected  was  the  spot  where  Burlington  is  now  located,  called  by 
the  early  voyagers  on  the  Mississippi,  "  Flint  Hills." 

On  the  24th,  with  one  of  his  men,  he  went  on  shore  on  a  hunt- 
ing expedition,  and  following  a  stream  which  they  supposed  to  be 
a  part  of  the  Mississippi,  they  were  led  away  from  their  course. 
Owing  to  the  intense  heat  ahd  tall  gniss,  his  two  favorite  dogs, 
which  he  had  taken  with  him,  became  exhausted  and  he  left  them 
on  the  prairie,  supposing  that  they  would  follow  him  as  soon  as 
they  should  get  rested,  and  went  on  to  overtake  his  boat.  Reach- 
ing the  river,  he  waited  some  time  for  his  canine  friends,  but  they 
did  not  come,  and  as  he  deemed  it  inexpedient  to  detain  the  boat 
longer,  two  of  his  men  volunteered  to  go  in  pursuit  of  them,  and 
he  continued  on  his  way  up  the  river,  expecting  that  the  two  men 
would  soon  overtake  him.  They  lost  their  way,  however,  and  for 
six  days  were  without  food,  except  a  few  morsels  gathered  from  the 
stream,  and  might  have  perished  had  they  not  accidentally  met  a 
trader  from  St.  Louis,  who  induced  two  Indians  to  take  them  up 
the  river,  and  they  overtook  the  boat  at  Dubuque. 

At  Dubuque  Pike  was  corditlly  received  by  Julien  Dubuque,  a 
Frenchman,  who  held  a  mining  claim  under  a  grant  from  Spain. 
Dubuque  had  an  old  field  piece  and  fired  a  salute  in  honor  or  the 
advent  of  the  first  Americans  who  had  visited  that  part  of  the  Ter- 
ritory. Dubuque,  however,  was  not  disposed  to  publish  the  wealth 
of  his  mines,  and  the  young  and  apparently  inquisitive  ofiicer  could 
obtain  but  little  information  from  him. 

After  leaving  this  place.  Pike  pursued  his  way  up  the  river, 
but  as  he  passed  beyond  the  limits  of  the  present  State  of  Iowa,  a 
detailed  history  of  his  explorations  on  the  upper  waters  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi more  properly  belongs  to  the  history  of  another  State. 

It  is  sufficient  to  say  that  on  the  site  of  Fort  Snellmg,  Minneso- 
ta, at  the  mouth  of  the  Minnesota  River,  Pike  held  a  council  with 
the  Sioux,  September  23,  and  obtained  from  them  a  grant  of  one 
hundred  thousand  acres  of  land.     On  the  8th  of  January  1806, 


HISTORY    OF    IOWA.  23 

Pike  arrived  a^  a  tr.idiiig  post  belon<^in«:(  to  the  Northwest  Com- 
pany, on  Lake  De  Sable  in  hititude  47  ^  .  At  tliis  tinn>  the  then 
powerful  Northwest  Company  carried  on  their  immense  operations 
from  Hudson's  Bay  to  the  St.  Lawrence:  up  that  river  on  both 
sides,  along  the  Great  Lakes  to  the  liead  of  Lake  Superior,  thence 
to  the  sources  of  the  Ked  Kiver  of  theNoi-th,and  westto  theKocky 
Mountains,  embracing  within  the  scope  of  their  operaticms  the  en- 
tire Territory  of  Iowa.  After  successfully  accomplishing  his  mis- 
sion, and  performing  a  valuable  service  to  Iowa  and  the  whole 
Northwest,  Pike  returned  to  St.  Louis,  arriving  there  on  the  30th 
of  April,  1806. 

INDIAN   WARS. 

The  Territory  of  Iowa,  although  it  had  been  purchased  by  the 
United  States,  and  was  ostensibly  in  the  possession  of  the  Gov- 
ernment, was  still  occupied  by  the  Indians,  who  claimed  title  to 
the  soil  by  right  of  ownership  and  possession.  Before  it  could  be 
open  to  settlement  by  the  wnites,  it  was  indispensible  that  the 
Indian  title  should  be  extinguished  and  the  original  owners  re- 
moved. The  accomplishment  of  this  purpose  required  the  expen- 
diture of  large  sums  of  money  and  blood,  and  for  a  long  series  of 
years  the  frontier  was  disturbed  by  Indian  wars,  terminated  re- 
peatedly by  treaty,  only  to  be  renewed  by  some  act  of  oppression 
on  the  part  of  the  whites  or  some  violation  of  treaty  stipulation. 

As  previously  shown,  at  the  time  when  the  United  States  as- 
sumed the  control  of  the  country  by  virtue  of  the  Louisiana  pur- 
chase, nearly  the  whole  State  was  in  possession  of  the  Sacs  and 
Foxes,  a  powerful  and  warlike  nation,  who  were  not  disposed  to 
submit  without  a  struggle  to  what  they  considered  the  encroach- 
ments of  the  pale  faces. 

Among  the  most  noted  chiefs,  and  one  whose  reitlessness  and 
hatred  of  the  Americans  occasioned  more  trouble  to  the  Govern- 
ment than  any  others  of  his  tribe,  avjis  Black  Hawk,  who  was  born 
at  the  Sac  village,  on  Rock  River,  in  1767.  He  was  simply  the 
chief  of  his  own  band  of  Sac  warriors,  but  by  his  energy  and  am- 
bition he  became  the  leading  spirit  of  the  united  nation  of  Sacs 
and  Foxes,  and  one  of  the  prominent  figures  in  the  history  of  the 
country  from  1801  until  his  death.  In  early  manhood  he  attained 
some  destinction  as  a  fighting  chief,  having  led  campaigns  against 
the  Osages,  and  other  neighboring  tribes.  About  the  beginning 
of  the  present  century  he  began  to  appear  prominent  in  affairs  on 
the  Mississippi.  Some  historians  have  added  to  the  statement  that 
*"  it  does  not  appear  that  he  was  ever  a  great  general,  or  possessed 
any  of  the  qualifications  of  a  successful  leader."  If  this  was  so, 
his  life  was  a  marvel.  How  any  man  w^ho  had  none  of  the  quali- 
fications of  a  leader  became  so  prominent  as  such,  as  he  did,  indi- 
cates either  that  he  had  some  ability,  or  that  his  cotemporaries, 
both  Indian  and  Anglo-Saxon,  had  less  than  he.     He  is  said  to 


24  HISTORY   OF  IOWA. 

have  been  the  *'  victim  of  a  narrow  prejudice  and  bitter  ill-will 
against  the  Americans,"  but  the  impartial  historian  must  admit 
thai  if  lie  was  the  enemy  of  the  Americans,  it  was  certainly  not 
without  some  reason. 

It  will  be  remembered  that  Spain  did  not  give  up  possession  of 
the  country  to  France  on  its  cession  to  the  latter  power,  in  1801, 
but  retained  possession  of  it,  and,  by  the  authority  of  France, 
transferred  it  to  the  United  States,  in  1804.  Black  Hawk  and  his 
band  were  in  St.  Louis  at  the  time,  and  were  invited  to  be  present 
and  witness  the  ceremonies  of  the  transfer,  but  he  refused  the  invi- 
tation, and  it  is  but  just  to  say  that  this  refusal  was  caused  proba- 
bly more  from  regret  that  the  Indians  were  to  be  transferred  from 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  Spanish  authorities  than  from  any  special 
hatred  toward  the  Americans.  In  his  life  he  says:  **I  found  many 
sad  and  gloomy  faces  because  the  United  States  were  about  to  take 
possession  of  the  town  and  country.  Soon  after  the  Americans 
came,  I  took  my  band  and  went  to  take  leave  of  our  Spanish  father. 
The  Americans  came  to  see  him  also.  Seeing  them  approach,  we 
passed  out  of  one  door  as  they  entered  another,  and  immediately 
started  in  our  canoes  for  our  village,  on  Rock  River,  not  liking  the 
change  any  more  than  our  friends  appeared  to  at  St.  Louis.  On 
arriving  at  our  village,  we  gave  the  news  that  strange  people  had 
arrived  at  St.  Louis,  and  that  we  should  never  see  our  Spanish 
father  again.     The  information  made  all  our  people  sorry." 

On  the  3d  day  of  November,  1804,  a  treaty  was  concluded 
between  William  Henry  Harrison,  then  Governor  of  Indiana  Terri- 
rory,  on  behalf  of  the  United  States,  and  five  chiefs  of  the  Sac  and 
Fox  nation,  by  which  the  latter,  in  consideration  of  two  thousand 
two  hundred  and  thirty-four  dollars'  worth  of  goods  then  delivered, 
and  a  yeai-ly  annuity  of  one  thousand  dollars  to  be  paid  in  goods  at 
just  cost,  ceded  to  the  United  States  all  that  land  on  the  east  side 
of  the  Mississippi,  extending  from  a  point  opposite  the  JeflFerson, 
in  Missouri,  to  the  Wisconsin  River,  embracing  an  area  of  over 
fifty-one  millions  of  acres. 

To  this  treaty  Black  Hawk  always  objected  and  always  refused 
to  consider  it  binding  upon  his  people.  He  asserted  that  the  chiefs 
or  braves  who  made  it  had  no  authority  to  relinquish  the  title  of 
the  nation  to  any  of  the  lands  they  held  or  occupied;  and,  more- 
over, that  they  had  been  sent  to  St.  Louis  on  quite  a  different 
errand,  namely,  to  get  one  of  their  people  released,  who  had  been 
imprisoned  at  St.  Louis  for  killing  a  white  man. 

The  year  following  this  treaty  (1805),  Lieutenant  Zebulon  M. 
Pike  came  up  the  river  for  the  purpose  of  holding  friendly  coun- 
cils with  the  Indians  and  selecting  sites  for  forts  within  the  terri- 
tory recently  acquired  from  France  by  the  United  States.  Lieu- 
tenant Pike  seems  to  have  been  the  first  American  whom  Black 
Hawk  ever  met  or  had  a  personal  interview  with;  ana  he  was  very 


HISTORY   OF   IOWA.  25 

mach  prepossessed  in  Pike's  favor.  He  gives  the  following  account 
of  his  visit  to  Rock  Island: 

"A  boat  came  up  the  river  with  a  young  American  chief  and  a 
small  party  of  solcliers.  We  heard  of  them  soon  after  they  passed 
Salt  Biiver.  Some  of  our  young  braves  watched  them  every  day, 
to  see  what  sort  of  people  he  had  on  board.  The  boat  at  length 
arrived  at  Ruck  River,  and  the  young  chief  came  on  shore  with  his 
interpreter,  and  made  a  speech  and  gave  us  some  presents.  We  in 
turn  presented  them  with  meat  and  such  other  provisions  as  we 
had  to  spare.  We  were  weU  pleased  with  the  young  chief.  He 
gave  us  good  advice,  and  said  our  American  father  would  treat  us 
well." 

The  events  which  soon  followed  Pike's  expedition  were  the  erec- 
tion of  Fort  Edwards,  at  what  is  now  Warsaw,  Illinois,  and  Fort 
Madison,  on  the  site  of  the  present  town  of  that  name,  the  hitter 
being  the  first  fort  erected  in  Iowa.  These  movements  occasioned 
great  uneasiness  among  the  Indians.  When  work  was  commenced 
on  Fort  Edwards,  a  delegation  from  their  nation,  headed  by  some 
of  their  chiefs,  went  down  to  see  what  the  Americans  were  doing, 
and  had  an  interview  with  the  commander;  after  which  they 
returned  home  apparently  satisfied.  In  like  manner,  when  Fort 
Madison  was  being  erected,  they  sent  down  another  delegation 
from  a  council  of  the  nation  held  at  Rock  River.  According  to 
Black  Hawk's  account,  the  American  chief  told  them  that  he  was 
building  a  house  for  a  trader  who  was  coming  to  sell  them  goods 
cheap,  and  that  the  soldiers  were  coming  to  keep  him  company — 
a  statement  which  Black  Hawk  says  they  distrusted  at  the  time, 
believing  that  the  fort  was  an  encroachment  upon  their  rights,  and 
designed  to  aid  in  getting  their  lands  away  from  them. 

It  has  been  held  by  good  American  authorities,  that  the  erection 
of  Fort  Madison  at  tne  point  where  it  was  located  u^as  a  violation 
of  the  treaty  of  1804.  By  the  eleventh  article  of  that  treaty,  the 
United  States  had  a  right  to  build  a  fort  near  the  mouth  of  the 
Wisconsin  River;  by  article  six  they  had  bound  themselves  "  that 
if  any  citizen  of  the  United  States  or  any  other  white  persons 
shonld  form  a  settlement  upon  their  lands,  such  intruders  should 
forthwith  be  removed."  Probably  the  authorities  of  the  United 
States  did  not  regard  the  establishment  of  military  posts  as  coming 
properly  within  the  meaning  of  the  term  ''settlement,"  as  used  in 
the  treaty.  At  all  events,  they  erected  Fort  Madison  within  the 
territory  reserved  to  the  Indians,  who  became  very  indignant.  Not 
long  after  the  fort  was  built,  a  party  led  by  Black  Hawk  attempted 
its  destruction.  They  sent  spies  to  watcn  the  movements  of  the 
garrison,  who  ascertained  that  the  soldiers  were  in  the  habit  of 
marching  out  of  the  fort  every  morning  and  evening  for  parade, 
and  the  plan  of  the  party  was  to  conceal  themselves  near  the  fort, 
aiud  attack  and  surprise  them  when  they  were  outside.  On  the 
morning  of  the  proposed  day  of  attack,  five  soldiers  came  out  and 


26  HISTORY  O?  IOWA. 

were  fired  upon  by  the  Indians,  two  of  them  being  killed.  The 
Indians  were  too  hasty  in  their  movement,  for  the  regular  drill  had 
not  yet  commenced.  However,  they  kept  up  the  attack  for  sev- 
eral days,  attempting  the  old  Fox  strategy  of  setting  fire  to  the 
fort  with  blazing  arrows;  but  finding  their  eflPorts  unavailing,  they 
soon  gave  up  and  returned  to  Rock  River. 

When  war  was  declared  between  the  United  States  and  Great 
Britain,  in  1812,  Black  Hawk  and  his  band  allied  themselves  with 
the  British;  partly  because  he  was  dazzled  by  their  specious  prom- 
ises, and  more  probably  because  they  had  been  deceived  by  the 
Americans.  Black  Hawk  himself  declared  that  they  were  "forced 
into  the  war  by  being  deceived."  He  narrates  the  circumstances 
as  follows:  "Several  of  the  chiefs  and  head  men  of  the  Sacs  and 
Foxes  were  called  upon  to  go  to  Washington  to  see  their  Great 
Father.  On  their  return,  they  related'  what  had  been  said  and 
done.  They  said  the  Great  Father  wished  them,  in  the  event  of  a 
war  taking  place  with  England,  not  to  interfere  on  either  side,  but 
to  remain  neutral.  He  did  not  want  our  help,  but  wished  us  to 
hunt  and  support  our  families,  and  live  in  peace.  He  said  that 
British  traders  would  not  be  permitted  to  come  on  the  Mississippi 
to  furnish  us  with  goods,  but  that  we  should  be  supplied  with  an 
American  trader.  Our  chiefs  then  told  him  that  the  British  trad- 
ers always  gave  them  credit  in  the  fall  for  guns,  powder  and  goods, 
to  enable  us  to  hunt  and  clothe  our  families.  He  repeated  that 
the  traders  at  Fort  Madison  would  have  plenty  of  goods;  that  we 
should  go  there  in  the  fall  and  he  would  supply  us  on  credit,  as 
the  British  traders  had  done." 

Black  Hawk  seems  to  have  accepted  of  this  proposition,  and  he 
and  his  people  were  very  much  pleased.  Acting  in  good  faith, 
they  fitted  out  for  their  winter's  hunt,  and  went  to  Fort  Madison 
in  high  spirits  to  receive  from  the  trader  their  outfit  of  supplies. 
But,  aft*»r  waiting  some  time,  they  were  told  by  the  trader 
that  he  would  not  trust  them.  It  was  in  vain  that  they  pleaded  the 
promise  of  their  great  father  at  Washington.  Iht  trader  was  inex- 
orable; and,  disappointed  and  crestfallen,  they  turned  sadly  toward 
their  own  village.  "Few  of  us,"  says  Black  Hawk,  "slept  that  night; 
all  was  gloom  and  discontent.  In  the  morning  a  canoe  was  seen 
ascending  the  river;  it  soon  arrived,  bearing  an  express,  who 
brought  iiitelligence  that  a  British  trader  had  landed  at  Rock 
Island  with  two  boats  loaded  with  goods,  and  requested  us  to  come 
up  immediately,  because  he  had  good  news  for  us,  and  a  variety  of 
presents.  The  express  presented  us  with  tobacco,  pipes  and 
wampum.  The  news  ran  through  our  camp  like  fire  on  a  prairie. 
Our  lodges  were  soon  taken  down,  and  all  started  for  Rock  Island. 
Here  ended  all  hopes  of  our  remaining  at  peace,  having  been 
forced  into  the  war  by  being  deceived." 

He  joined  the  British,  who  flattered  him,  styled  him  "General 
Black  Hawk,"  decked  him  with    medals,  excited  his  jealousies 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  27 

against  the  Americans,  and  armed  his  band;  but  he  met  with  de- 
feat and  disappointment,  and  soon  abandoned  the  service  and  came 
home. 

With  all  his  skill  and  courage.  Black  Hawk  was  unable  to  lead 
all  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  into  hostilities  to  the  United  States.  A 
portion  of  them,  at  the  head  of  whom  was  Keokuk  ("the  Watch- 
Tul  Fox  "),  were  disposed  to  abide  by  the  treaty  of  1804,  and  to 
cultivate  friendly  relations  with  the  American  people.  Therefore, 
when  Black  Hawk  and  his  band  joined  the  fortunes  of  Great 
Britain,  the  rest  of  the  nation  remained  neutral,  and,  for  protec- 
tion, organized,  with  Keokuk  for  their  chief.  This  divided  the 
nation  into  the  ''  War  and  the  Peace  Party." 

Black  Hawk  sajs  he  was  informed,  after  he  had  gone  to  the 
war,  that  the  nation,  which  had  been  reduced  to  so  small  a  body 
of  fighting  men,  were  unable  to  defend  themselves  in  case  the 
Americans  should  attack  them,  and  having  all  the  old  men  and 
women  and  children  belonging  to  the  warriors  who  had  loined  the 
British  on  their  hands  to  provide  for,  a  council  was  held,  and  it 
was  agreed  that  Quash-qua-me  (the  Lance)  and  other  chiefs,  to- 
gether with  the  old  men,  women  and  children,  and  such  others  as 
chose  to  accompany  them,  should  go  to  St.  Louis  and  place  them- 
selves under  the  American  chief  stationed  there.  They  according- 
ly went  down,  and  were  received  as  the  "  friendly  band ''  of  the 
Sacs  and  Foxes,  and  were  provided  for  and  sent  up  the  Missouri 
River.  On  Black  Hawk's  return  from  the  British  army,  he  says 
Keokuk  was  introduced  to  him  as  the  war  chief  of  the  braves  then  in 
the  village.  He  inquired  how  he  had  become  chief,  and  was  in- 
formed that  their  spies  had  seen  a  large  armed  force  going  toward 
Peoria,  and  fears  were  entertained  of  an  attack  upon  the  village; 
whereupon  a  council  was  held,  which  concluded  to  leave  the  village 
and  cross  over  to  the  west  side  of  the  Mississippi.  Keokuk  had 
been  standing  at  the  door  of  the  lodge  where  the  council  was  held, 
not  being  allowed  to  enter  on  account  of  never  having  killed  an 
enemy,  where  he  remained  until  Wa-co-rae  came  out.  Keokuk 
asked  permission  to  speak  in  the  council,  which  Wa-co-me  obtained 
for  him.  Keokuk  then  addressed  the  chiefs;  he  remonstrated 
against  the  desertion  of  their  village,  their  own  homes  and  the 
graves  of  their  fathers,  and  oflFered  to  defend  the  village.  The 
coancil  consented  that  he  should  be  their  war  chief.  He  marshaled 
his  braves,  sent  out  spies,  and  advanced  on  the  trail  leading  to 
Peoria,  but  returned  without  seeing  the  enemy.  The  Americans 
did  not  disturb  the  village,  and  all  were  satisfied  with  the  appoint- 
ment of  Keokuk. 

Keokuk,  like  Black  Hawk,  was  a  descendant  of  the  Sac  branch 
of  the  nation,  and  was  bom  on  Rock  River,  in  1780.  He  was  of 
a  pacific  disposition,  but  possessed  the  elements  of  true  courage, 
and  could  fight,  when  occasion  required,  with  a  cool  judgment  and 
heroic  energy.    In  his  first  battle,  he  encountered  and  killed  a 


28  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

• 

Sioux,  which  placed  him  in  the  rank  of  warriors,  and  he  wi 
honored  with  a  public  feast  by  his  tribe  in  commemoration  of  tl 
event. 

Keokuk  has  been  described  as  an  orator,  entitled  to  rank  wii 
the  most  gifted  of  his  race.  In  person,  he  was  tall  and  of  port! 
bearing;  in  his  public  speeches,  he  displayed  a  commanding  att 
tude  and  graceful  gestures;  he  spoke  rapidly,  but  his  enunciatic 
was  clear,  distinct  and  forcible;  he  culled  his  figures  from  tl 
stores  of  nature,  and  based  his  arguments  on  skillful  logic.  Ui 
fortunately  for  the  reputation  of  Keokuk  as  an  orator,  amoii 
white  people,  he  was  never  able  to  obtain  an  interpreter  who  cou' 
claim  even  a  slight  acquaintance  with  philosophy.  With  one  e: 
ception  only,  his  interpreters  were  unacquainted  with  the  elemen 
of  their  mother-tongue.  Of  this  serious  hindrance  to  his  fam 
Keokuk  was  well  aware,  and  retained  Frank  Labershure,  who  hi 
received  a  rudimental  education  in  the  French  and  £ngli& 
languages,  until  the  latter  broke  down  by  dissipation  and  die< 
But  during  the  meridian  of  his  career  among  the  white  people,  I 
was  compelled  to  submit  his  speeches  for  translation  touneducat€ 
men,  whose  range  of  thought  fell  below  the  flights  of  a  gif tc 
mind,  and  the  fine  imagery  drawn  from  nature  was  bevond  the 
power  of  reproduction.  He  had  suflBcient  knowledge  of  tl 
English  language  to  make  him  sensible  of  this  bad  rendering  ( 
his  thoughts,  and  often  a  feeling  of  mortification  at  the  bunglin 
efforts  was  depicted  on  his  countenance  while  speaking.  Tl 
proper  place  to  form  a  correct  estimate  of  his  ability  as  an  orat( 
was  in  the  Indian  council,  where  he  addressed  himself  exclusive! 
to  those  who  understood  his  language,  and  witness  the  electrici 
effect  of  his  eloquence  upon  his  audience. 

Keokuk  seems  to  have  possessed  a  more  sober  judgment,  and  \ 
have  had  a  more  intelligent  view  of  the  great  strength  and  r< 
sources  of  the  United  States,  than  his  noted  and  restless  cotempo: 
arv,  Black  Hawk.  He  knew  from  the  first  that  the  reckless  wi 
wnich  Black  Hawk  and  his  band  had  determined  to  carry  on  coul 
result  in  nothing  but  defeat  and  disaster,  and  used  every  argumei 
against  it.  The  large  number  of  warriors  whom  he  had  dissuade 
from  following  Black  Hawk  became,  however,  greatly  excited  wit 
the  war  spirit  after  Stillman's  defeat,  and  but  for  the  signal  tai 
displayed  bv  Keokuk  on  that  occasion,  would  have  forced  him  i 
submit  to  their  wishes  in  joining  the  rest  of  the  warriors  in  th 
field.  A  war-dance  was  held,  and  Keokuk  took  part  in  it,  seemin 
to  be  moved  with  the  current  of  the  rising  storm.  When  ih 
dance  was  over,  he  called  the  council  to  prepare  for  war.  He  mac 
a  speech,  in  which  he  admitted  the  justice  of  their  complaim 
against  the  Americans.  To  seek  redress  was  a  noble  aspiration  c 
their  nature.  The  blood  of  their  brethren  had  been  shed  by  tl 
white  man,  and  the  spirits  of  their  braves,  slain  in  battle,  callc 
loudly  for  vengeance.     "  I  am  your  chief,"  he  said,  '*  and  it  is  m 


I 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  29 


daiy  to  lead  you  to  battle,  if,  after  fully  considering  the  matter, 
jrou  are  determined  to  go.  But  before  you  decide  on  taking  this 
important  step,  it  is  wise  to  inquire  into  the  chances  of  success/* 
JSe  then  portrayed  to  them  the  great  power  of  the  United  States, 
against  whom  they  would  have  to  contend,  that  their  chances  of 
i^nccess  was  utterly  hopeless.  "But,"  said  he,  "if  you  do  determine 
go  upon  the  war-path,  I  will  agree  to  lead  you,  on  one  condition, 
that  before  we  go,  we  will  kill  all  our  old  men  and  our  wives 
children,  to  save  them  from  a  lingering  death  of  starvation, 
and  that  every  one  of  us  determine  to  leave  our  homes  on  the 
other  side  of  the  Mississippi. 

This  was  a  strong  but  truthful  picture  of  the  prospect  before 
tihein,  and  was  presented  in  such  a  forcible  light  as  to  cool  their 
ardor,  and  cause  them  to  abandon  the  rash  undertaking. 

But  during  the  war  of  1832,  it  is  now   considered   certain  that 
small  bands  of  Indians,  from  the  west  side  of  the  Mississippi,  made 
incursions  into  the  white  settlements,  in  the  lead  mining  region, 
and  committed  some  murders  and  depredations. 

When  peace  was  declared  between  the  United  States  and  Eng- 
land, Black  Hawk  was  required  to  make  peace  with  the  former, 
and  entered  into  a  treaty  at  Portage  des  Sioux,  September  14, 
1815,  but  did  not  "touch  the  goose-quill  to  it  until  May  13,  1816, 
when  he  smoked  the  pipe  of  peace  with  the  great  white  chief,"  at 
St.  Louis.  This  treatv  was  a  renewal  of  the  treaty  of  1804,  but 
Black  Hawk  declared  te  had  been  deceived;  that  he  did  not  know 
that  by  signing  the  treaty  he  was  giving  away,- his  village.  This 
weighed  upon  his  mind,  already  soured  by  previous  disappointment 
and  the  irresistible  encroachments  of  the  whites;  and  when  a  few 
years  later,  he  and  his  people  were  driven  from  their  possessions 
by  the  military,  he  determined  to  return  to  the  home  of  his 
fathers. 

It  is  also  to  be  remarked  that  in  1816,  by  treaty  with  various 
tribes,  the  United  States  relinquished  to  the  Indians  all  the  lands 
lying  north  of  a  line  drawn  from  a  southerraost  point  of  Lake 
Michigan  west  to  the  Mississippi,  except  a  reservation  five  leagues 
square,  on  the  Mississippi  River,  supposed  then  to  be  sufficient  to 
include  all  the  mineral  lands  on  ana  adjacent  to  Fever  River,  and 
one  league  square  at  the  mouth  of  the  Wisconsin  River. 

THE  BLACK  HAWK  WAR. 

The  immediate  cause  of  the  Indian  outbreak  in  1830  was  the 
occupation  of  Black  Hawk's  village,  on  the  Rock  River,  by  the 
whites,  during  the  absence  of  the  chief  and  his  braves  on  a  hunt- 
ing expedition,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Mississippi.  When  they 
returned  they  found  their  wigwams  occupied  by  white  families, 
and  their  own  women  and  children  were  shelterless  on  the  banks 
of  the  river.  The  Indians  were  indignant,  and  determined  to  re- 
possess their  village  at  all  hazards,  and  early  in  the  spring  of  1831 


e: 


30  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

recrossed  the  Mississippi  and  menacingly  took  possession  of  their 
own  cornfields  and  cabins.  It  may  be  well  to  remark  here  that 
it  was  expressly  stipulated  in  the  treaty  of  1804,  to  which  they  at- 
tributed all  their  troubles,  that  the  Indians  should  not  be  obliged 
to  leave  their  lands  until  they  were  sold  by  the  United  States,  and 
it  does  not  appear  that  they  occupied  any  lands  other  than  those 
owned  by  the  Government.  If  this  was  true,  the  Indians  had  good 
cause  for  indignation  and  complaint.  But  the  whites,  driven  out 
in  turn  by  the  returning  Indians,  became  so  clamorous  against  what 
they  termed  the  encroachments  of  the  natives,  that  Gov.  Reynolds, 
of  Illinois,  ordered  Gen.  Gaines  to  Rock  Island  with  a  military 
force  to  drive  the  Indians  again  from  their  homes  to  the  west  side 
of  the  Mississippi.  Black  Hawk  says  he  did  not  intend  to  be  pro- 
voked into  war  oy  anything  less  than  the  blood  of  some  of  his  own 
ople;  in  other  words,  that  there  would  be  no  war  unless  it  should 
e  commenced  by  the  pale  faces.  But  it  was  said  and  probably 
thought  by  the  military  commanders  along  the  frontier,  that  the 
Indians  intended  to  unite  in  a  general  war  against  the  whites^ 
from  Rock  River  to  the  Mexican  borders.  But  it  does  not  appear 
that  the  hardy  frontiersmen  themselves  had  any  fears,  for  their 
experience  had  been  that,  when  well  treated,  their  Indian  neigh- 
bors were  not  dangerous.  Black  Hawk  and  his  band  had  done  no 
more  than  to  attempt  to  Repossess  the  old  homes  of  which  they  had 
been  deprived  in  their  absence.  No  blood  had  been  shed.  Slack 
Hawk  and  his  chiefs  sent  a  flag  of  truce,  and  a  new  treaty  was 
made,  by  which  Black  Hawk  and  his  band  a^eed  to  remain  for- 
ever on  the  Iowa  side  and  never  recross  the  river  without  the  per- 
mission of  the  President  or  the  Governor  of  Illinois.  Whether 
the  Indians  clearly  understood  the  terms  of  this  treaty  is  uncer- 
tain. As  was  usual,  the  Indian  traders  had  dictated  terms  on 
their  behalf,  and  they  had  received  a  large  amount  of  provisions, 
etc.,  from  the  Government,  but  it  may  well  be  doubted  whether 
the  Indians  comprehended  that  they  could  never  revisit  the  graves 
of  their  fathers  without  violating  their  treaty.  They  undoubtedly 
thought  that  they  had  agreed  never  to  recross  the  Mississippi  with 
hostile  intent.  However  this  may  be,  on  the  6th  day  of  April, 
1832,  Black  Hawk  and  his  entire  band,  with  their  women  and  chil- 
dren, again  recrossed  the  Mississippi  in  plain  view  of  the  garrison 
of  Fort  Armstrong,  and  went  up  Rock  River.  Although  this  act 
was  construed  into  an  act  of  hostility  by  the  militpry  authorities, 
who  declared  that  Black  Hawk  intended  to  recover  his  village,  or 
the  site  where  it  stood,  by  force;  yet  it  does  not  appear  that  he 
made  any  such  attempt,  nor  did  his  appearance  create  any  special 
alarm  among  the  settlers.  They  knew  that  the  Indians  never 
went  on  the  war  path  encumbered  with  the  old  men,  their  women 
and  their  children. 

The  Galen ian^  printed  in  Galena,  of  May  2d,  1832,  says  that 
Black  Hawk  was  invited  by  the  Prophet  and  had  taken  possession 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  31 

of  a  tract  about  forty  miles  up  Rock  River;  but  that  he  did 
not  remain  there  long,  but  commenced  his  search  up  Rock 
River.  Captain  W.  B.  Green,  who  served  in  Gaptam  Ste- 
venson's company  of  mounted  rangers,  says  that  "Black 
Hawk  and  his  band  crossed  the  river  with  no  hostile  in- 
tent, but  that  his  band  had  had  bad  luck  in  hunting  during  the 
previous  winter,  were  actually  in  a  starving  condition,  and  had 
come  over  to  spend  the  summer  with  a  friendly  tribe  on  the  head 
waters  of  the  Rock  and  Illinois  Rivers,  by  invitation  from  their 
chief.  Other  old  settlers  who  all  agree  that  Black  Hawk  had  no 
idea  of  fighting,  say  that  he  came  back  to  the  west  side  expecting 
to  negotiate  another  treaty,  and  get  a  new  supply  of  provisions. 
The  most  reasonable  explanation  of  this  movement,  which  resulted 
so  disastrouslv  to  Black  Hawk  and  his  starving  people,  is  that, 
daring  the  fall  and  winter  of  1831-2,  his  people  became  deeply  in- 
debted to  their  favorite  trader  at  Fort  Armstrong  (Rock  Island), 
they  had  not  been  fortunate  in  hunting,  and  he  was  likely  to  lose 
heavily,  as  an  Indian  debt  was  outlawed  in  one  year.  If,  therefore, 
the  Indians  could  be  induced  to  come  over,  and  the  fears  of  the 
military  could  be  sufficiently  aroused  to  pursue  them,  another 
treaty  could  be  negotiated,  and  from  the  payments  from  the  Gov- 
ernment the  shrewd  trader  could  get  his  pay.  Just  a  week  after 
Black  Hawk  crossed  the  river,  on  the  13tri  of  April,  1832,  George 
Davenport  wrote  to  Gen.  Atkinson:  ''I  am  informed  that  the 
British  band  of  Sac  Indians  are  determined  to  make  war  on  the 
frontier  settlements.  *  »  *  From  every  information 
that  I  have  received,  I  am  of  the  opinion  that  the  intention  of  the 
British  band  of  Sac  Indians  is  to  commit  depredations  on  the  in- 
habitants of  the  frontier."  And  yet,  from  the  6th  day  of  April, 
until  after  Stillman's  men  commenced  war  by  firing  on  a  flag  of 
truce  from  Black  Hawk,  no  murders  nor  depredations  were  com- 
mitted by  the  British  band  of  Sac  Indians. 

It  is  not  the  purpose  of  this  sketch  to  detail  the  incidents  of  the 
Black  Hawk  war  of  1832,  as  it  pertains  rather  to  the  history  of 
the  State  of  Illinois.  It  is  sufficient  to  say  that,  after  the  dis- 
graceful aflfair  at  Stillman's  Run,  Black  Hawk,  concluding  that  the 
whites,  refusing  to  treat  with  him,  were  determined  to  extermin- 
ate his  people,  determined  to  return  to  the  Iowa  side  of  the  Missis- 
sippi. He  could  not  return  by  the  way  he  came,  for  the  army  was 
behind  him,  an  army,  too,  that  would  sternly  refuse  to  recognize 
the  white  flag  of  peace.  His  only  course  was  to  make  his  way 
northward  and  reach  the  Mississippi,  if  possible,  before  the  troops 
could  overtake  him,  and  this  he  did;  but,  before  he  could  get  his 
women  and  children  across  the  Wisconsin,  he  was  overtaken,  and 
a  battle  ensued.  Here,  again,  he  sued  for  peace,  and,  through 
his  trusty  Lieutenant,  "the  Prophet,"  the  whites  were  plainly  in- 
formed that  the  starving  Indians  did  not  wish  to  fight,  but  would 
return  to  the  west  side  of  the  Mississippi,  peaceably,  if  they  could 


82  HISTORY  OF  IOWA./ 

be  permitted  to  do  so.  No  attention  was  paid  to  this  second  effort 
to  negotiate  peace,  and,  as  soon  as  supplies  could  be  obtained,  the 
pursuit  was  resumed,  the  flying  Indians  were  overtaken  again  eight 
miles  before  they  reached  the  mouth  of  the  Bad  Axe,  and  the 
slaughter  (it  should  not  be  dignified  by  the  name  of  battle)  com- 
menced. Here,  overcome  by  starvation  and  the  victorious  whites, 
his  band  was  scattered,  on  the  2d  day  of  August,  1832.  Black 
Hawk  escaped,  but  was  brought  into  camp  at  Prairie  du  Chien  hj 
three  Winnebagoes.  He  was  confined  in  Jefferson  Barracks  until 
the  spring  of  1833,  when  he  was  sent  to  Washington,  arriving 
there  Aprn  22.  On  the  26th  of  April,  they  were  taken  to  Fortress 
Monroe,  where  they  remained  till  the  4tn  of  June,  1833,  when 
orders  were  given  for  them  to  be  liberated  and  returned  to  their  own 
country.  By  order  of  the  President,  he  was  brought  back  to  Iowa 
through  the  principal  Eastern  cities.  Crowds  flocked  to  see  him 
all  along  his  route,  and  he  was  very  much  flattered  by  the  atten- 
tions he  received.  He  lived  among  his  people  on  the  Iowa  River 
till  that  reservation  was  sold,  in  1836,  wnen,  with  the  rest  of  the 
Sacs  and  Foxes,  he  removed  to  the  Des  Moines  Reservation,  where 
he  remained  till  his  death,  which  occurred  on  the  3d  of  October, 
1838. 

INDIAN   PUKCHA8E3,   RESERVES   AND   TREATIES. 

At  the  close  of  the  Black  Hawk  War,  in  1832,  a  treaty  was  made 
at  a  council  held  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Mississippi,  where  now 
stands  the  thriving  city  of  Davenport,  on  grounds  now  occupied  by 
the  Chicago,  Rock  Island  &  Pacific  railroad  company,  on  tne  21st 
day  of  September,  1832.  At  this  council,  the  United  States  were 
represented  by  Gen.  Winfield  Scott  and  Gov.  Reynolds,  of  Illinois. 
Keokuk,  Pash-a-pa-ho  and  some  thirty  other  chiefs  and  warriors  of 
the  Sac  and  Fox  nation  were  present.  By  this  treaty,  the  Sacs  and 
Foxes  ceded  to  the  United  States  a  strip  of  land  on  the  eastern 
border  of  Iowa,  fifty  miles  wide,  from  the  northern  boundary  of 
Missouri  to  the  mouth  of  the  Upper  Iowa  River,  containing  about 
six  million  acres.  The  western  line  of  the  purchase  was  parallel 
with  the  Mississippi.  In  consideration  of  this  cession,  the  United 
States  Government  stipulated  to  pay  annually  to  the  confederated 
tribes,  for  thirty  consecutive  years,  twenty  thousand  dollars  in 
specie,  and  to  pav  the  debts  of  the  Indians  at  Rock  Island,  which 
had  been  accumulating  for  seventeen  years,  and  amounted  to  fifty 
thousand  dollars,  due  to  Davenport  &  Farnham,  Indian  traders. 
The  Government  also  generously  donated  to  the  Sac  and  Fox 
women  and  children,  whose  husbands  and  fathers  had  fallen  in  the 
Black  Hawk  war,  thirty-five  beef  cattle,  twelve  bushels  of  salt, 
thirty  barrels  of  pork,  fifty  barrels  of  flour  and  six  thousand 
bushels  of  com. 

This  territory  is  known  as  the  "  Black  Hawk  Purchase," 
Although  it  was  not  the  first  portion  of  Iowa  ceded  to  the  United 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  38 

States  bv  the  Sacs  and  Foxes,  it  was  the  first  opened  to  actual 
settlement  by  the  tide  of  emigration  that  flowed  across  the  Mis- 
sissippi as  soon  as  the  Indian  title  was  extinguished.  The  treaty 
was  ratified  February  13, 1833,  and  took  efiect  on  the  1st  of  June 
following,  when  the  Indians  quietly  removed  from  the  ceded  ter- 
ritory, and  this  fertile  and  beautiful  region  was  opened  to  white 
settlers. 

By  the  terms  of  the  treaty,  out  of  the  Black  Hawk  Purchase 
was  reserved  for  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  400  square  miles  of  land 
situated  on  the  Iowa  River,  and  including  within  its  limits  Keo- 
!kuk's  village,  on  the  right  bank  of  that  river.  This  tract  was 
Icnown  as  *'  Keokuk's  Reserve,''  and  was  occupied  by  the  Indians 
until  1836,  when,  by  a  treaty  made  in  September  between  them 
and  Gov.  Djdge,  of  Wisconsin  Territory,  it  was  ceded  to  the 
United  States.  The  council  was  held  on  the  banks  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi, above  Davenport,  and  was  the  largest  assemblage  of  the 
Idnd  ever  held  by  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  to  treat  for  the  sale  of  lands. 
About  one  thousand  of  their  chiefs  and  braves  were  present,  and 
Keokuk  was  their  leading  spirit  and  principal  speaker  on  the  occa- 
sion. By  the  terms  of  the  treaty,  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  were  re- 
moved to  another  reservation  on  the  Des  Moines  River,  where  an 
agency  was  established  for  them  at  what  is  now  the  town  of 
Agency  City. 

Besides  the  Keokuk  Reserve,  the  Government  gave  out  of  the 
Black  Hawk  Purchase  to  Antoine  Le  Claire,  interpreter,  in  fee 
simple,  one  section  of  land  opposite  Rock  Island,  and  another  at 
the  head  of  the  first  rapids  aoove  the  island,  on  the  Iowa  side. 
This  was  the  first  land  title  granted  by  the  United  States  to  an  in- 
dividual in  Iowa. 

Soon  after  the  removal  of  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  to  their  new 
reservation  on  the  Des  Moines  River,  Gen.  Joseph  M.  Street  was 
transferred  from  the  agency  of  the  Winnebagoes,  at  Prairie  du 
Chien,  to  establish  an  agency  among  them.  A  farm  was  selected, 
on  which  the  necessary  buildings  were  erected,  including  a  com- 
fortable farm  house  for  the  agent  and  his  family,  at  the  expense  of 
the  Indian  Fund.  A  salaried  agent  was  employed  to  superintend 
the  farm  and  dispose  of  the  crops.  Two  mills  were  erected,  one 
on  Soap  Creek,  and  the  other  on  Sugar  Creek.  The  latter  was 
soon  swept  away  by  a  flood,  but  the  former  remained  and  did  good 
service  for  many  years.  Connected  with  the  agency  were  Joseph 
Smart  and  John  Goodell,  interpreters.  The  latter  was  interpre- 
ter for  Hard  Fish's  band.  Three  of  the  Indian  chiefs,  Keokuk, 
Wapello  and  Appanoose,  had  each  a  large  field  improved,  the  two 
former  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Des  Moines,  back  from  the  river, 
in  what  is  now  ''  Keokuk's  Prairie,"  and  the  latter  on  the  present 
site  of  the  city  of  Ottumwa.  Among  the  traders  connected  with 
the  agency  were  the  Messrs.  Ewing,  from  Ohio,  and  Phelps  &  Co., 


34  ^ISTOKY  OF  IOWA. 

from  Illinois,  and  also  Mr.  J.  P.  Eddy,  who  established  his  post  at 
what  is  now  the  sita  of  Eddyviile. 

The  Indians  at  this  agency  became  idle  and  listless  in  the 
absence  of  their  natural  and  wonted  excitements,  and  many  of 
them  plunged  into  dissipation.  Keokuk  himself  became  dissipated 
in  the  latter  years  of  his  life,  and  it  has  been  reported  that  he 
died  of  delirium  tremens  after  his  removal  with  his  tribe  to  Kansas. 

In  May,  1843,  most  o.f  the  Indians  were  removed  up  the  Des 
Moines  River,  above  the  temporary  line  of  Red  Rock,  having  ceded 
the  remnant  of  their  lands  in  Iowa  to  the  United  States  on  the 
21st  of  September,  1837,  and  on  the  11th  of  October,  1842.  By 
the  terms  of  the  latter  treaty,  they  held  possession  of  the  "New 
Purchase"  till  the  Autumn  or  1845,  when  the  most  of  them  were 
removed  to  their  reservation  in  Kansas,  the  balance  being  removed 
in  the  Spring  of  1846. 

1.  Treati^  with  the  fifioi^a;— Made  July  19,  1815;  ratified  December  16,  1815. 
This  treaty  was  made  at  Portage  des  Sioux,  between  the  Sioux  of  Minnesota 
and  Upper  Iowa  and  the  United  States,  by  William  Clark  and  Ninian  Edwards, 
Commissioners,  and  was  merely  a  treaty  of  peace  and  friendship  on  the  part  of 
those  Indians  toward  the  United  States  at  the  close  of  the  war  of  1812. 

2.  Treaty  with  the  Sacs. — A  similar  treaty  of  peace  was  made  at  Portage 
des  Sioux,  between  the  United  States  and  the  Sacs,  by  William  Clark,  Ninian 
Edwards  and  Auguste  Choteau,  on  the  13th  of  September,  1815,  and  ratified  at 
the  same  date  as  the  above.  In  this,  the  treaty  of  1804  was  re-affirmed,  and 
the  Sacs  here  represented  promiKed  for  themselves  and  their  bands  to  keep  en- 
tirely separate  from  the  Sacs  of  Rock  River,  who,  under  Black  Hawk,  had  joined 
the  British  in  the  war  just  then  closed. 

3.  Treaty  with  the  Foxes. — A  separate  treaty  of  peace  was  made  with  the 
Foxes  at  Portage  des  Sioux,  by  the  same  Commissioners,  on  the  14th  of  Septem- 
ber, 1815,  and  ratified  the  same  as  the  above,  wherein  the  Foxes  re-atfirmed  the 
treaty  of  St.  Louis,  of  November  3,  1804,  and  agreed  to  deliver  up  all  their  pris- 
oners to  the  officer  in  command  at  Fort  Clark,  now  Peoria,  Illinois. 

4.  Treaty  with  the  lowas. — A  treaty  of  peace  and  mutual  good  will  was 
made  between  the  United  States  and  the  Iowa  tribe  of  Indians,  at  Portage  des 
Sioux,  by  the  same  Commissioners  as  above,  on  the  16th  of  September,  1^515,  at 
the  close  of  the  war  with  Great  Britain,  and  ratified  at  the  same  date  as  the 
others. 

5.  Treaty  with  the  Sacs  of  Rock  River — Made  at  St.  Louis  on  the  13th  of 
May,  1816,  between  the  United  States  and  the  Sacs  of  Rock  River,  by  the  Com- 
missioners, William  Clark,  Ninian  Edwards  and  Auguste  Choteau,  and  ratified 
December  30th,  1816.  In  this  treaty,  that  of  1804  was  re-established  and  con- 
firmed by  twenty-two  chiefs  and  head  men  of  the  Sacs  of  Rock  River,  and  Black 
Hawk  himself  attached  to  it  his  signature,  or,  as  he  said,  * 'touched  the  goose 
quilL" 

6.  Treaty  of  1824. — On  the  4th  of  August,  1824,  a  treaty  was  made  between 
the  United  States  and  the  Sacs  and  Foxes,  in  the  city  of  Washington,  by 
William  Clark,  Commissioner,  wherein  the  Sac  and  Fox  nation  relinquished 

their  title  t)  all  land')  in  Missouri  and  that  portion  of  the  southeast  comer  of 
Iowa  known  as  tha  **Half-Brecl  Tract"  was  set  off  and  reserved  for  the  use  of 
the  half-breeds  of  the  Sacs  and  Foxes,  they  holding  title  in  the  same  maimer  as 
Indians.    Ratified  January  18,  1825. 

7.  Treaty  of  August  19,  1825. — At  this  daf-e  a  treaty  was  made  by  William 
Clark  and  Lewis  Cass,  at  Prairie  du  Chien,  between  the  United  States  and  the 
Chippewas,  Sacs  and  Foxes,  Menomonees,  Winnebagoes  and  a  portion  of  the 
Ottawas  and  Pottawatomies.  In  this  treatv,  in  order  to  makepeace  oetween 
the  contending  tribes  as  to  the  limits  of  their  respective  hunting  grounds  in 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  36 

Iowa,  it  was  agrreed  that  the  Qnite  I  States  Government  should  ran  a  boundary 
lire  between  the  Sioux,  on  the  north,  ani  the  Sacs  and  Foxes,  on  the  south,  as 
follows: 

Commencing?  at  the  mouth  of  the  Upper  Iowa  River,  on  the  west  bank  of  the 
Mississippi,  and  asc3ndin^  said  low.i  River  to  its  west  fork;  thence  up  the  fork 
to  its  source;  thence  crossing  the  fork  of  Red  Cedar  River  in  a  direct  nne  to  the 
seeoni  or  upp3r  fork  of  the  Odi  M  »ines  River;  thence  in  a  direct  line  to  the 
lower  fork  of  the  Calumet  River,  and  down  that  river  to  its  junction  with  the 
Missouri  River. 

8.  Treaty  of  1830,— On  the  15th  of  July,  1830,  the  confederate  tribes  of  the 
Sacs  and  Foxes  ceded  to  the  United  States  a  strip  of  country  lying  south  of  the 
above  line,  twenty  miles  in  width,  and  extending  along  the  line  aforesaid  from 
&e  Mississippi  to  the  Des  Moines  River.  The  Sioux  also,  whose  possessions 
were  north  or  the  line,  ceded  to  the  Government,  in  the  same  treaty,  a  like  strip 
on  Uie  north  side  of  the  boundary.  Thus  the  United  States,  at  the  ratification 
of  this  treaty,  February  24, 1831,  came  into  possession  of  a  nortion  of  Iowa  forty 
mil6s  wide,  extending  along  the  Clark  and  Cass  line  of  1825,  from  the  Missis- 
sippi to  the  Des  Moines  River.  This  territory  was  known  as  the  **Neutral 
Ground,'^  and  the  tribes  on  either  side  of  the  line  were  allowed  to  fish  and  hunt 
on  it  unmolested  till  it  was  made  a  Winnebago  reservation,  and  the  Winneba- 
goes  were  removed  to  it  in  1841. 

9.  Treaty  with  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  and  other  Tribes. — At  the  sam?  time  of 
the  above  treaty  re^p acting  the  *'Neutral  Ground"  (July  15,  18^30),  tha  Sacs  and 
Foxe^,  We^t3rn  Siojx,  Omiha^j,  lowas  ani  Missouris  cid^d  to  the  United  States 
a  portion  of  the  western  slope  of  Iowa,  the  boundaries  of  which  were  defined  as 
fouows:  Beginning  at  the  upper  fork  of  the  Des  Moines  River,  and  passing  the 
sources  of  the  Tiittte  Sioux  and  Floyd  Rivers,  to  the  fork  of  the  first  creek  that 
falls  into  the  Big  Sioux,  or  Calumet,  on  the  east  sid3;  thenca  down  said  creek 
ani  the  Calumet  River  to  the  Missouri  River;  thence  down  said  Missouri  River 
to  the  Missouri  State  line  above  the  Kansas;  thence  along  said  line  to  the  north- 
west CDmer  of  said  State;  thence  to  the  high  lands  between  the  waters  falling 
into  the  Missouri  and  Des  Moines,  p.vs^ing  to  said  high  lands  along  the  dividing 
ridge  batween  the  fork^  of  the  Grand  River;  thence  along  said  high  lands  or 
ridge  separating  the  waters  of  the  Missouri  from  those  of  the  Des  Moines,  to  a 
point  opposite  the  source  of  the  Boyer  River,  and  thence  in  a  direct  line  to  the 
upper  fork  of  the  Des  Moines,  the  place  of  beginning. 

It  was  understood  that  the  lands  ceded  and  relinquished  by  this  treaty  were 
to  be  assigned  and  allotted,  under  the  direction  of  the  President  of  the  u  nited 
States,  to  the  tribes  then  living  thereon,  or  to  such  other  tribes  as  the  President 
might  locate  thereon  for  hunting  and  other  purposes.  In  consideration  of  three 
tracts  of  land  ceded  in  this  treatv,  the  United  Stiitea  agreed  to  pay  to  the  Sacs 
three  thousand  dollars;  to  the  loxes,  three  thousand  dollars;  to  the  Sioux,  two 
thousand  dollars;  to  the  Yankton  and  Santee  bands  of  Sioux,  three  thousand 
dollars;  to  the  Omahas,  two  thou.^and  five  hundred  dollars;  and  to  the  Ottoes 
and  Missouris,  two  thousand  five  hundred  dollars — to  be  paid  annually  for  ten 
successive  years.  In  addition  to  these  annuities,  the  Government  agreed  to  fur- 
nish some  of  the  tribes  with  blacksmiths  and  agricultural  implements  to  the 
amount  of  two  hundred  dollars,  atlhf*  expense  of  the  United  States,  and  to  set 
apart  three  thousand  dollars  annually  for  the  education  of  the  children  of  these 
tribes.  It  does  not  appear  that  any  fort  was  erected  in  this  territory  prior  to  the 
erection  of  Fort  Atkmson  on  the  Neutral  Ground,  in  1840-1. 

This  treaty  was  made  by  William  Clark,  Superintendent  of  Indian  affairs,  and 
Col.  Willoughby  Morgan,  of  the  United  States  First  Infantrj',  and  came  into 
effect  by  proclamation,  February  24,  1881. 

10.  Treaty  with  the  IVinnebagoes. — Made  at  Fort  Armstrong,  Rock  Island, 
September  15,  1832,  by  Gen.  Winfield  Scott  and  Hon.  John  Reynolds,  Governor 
of  Illinois.  In  this  treaty  the  Winnebagoes  ceded  to  the  United  States  all  their 
land  lying  on  the  east  side  of  the  Mississippi,  and  in  part  consideration  therefor 
the  United  States  granted  to  the  Winnebagoes,  to  be  neld  as  other  Indian  lands 
are  held,  that  portion  of  Iowa  known  as  the  Neutral  Ground.      The  exchange  of 


36  HISTOKY  OF  IOWA. 

the  two  tracts  of  coantry  was  to  take  p\acQ  on  or  before  the  Ist  day  of  Jane,  1833. 
In  addition  to  the  NeatraJ  Ground,  it  was  stipulated  that  the  United  States 
should  give  the  Winnebagoes,  b3ginnin^  in  September,  1833,  and  continuing  for 
twenty-seven  succsssive  years,  tan  thousand  aollars  in  specie,  and  establish  a 
school  among  them,  with  a  farm  and  garden,  and  provide  other  facilities  for  the 
education  of  their  children,  not  to  exceed  in  c3Ht  three  thousand  dollars  a  year, 
and  to  continue  the  same  for  twenty-seven  successive  years.  Six  agriculturists, 
twelve  yoke  of  oxen  and  plows  and  other  farming  tools  were  to  be  supplied  by 
the  Government. 

11.  Treaty  of  1832  with  the  Sacs  and  Foxes. — Already  mentioned  as  the 
Black  Hawk  purchase. 

12.  Treaty  of  1836^  with  the  Sacs  and  Foxes,  ceding  Keokuk's  Reserve  to 
the  United  States;  for  which  the  Government  stipulated  to  pay  thirty  thousand 
dollars,  and  an  aiinuity  of  ten  thousand  dollars  for  ten  successive  years,  together 
with  other  sums  and  debts  of  the  Indians  to  various  parties. 

13.  Treaty  of  1837.— On  the  2l8t  of  October.  1837,  a  treaty  was  made  at  the 
city  of  Washington,  between  Carey  A.  Harris,  Commissioner  of  Indian  Affairs, 
and  the  confederate  tribes  of  Sacs  and  Foxes,  ratified  February  21,  1838,  wherein 
another  slice  of  the  soil  of  Iowa  was  obtained,  described  in  the  treaty  as  follows: 
**A  tract  of  country  containing  1,250,000  acres,  lying  west  and  adjoining  the 
the  tract  conveyed  by  them  to  the  United  States  in  the  treaty  of  September  21, 
1832.  It  is  understood  that  the  points  of  termination  for  the  present  cession 
shall  be  the  northern  and  southern  points  of  said  tract  as  fixed  by  the  survey 
made  under  the  authority  of  the  United  States,  and  that  a  line  shall  be  drawn 
between  them  so  as  to  intersect  a  line  extended  westwardly  from  the  angle  of 
said  tract  nearly  opposite  to  Rock  Island,  as  laid  down  in  tne  above  survey,  so 
far  as  may  be  necessary  to  include  the  number  of  acres  hereby  ceded,  which  last 
mentioned  line,  it  is  estimated,  will  be  about  twenty-five  miles." 

This  piece  of  land  was  twenty-five  miles  wide  in  the  middle,  and  ran  oif  to  a 
point  at  both  ends,  lying  directly  back  of  the  Black  Hawk  Purchase,  and  of 
the  same  length. 

14.  Treaty  of  Relinquishment. — At  the  same  date  as  the  above  treaty,  in 
the  city  of  Washington,  Carey  A.  Harris,  Commissioner,  the  Sacs  and  h  oxes 
ceded  to  the  United  States  all  their  right  and  interest  in  the  country  lying  south 
of  the  boundary  line  between  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  and  Sioux,  as  described  in  the 
treaty  of  August  19,  1825,  and  between  the  Mississippi  and  Missouri  Rivers,  the 
United  Stat^  paying  for  the  same  one  hundred  and  sixty  thousand  dollars.  The 
Indians  also  gave  up  all  claims  and  interests  under  the  treaties  previously  made 
with  tiiem,  for  the  satisfaction  of  which  no  appropriations  had  been  made. 

15.  Treaty  of  1842. — ^The  last  treaty  was  made  with  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  Oc- 
tober 11,  1842;  ratified  March  23,  1843.  It  was  made  at  the  Sac  and  Fox 
agency  (Agency  City),  by  John  Chambers,  Commissioner  on  behalf  of  the  United 
States.  In  this  treaty  the  Sac  and  Fox  Indians  **ceded  to  the  United  States  all 
their  lands  west  of  the  Mississippi  to  which  they  had  any  claim  or  title."  Bj 
the  terms  of  this  treaty  they  were  to  be  removed  irom  the  country  at  the  expi- 
ration of  three  years,  and  all  who  remained  after  that  were  to  move  at  their 
own  expense,  rart  of  them  were  removed  to  Kansas  in  the  Fall  of  1845,  and 
the  rest  the  Spring  following. 

SPANISH  GRANTS. 

While  the  territory  now  embraced  in  the  State  of  Iowa  was  un- 
der Spanish  rule  as  a  part  of  its  province  of  Louisiana,  cer- 
tain claims  to  and  grants  of  land  were  made  by  the  Spanish 
authorities,  with  which,  in  addition  to  the  extinguishment  of  In- 
dian titles,  the  United  States  had  to  deal.  It  is  proper  that  these 
should  be  briefly  reviewed. 


HISTORY   OF  IOWA.  37 

Dubuque — on  the22d  day  of  September,  1788,  Julien  Dubuque, 
a  Frencnman,  from  Prairie  du  Chien,  obtained  from  the  Foxes  a  ces- 
sion or  lease  of  lands  on  the  Mississippi  River  for  mining  purposes, 
on  the  site  of  the  present  city  of  Dubuque.  Lead  had  been  dis- 
covered here  eight  years  before,  in  1780,  by  the  wife  of  Peosta  Fox, 
a  warrior,  and  Dubuque's  claim  embraced  nearly  all  the  lead  bear- 
ing lands  in  that  vicinity.  He  immediately  took  possession  of  his 
claim  and  commenced  mining,  at  the  same  time  making  a  settle- 
ment. The  place  became  known  as  the  "  Spanish  Miners,"  or, 
more  commonly,  "  Dubuque's  Lead  Mines." 

In  1796,  Dubuque  filed  a  petition  with  Baron  de  Carondelet,  the 
Spanish  Governor  of  Louisiana,  asking  that  the  tract  ceded  to  him 
by  the  Indians  might  be  granted  to  him  by  patent  from  the  Span- 
ish Government.  In  this  petition  Dubuque  rather  indefinitely  set 
forth  the  boundaries  of  his  claim  as  *'  about  seven  leagues  along 
the  Missippi  River,  and  three  leagues  in  width  from  the  river,"  in- 
tending to  include,  as  is  supposed,  the  river  front  between  the  Lit- 
tle Maquoketa  and  the  Tete  des  Mertz  Rivers,  embracing  more  than 
twenty  thousand  acres.  Carondelet  granted  the  prayer  of  the  pe- 
tition, and  the  grant  was  subsequently  confirmed  by  the  Board  of 
Land  Commissioners  of  Louisiana. 

In  October  1804,  Dubuque  transferred  the  larger  part  of  his 
claim  to  Auguste  Choteau,  of  St.  Louis,  and  on  the  17th  of  May, 
1805,  he  and  Choteau  jointly  filed  their  claims  with  the  Board  of 
Commissioners.  On  the  20th  of  September,  1806,  the  Board  de- 
cided in  their  favor,  pronouncing  the  claim  to  be  a  regular  Spanish 
grant,  made  and  completed  prior  to  the  1st  day  of  October,  1800, 
only  one  member,  J.  B.  C.  Lucas,  dissenting. 

Dubuque  died  march  24, 1810.  The  Indians,  understanding  that 
the  claim  of  Dubuque  under  their  former  act  of  cession  was  only 
a  permit  to  occupy  the  tract  and  work  the  mines  during  his  life, 
and  that  at  his  death  they  reverted  to  them,  took  possession  and 
continued  mining  operations,  and  were  sustained  by  the  military 
authority  of  the  United  States,  notwithstanding  the  decision  of  the 
Commissioners.  When  the  Black  Hawk  purchase  was  consummated 
the  Dubuque  claim  thus  held  by  the  Indians  was  absorbed  by  the 
United  States,  as  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  made  no  reservation  of  it  in 
the  treat]^  of  1882. 

The  heirs  of  Choteau,  however,  were  not  disposed  to  relinquish 
their  claim  without  a  struggle.  Late  in  1832,  they  employed  an 
agent  to  look  after  their  interests,  and  authorized  him  to  lease  the 
right  to  dig  lead  on  the  lands.  The  miners  who  commenced  work 
under  this  agent  were  compelled  by  the  military  to  abandon  their 
operations,  and  one  of  the  claimants  went  to  Galena  to  institute 
legal  proceedings,  but  found  no  court  of  competent  jurisdiction, 
although  he  did  bring  an  action  for  the  recovery  of  a  quantity  of 
lead  dug  at  Dubuque,  for  the  purpose  of  testing  the  title.  Being 
unable  to  identify  the  lead,  however,  he  was  non-suited. 


88  HIgTOBY  OF  IOWA. 

By  act  of  Congress,  approved  July  2, 1836,  the  town  of  Dubuque 
was  surveyed  and  plattea.  After  lots  had  been  sold  and  occupied 
by  the  purchasers,  Henry  Choteau  brougrht  an  action  of  ejectment 
against  Patrick  Malony,  who  held  land  m  Dubuque  under  a  patent 
from  the  United  States,  for  the  recovery  of  seven  undivided  eighth 
parts  of  the  Dubuque  claim,  as  purchased  by  Auguste  Choteau  in 
1804.  The  case  was  tried  in  the  District  Court  of  the  United 
States  for  the  District  of  Iowa,  and  was  decided  adversely  to  the 
plaintiff.  The  case  was  carried  to  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United 
States  on  a  writ  of  error,  when  it  was  heard  at  the  December  term, 
1853,  and  the  decision  of  the  lower  court  was  aflBrmed,  the  court 
holding  that  the  permit  from  Carondolet  was  merely  a  lease,  or 
permit  to  work  the  mines;  that  Dubuque  asked,  and  the  Governor 
of  Louisiana  granted,  nothing  more  than  the  ''peaceable  posses- 
sion ^'  of  certain  lands  obtained  from  the  Indians;  that  Carondolet 
had  no  legal  authority  to  make  such  a  grant  as  claimed,  and  that, 
even  if  he  had,  this  was  but  an  ''  inchoate  and  imperfect  title." 

Girard, — In  1795,  the  Lieutenant  Governor  of  Upper  Louisiana 
granted  to  Basil  Girard  five  thousand  eight  hundred  and  sixty  acres 
of  land,  in  what  is  now  Clayton  County,  known  as  the  "  Girard 
Tract.''  He  occupied  the  land  during  the  time  that  Iowa  pa^ed 
from  Spain  to  France,  and  from  France  to  the  United  States,  in 
consideration  of  which  the  Federal  Government  granted  a  patent 
of  the  same  to  Girard  in  his  own  right.  His  heirs  sold  the  whole 
tract  to  James  H.  Lockwood  and  Thomas  P.  Burnett,  of  Prairie  du 
Chien,  for  three  hundred  dollars. 

Honori, — March  30,  1799,  Zenon  Trudeau,  acting  Lieutenant 
Governor  of  Upper  Louisiana,  granted  to  Louis  Honori  a  tract  of 
land  on  the  site  of  the  present  town  of  Montrose,  as  follows:  ''  It 
is  permitted  to  Mr.  Louis  (Fresson)  Honori,  or  Louis  Honore  Fes- 
son,  to  establish  himself  at  the  head  of  the  rapids  of  the  River  Des 
Moines,  and  his  establishment  once  formed,  notice  of  it  shall  be 
given  to  the  Governor  General,  in  order  to  obtain  for  him  a  com- 
mission of  a  space  suflScient  to  give  value  to  such  establishment, 
and  at  the  same  time  to  render  it  useful*  to  the  commerce  of  the 
peltries  of  this  country,  to  watch  the  Indians  and  keep  them  in  the 
fidelity  which  they  owe  to  His  Majestv." 

Honori  took  immediate  possession  oi  his  claim,  which  he  retained 
until  1805.  While  trading  with  the  natives  he  became  indebted  to 
Joseph  Robedoux,  who  obtained  an  execution  on  which  the  prop- 
erty was  sold  May  13,  1803,  and  was  purchased  by  the  creditor. 
In  these  proceedings  the  property  was  described  as  being  "  about 
six  leagues  above  the  River  Des  Moines."  Robedoux  died  soon 
after  he  purchased  the  property.  Auguste  Choteau,  his  executor, 
disposed  of  the  Honori  tract  to  Thomas  F.  Reddeck,  in  April,  1805, 
up  to  which  time  Honori  continued  to  occupy  it.  The  grant,  as 
made  by  the  Spanish  Government,  was  a  league  square,  but  only- 
one  mile  square  was  confirmed  by  the  United  States.     After  the 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  89 

half-breeds  sold  their  lands,  in' which  the  Honori  grsLnt  was  includ- 
ed, various  claimants  resorted  to  litigation  in  attempts  to  invalidate 
the  title  of  the  Reddeck  heirs,  but  it  was  finally  confirmed  by  a 
decision  of  the  Supreme  Couit  of  the  United  States  in  1839,  and 
is  the  oldest  legal  title  to  any  land  in  the  State  of  Iowa. 

THE  HALF-BREED  TRACT. 

Before  any  permanent  settlement  had  been  made  in  the  Territo- 
ry of  Iowa,  white  adventurers,  trappers  and  traders,  many  of  whom 
were  scattered  along  the  Mississippi  and  its  tributaries,  as  agents 
and  employes  of  the  American  Fur  Company,  intermarried  with 
the  females  of  the  Sac  and  Fox  Indians,  producing  a  race  of  half- 
breeds,  whose  number  was  never  definitely  ascertained.  There 
were  some  respectable  and  excellent  people  among  them,  children 
of  men  of  some  refinement  and  education.  For  instance:  Dr. 
Muir,  a  gentlemen  educated  at  Edinburgh,  Scotland,  a  surgeon  in 
the  United  States  Army,  stationed  at  a  military  post  located  on  the 
present  site  of  Warsaw,  married  an  Indian  woman,  and  reared  his 
family  of  three  daughters  in,  the  city  of  Keokuk.  Other  examples 
might  be  cited,  but  they  are  probably  exceptions  to  the  general 
rule,  and  the  race  is  now  nearly  or  quite  extinct  in  Iowa. 

A  treaty  was  made  at  Washington,  August  4,  1824,  between  the 
Sacs  and  Foxes  and  the  United  States,  by  which  that  portion  of 
Lee  County  was  reserved  to  the  half-breeds  of  those  tribes,  and 
which  was  afterward  known  as  '^The  Half-Breed  Tract.'.'  This 
reservation  is  the  triangular  piece  of  land,  containing  about  119,- 
000  acres,  lying  between  the  Mississippi  and  Des  Moines  Rivers. 
It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  prolongation  of  the  northern 
line  of  Missouri.  This  line  was  intended  to  be  a  straight  one, 
running  due  east,  which  would  have  caused  it  to  strike  the  Miss- 
issippi River  at  or  below  Montrose;  but  the  surveyor  who  run  it 
took  no  notice  of  the  change  in  the  variation  of  the  needle  as  he 

Sroceeded  eastward,  and,  in  consequence,  the  line  he  run  was  bent, 
eviating  more  and  more  to  the  northward  of  a  direct  line  as  he 
approached  the  Mississippi,  so  that  it  struck  that  river  at  the  lower 
eage  of  the  town  of  Fort  Madison.  '*This  erroneous  line."  says 
Jadge  Mason,  '*has  been  acquiesced  in  as  well  infixing  the  north- 
ern limit  of  the  Half-Breed  Tract  as  in  determining  the  northern 
boundary  line  of  the  State  of  Missouri."  The  line  thus  run  in- 
cluded in  the  reservation  a  portion  of  the  lower  part  of  the  city  of 
Fort  Madison,  and  all  of  the  present  townships  of  Van  Buren, 
Charleston,  JeflFerson,  Des  Moines,  Montrose  and  Jackson. 

Under  the  treaty  of  1824,  the  half-breeds  had  the  right  to  oc- 
cupy the  soil  but  could  not  convey  it,  the  reversion  being  reserved 
to  the  United  States.  But  on  the  30th  day  of  January,  1834,  by 
act  of  Congress,  this  reversionary  right  was  relinquished,  and  the 
half-breeds  acquired  the  lands  in  fee  simple.     This  was  no  sooner 


40  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

done,  than  a  horde  of  speculators  rushed  in  to  buy  land  of  the  half- 
breed  owners,  and,  in  many  instances,  a  gun,  a  blanket,  a  pony  or 
a  few  quarts  of  whisky  was  suflScient  for  the  purchase  of  large 
estates.  There  was  a  deal  of  sharp  practice  on  both  sides;  Indians 
would  often  claim  ownership  of  land  by  virtue  of  being  half-breeds 
and  had  no  diflBculty  in  proving  their  mixed  blood  by  the  L.dians, 
and  they  would  then  cheat  the  speculators  by  selling  land  to  which 
they  had  no  rightful  title.  On  tne  other  hand,  speculators  often 
claimed  land  in  which  they  had  no  ownership.  It  was  diamond  cut 
diamond,  until  at  last  things  became  badly  mixed.  There  was  no 
authorized  surveys,  and  no  boundry  lines  to  claims,  and,  as  a  nat- 
ural result,  numerous  conflicts  and  Quarrels  ensued. 

To  settle  these  difficulties^  to  decide  the  validity  of  claims  or  sell 
them  for  the  benefit  of  the  real  owners,  by  act  of  the  Legislature 
of  Wisconsin  Territorj^,  approved  January  16,  1838,  Edward  John- 
stone, Thomas  S.  Wilson  and  David  Brigham  were  appointed 
Commissioners,  and  clothed  with  power  to  effect  these  objects. 
The  act  provided  that  these  Commissioners  should  be  paid  six  dol- 
lars a  day  each.  The  commission  entered  upon  its  duties  and  con- 
tinued until  the  next  session  of  the  Legislature,  when  the  act  cre- 
ating it  was  repealed,  invalidating  all  that  had  been  done  and  de- 
priving the  Commissioners  of  their  pay.  The  repealing  act,  how- 
ever, authorized  the  Commissioners  to  commence  action  against 
the  owners  of  the  Half-Breed  Tract,  to  receive  pay  for  their  servi- 
ces, in  the  District  Court  of  Lee  County.  Two  judgments  were 
obtained,  and  on  execution  the  whole  of  the  tract  was  sold  to 
Hugh  T.  Rfeid,  the  Sheriff  executing  the  deed.  Mr.  Reidsold  por- 
tions of  it  to  various  parties,  but  his  own  title  was  questioned  and 
he  became  involved  in  litigation.  Decisions  in  favor  of  Reid  and 
those  holding  under  him  were  made  by  both  District  and  Supreme 
Courts,  but  in  December,  1850  these  decisions  were  finally  reversed 
by  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States  in  the  case  of  Joseph 
Webster,  plantiff  in  error,  vs.  Hugh  T.  Reid,  and  the  judgment 
titles  failed.  About  nine  years  before  the  ''judgment  titles  were 
finally  abrogated  as  a  above,  another  class  of  titles  were  brought 
into  competition  with  them,  and  in  the  conflict  between  the  two, 
the  final  decision  was  obtained.  These  were  the  titles  based  on 
the  "decree  of  partition^'  issued  by  the  United  States  District 
Court  for  the  Territory  of  Iowa,  on  the  8th  of  May,  1841,  and 
certified  to  by  the  Clerk  on  the  2d  day  of  June  of  that  year.  Ed- 
ward Johnstone  and  Hugh  T.  Reid,  then  law  partners  at  Fort 
Madison,  filed  the  petition  for  the  decree  in  behalf  of  the  St.  Louis 
claimants  of  half-breed  lands.  Francis  S.  Key,  author  of  the  Star 
Spangled  Banner,  who  was  then  attorney  for  the  new  York  Land 
Company,  which  held  heavy  interest  in  these  lands,  took  a  leading 
part  m  the  measure,  and  drew  up  the  document  in  which  it  was 
presented  to  the  court.  Judge  Charles  Mason,  of  Burlington,  pre- 
sided.   The  plan  of  partition  divided  the  tract  into  one  hunared 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  41 

and  one  shares,  and  arranged   that  each  claimant  should  draw  his 

Eroportion  by  lot,  and  should  abide  the  result,  whatever  it  might 
e.  The  arrangement  was  entered  into,  the  lots  drawn,  and  the 
plat  of  the  same  filed  in  the  Recorder's  oflBce,  October  6,  1841. 
tjpon  this  basis  the  titles  to  land  in  the  Half-Breed  Tract  are  now 
held. 

EARLY  SETTLEMENTS. 

The  first  permanent  settlement  by  the  whites  within  the  limits 
of  Iowa  was  made  by  Julien  Dubuque,  in  1788,  when  with  a  small 
party  of  miners,  he  settled  on  the  site  of  the  city  that  now  bears 
Iiis  name,  where  he  lived  until  his  death,  in  1810.  Louis  Honori 
settled  on  the  site  of  the  present  town  of  Montrose,  probably  in 
1799,  and  resided  there  until  1805,  when  his  property  passed  into 
other  hands.  Of  the  Girard  settlement,  opposite  Praine  du  Chien, 
little  is  known  except  that  it  was  occupied  by  some  parties  prior  to 
the  commencement  of  the  present  century  and  containea  three 
cabins  in  1805.  Indian  traders,  although  not  strictly  to  be  con- 
sidered settlers  had  established  themselves  at  various  points  at  an 
early  date.  A  Mr.  Johnson,  Agent  of  the  American  Fur  Com- 
pany, had  a  trading  post  below  Burlington,  where  he  carried  on 
traffic  with  the  Indians  some  time  before  the  United  States  possessed 
the  country.  In  1820,  Le  Moliese,  a  French  trader,  had  a  sta- 
tion at  what  is  now  Sandusky,  six  miles  above  Keokuk,  in  Lee 
County.  In  1829,  Dr.  Isaac  Gfallaud  made  a  settlement  on  the 
Lower  Rapids,  at  what  is  now  Nashville. 

The  first  settlement  in  Lee  County  was  made  in  1820,  by  Dr. 
Samuel  C.  Muir,  a  surgeon  in  the  llnited  States  army,  who  had 
been  stationed  at  Fort  Edwards,  now  Warsaw,  111.,  and  who  built 
a  cabin  where  the  city  of  Keokuk  niw  stands. 

Messrs.  Reynolds  «  Culver,  who  had  leased  Dr.  Muir's  claim  at 
Keokuk,  subsequently  employed  as  their  agent  Mr.  Moses  Still- 
well,  who  arrived  with  his  family  in  1828,  and  took  possession  of 
Muir's  cabin.  His  brothers-in-law,  Amos  and  Valencourt  Van 
Ansdal,  came  with  him  and  settled  near. 

His  daughter,  Margaret  Stillwell  (afterward  .Mrs.  Ford)  was 
bom  in  1831,  at  the  foot  of  the  rapids,  called  by  the  Indians  Puch- 
arshe-tuck,  where  Keokuk  now  stands.  She  was  probably  the  first 
white  American  child 'bom  in  Cowa. 

In  1831,  Mr.  Johnson,  agent  of  the  American  Fur  Company, 
who  had  a  station  at  the  foot  of  the  rapids,  removed  to  another 
location,  and.  Dr.  Muir  having  returned  from  Galena,  he  and 
Isaac  R.  Campbell  took  the  place  and  buildings  vacated  by  the 
Company,  and  carried  on  trade  with  the  Indians  and  half-breeds. 
Campbell,  who  had  first  visited  and  traveled  through  the  southern 
part  of  Iowa,  in  1821,  was  an  enterprising  settler,  and  besides 
trading  with  the  natives,  carried  on  a  farm  and  kept  a  tavern. 

Dr.  Muir  died  of  cholera  in  1832. 

3 


42  mSTORT  OF  IOWA. 

In  1830,  James  L.  and  Lucius  H.  Langworthy,  brothers  and  nar 
tives  of  Vermont,  visited  the  Territory  for  the  purpose  of  work- 
ing the  lead  mines  at  Dubuque.  They  had  been  engaged  in  lead 
mining  at  Galena,  Illinois,  the  former  as  early  as  1824.  The  lead 
mines  in  the  Dubuque  region  were  an  object  of  great  interest  to 
the  miners  about  Galena,  for  they  were  known  to  be  rich  in  lead 
ore.  To  explore  these  mines  and  to  obtain  permission  to  work 
them  was  therefore  eminently  desirable. 

In  1829,  James  L.  Langworthy  resolved  to  visit  the  Dubuqae, 
mines.  Crossing  the  Mississippi  at  a  point  now  known  as  Dunleith 
in  a  canoe,  and  swimming  his  horse  by  his  side,  he  landed  on  the 
spot  now  known  as  Jones  Street  Levee.  Before  him  spread  out  a 
beautiful  prairie,  on  which  the  city  of  Dubuque  now  stands.  Two 
miles  soutn,  at  the  mouth  of  Catnsh  Creek,  was  a  village  of  Sacs 
and  Foxes.  Thither  Mr.  Langworthy  proceeded,  and  was  well  re- 
ceived by  the  natives.  He  endeavorea  to  obtain  permission  from 
them  to  mine  in  their  hills,  but  this  thev  refused.  He,  however, 
succeeded  in  gaining  the  confidence  of  tne  chief  to  such  an  extent 
as  to  be  allowed  to  travel  in  the  interior  for  three  weeks  and  ex- 
plore the  country.  He  employed  two  young  Indians  as  guides, 
and  traversed  in  different  directions  the  whole  region  lying  be- 
tween the  Maouoketa  and  Turkey  Rivers.  He  returned  to  the 
village,  securea  the  good  will  of  the  Indians,  and,  returning  to 
Galena,  formed  plans  for  future  operations,  to  be  executed  as  soon 
circumstances  would  permit. 

In  1830,  with  his  brother,  Lucius  H.,  and  others,  having  ob- 
tained the  consent  of  the  Indians,  Mr.  Langworthy  crossed  the 
Mississippi  and  commenced  mining  in  the  vicinity  around  Du- 
buque. 

At  this  time,  the  lands  were  not  in  the  actual  possession  of  the 
United  States.  Although  they  had  been  purchased  from  France, 
the  Indian  title  had  not  been  extinguished,  and  these  adventurous 
persons  were  beyond  the  limits  of  any  State  or  Territorial  govern-  • 
ment.  The  first  settlers  were  therefore  obliged  to  be  their  own 
law-makers,  and  to  agree  to  such  regulations  as  the  exigencies  of 
the  case  demanded.  The  first  act  resembling  civil  legislation 
within  the  limits  of  the  present  State  of  Iowa  was  done  by  the 
miners  at  this  point,  in  June,  1830.  They  met  on  the  bank  of  the 
river,  by  the  side  of  an  old  cotton  wood  drift  log,  at  what  is  now 
the  Jones  Street  Levee,  Dubuque,  and  elected  a  committee,  con- 
sisting of  J.  L.  Langworthy,  H.  F.  Lander,  James  McPhetres, 
Samuel  Scales,  and  E.  M.  Wren.  This  may  be  called  the  first 
Legislature  in  Iowa,  the  members  of  which  gathered  around  that 
old  Cottonwood  log,  and  agreed  to  and  reported  the  following, 
written  by  Mr.  Langworth,  on  a  half-sheet  of  coarse,  unruled 
paper,  the  old  log  being  the  writing  desk: 

We,  a  Committee  having  been  chosen  to  drait  certain  rules  and  regulations 
(laws)  by  which  we  as  miners,  wiU  be  governed,  and  having  duly  considered 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  43 

the  sal^ect,  do  onanimoiiBljr  a^ee  that  we  wi]l  be  governed  by  the  regulations 
on  the  east  side  of  the  Misdissippi  River,*  with  the  following  exceptions,  to- wit: 

Article  I.  That  each  and  every  man  shall  hold  200  yards  square  of  ground 
by  working  said  ground  one  day  in  six. 

Article  II.  We  further  agree  that  there  shall  be  chosen,  by  the  majority 
of  the  xninen)  present,  a  per^son  who  shall  hold  this  article,  and  who  shall  grant 
ktters  of  arbitration  on  application  having  been  made,  and  that  said  letters  of 
arbitration  shall  be  obligatory  on  the  parties  so  applying. 

The  report  was  accepted  by  the  miners  present,  who  elected  Dr. 
Jarote,  in  accordance  with  Article  2.  Here,  then,  we  have,  in 
1830,  a  primitive  Legislature  elected  by  the  people,  the  law  drafted 
by  it  being  submitted  to  the  people  for  approval,  and  under  it  Dr. 
Jarote  was  elected  first  Governor  within  the  limits  of  the  present 
State  of  Iowa.  And  it  is  to  be  said  that  the  laws  thus  enacted 
were  as  promptly  obeyed,  and  the  acts  of  the  executive  officer  thus 
elected  as  duly  respected,  as  any  have  been  since. 

The  miners  who  had  thus  erected  an  independent  government 
of  their  own  on  the  west  side  of  the  Mississippi  River,  continued 
to  work  successfullv  for  a  long  time,  and  the  new  settlement 
attracted  considerable  attention.  But  the  west  side  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi belonged  to  the  Sac  and  Fox  Indians,  and  the  Government 
in  order  to  preserve  peace  on  the  frontier,  as  well  as  to  protect  the 
Indians  in  their  rights  under  the  treaty,  ordered  the  settlers  not 
only  to  stop  minmg,  but  to  remove  from  the  Indian  territory. 
They  were  simply  intruders.  The  execution  of  this  order  was  en- 
trusted to  Col.  Zachary  Tavlor,  then  in  command  of  the  military 
post  at  Prairie  du  Chien,  wno,  early  in  July,  sent  an  officer  to  the 
miners  with  orders  to  forbid  settlement,  and  to  command  the 
miners  to  remove  within  ten  days  to  the  east  side  of  the  Missis- 
sippi, or  they  would  be  driven  oflF  by  armed  force.  The  miners, 
however,  were  reluctant  about  leaving  the  rich  **  leads ''  they  had 
already  discovered  and  opened,  and  were  not  disposed  to  obey  the 
order  to  remove  with  any  considerable  degree  of  alacrity.  In  due 
time,  Col.  Taylor  dispatched  a  detachment  of  troops  to  enforce  his 
order.  The  miners,  anticipating  their  arrival,  had,  excepting  three, 
recrossed  the  river,  and  from  the  east  bank  saw  the  troops  land  on 
the  western  shore.  The  three  who  had  lingered  a  little  too  long 
were,  however,  permitted  to  make  their  escape  unmolested.  From 
this  time,  a  military  force  was  stationed  at  Dubuque  to  prevent 
the  settlers  from  returning,  until  June,  1832.  The  Indians  re- 
turned, and  were  encouraged  to  operate  the  rich  mines  opened  by 
the  late  white  occupants. 

In  June,  1832,  the  troops  were  ordered  to  the  east  side  to  assist 
in  the  annihilation  of  the  very  Indians  whose  rights  they  had  been 
protecting  on  the  west  side.  Immediately  after  the  close  of  the 
Black  Hawk  war,  and  the  negotiations  of  the  treaty  in  September, 
1832,  by  which  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  ceded  to  the  United  States  the 

*S8tabli8lied  by  the  Superintendent  of  U.  S.  Lead  Mines  at  Fever  River. 


44  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

tract  known  as  the  ''  Black  Hawk  Puf'chase,"  the  settlers,  suppos- 
ing that  now  they  had  a  right  to  re-enter  the  territory,  returned 
and  took  possession  of  their  claims,  built  cabins,  erected  furnaces 
and  prepared  large  quantities  of  lead  for  market.  Dubuque  was 
becoming  a  noted  place  on  the  river,  but  the  prospects  of  the  hardy 
and  enterprising  settlers  and  miners  were  again  ruthlessly  inter- 
fered with  by  the  Government,  on  the  ^ound  that  the  treaty  with 
the  Indians  would  not  go  into  force  until  June  1,  1833,  altnough 
they  had  withdrawn  from  the  vicinity  of  the  settlement.  Col  Tay- 
lor was  again  ordered  by  the  War  Department  to  remove  the  min- 
ers, and  in  January,  1833,  troops  were  again  sent  from  Prairie  du 
Chien  to  Dubuque  for  that  purpose.  This  was  a  serious  and  per- 
haps unnecessary  hardship  imposed  upon  the  settlers.  They  were 
compelled  to  abandon  their  cabins  and  homes  in  midwinter.  It 
must  be  now  said,  simply  that  "  red  tape  "  should  be  respected. 
The  purchase  had  been  made,  the  treaty  ratified,  or  was  sure  to  be; 
the  Indians  had  retired,  and,  after  the  lapse  of  nearly  fifty  years, 
no  very  satisfactory  reason  for  this  rigorous  action  of  the  Govern- 
ment can  be  eiven. 

But  the  orders  had  been  given,  and  there  was  no  alternative  but 
to  obey.  Many  of  the  settlers  recrossed  the  river,  and  did  not  re- 
turn; a  few,  however,  removed  to  an  island  near  the  east  bank  of 
the  river,  built  rude  cabins  of  poles,  in  which  to  store  their  lead 
until  spring,  when  they  could  float  the  fruits  of  their  labor  to  St. 
Louis  tor  sale,  and  where  they  could  remain  until  the  treaty  went 
into  force,  when  they  could  return.  Among  these  were  James  L. 
Langworthy,  and  his  brother  Lucius,  who  had  on  hand  about  three 
hundred  thousand  pounds  of  lead. 

Lieut.  Covington,  who  had  been  placed  in  command  at  Dubuque 
by  Col.  Taylor,  ordered  some  of  the  cabins  of  the  settlers  to  be  torn 
down,  and  wagons  and  other  property  to  be  destroyed.  This  wan- 
ton and  inexcusable  action  on  the  part  of  a  subordinate  clothed  with 
a  little  brief  authority  was  sternly  rebuked  by  Col.  Taylor,  and  Cov- 
ington was  superseded  by  Lieut.  Geo.  Wilson,  who  pursued  a  just 
and  friendly  course  with  the  pioneers,  who  were  only  waiting  for 
the  time  when  they  could  repossess  their  claims. 

June  1,  1833,  the  treaty  formally  went  into  effect,  the  troops 
were  withdrawn  and  the  Langworthy  brothers  and  a  few  others  at 
once  returned  and  resumed  possession  of  their  home  claims  and 
mineral  prospects,  and  from  this  time  the  first  permanent  settle- 
ment of  this  portion  of  Iowa  must  date.  Mr.  John  P.  Sheldon 
was  appointed  Superintendent  of  the  mines  by  the  Government, 
and  a  system  of  permits  to  miners  and  licenses  to  smelters  was 
adopted,  similar  to  that  which  had  been  in  operation  at  Galena, 
since  1825,  under  Lieut.  Martin  Thomas,  and  Capt.  Thomas  C.  Le- 
gate. Substantially  the  primitive  law  enacted  by  the  miners  assem- 
bled around  that  old  Cottonwood  drift  log  in  1830  was  adopted  and 
enforced  by  the  United  States  Government,except  that  miners  were 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  45 

required  to  sell  their  mineral  to  licensed  smelters  and  the  smelter 
was  required  to  give  bonds  for  the  payment  of  six  per  cent,  of  all 
lead  manufactured  to  the  Government.  This  was  the  same  rule 
adopted  in  the  United  States  mines  on  Fever  River  in  Illinois, 
except  that,  until  1830,  the  Illinois  miners  were  compelled  to  pay 
ten  per  cent.  tax.  This  tax  upon  the  miners  created  much  dissatis- 
&ction  among  the  miners  on  tne  west  side  as  it  had  on  the  east  side 
of  the  Mississippi.  They  thought  they  had  suffered  hardships  and 
privationsenough  in  opening  the  way  for  civilization,  without  be- 
ing subjected  to  the  imposition  of  an  odious  Government  tax  upon 
their  means  of  subsistence,  when  the  Federal  Government  could 
better  afford  to  aid  than  to  extort  from  them.  The  measure  soon 
became  unpopular.  It  was  difficult  to  collect  the  taxes,  and  the 
whole  system  was  abolished  in  about  ten  years. 

During  1833,  after  the  Indian  title  was  fully  extinguished,  about 
five  hundred  people  arrived  at  the  mining  district,  about  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  oi  them  from  Galena. 

In  the  same  year  Mr.  Langworthy  assisted  in  building  the  first 
school  house  in  Iowa,  and  thus  was  formed  the  nucleus  of  the  now 
populous  and  thriving  city  of  Dubuque.  Mr.  Langworthy  lived  to 
see  the  naked  prairie  on  which  he  first  landed  become  the  site  of  a 
city  of  fifteen  thousand  inhabitants,  the  small  school  house  which 
he  aided  in  constructing  replaced  by  three  substantial  edifices, 
wherein  two  thousand  children  were  being  trained,  churches  erect- 
ed in  every  part  of  the  city,  and  railroads  connecting  the  wilder- 
ness which  he  first  explored  with  all  the  eastern  world.  He  died 
suddenly  on  the  13th  of  March,  1865,  while  on  a  trip  over  the  Du- 
buque &  Southwestern  Railroad,  at  Monticello,  ana  the  evening 
train  brought  news  of  his  death  and  his  remains. 

Lucius  H.  Langworthy,  his  brother,  was  one  of  the  most  worthy, 
gifted  and  influential  of  the  old  settlers  of  this  section  of  Iowa. 
He  died,  greatly  lamented  by  many  friends,  in  June,  1865. 

The  name  Dubuque  was  given  to  the  settlement  by  miners  at  a 
meeting  held  in  1834. 

In  1832  Captain  James  White  made  a  claim  on  the  present  site 
of  Montrose.  In  1834  a  military  post  was  established  at  this  point 
and  a  garrison  of  cavaly  was  stationed  here,  under  the  command  of 
Col.  Stephen  W.  Kearnev.  The  soldiers  were  removed  from  this 
post  to  Fort  Leavenworth,  Kansas,  in  1837. 

During  the  same  year,  1832,  soon  after  the  close  of  the  Black 
Hawk  War,  Zachariah  Hawkins,  Benjamin  Jennings,  Aaron  White, 
Augustine  Horton,  Samuel  Gooch,  Daniel  Thompson  and  Peter 
Williams  made  claims  at  Fort  Madison.  In  1833,  these  claims  were 
purchased  by  John  and  Nathaniel  Knapp,  upon  which,  in  1835, 
they  laid  out  the  town.  The  next  summer,  lots  were  sold.  The 
town  was  subsequently  re-surveyed  and  platted  by  the  United  States 
Government. 


46  .HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

At  the  close  of  the  Black  Hawk  War,  parties  who  had  been  im- 
patiently looking  across  upon  "  Flint  Hills/*  now  Burlin^on,  came 
over  from  Illinois  and  made  claims.  The  first  was  Samuel  S.White, 
in  the  fall  of  1832,  who  erected  a  cabin  on  the  site  of  the  city 
of  Burlington.  About  the  same  time,  David  Tothero  made  a 
claim  on  the  prairie  about  three  miles  back  from  the  river,  at  a 
place  since  known  as  the  farm  of  Judge  Morgan.  In  the  winter  of 
that  year,  they  were  driven  oflF  by  the  military  from  Rock  Island, 
as  intruders  upon  the  rights  of  the  Indians,  and  White's  cabin  was 
burnt  by  the  soldiers.  He  retired  to  Illinois,  where  he  spent  the 
winter,  and  in  the  summer,  as  soon  as  the  Indian  title  was  extin- 
guished, returned  and  rebuilt  his  cabin.  White  was  joined  by  his 
brother-in-law,  Doolittle,  and  they  laid  out  the  original  town  of 
Burlington,  in  1834. 

All  along  the  river  borders  of  the  Black  Hawk  Purchase  settlers 
were  flocking  into  Iowa.  Immediately  after  the  treaty  with  the 
Sacs  and  Foxes,  in  September,  1832,  Col.  George  Davenport  made 
the  first  claim  on  the  spot  where  the  thriving  city  of  Davenport 
now  stands.  As  early  as  1827,  Col.  Davenport  had  established  a 
flatboat  ferry,  which  ran  between  the  island  and  the  main  shore  of 
Iowa,  by  which  he  carried  on  a  trade  with  the  Indians  west  of  the 
Mississippi.  In  1833,  Capt.  Benjamin  W.  Clark  moved  across  from 
Illinois,  and  laid  the  foundation  of  the  town  of  BuiBTalo,  in  Scott 
county,  which  was  the  first  actual  settlement  within  the  limits  of 
that  county.  Among  other  early  settlers  in  this  part  of  the  Ter- 
ritory were  Adrian  H.  Davenport,  Col.  John  Sullivan,  Mulligan 
and  Franklin  Easly,  Capt.  John  Coleman,  J.  M.  Camp,  William 
White,  H.  W.  Higgins,  Cornelius  Harrold,  Richard  Harrison,  E. 
H.  Shepherd  and  Dr.  E.  S.  Barrows. 

The  first  settlers  of  Davenport  were  Antoine  LeClaire,  Col. 
George  Davenport,  Major  Thomas  Smith,  Major  William  Gordon, 
Philip  Hambaugh,  Alexander  W.  McGregor,  Levi  S.  Colton,  Capt. 
James  May  and  others.  Of  Antoine  LeClaire,  as  the  representa- 
tive of  the  two  races  of  men  who,  at  this  time  occupied  Iowa,  Hon. 
C.  C.  Nourse,  in  his  admirable  Centennial  Address,  says:  ''Antoine 
LeClaire  was  born  in  St.  Joseph,  Michigan,  in  1797.  His  father 
was  French,  his  mother  a  granddaughter  of  a  Pottawattamie  chief . 
In  1818,  he  acted  as  ofiicial  interpreter  to  Col.  Davenport,  at  Fort 
Armstrong  (now  Rock  Island).  He  was  well  acquainted  vrith  a 
dozen  Indian  dialects,  and  was  a  man  of  strict  integrity  and  great 
energy.  In  1820  he  married  the  granddaughter  of  a  Sac  cnief. 
The  Sac  and  Fox  Indians  reserved  for  him  and  his  wife  two  sec- 
tions of  land  in  the  treaty  of  1833,  one  at  the  town  of  LeClaire 
and  ^  one  at  Davenport.  The  Pottawattamies,  in  the  treaty  at 
Prairie  du  Chien,  also  reserved  for  him  two  sections  of  land,  at  the 
present  site  of  Moline,  111.  He  received  the  appointment  of  Post- 
master and  Justice  of  the  Peace  in  the  Black  Hawk  Purchase,  at 
an  early  day.     In  1833,  he  bought  for  $100  a  claim  on  the  land 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  47 

upon  which  the  original  town  of  Davenport  was  surveyed  and 
platted  in  1836.  In  1836,  LeClaire  built  the  hotel,  known  since, 
with  its  valuable  addition,  as  the  LeClaire  House.  He  died  Sep- 
tember 25,  1861." 

In  Clayton  county,  the  first  settlement  was  made  in  the  Spring 
of  1832,  on  Turkey  River,  by  Robert  Hatfield  and  William  W. 
Wayman.  No  further  settlements  were  made  in  this  part  of  the 
State  till  the  beginning  of  1836. 

In  that  portion  now  known  as  Muscatine  county,  settlements 
were  made  in  1834,  by  Benjamin  Nye,  John  Vanater  and  G.  W. 
Kasey,  who  were  the  first  settlers.  E.  E.  Fay,  William  St.  John, 
N.  Fullington  H.  Reece,  Jona.  Pettibone,  R.  P.  Lowe,  Stephen 
Whicher,  Abijah  Whiting,  J.  E.  Fletcher,  W.  D.  Abemethy  and 
Alexi?  Smith  were  early  settlers  of  Muscatine. 

During  the  summer  of  1835,  William  Bennett  and  his  family, 
from  Gcdena,  built  the  first  cabin  within  the  present  limits  of 
Delaware  county,  in  some  timber  since  known  as  Eads^  Grove. 

The  first  postoffice  in  Iowa  was  established  at  Dubuque  in  1833. 
Milo  H.  Prentice  was  appointed  postmaster. 

The  first  Justice  of  the  Peace  was  Antoine  LeClaire,  appointed 
in  1833,  as  *'  a  very  suitable  person  to  adjust  the  difficulties  be- 
tween the  white  settlers  and  tne  Indians  still  remaining  there." 

The  first  Methodist  Society  in  the  Territory  was  formed  at  Du- 
buque on  the  18th  of  May,  1834,  and  the  first  class  meeting  was 
held  June  1st  of  that  year. 

The  first  church  bell  brought  into  Iowa  was  in  March,  1834. 

The  first  mass  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  in  the  Territory 
was  celebrated  at  Dubuque,  in  the  house  of  Patrick  Quigley,  in  the 
fall  of  1833. 

The  first  school  house  in  the  Territory  was  erected  by  the  Du- 
buque miners  in  1833. 

The  first  Sabbath  school  was  organized  at  Dubuque  early  in  the 
Summer  of  1834. 

The  first  woman  who  came  to  this  part  of  the  Territory  with  a 
view  to  permanent  residence,  was  Mrs.  Noble  F.  Dean,  in  the  Fall 
of  1832. 

The  first  family  that  lived  in  this  part  of  Iowa  was  that  of 
Hosea  T.  Camp,  in  1832. 

The  first  meeting  house  was  built  by  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church,  at  Dubuque,  in  1834. 

The  first  newspaper  in  Iowa  was  the  Dubuque  Visitor^  issued 
May  11th,  1836.  John  King,  afterward  Judge  King,  was  editor, 
and  William  C.  Jones,  printer. 

The  pioneers  of  Iowa,  as  a  class,  were  brave,  hardv,  intelligent 
and  enterprising  people. 

As  early  as  1824,  a  French  trader  named  Hart  had  established  a 
trading  post,  and  built  a  cabin  on  the  blufis  above  the  large  spring 
now  known  as  '*  Mynster  Spring,"  within  the  limits  of  the  pres- 


48  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

ent  city  of  Council  BluiBfs,  and  had  probably  been  there  some  time, 
as  the  post  was  known  to  the  employes  of  the  American  Fur 
Company  as  Lacote  de  Hart^  or  '*  Hart's  BluflF."  In  1827,  an 
agent  of  the  American  Fur  Company,  Francis  Quittar,  with  others, 
encamped  in  the  timber  at  the  foot  of  the  bluffs,  about  on  the 
present  location  of  Broadway,  and  afterward  settled  there.  In 
1839,  a  block  house  was  built  on  the  bluff  in  the  east  part  of  the 
city.  The  Pottawattamie  Indians  occupied  this  part  of  the  State 
until  1846-7,  when  they  relinquished  the  territory  and  removed  to 
Kansas.  Billy  Caldwell  w^s  then  principal  chief.  There  were  no 
white  settlers  in  that  part  of  the  State,  except  Indian  traders, 
until  the  arrival  of  the  Mormons  under  the  lead  of  Brigham 
Young.  These  people,  on  their  way  westward,  halted  for  the 
Winter  of  1846-Y  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Missouri  River,  about 
five  mile  above  Omaha,  at  a  now  place  called  Florence.  Some  of 
them  had  reached  the  eastern  bank  of  the  river  the  Spring  before, 
in  season  to  plant   a  crop.     In  the  Spring  of  1847,  Young  and  a 

{)ortion  of  the  colony  pursued  their  journejr  to  Salt  Lake,  but  a 
arge  portion  of  them  returned  to  the  Iowa  side  and  settled  mainly 
vrithin  the  limits  of  Pottawattamie  County.  The  principal  settle- 
ment of  this  strange  community  was  at  a  place  called  "Miller's 
Hollow,"  on  Indian  Creek,  and  afterward  named  Eanesville,  in 
honor  of  Col.  Kane,  of  Pennsylvania,  who  visited  them  soon  after- 
ward. The  Mormon  settlement  extended  over  the  county  and  inix) 
neighboring  counties,  wherever  timber  and  water  furnished 
desirable  locations.  Orson  Hyde,  priest,  lawyer  and  editor,  was 
installed  as  President  of  the  Quorum  of  Twelve,  and  all  that  part 
of  the  State  remained  under  Mormon  control  for  several  years. 
In  1846,  they  raised  a  battalion,  numberingsomefive  hundred  men, 
for  the  Mexican  war.  In  1848,  Hyde  started  a  paper  called  the 
Frontier  Guardian^  at  Eanesville.  In  1849,  after  many  of  the 
faithful  had  left  to  join  Brigham  Young  at  Salt  Lake,  the  Mor- 
mons in  this  section  of  Iowa  numbered  6,552,  and  in  1850,  -7,828, 
but  they  were  not  all  within  the  limits  of  Pottawattamie  County. 
This  county  was  organized  in  1848,  all  the  first  officials  being  Mor- 
mons. In  1852,  the  order  was  promulgated  that  all  the  true  be- 
lievers should  gather  together  at  Salt  Lake.  Gentiles  flocked  in, 
and  in  a  few  years  nearly  all  the  first  settlers  were  gone. 

May  9,  1843,  Captain  James  Allen,  with  a  small  detachment  of 
troops  on  board  the  steamer  lone,  arrived  at  the  present  site  of  the 
capital  of  the  State,  Des  Moines.  The  lone  was  the  first  steamer 
to  ascend  the  Des  Moines  River  to  this  point.  The  troops  and 
stores  were  landed  at- what  is  now  the  foot  of  Court  avenue,  Des 
Moines,  and  Capt.  Allen  returned  in  the  steamer  to  Fort  Sanford 
to  arrange  for  bringing  up  more  soldiers  and  suppUes.  In  due 
time  they,  too,  arrived,  and  a  fort  was  built  near  the  mouth  of 
Raccoon  Fork,  at  its  confluence  with  the  Des  Moines,  and  named 
Fort  Des  Moines.     Soon  after  the  arrival  of  the  troops,  a  trading 


HI8T0BT  OF  IOWA.  49 

post  was  established  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  by  two  noted 
Indian  traders  named  Ewing,  from  Ohio. 

Among  the  first  settlers  in  this  part  of  Iowa  were  Benjamin 
Bryant,  J.  B.  Scott,  James  Drake  (gunsmith),  John  Stnrtevant, 
Robert  Einzie,  Alexander  Turner,  Peter  Newcomer,  and  others. 

The  Western  States  have  been  settled  by  many  of  the  best  and 
most  enterprising  men  of  the  older  States,  and  a  large  immigra- 
tion of  the  best  olood  of  the  Old  World,  who,  removing  to  an 
arena  of  larger  opportunities,  in  a  more  fertile  soil  and  con- 
genial climate,  have  developed  a  spirit  and  an  energy  peculiarly 
Western.  In  no  country  on  the  globe  have  enterprises  of  all 
kinds  been  pushed  forward  with  such  rapidity,  or  has  there  been 
such  independence  and  freedom  of  competition.  Among  those 
who  have  pioneered  the  civilization  of  tne  West,  and  been  the 
founders  oi  great  States,  none  have  ranked  higher  in  the  scale  of 
intelligence  and  moral  worth  than  the  pioneers  of  Iowa,  who  came 
to  the  territory  when  it  was  an  Indian  countrv,  and  through 
hardship,  privation  and  suffering,  laid  the  foundations  of  the  popu- 
lous ana  prosperous  commonwealth  which  to-day  dispenses  its  bless- 
ings to  a  million  and  a  quarter  of  people.  From  ner  first  settle- 
ment and  from  the  first  organization  as  a  territory  to  the  present 
day,  Iowa  has  had  able  men  to  manage  her  affairs,  wise  statesmen 
to  shape  her  destiny  and  frame  her  laws,  and  intelligent  and  impar- 
tial jurists  to  administer  justice  to  her  citizens;  her  bar,  pulpit  and 
press  have  been  able  and  widely  influential;  and  in  all  tne  profes- 
sions, arts,  enterprises  and  industries  which  go  to  make  up  a  great 
and  prosperous  commonwealth,  she  has  taken  and  holds  a  Iront 
rank  among  her  sister  States  of  the  West. 

TERRITORIAL  HISTORY. 

By  act  of  Congress,  approved  October  31,  1803,  the  President  of 
the  United  States  was  authorized  to  take  possession  of  the  terri- 
tory included  in  the  Louisiana  purchase,  and  provided  tOr  a  tem- 
Srarv  government.  By  another  act  of  the  same  session,  approved 
arch  26,  1804,  the  newly  acquire  i  country  was  divided,  October 
Ist,  1804,  into  the  Territory  of  Orleans,  south  of  the  thirty-third 
parallel  of  north  latitude,  and  the  district  of  Louisiana,  which  lat- 
ter was  placed  under  the  authority  of  the  officers  of  Indian  Terri- 
tory. 

In  1802,  the  district  of  Louisana  was  organized  as  a  Territory, 
with  a  government  of  its  own.  In  1807,  Iowa  was  included  in  the 
Territorv  of  Illinois,  and  in  1812  in  the  Territory  of  Missouri. 
When  Missouri  was  admitted  as  a  State,  Marth  2,  1821,  "Iowa," 
savs  Hon.  C.  C.  Nourse,  "was  left  a  political  orphan,"  until  by  act 
OI  Congress,  approved  June  28,  1834,  the  Black  Hawk  purchase 
having  oeen  made,  all  the  territory  west  of  the  Mississippi  and 
north  of  the  northern  boandary  of  Missouri,   was  made  a  part  of 


60  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

Michigan  Territory.  Up  to  this  time  there  had  been  no  county 
or  other  organization  in  what  is  now  the  State  of  Iowa,  although 
one  or  two  Justices  of  the  Peace  had  been  appointed  and  a  post- 
office  was  established  at  Dubuque  in  1833.  in  September,  1834, 
however,  the  Territorial  Legislature  of  Michigan  created  two  coun- 
ties on  the  west  side  of  the  Mississippi  River,  viz:  Dubuque  and 
Des  Moines,  separated  by  a  line  drawn  westward  from  the  foot  of 
Rock  Island.  These  counties  were  partially  organized.  John 
King  was  appointed  Chief  Justice  of  Dubuque  County,  and  Isaac 
Leffler,  of  Burlington,  of  Des  Moines  County.  Two  Associate 
Justices  in  each  county,  were  appointed  by  the  Governor. 

On  the  first  Monday  in  October,  1835,  Gen.  Geo.  W.  Jones,  now 
a  citizen  of  Dubuque,  was  elected  a  Delegate  to  Congress  from  this 
part  of  Michigan  Territory.  On  the  20th  of  April,  1836,  through 
the  efforts  of  Gen.  Jones,  Congress  passed  a  bill  creating  the  Ter- 
ritory of  Wisconsin,  which  went  into  operation,  July  4,  1886,  and 
Iowa  was  then  included  in. 

THETEERITOEY  OF  WISCONSIN", 

• 

of  which  Gen  Henry  Dodge  was  appointed  Governor;  John  S. 
Horner,  Secretary  of  the  Territory;  Charles  Dunn,  Chief  Justice; 
David  Irwin  and  Wm.  C.  Frazer,  Associate  Justices. 

September  9,  1836,  Gov.  Dodge  ordered  the  census  of  the  new 
territory  to  be  taken.  This  consus  resulted  in  showing  a  popu- 
lation of  10,531  in  the  counties  of  Dubuque  and  Des  Moines.  Un- 
der the  apportionment,  these  two  counties  were  entitled  to  six 
members  of  the  Council  and  thirteen  of  the  House  of  Representa- 
tives. The  Governor  issued  his  proclamation  for  an  election  to  be 
held  on  the  first  Monday  of  October,  1836,  on  which  day  the  fol- 
lowing members  of  the  First  Territorial  Legislature  of  Wisconsin 
were  elected  from  the  two  counties  in  the  Black  Hawk  purchase: 

Dubuque  County. — Council:  John  Fally,  Thomas  McKni^ht, 
Thomas  McCarney.  House:  Loring  Wheeler,  Hardin  NowTan, 
Peter  HillEngle,  Patrick  Cuigley,  HoseaT.  Camp. 

Des  Moines  County. — Council:  Jeremiah  Smith,  Jr.,  Joseph 
R.  Teas,  Arthur  B.  Inghram.  House:  Isaac  Leffler,  Thomas  Blair, 
Warren  L.  Jenkins,  John  Box,  George  W.  Teas,  Eli  Reynolds, 
David  R.  Chance. 

The  first  Legislature  assembled  at  Belmont,  in  the  present  State 
of  Wisconsin,  on  the  25th  day  of  October,  1836,  and  was  organ- 
ized by  electing  Henry  T.  Baird  President  of  the  Council,  and 
Peter  Hill  Engle,  of  Dubuque,  Speaker  of  the  House.  It  adjourn- 
ed December  9,  1836. 

The  second  Legislature  assembled  at  Burlington,  November,  10, 
1837.  Adjourned  January  20,  1838.  The  third  session  was  at 
Burlington;  commenced  (Mine  1st,  and  adjourned  June  12,  1838. 

During  the  first  session  of  the  Wisconsin  Territorial  Legislature 
i  n  1836,  the  County  of  Des  Moines  was  divided  into  Des  Moinea 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  51 

Lee,  Van  Buren,  Henry,  Muscatine  and  Cook  (the  latter  being  sub- 
sequently changed  to  Scott)  and  defined  their  boundaries.  During 
the  second  session,  out  of  the  territory  embraced  in  Dubuque 
County,  were  created  the  counties  of  Dubuque,  Clayton,  Fayette, 
Delaware,  Buchanan,  Jackson,  Jones,  Linn,  Clinton  and  Cedar, 
and  their  boundaries  defined,  but  the  most  of  them  were  not  or- 
CTnized  until  several  years  afterward,  under  the  authority  of  the 
Territorikl  Legislature  of  Iowa. 

The  question  of  a  separate  territorial  organization  for  Iowa, 
which  was  then  a  part  of  Wisconsin  Territory,  began  to  be  agitated 
early  in  the  autumn  of  1837.  The  wishes  oi  the  people  found  ex- 
pression in  a  convention  held  at  Burlington  on  the  1st  of  Novem- 
ber, w;hich  memorialized  Congress  to  organize  a  Territory  west  of 
the  Mississippi,  and  to  settle  the  boundary  line  between  Wisconsin 
Territory  and  Missouri.  The  Territorial  Legislature  of  Wisconsin, 
then  in  session  at  Burlington,  joined  in  the  petition.  Gen.  Geo. 
W.  Jones,  of  Dubuque,  then  residing  at  Sinsinawa  Mound,  in  what 
is  now  Wisconsin,  was  Delegate  to  Congress  from  Wisconsin  Ter- 
ritory, and  labored  so  earnestly  and  successfully,  that  '^An  act  to 
divide  the  Territory  of  Wisconsin,  and  to  establish  the  Territorial 
Government  of  Iowa,"  was  approved  June  12,  1838,  to  take  effect, 
and  be  in  force  on  and  after  J  uly  3,  1838.  The  new  Territory  em- 
braced *'all  that  part  of  the  present  Territory  of  Wisconsin  which 
lies  west  of  the  Mississippi  River,  and  west  of  a  line  drawn  due 
north  from  the  head  water  or  sources  of  the  Mississippi  to  the 
territorial  line."  The  organic  act  provided  for  a  Governor,  whose 
term  of  office  should  be  three  years,  and  for  aSecretarv,  Chief  Jus- 
tice, two  Associate  Justices,  and  Attorney  and  Ikfarshal,  who 
should  serve  four  years,  to  be  appointed  by  the  President,  by  and 
with  1;he  advice  and  consent  of  the  Senate.  The  act  also  provi«led 
for  the  election,  by  the  white  male  inhabitants,  citizens  of  the 
United  States,  over  twenty-one  years  of  age,  of  a  House  of  Rep- 
resentatives, consisting  of  twenty-six  members,  and  a  Coun- 
cil, to  consist  of  thirteen  members.  It  also  appropriated  $5,000 
for  a  public  library,  and  $20,000  for  the  erection  of  public 
buildings. 

President  Van  Buren  appointed  Ex-Governor  Robert  Lucas,  of 
Ohio,  to  be  the  first  Governor  of  the  new  Territory.  William  B. 
Conway,  of  Pittsburgh,  was  appointed  Secretary  oi  the  Territory; 
Charles  Mason,  of  Burlington,  Chief  Justice,  and  Thomas  S.  Wil- 
son, of  Dubuque,  and  Joseph  Williams,  of  Pennsylvania,  Associate 
Judges  of  the  Supreme  and  District  Courts;  Mr.  Van  Allen,  of 
New  York,  Attorney;  Francis  Gehon,  of   Dubuque,  Marshal;  Au- 

fastus  C.  Dodge,  Register  of  the  Land  Office  at  Burlington,  and 
homas  McKnight,  Receiver  of  the  Land  Office  at  Dubuque.  Mr. 
Van  Allen,  the  District  Attorney,  died  at  Rockingham,  soon  after 
his  appointment,  and  Col.  Charles  Weston  was  appointed  to  fill  his 
Tacancy.     Mr.  Conway,  the  Secretary,  also  diei  at  Burlington, 


62  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

during  the  second  session  of  the  Legislature,  and  James  Clarke, 
editor  of  the  Gazette^  was  appointed  to  succeed  him. 

Immediately  after  his  arrival,  Governor  Lucas  issued  a  proclama- 
tion for  the  election  of  members  of  the  first  Territorial  Legislature, 
to  be  held  on  the  10th  of  September,  dividing  the  Territory  into 
election  districts  for  that  purpose,  and  appointing  the  12th  day  of 
November  for  meeting  of  the  Legislature  to  be  elected^  at  Bur- 
lington. 

The  first  Territorial  Legislature  was  elected  in  September  and 
assembled  at  Burlington  on  the  12th  of  November,  and  consisted 
of  the  following  members: 

Council. — Jesse  B.  Brown,  J.  Keith,  E.  A.  M.  Swazy,  Arthur 
Ingram,  Robert  Ralston,  George  Hepner,  Jesse  J.  Payne,  D.  B. 
Hughes,  James  M.  Clark,  Charles  Whittlesey,  Jonathan  W.  Par- 
ker, Warner  Lewis,  Stephen  Hempstead. 

House. — William  Patterson,  Hawkins  Taylor,  Calvin  J.  Price, 
James  Brierly,  James  Hall,  Gideon  S.  Bailey,  Samuel  Parker,  James 
W.  Grimes,  George  Temple,  Van  B.  Delashmutt,  Thomas  Blair, 
George  H.  Beeler,*  William  G.  Coop,  William  H.  Wallace,  Asbury 
B.  Porter,  John  Frierson,  William  L.  Toole,  Levi  Thornton,  S.  U. 
Hastings,  Robert  G.  Roberts,  Laurel  Summers,!  Jabez  A.  Burch- 
ard,  Jr.,  Chauncey  Swan,  Andrew  Bankson,  Thomas  Cox  and  Har- 
din Nowlin. 

Notwithstanding  a  large  majority  of  the  members  of  both  branches 
of  the  Legislature  were  Democrats,  yet  Gen.  Jesse  B.  Browne 
(Whig),  of  Lee  County,  was  elected  President  of  the  Council,  and 
Hon.  William  H.  Wallace  (Whig),  of  Henry  County,  Speaker  of 
the  House  of  Representatives — the  former  unanimously  and  the 
latter  with  but  little  opposition.  At  that  time,  national  politics 
were  little  heeded  by  the  people  of  the  new  Territory,  but  in  1840, 
during  the  Presidential  campaign,  party  lines  were  strongly  drawn. 

At  the  election  in  Septemoer,  1838.  for  members  of  the  Legisla- 
ture, a  Congressional  Delegate  was  also  elected.  There  were  four 
candidates,  viz:  William  W.  Chapman  and  David  Rohrer,  of  Des 
Moines  County;  B.  F.  Wallace,  of  Henry  County,  and  P.  H. 
Engle,  of  Dubuque  County.  Chapman  was  elected,  receiving  a 
majority  of  thirty-six  over  Engle. 

The  first  session  of  the  Iowa  Territorial  Legislature  was  a  stormy 
and  exciting  one.  By  the  organic  law,  the  Governor  was  clothed 
with  almost  unlimited  veto  power.  Governor  Lucas  seemed  dis- 
posed to  make  free  use  of  it,  and  the  independent  Hawkeyes  could 
not  quietly  submit  to  arbitrary  and  absolute  rule,  and  the  result 
was  an  unpleasant  controversy  between  the  Executive  and  Legisla- 
tive departments.      Congress,  however,  by  act  approved  March  3, 

*Cyni8  S.  Jacobs,  who  was  elected  for  Des  Moinos  Ck)unty,  was  kiUed  In  an  unfortu- 
nate encounter  at  Burlington  before  the  meeUng  of  the  Learisluture,  and  Mr.  Heeler 
was  elected  to  fill  the  vacancy. 

tSamuel  R.  Murray  was  returned  as  elected  from  Clinton  County,  but  his  seat 
successfully  contested  by  Burchard. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  63 

1839,  amended  the  organic  law  by  restricting  the  veto  power  of 
the  Groyemor  to  the  two-thirds  rule,  and  took  from  him  the  power 
to  appoint  Sheriff  and  Magistrates. 

Among  the  first  important  matters  demanding  attention  was  the 
location  of  the  seat  of  government  and  provision  for  the  erection 
of  public  buildings,  for  which  Congress  had  appropriated  $20,000. 
Governor  Lucas,  in  his  message,  had  recommended  tne  appointment 
of  Commissioners,  with  a  view  to  making  a  central  location.  The 
extent  of  the  future  State  of  Iowa  was  not  known  or  thought  of. 
Only  on  a  strip  of  land  fifty  miles  wide,  bordering  on  the  Missis- 
sippi River,  was  the  Indian  title  extinguished,  and  a  central  loca- 
tion meant  some  central  point  in  the  Black  Hawk  Purchase.  The 
friends  of  a  central  location  supported  the  Oovemor's  suggestion. 
The  southern  members  were  divided  between  Burlin^on  and 
Mount  Pleasant,  but  finally  united  on  the  latter  as  the  proper  loca- 
tion for  the  seat  «f  government.  The  central  and  southern  parties 
were  very  nearly  equal,  and,  in  consequence,  muph  excitement  pre- 
vailed. The  central  party  at  last  triumphed,  and  on  the  21st  day 
of  January,  1839,  an  act  was  passed,  appointing  Chauncey  Swan, 
of  Dubuque  County;  John  Ronalds,  of  Xouisa  County,  and  Robert 
Ralston,  of  Des  Moines  County,  Commissioners,  to  select  a  site  for 
a  permanent  seat  of  Government  within  the  limits  of  Johnson 
County. 

Johnson  County  had  been  created  by  act  of  the  Territorial  Leg- 
islature of  Wisconsin,  approved  December  21,  1837,  and  organized 
by  act  passed  at  the  special  session  at  Burlin^on  in  June,  1838, 
the  organization  to  date  from  July  4th,  following.  Napoleon,  on 
the  Iowa  River,  a  few  miles  below  the  future  Iowa  City,  was  des- 
ignated as  the  county  seat,  temporarily. 

Then  there  existed  good  reason  for  locating  the  capital  in  the 
county.  The  Territory  of  Iowa  was  bounded  on  the  north  by  the 
British  Possessions;  east,  by  the  Mississippi  River  to  its  source; 
thence  by  a  line  drawn  due  north  to  the  northern  boundary  of  the 
United  States;  south,  by  the  State  of  Missouri,  and  west,  by  the 
Missouri  and  White  Earth  Rivers.  But  this  immense  territory 
was  in  undisputed  possession  of  the  Indians,  except  a  strip  on  the 
Mississippi,  known  as  the  Black  Hawk  Purchase.  Johnson  County 
was,  from  north  to  south,  in  the  geographical  center  of  this  pur- 
chase, and  as  near  the  east  and  west  geographical  center  of  the 
future  State  of  Iowa  as  could  then  be  made,  as  the  boundary  line 
between  the  lands  of  the  United  States  and  the  Indians,  estab- 
lished by  the  treaty  of  October  21,  1837,  was  immediately  west  of 
the  county  limits. 

The  Commissioners,  after  selecting  the  site,  were  directed  to  lay 
out  640  acres  into  a  town,  to  be  called  Iowa  City,  and  to  proceed  to 
sell  lots  and  erect  public  buildings  thereon.  Congress  having 
granted  a  section  of  land  to  be  select  el  by  the  Territory  for  this 
purpose.    The  Commissioners  met  at  Napoleon,  Johnson  County, 


51  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

May  1, 1839,  selected  for  a  site  Section  10,  in  Township  79  North 
of  Kange  6,  West  of  the  Fifth  Principal  Meridian,  and  immedi- 
ately surveyed  it  and  laid  off  the  town.  The  first  sale  of  lots  took 
place  August  16,  1839.  The  site  selected  for  the  public  buildings 
was  a  little  west  of  the  geographical  center  of  the  section,  where 
a  square  of  ten  acres  on  the  elevated  grounds  overlooking  the  river 
was  reserved  for  the  purpose.  The  capitol  is  located  in  the  center 
of  this  square.  The  second  Territorial  Legislature,  which  assem- 
bled in  J^^ovember,  1839,  passed  an  act  requiring  the  Commis- 
sicners  to  adopt  such  plan  tor  the  building  that  the  ag^gate  cost 
when  complete,  shovla  not  exceed  $51,000,  and  if  they  had  already 
adopted  a  plan  involving  a  greater  expenditure,  they  were  directed 
to  abandon  it.  Plans  for  the  building  were  designed  and  drawn 
by  Mr.  John  F.  Rague,  of  Springfield,  111.,  and  on  the  4th  day  o£ 
July,  1840,  the  corner  stone  of  the  edifice  was  laid  with  appro- 

Sriate  ceremonies.  Samuel  C.  Trowbridge  was  Marshal  of  the 
ay,  and  Guv.  Lucas  delivered  the  address  on  that  occasion. 
W  hen  the  Legislature  assembled  at  Burlington  in  special  session 
July  13,  1840,  Gov.  Lucas  announced  that  on  the  4th  of  that 
month  he  had  visited  Iowa  City,  and  found  the  basement  of  the 
capitol  nearly  completed.  A  bill  authorizing  a  loan  of  $20,000 
for  the  building  was  passed,  January  15,  1841,  the  unsold  lots  o£ 
Iowa  City  being  the  security  offered,  but  only  $5,500  was  obtained 
under  the  act. 

THE  BOUNDARY  QUESTION. 

The  boundary  line  between  the  Territory  of  Iowa  and  the  State 
of  Missouri  was  a  difficult  question  to  settle  in  1838,  in  conse- 
quence of  claims  arising  from  taxes  and  titles,  and  at  one  time 
civil  war  was  imminent.  In  defining  the  boundaries  of  the  coun- 
ties bordering  on  Missouri,  the  Iowa  authorities  had  fixed  a  line 
that  has  since  been  established  as  the  boundary  between  Iowa  and 
Missouri.  The  Constitution  of  Missouri  defines  her  northern 
boundarv  to  be  the  parallel  of  the  latitude  which  passes  through 
the  rapiis  of  the  Des  Moines  River.  The  lower  rapids  of  the 
Mississippi  immediately  above  the  mouth  of  the  Des  Moines  River 
had  always  been  known  as  the  Des  Moines  Rapids,  or  ''the  rapids 
of  the  Des  Moines  River."  The  Missourians  (evidently  not  well 
versed  in  history  or  geography)  insisted  on  running  the  northern 
boundary  line  from  the  rapids  in  the  Des  Moines  River,  just  below 
Keosauqua,  thus  taking  from  Iowa  a  strip  of  territory  eight  or  ten 
miles  wide.  Assuming  this  as  her  northern  boundary  line,  Mis- 
souri attempted  to  exercise  jurisdiction  over  the  disputed  territory 
by  assessing  taxes,  and  sendmg  her  Sheriffs  to  collect  them  by  dish 
training  the  personal  property  of  the  settlers.  The  lowans,  how- 
ever, were  not  disposed  to  suomit,  and  the  Missouri  officials  were 
arrested  by  the  Sheriffs  of  Davis  and  Van  Buren  Counties  and 


HISTORY  OF   IOWA.  55 

confined  in  jail.  Gov.  Boggs,  of  Missouri,  called  out  his  militia  to 
enforce  the  claim  and  sustain  the  officers  of  Missouri.  Gov.  Lucas 
called  out  the  militia  of  Iowa,  and  both  parties  made  active  prep- 
arations for  war.  In  Iowa,  about  1,200  men  were  enlisted,  and 
600  were  actually  armed  and  encamped  in  Van  Buren  County, 
ready  to  defend  the  integrity  of  the  Territory.  Subsequently, 
Gen.  A.  C.  Dodge,  of  Burlington,  Gen.  Churchman,  of  Dubuque, 
and  Dr.  Clark,  of  Fort  Madison,  were  sent  to  Missouri  as  envoys 

Slenipotentiary,  to  effect,  if  possible,  a  peaceable  adjustment  of  tne 
ifficulty.  Upon  their  arrival,  they  found  that  the  County  Com- 
missioners of  Clarke  County,  Missouri,  had  rescinded  their  order 
for  the  collection  of  the  taxes,  and  that  Gov.  Boggs  had  despatched 
messengers  to  the  Governor  of  Iowa  proposing  to  submit  an 
agreed  case  to  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States  for  the 
final  settlement  of  the  boundary  question.  This  proposition  was 
declined,  but  afterward  Congress  authorized  a  suit  to  settle  the 
controversy,  which  was  instituted,  and  which  resulted  in  a  judg- 
ment for  Iowa.  Under  this  decision,  William  G.  Miner,  of  Mis- 
souri, and  Henry  B.  Hendershott  were  appointed  Commissioners 
to  survey  and  establish  the  boundary.  Mr.  Nourse  remarks  that 
''  the  expenses  of  the  war  on  the  part  of  Iowa  were  never  paid, 
either  by  the  United  States  or  the  Territorial  Government.  The 
patriots  who  furnished  supplies  to  the  troops  had  to  bear  the  cost 
and  charges  of  the  struggle." 

The  first  legislative  assembly  laid  the  broad  foundation  of  civil 
equality,  on  which  has  been  constructed  one  of  the  most  liberal 
governments  in  the  Union.  Its  first  act  was  to  recognize  the 
equality  of  woman  with  man  before  the  law,  by  providing  that 
"no  action  commenced  by  a  single  woman,  who  intermarries 
during  the  pendency  thereof,  shall  abate  on  account  of  such  mar- 
riage." This  principle  has  been  adopted  by  all  subsequent  legisla- 
tion in  Iowa,  and  to-day  woman  has  full  and  equal  civil  rights  with 
man,  except  only  the  nght  of  the  ballot. 

Keligious  toleration  was  also  secured  to  all,  personal  liberty 
strictly  giiarded,  the  rights  and  privileges  of  citizenship  extended 
to  all  white  persons,  and  the  purity  of  elections  secured  by  heavy 
penalties  against  briberv  and  corruption.  The  judiciarypower  was 
vested  in  a  Supreme  Cfourt,  District  Court,  Probate  Court,  and 
Justices  of  the  Peace.  Real  estate  was  made  divisible  by  will,  and 
intestate  propertv  divided  equitably  among  heirs.  Murder  was 
made  punishaole  by  death,  and  proportionate  penalties  fixed  for 
lesser  crimes.  A  system  of  free  schools,  open  for  every  class  of 
white  citizens,  was  established.  Provision  was  made  for  a  system 
of  roads  and  highways.  Thus,  under  the  territorial  organization, 
the  country  began  to  emerge  from  a  savage  wilderness,  and  take 
on  the  forms  of  civil  government. 

By  act  of  Congress  of  June  12,  1838,  the  lands  which  had  been 
purciiased  of  the  Indians  were  brought  into  market,   and  land 


56  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

offices  opened  in  Dubuque  and  Burlington.  Congress  provided  for 
military  roads  and  bridges,  which  greatly  aided  Uie  settlers,  who 
were  now  coming  in  by  thousands,  to  make  their  homes  on  the 
fertile  prairies  of  Iowa — "  the  Beautiful  Land."  The  fame  of  the 
country  had  spread  fai*  and  wide;  even  before  the  Indian  title  was 
extinguished,  many  were  crowding  the  borders,  impatient  to  cross 
over  and  stake  out  their  claims  on  the  choicest  spots  they  could 
findin  the  new  Telritory.  As  soon  as  the  country  was  open  for 
settlement,  the  borders,  the  Black  Hawk  Purchase,  all  along  the 
Mississippi,  and  up  the  principal  rivers  and  streams,  and  out  over 
the  broad  rolling  prairies,  began  to  be  thronged  with  eager  land 
hunters  and  immigrants,  seeking  homes  in  Iowa.  It  was  a  sight 
to  delight  the  eyes  of  all  comers  from  every  land — ^its  noble  streams, 
beautiful  and  picturesque  hills  and  valleys,  broad  and  fertile 
prairies  extending  as  far  as  the  eye  could  reach,  with  a  soil  surpass- 
ing in  richness  anything  which  they  had  ever  seen.  It  is  not  to 
be  wondered  at  that  immigration  into  Iowa  was  rapid,  and  that 
within  less  than  a  decade  from  the  organization  of  the  Territory  it 
contained  a  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  people. 

As  rapidly  as  the  Indian  titles  were  extinguished  and  the  or- 
iginal owners  removed,  the  resistless  tide  or  emigration  flowed 
westward.  The  following  extract  from  Judee  Nourse's  Centennial 
Address  shows  how  the  immigrants  gathered  on  the  Indian 
boundary,  ready  for  the  removal  of  the  barrier: 

In  obedience  to  our  progfressive  and  aggressive  spirit,  the  Government  of  the 
United  States  made  another  treaty  with  uie  Sac  and  Fox  Indians,  on  the  11th 
day  of  August,  1842;  for  tlie  remaining  portion  of  their  land  in  Iowa.  The  treaty 
provided  that  the  Indians  should  retmn  possession  of  all  the  lands  thus  ceded 
until  May  1,  184^3,  and  should  occupy  that  portion  of  the  ceded  territory  west  of 
a  line  running  north  and  south  through  Redrock,  until  October  11, 1845.  These 
tribes,  at  this  time,  had  their  principal  village  at  Ot-tum-wa-no,  now  called  Ot- 
tumwa.  As  soon  as  it  became  known  that  the  treaty  had  been  concluded,  there 
was  a  rush  of  immigration  to  Iowa,  and  a  great  number  of  temporary  settle- 
ments were  made  near  the  Indian  boundary,  waiting  for  the  Ist  day  of  May. 
As  the  day  approached,  hundreds  of  families  encamped  along  the  line,  and  their 
tents  and  wagons  gave  the  scene  the  appearance  of  a  militaiy  expedition.  The 
country  beyond  had  been  thoroughly  explored,  but  the  United  States  military 
authorities  had  prevented  any  settlement  or  even  the  making  out  of  claims  by 
any  monuments  whatever. 

To  aid  them  in  making  out  their  claims  when  the  hour  should  arrive,  the  set- 
tlers had  placed  piles  of  dry  wood  on  the  rising^  ground,  at  convenient  distances, 
and  a  short  time  before  twelve  o'clock  on  the  night  of  the  30th  of  April,  these 
were  lighted,  and  when  the  midnight  hour  arrived  it  was  announced  by  the  dis- 
charge of  firearms.  The  night  was  dark,  but  this  army  of  occupation  pressed 
forward,  torch  in  hand,  with  axe  and  hatchet,  blazing  lines  with  all  manner  of 
curves  and  angles.  When  daylight  came  and  revealed  the  confusion  of  these 
wonderful  surveys,  numerous  disputes  arose,  settled  generally  by  compromise, 
but  sometimes  by  violence.  Between  midnight  of  the  30th  of  April  and  sundown 
of  the  Ist  of  May,  over  one  thousand  families  had  settled  on  their  new  purchase. 

While  this  scene  was  transpiring,  the  retreating  Indians  were  enacting  one 
more  impressive  and  melancholy.  The  winter  of  1842-43  was  one  of  unusual 
severity,  and  the  Indian  prophet,  who  had  disapproved  of  the  treaty,  attributed 
the  severity  of  the  winter  to  the  anger  of  the  Great  Spirit,  because  thev  had  sold 
their  country.    Many  religious  rites  were  performea  to  atone  for  the  crime. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  57 

When  the  time  for  leaving  Ot-tam-wa-no  arrived,  a  solemn  silence  pervaded  the 
Indian  camp,  and  the  faces  of  their  stoutest  men  were'bathed  in  tears;  and  when 
their  cavalcade  was  put  in  motion,  toward  the  netting  sun,  there  was  a  Fponta- 
neous  outburst  of  frantic  grief  from  the  entire  procession. 

The  Indians  remained  the  appointed  time  beyond  the  line  running  north  and 
sootii  through  Redrock.  The  Government  established  a  trading  post  and  mili- 
tary encampment  at  the  Raccoon  Fork  of  the  Des  Moines  River,  then  and  for 
many  years  known  as  Fort  Des  Moines.  Here  the  red  man  lingered  until  the 
11th  of  October,  1846,  when  the  same  scene  that  we  have  before  described  was 
re-enacted,  and  the  wave  of  immigration  swe^t  over  the  remainder  of  the  *'  New 
Pnrchaae.'*  The  lands  thus  occupied  and  claimed  by  the  settlers  still  belonged 
in  fee  to  the  General  Government.  The  surveys  were  not  completed  until  some 
time  after  the  Indian  title  was  extinguished.  After  their  survey,  the  lands 
were  publicly  proclamied  or  advertised  for  sale  at  public  auction.  Under  the 
laws  of  the  United  States,  a  pre-emption  or  exclusive  right  to  purchase  public 
lands  could  not  be  acquired  until  afler  the  lands  had  thus  been  publicly  offered 
and  not  sold  for  want  of  bidders.  Then,  and  not  until  then,  an  occupant  mak- 
ing improvements  in  good  faith  might  acquire  a  right  over  others  to  enter  the 
land  at  the  minimum  price  of  $1.25  per  acre.  The  "claim  laws"  were  un- 
known to  the  United  States  statutes.  They  originated  in  the  "eternal  fitness 
offings,'*  and  were  enforced,  probably,  as  belonging  to  that  class  of  natural 
rights  not  enumerated  in  the  constitution,  and  not  impaired  cr  disparaged  by 
its  enumeration. 

The  settlers  organized  in  every  settlement  prior  to  the  public  land  sales, 
appointed  officers,  and  adopted  their  own  rules  and  regulations.  Each  man's 
clami  was  duly  ascertained  and  recorded  by  the  Secretary.  It  was  the  duty  of 
all  to  attend  the  sales.  The  Secretary  bid  off  the  lands  of  each  settler  at  $1.25 
per  acre.  The  others  were  there  to  see,  first,  that  he  did  his  duty  and  bid  in  the 
uind,  and,  secondly,  to  see  that  no  one  else  hid.  This,  of  course,  sometimes  led 
to  trouble,  but  it  saved  the  excitement  of  competition,  and  gave  a  formality  and 
degree  of  order  and  regularity  to  the  proceedings  they  would  not  otherwise  have 
atteined.  As  far  as  practicable,  the  Territorial  Legislature  recognized  the  valid- 
i^  of  these  "claims  *  upon  the  public  lands,  and  in  1839  passed  an  act  legal- 
izing their  sale  and  making  their  transfer  a  valid  consideration  to  support  a 
pronuse  to  pa^  for  the  same.  (Acts  of  1843,  p.  456).  The  Supreme  Territorial 
Court  held  this  law  to  be  valid.  (See  Hill  v.  Smith,  Ist  Morris  Rep.  70).  The 
opinion  not  only  contains  a  decision  of  the  question  involved,  but  also  contains 
much  valuable  erudition  upon  that  "spirit  of  Anglo-Saxon  liberty  "  which  the 
Iowa  settlers  unquestionably  inherited  in  a  direct  line  of  descent  from  the  said 
"Anglo-Saxons.  '  But  the  early  settler  was  not  always  able  to  pay  even  this 
dollar  and  twenty-five  cents  per  acre  for  his  land. 

Many  of  the  settlers  had  nothing  to  begin  with,  save  their  hands, 
health  and  courage  and  their  family  jewels,  **  the  pledges  of  love/' 
and  the  "  consumers  of  bread.''  It  was  not  so  easy  to  accumulate 
money  in  the  early  days  of  the  State,  and  the  "  beautiful  prairies," 
the  "  noble  streams,"  and  all  that  sort  of  poetic  imagery,  did  not 
prevent  the  early  settlers  from  becoming  discouraged. 

An  old  settler,  in  speaking  of  the  privations  and  trials  of  those 
early  days,  says: 

Well  do  the  "old  settlers  '*  of  Iowa  remember  the  days  from  the  first  settle- 
ment to  1840.  Thos6  were  days  of  sadness  and  distress.  The  endearments  of 
home  in  another  land  had  been  broken  up;  and  all  that  was  hallowed  on  earth, 
the  home  of  childhood,  and  the  scenes  of  youth,  were  severed ;  and  we  sat  down  by 
the  gentle  waters  of  our  noble  river,  and  often  *  'hung  our  harps  on  the  willows. 

Another,  from  another  part  of  the  state  testifies: 

There  was  no  such  thing  as  getting  money  for  any  kind  ot  labor.  1  laid  brick 
at  $3.00  per  thousand,  and  took  my  pay  in  anything  I  could  eat  or  wear.    I 


i 


58  HISTORY  OF   IOWA. 

built  the  first  Methodist  Church  at  Keokuk,  42x60  feet,  of  brick,  for  $600,  and 
took  my  pav  in  a  subscription  pax)er,  part  of  which  I  never  collected,  and  upon 
which  I  only  received  $o0.00  in  money.  Wheat  was  hauled  100  miles  from 
the  interior,  and  sold  for  37J^  cents  per  bushel. 

Another  old  settler,  speaking  of  a  later  period,  1843,  says: 

Land  and  everything  had  gone  down  in  value  to  almost  nominal  prices.  Com 
and  oats  could  be  bought  for  six  or  ten  cents  a  bushel;  pork,  $1.00  i>er  hundred 
and  the  best  horse  a  man  could  raise  sold  for  $50.00.    Nearly  all  were  in  debt 
and  the  Sheriff  and  Constable,  with  legal  processes,  were  common  visitors  at 
almost  every  man*8  door.    These  were  indeea  **the  times  that  tried  men*s  souls.*' 

"  A  few,"  says  Mr.  Nourse,  "  who  were  not  equal  to  the  trial,  re- 
turned to  their  old  homes,  but  such  as  had  courage  and  faith  to  be 
the  worthy  founders  of  a  great  State  remained,  to  more  than  realize 
the  fruition  of  their  hopes,  and  the  reward  of  their  self-denial." 

On  Monday,  December  6,  1841,  the  fourth  Legislative  Assembly 
met,  at  the  new  capital,  Iowa  City,  but  the  capitol  building  could 
not  be  used,  and  the  Legislature  occupied  a  temporary  frame  house, 
that  had  been  erected  for  that  purpose,  during  the  session  of  1841-2. 
At  this  session,  the  Superintendent  of  Public  Buildings  (who,  with 
the  Territorial  Agent,  had  superseded  the  Commissioners  first  ap- 
nointed),  estimated  the  expense  of  completing  the  building  at 
$33,330,  and  that  rooms  for  the  use  of  the  Legislature  could  be 
completed  for  $15,600. 

During  1842,  the  Superintendent  commenced  obtaining  stone 
from  a  new  quarry,  about  ten  miles  northeast  of  the  city.     This  is 
now  known  as  the  'Old  Captain  Quarry,"  and  contains,  it  is  thought, 
an  immense  quantity  of  excellent  building  stone.     Here  all  the 
stone  for  completing  the  building  was  obtained,  and  it  was  so  far 
completed  that  on  the  5th  day  of  December,  1842,  the  Legislature 
assembled  in  the  new  capitol.     At  this  session,  the  Superintendent 
estimated  that  it  would  cost  $39,143  to  finish  the  building.     This 
was  nearly  $6,000  higher  than  the  estimate  of  the  previous   year, 
notwithstanding  a  large  sum  had  been  expended  in  the  meantime. 
This  rather  discouraging  discrepancy  was  accounted  for  by  the  fact 
that  the  officers  in  charge  of  tne  work  were  constantly  short  of 
funds.     Except  the  Congressional  appropriation  of  $20,000  and  the 
loan  of  $5,500,  obtained  from  the  Miners  Bank,  of  Dubuque,  all  the 
funds  for  the  prosecution  of  the  work  were  derived  from  the  sale  of 
the  city  lots  (which  did  not  sell  very  rapidly),  from  certificates  of 
indebtedness,  and  from  scrip,  based  upon  unsold  lots,  which  was  to 
be  received  in  payment  for  such  lots  when  they  were  sold.     At  one 
time  the  Superintendent  made  a  requisition  for  bills  of  iron  and 
glass,  which  could  not  be  obtained  nearer  than  St.  Louis.   To  meet 
this,  the  Agent  sold  some  lots  for  a  draft,  payable  at  Pittsburgh, 
Pa.,  for  which  he  was  compelled  to  pay  twenty-five  per  cent,  ex- 
change.   This  draft,  amounting  to  ^507,  that  officer  reported  to  be 
more  than  one-half  the  cash  actually  handled  by  him  during  the 
entire  season,  when  the  disbursement  amounted  to  very  nearly 
$24,000. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  69 

With  such  uncertainty,  it  could  not  be  expected  that  estimates 
could  be  very  accurate.  With  all  these  disadvantages,  however,  the 
work  appears  to  have  been  prudently  prosecuted,  and  as  rapidly  as 
circumstances  would  permit. 

Iowa  remained  a  Territory  from  1838  to  1846,  during  which  the 
office  of  Governor  was  held  by  Robert  Lucas,  John  Chambers  and 
James  Clarke. 

STATE    ORGANIZATION. 

By  an  act  of  the  Territorial  Legislature  of  Iowa,  approved  Feb- 
ruary 12,  1844,  the  question  of  the  formation  of  a  State  Constitu- 
tion and  providing  for  the  election  of  Delegates  to  a  convention  to 
be  convened  for  that  purpose  was  submitted  to  the  people,  to  be 
voted  upon  at  their  township  elections  in  April  following.  The 
vote  was  largely  in  favor  of  tne  measure,  and  the  Delegates  elected 
assembled  in  convention  at  Iowa  City,  on  the  7th  of  October,  1844. 
On  the  first  day  of  November  following,  the  convention  completed 
its  work  and  adopted  the  first  State  Constitution. 

The  President  of  the  convention,  Hon.  Shepherd  Leffler,  was  in- 
structed to  transmit  a  certified  copy  of  this  Constitution  to  the 
Delegate  in  Congress,  to  be  by  him  submitted  to  that  body  at  the 
earliest  practicable  day.  It  was  also  provided  that  it  should  be 
submitted,  together  with  any  conditions  or  changes  that  might  be 
made  by  Congress^  to  the  people  of  the  Territory,  for  their  approval 
or  rejection,  at  the  township  election  in  April,  1845. 

The  boundaries  of  the  State,  as  defined  by  this  Constitution, 
were  as  follows: 

BegiDning  in  the  middle  of  the  channel  of  the  Mississippi  River,  opposite 
moutn  of  the  Dea  Moines  River,  thence  up  the  said  river  Des  Moines,  in  the 
middle  oi  the  main  channel  thereof,  to  a  point  where  it  is  intersected  by  the 
Old  Indian  Boundary  line,  or  line  run  by  John  C.  Sullivan,  in  the  year  1816; 
thence  weatwardly  along  said  line  to  the  "old"  northwest  corner  of  Missouri; 
tiience  due  west  to  the  middle  of  the  main  channel  of  the  Missouri  River;  thence 
up  in  the  middle  of  the  main  channel  of  the  river  last  mentioned  to  the  mouth 
of  Uie  Sioux  or  Calumet  River;  thence  in  a  direct  line  to  the  middle  of  the  main 
channel  of  the  St.  Peters  River,  where  the  Watonwan  River — according  to  Nic- 
ollet's map — enters  the  same;  thence  down  the  middle  of  the  main  channel  of 
said  river  to  the  middle  of  the  main  channel  of  the  Mississippi  River;  thence 
down  the  middle  of  the  main  channel  of  said  river  to  the  place  of  beginning. 

These  boundaries  were  rejected  by  Conerress,  but  by  act  approved 

March  3,  1845,  a  State  called  Iowa  was  admitted  into  the  LFnion, 

provided  the  people  accepted  the  act,  bounded  as  follows: 

Beginning  at  the  mouth  of  the  Des  Moines  River,  at  the  middle  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi, thence  by  the  middle  of  the  channel  of  that  river  to  a  parallel  of  lati- 
tude passing  through  the  mouth  of  the  Mankato  or  Blue  Earth  River;  thence 
west,  along  said  parallel  of  latitude,  to  a  point  where  it  is  intersected  by  a  me- 
ridian line  seventeen  degrees  and  thirty  minutes  west  of  the  meridian  of  Wash- 
in^^n  City:  thence  due  south,  to  the  northern  boundary  line  of  the  State  of 
Missouri;  thence  eastwardly,  following  that  boundary  to  tne  point  at  which  the 
rame  intersects  the  Des  Moines  River;  thence  by  the  middle  of  the  channel  of 
that  river  to  the  place  of  beginning. 


60  HISTORY   OF  IOWA. 

These  boundaries,  had  they  been  accepted,  would  have  placed 
the  northern  boundary  of  the  State  about  thirty  miles  north  of  its 
present  location,  and  would  have  deprived  it  of  the  Missouri  slope 
and  the  boundary  of  that  river.  The  western  boundary  would 
have  been  near  the  west  line  of  what  is  now  Kossuth  County. 
But  it  was  not  so  to  be.  In  consequence  of  this  radical  and  un- 
welcome change  in  the  boundaries,  the  people  refused  to  accept  the 
act  of  Congress  and  rejected  the  Constitution  at  the  election,  held 
•  August  4,  1845,  by  a  vote  of  7,656  to  7,235. 

A  second  Constitutional  Convention  assembled  at  Iowa  City  on 
the  ith  day  of  May,  1846,  and  on  the  18th  of  the  same  month  an- 
other Constitution  for  the  new  State  with  the  present  boundaries, 
was  adopted  and  submitted  to  the  people  for  ratification  on  the  3d 
day  of  August  following,  when  it  was  accepted;  9,492  votes  were 
cast  "for  the  Constitution,"  and  9,036  ^'against  the  Constitution." 
The  Constitution  was  approved  by  Congress,  and  by  act  of  Con- 
gress approved  December  28,  1846,  Iowa  was  admitted  as  a  sover- 
eifm  State  in  the  American  Union. 

JPrior  to  this  action  of  Congress,  however,  the  people  of  the  new 
State  held  an  election  under  tne  new  Constitution  on  the  26th  day 
of  October,  and  elected  Oresel  Briggs,  Governor;  Elisha  Cutler^ 
Jr.,  Secretary  of  State;  Joseph  T.  Fales,  Auditor;  Morgan  Reno, 
Treasurer;  and  members  of  the  Senate  and  House  of  Represent- 
atives. 

At  this  time  there  were  twenty-seven  organized  counties  in  the 
State,  with  a  population  of  nearly  100,000,  and  the  frontier  settle- 
ments were  rapidly  pushing  toward  the  Missouri  River.  The  Mor- 
mons had  already  reached  there. 

The  first  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  Iowa  was  composed 
of  nineteen  Senators  and  forty  Representatives.  It  assembled  at 
Iowa  City,  November  30, 1846,  about  a  month  before  the  State  was 
admitted  into  the  Union. 

At  the  first  session  of  the  State  Legislature,  the  Treasurer  of  State 
reported  that  the  capitol  building  was  in  a  very  exposed  condition, 
liable  to  injury  from  storms,  and  expressed  the  hope  that  some  pro- 
vision would  be  made  to  complete  it,  at  least  sufficiently  to  protect 
it  from  the  weather.  The  General  Assembly  responded  by  appropri- 
ating $2,500  for  the  completion  of  the  public  buildings.  At  the 
first  session  also  arose  the  question  of  the  re-location  of  the  capi- 
tal. The  western  boundary  of  the  State,  as  now  determined,  left 
Iowa  City  too  far  toward  the  eastern  and  southern  boundary  of 
the  State;  this  was  conceded.  Congress  had  appropriated  five  sec- 
tions of  land  for  the  erection  of  public  buildings,  and  toward  the 
close  of  the  session  a  bill  was  introduced  providing  for  the  re-locar 
tion  of  the  seat  of  government,  involving  to  some  extent  the  locar 
tion  of  the  State  University,  which  had  already  been  discussed. 
This  bill  gave  rise  to  a  deal  of  discussion  and  parliamentary  ma- 
neuvering, almost  purely  sectional  in  its  character.    It  provided 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  61 

for  the  appointment  of  three  Commissioners,  who  were  authorized 
to  make  a  location  as  near  the  geographical  center  of  the  State  as 
a  healthy  and  eligible  site  could  be  obtained;  to  select  the  five  sec- 
tions of  land  donated  by  Congress;  to  survey  and  plat  into  town 
lots  not  exceeding  one  section  of  the  land  so  selected;  to  sell  lots 
at  public  sale,  not  to  exceed  two  in  each  block.  Having  done  this, 
they  were  then  required  to  suspend  further  operations,  and  make  a 
report  of  their  proceedings  to  the  Governor.  The  bill  passed  both 
Houses  by  decisive  votes,  received  the  signature  of  the  Governor, 
and  became  a  law,  Soon  after,  bv  '^An  act  to  locate  and  establish 
a  State  University,"  approved  February  25,  1847,  the  unfinished 
public  buildings  at  Iowa  City,  together  with  the  ten  acres  of  land 
on  which  they  were  situated,  were  granted  for  the  use  of  the  Uni- 
versity, reserving  their  use,  however,  by  the  general  Assembly  and 
the  State  officers,  until  other  provisions  were  made  by  law. 

The  Commissioners  forthwith  entered  upon  their  duties,  and  se- 
lected four  sections  and  two  half  sections  in  Jasper  County.  Two 
of  these  sections  are  in  what  is  now  Des  Moines  Township,  and 
the  others  in  Fairview  Township,  in  the  southern  part  of  that 
county.  These  lands  are  situated  between  Prairie  City  and  Mon- 
roe, on  the  Keokuk  &  Des  Moines  Railroad,  which  runs  diagonally 
through  them.  Here  a  town  was  platted,  called  Monroe  City,  and 
a  sale  of  lots  took  place.  Four  hundred  and  fifteen  lots  were  sold, 
at  prices  that  were  not  considered  remarkably  remunerative.  The 
casn  payments  (one-fourth)  amounted  to  $1,797.43,  while  the  ex- 
penses of  the  sale  and  the  claims  of  the  Commissioners  for  services 
amounted  to  $2,206.57.  The  Commissioners  made  a  report  of  their 
proceedings  to  the  Governor,  as  required  by  law,  but  the  location 
was  generally  condemned. 

When  the  report  of  the  Commissioners,  showing  this  brilliant 
financial  operation,  had  been  read  in  the  House  of  Representatives, 
at  the  next  session,  and  while  it  was  under  consideration,  an  in- 
dignant member,  afterward  known  as  the  eccentric  Judge  McFar- 
land,  moved  to  refer  the  report  to  a  select  Committee  of  Five, 
with  instructions  to  report  **how  much  of  said  city  of  Monroe  was 
under  water  and  how  much  was  burned."  The  report  was  re- 
ferred, without  the  instructions,  however,  but  Monroe  City  never 
became  the  seat  of  government.  By  an  act  approved  January  16, 
1849,  the  law  by  which  the  location  had  been  made  was  repealed 
and  the  new  town  was  vacated,  the  money  paid  by  purchasers  of 
lots  being  refunded  to  them.  This,  of  course,  retained  the  seat 
of  government  at  Iowa  City,  and  precluded,  for  the  time,  the  occu- 
pation of  the  building  and  grounds  by  the  tjniversity. 

At  the  same  session,  $3,000  more  were  appropriated  for  complet- 
ing the  State  building  at  Iowa  City.  In  1852,  the  further  sum  of 
$5,000,  and  in  1854  fe,000  more  were  appropriated  for  the  same 
purpose,  making  the  whole  cost  $123,000,  paid  partly  by  the  Gen- 


62  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

eral  Government  and  partly  by  the  State,  but  principally  from  the 
proceeds  of  the  sale  of  lots  m  towa  City. 

But  the  question  of  the  permanent  location  of  the  seat  of  gov- 
ernment was  not  settled,  and  in  1851  bills  were  introduced  for  the 
removal  of  the  capital  to  Pella  and  to  Fort  Des  Moines.  The  lat- 
ter  appeared  to  have  the  support  of  the  majority,  but  was  finafly 
lost  in  the  House  on  the  question  of  ordering  it  to  its  |;hird  read- 

At  the  next  session,  in  1853,  a  bill  was  introduced  in  the  Senate 
for  the  removal  of  the  seat  of  Government  to  Fort  Des  Moines,  and, 
on  final  vote,  was  just  barely  defeated.  At  the  next  session,  how- 
ever, the  effort  was  more  successful,  and  on  the  15th  day  of  Jan- 
uary, 1855,  a  bill  re-locating  the  capital  within  two  miles  of  the 
Raccoon  Fork  of  the  Des  Moines,  and  for  the  appointment  of  Com- 
missioners, was  approved  by  Gov.  Grimes.  Tne  site  was  selected 
in  1856,  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  this  act,  the  land  be- 
ing donated  to  the  State  by  citizens  and  property-holders  of  Des 
Moines.  An  association  of  citizens  erectea  a  building  for  a  tempo- 
rary capitol,  and  leased  it  to  the  State  at  a  nominal  rent. 

The  third  Constitutional  Convention  to  revise  the  Constitution 
of  the  State  assembled  at  Iowa  City,  January  19, 1857.  The  new 
Constitution  framed  by  this  convention  was  submitted  to  the  peo- 
ple at  an  election  held  August  3,  1857,  when  it  was  approved  and 
adopted  by  a  vote  of  40,311  ^^for"  to  38,681  "against,'*  and  on  the 
3d  day  of  September  following  was  declared  by  ajproclamation  of  the 
Governor  to  be  the  Supreme  law  of  the  State  of  Iowa. 

Advised  of  the  completion  of  the  temporary  State  House  of  Des 
Moines,  on  the  19th  of  October  following,  Governor  Grimes  issued 
another  proclamation,  declaring  the  city  of  Des  Moines  to  be  the 
capital  or  the  State  of  Iowa. 

The  removal  of  the  archives  and  ofiBces  was  commenced  at  once 
and  continued  through  the  fall.  It  was  an  undertaking  of  no 
small  magnitude;  there  was  not  a  mile  of  railroad  to  facilitate  the 
work,  and  the  season  was  unusually  disagreeable.  Rain,  snow  and 
other  accompaniments  increased  the  difficulties,  and  it  was  not 
until  December  that  the  last  of  the  effects — the  safe  of  the  State 
Treasurer,  loaded  on  two  large  *'bob-sleds" — drawn  by  ten  yoke  of 
oxen  was  deposited  in  the  new  capitol.  It  is  not  imprudent  now 
to  remark  that,  during  this  passage  over  hills  and  prairies,  across 
rivers,  through  bottom  lands  and  timber,  the  safes  belonging  to 
the  several  departments  contained  large  sums  of  money,  mostly 
individual  funds,  however.  Thus,  Iowa  City  ceased  to  be  the 
capital  of  the  State,  after  four  Territorial  Legislatures,  six  State 
Legislatures  and  three  Constitutional  Conventions  had  held  their 
sessions  there.  By  the  exchange,  the  old  capitol  at  Iowa  City, 
became  the  seat  of  the  University,  and  exceptthe  rooms  occupied  by 
the  United  States  District  Court,  passed  under  the  immediate  and 
direct  control  of  the  Trustees  of  that  institution. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  63 

Des  Moines  was  now  the  permament  seat  of  government,  made 
so  by  the  fundamental  law  of  the  State,  and  on  the  11th  day  of 
January,  1858,  the  seventh  General  Assembly  convened  at  the 
new  capital.  The  buildings  used  for  governmental  purposes  was 
purchased  in  1864.  It  soon  became  inadequate  for  the  purposes 
for  which  it  was  designed,  and  it  became  apparent  that  a  new, 
large  and  permanent  State  House  must  be  erected.  In  1870,  the 
Gbneral  Assembly  made  an  appropriation  and  provided,  for  the  ap- 
pointment of  a  Board  of  Commissioners  to  commence  the  work. 
The  board  consisted  of  Gov.  Samuel  Merrill,  ex-officio.  President; 
GrenvilleM.  Dodge,  Council  Blufis;  James  F.  Wilson,  Fairfield; 
James  Dawson,  Washington;  Simon  G.  Stein,  Muscatine;  James 
0.  Crosbv,  Gainsville;  Charles  Dudley,  Agency  City;  John  N. 
Dewey,  Des  Moines;  William  L.  Joy,  Sioux  City;  Alexander  R. 
Fulton,  Des  Moines,  Secretary, 

The  act  of  1870  provided  that  the  building  should  be  constructed 
of  the  best  material  and  should  be  fire  proof,  to  be  heated  and  ven- 
tilated in  the  most  approved  manner;  should  contain  suitable  leg- 
islative halls,  rooms  for  State  officers,  the  judiciary,  library,  com- 
mittees, archieves  and  the  collections  of  the  State  Agricultural 
Society,  and  for  all  purposes  of  State  Government,  and  should  be 
erected  on  grounds  held  by  the  State  for  that  purpose.  The 
sum  first  appropriated  was  $150,000;  and  the  law  provided  that  no 
contract  shoula  be  made,  either  for  constructing  or  furnishing 
the  building,  which  should  bind  the  State  for  larger  sums  than 
those  at  the  time  appropriated.  A  design  wiis  drawn  and  plans  and 
specifications  f  urnisned  by  Cochrane  &  Piquenard,  architects,  which 
were  accepted  by  the  board,  and  on  the  23d  of  November,  1871, 
the  corner  stone  was  laid  with  appropriate  ceremonies.  The  esti- 
mated cost  and  present  value  of  the  capitol  is  fixed  at  $2,000,000, 

From  1858  to  1860,  the  Sioux  became  troublesome  in  the  north- 
western part  of  the  State.  These  warlike  Indians  made  frequent 
flundering  raids  upon  the  settlers,  and  murdered  several  families. 
n  1861,  several  companies  of  militia  were  ordered  to  that  portion 
of  the  State  to  hunt  down  and  punish  the  murderous  thieves.  No 
battles  were  fought,  however,  tor  the  Indians  fled  when  they  as- 
certained that  sysrtematic  and  adequate  measures  had  been  adopted 
to  protect  the  settlers. 

^'The  year  1856  marked  a  new  era  in  the  history  of  Iowa.  In 
1854,  the  Chicago  &  Rock  Island  Railroad  had  been  completed  to 
the  east  bank  oiE  the  Mississippi  River,  opposite  Davenport.  In 
1054,  the  comer  stone  of  a  railroad  bridge,  that  was  to  be  the  first 
to  span  the  'Father  of  Waters,'  was  laid  with  appropriate  cere- 
monies at  this  point.  St.  Louis  had  resolved  that  the  enterprise 
was  qnconstitutional,  and  by  writs  of  injunction  made  an  unsuc- 
cessful effort  to  prevent  its  completion.  Twenty  years  later  in  her 
history,  St.  Louis  repented  her  folly,  and  made  atonement  for  her 
sin  by  imitating  our  example.     On  the  first  day  of  January,  1856, 


64  HISTOBY  OF  IOWA. 

this  railroad  was  completed  to  Iowa  City.  In  the  meantime,  two 
other  railroads  had  reached  the  east  bank  of  the  Mississippi — one 
opposite  Burlington,  and  one  opposite  Dubuque — and  these  were 
bein^  extended  into  the  interior  of  the  State.  Indeed,  four  lines 
of  railroad  had  been  projected  across  the  State  from  the  Mississippi 
to  the  Missouri,  having  eastern  connections.  On  the  15th  of  May, 
1856,  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  passed  an  act  granting  to 
the  State,  to  aid  in  the  construction  •  of  railroads,  the  public  lands 
in  alternate  sections,  six  miles  on  either  side  of  the  proposed  line. 
An  extra  session  of  the  General  Assembly  was  called  in  July  of 
this  year,  that  disposed  of  the  grant  to  the  several  companies  that 
proposed  to  complete  these  enterprises.  The  population  of  our 
State  at  this  time  had  increased  to  500,000.  Public  attention  had 
been  called  ti»  the  necessity  of  a  railroad  across  the  continent.  The 
position  of  Iowa,  in  the  very  heart  and  center  of  the  Republic,  on 
the  route  of  this  great  highway  across  the  continent,  began  to  at- 
tract attention.  Cities  and  towns  sprang  up  through  the  State  as 
if  by  magic.  Capital  began  to  pour  into  the  State,  and  had  it  been 
employed  in  developing  our  vast  coal  measures  and  establishing 
manufactories  among  us,  or  if  it  had  been  expended  in  improving 
our  lands,  and  building  houses  and  barns,  it  would  have  been  well. 
But  all  were  in  haste  to  get  rich,  and  the  spirit  of  speculation 
ruled  the  hour. 

*'  In  the  meantime  every  effort  was  made  to  help  the  speedy  com- 
pletion of  the  railroads,  i^^early  every  county  and  city  on  the  Mis- 
sissippi, and  many  in  the  interior,  voted  large  corporate  subscrip- 
tions to  the  stoclc  of  the  railroad  companies,  and  issued  their  ne- 
gotiable bonds  for  the  amount."  Thus  enormous  county  and  city 
aebts  were  incurred,  the  payment  of  which  these  municipalities 
tried  to  avoid  upon  the  plea  that  they  had  exceeded  the  constitu- 
tional limitation  of  their  powers.  The  Supreme  Court  of  the 
United  States  held  these  bonds  to  be  valid;  and  the  courts  by  man- 
damus compelled  the  city  and  county  authorities  to  levy  taxes  to 
pay  the  judgments.  These  debts  are  not  all  paid  even  yet,  but 
the  worst  is  over  and  ultimately  the  burden  will  be  entirely  re- 
moved. 

The  first  railroad  across  the  State  was  completed  to  Council  Blu£& 
in  January,  1871 .  The  others  were  completed  soon  after.  In  1854 
there  was  not  a  mile  of  railroad  in  the  State.  In  1874,  twenty 
years  after,  there  were  3,765  miles  in  successful  operation." 

GROWTH  AND  PROGRESS. 

When  Wisconsin  Territory  was  organized,  in  1836,  the  entire 
population  of  that  portion  of  the  Territorv  now  embraced  in  the 
State  of  Iowa  was  10,531.  The  Territory  then  embraced  two  coun- 
ties; Dubuque  and  Des  Moines,  erected  by  the  Territory  of  Michi- 
gan, in  1834.  From  1836  to  1838,  the  Territorial  Legislature  of 
Wisconsin  increased  the  number  of  counties  to  sixteen,  and  the 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  65 

population  had  increased  to  22,859.  Since  then  the  counties  have 
increased  to  ninety-nine,  and  the  population,  in  1875,  was  1,866,- 
000.  The  following  table  will  show  the  population  at  different 
periods,  since  the  erection  of  Iowa  Territory: 

Year,  Population. \Year.  Population. 
1838 22,589  1^59 638,775 


1840 43,115 

1844 75,152 

1846 97,588 

1847 116,651 

1849 152,988 

1850 191,982 

1851 204,774 

1852 2:W.713 

1854 326,013 

1856 , 519,055 


1860 674,913 

1863 701,732 

1865 754,699 

1867 902.040 

1869 1,040,819 

1870 1,191,727 

1873 1,251,333 

1875 1,366,000 

1880 1,624.463 


The  most  populous  county  in  the  State  is  Dubuque.  Not  only 
in  population,  but  in  everything  contributing  to  the  en'owth  and 
greatness  of  a  State  has  Iowa  made  rapid  progress.  In  a  little  more 
than  thirty  years,  its  wild  but  beautiful  prairies  have  advanced 
from  the  home  of  the  savage  to  a  highly  civilized  commonwealth, 
embracing  all  the  elements  of  progress  which  characterize  the 
older  States. 

Thriving  cities  and  towns  dot  its  fair  surface;  an  iron  net-work 
of  thousands  of  miles  of  railroads  is  woven  over  its  broad  acres;  ten 
thousand  school  houses,  in  which  more  than  five  hundred  thou- 
sand children  are  being  taught  the  rudiments  of  education,  testify 
to  the  culture  and  liberality  of  the  people;  high  schools,  colleges 
and  universities  are  generously  endowed  by  the  State;  manufacto- 
ries spring  up  on  all  her  water  courses,  and  in  most  of  her  cities 
and  towns. 

Whether  measured  from  the  date  of  her  first  settlement,  her 
organization  as  a  Territory,  or  admission  as  a  State,  Iowa  has  thus 
far  shown  a  growth  unsurpassed,  in  a  similar  period,  by  any  com- 
monwealth on  the  face  of  the  earth;  and,  with  her  vast  extent  of 
fertile  soil,  with  her  inexhaustible  treasures  of  mineral  wealth, 
with  a  healthful,  invigorating  climate;  an  intelligent,  liberty-lov- 
ing people;  with  equal,  just  and  liberal  laws,  and  her  free  schools, 
the  future  of  Iowa  may  be  expected  to  surpass  the  most  hopeful 
anticipations  of  her  present  citizens. 

Looking  upon  Iowa  as  she  is  to-day — populous,  prosperous  and 
happy — it  is  hard  to  realize  the  wonderful  changes  that  have  oc- 
curred since  the  first  white  settlements  were  made  within  her  bor- 
ders. When  the  number  of  States  was  only  twenty-six,  and  their 
total  population  about  twenty  millions,  our  republican  form  of  gov- 
ernment was  hardly  more  than  an  experiment,  just  fairly  put  up- 
on trial.  The  development  of  our  agricultural  resources  and  inex- 
haustible mineral  wealth  had  hardly  commenced.  Westward  the 
*'  Star  of  Empire  "  had  scarcely  started  on  its  way.     West  of  the 


66  HISTORY   OF  IOWA. 

great  Mississippi  was  a  mighty  empire,  but  almost  unknown,  and 
marked  on  the  maps  of  the  period  as  ^^  The  Great  American  Des- 
ert." 

Now,  thirty-eight  stars  glitter  on  our  national  escutcheon,  and 
forty-five  millions  of  people,  who  know  their  rights  and  dare  main- 
tain them,  tread  American  soil,  and  the  grand  sisterhood  of  States 
extends  from  the  Oulf  of  Mexico  to  the  Canadian  border,  and 
from  the  rocky  coast  of  the  Atlantic  to  the  golden  shores  of  the 
Pacific. 

THE  AGRICULTURAL  COLLEGE  AND  FARM. 

Ames^  Story  County. 

The  Iowa  State  Agricultural  College  and  Farm  were  established 
by  an  act  of  the^General  Assembly,  approved  March  22d,  1858. 
A  Board  of  Trustees  was  appointed,  consisting  of  Governor  R.  P. 
Lowe,  John  D.  Wright,  William  Duane Wilson, M.W.Robinson, 
Timothy  Day,  Richard  Gaines,  John  Pattee,  G.  W.  F.  Sherwin, 
Suel  Foster,  S.  W.  Henderson,  Clement  Coffin  and  E.  G.  Day;  the 
Governors  of  the  State  and  President  of  the  College  being  ex-officio 
members.  Subsepuently  the  number  of  Trustees  was  reduced  to 
five.  The  Board  met  in  June,  1859,  and  received  propositions  for 
the  location  of  the  College  and  Farm  from  Hardin,  Polk,  Story  and 
Boone,  Marshall,  JeflFerson  and  Tama  Counties.  In  July,  the 
proposition  of  Story  County  and  some  of  its  citizens  and  by  the 
citizens  of  Boone  County  was  accepted,  and  the  farm  and  the 
site  for  the  buildings  were  located.  In  1860-61,  the  farm-house  and 
barn  were  erected.  In  1862,  Congress  granted  to  the  State  240,- 
000  acres  of  land  for  the  endowment  of  schools  of  agriculture  and 
the  mechanical  arts,  and  195,000  acres  were  located  by  Peter  Mel- 
endy.  Commissioner,  in  1862-63.  In  1864,  the  General  Assembly 
appropriated  $20,000  for  the  erection  of  the  college  building. 

In  June  of  that  year,  the  Building  Committee  proceeded  to  let 
the  contract.  The  $20,000  appropriated  by  the  General  Assembly 
were  expended  in  putting  in  tne  foundations  and  making  the  brick 
for  the  structure.  An  additional  appropriation  of  $91,000  was 
made  in  1866,  and  the  building  was  completed  in  1868. 

Tuition  in  this  college  is  made  by  law  forever  free  to  pupils  from 
the  State  over  sixteen  years  of  age,  who  have  been  resident  of  the 
State  six  months  previous  to  their  admission.  Each  county  in  the 
State  has  a  prior  right  of  tuition  for  three  scholars  from  each 
county;  the  remainder,  equal  to  the  capacity  of  the  college,  are  by 
the  trustees  distributed  among  the  counties  in  proportion  to  the 
population,  and  subject  to  the  above  rule.  All  sale  of  ardent 
spirits,  wine  or  beer,  are  prohibited  by  law  within  a  distance  of. 
three  miles  from  the  college,  except  for  sacramental,  mechanical 
or  medical  purposes. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  67 

The  course  of  instruction  in  the  Agricultural  College  emhraces 
the  following  branches:  Natural  Philosophy,  Chemistry,  Botany, 
Horticulture,  Fruit  Growing,  Forestry,  Animal  and  Vegetable 
Anatomy,  Geology,  Minerdogy,  Meteorology,  Entomology, 
Zoology,  the  Veterinary  Art,  Plane  Mensuration,  Leveling,  Sur- 
veying, Bookkeeping,  and  such  Mechanical  Arts  as  are  directly 
connected  with  agriculture;  also  such  other  studies  as  the  Trustees 
may,  from  time  to  time,  prescribe,  not  inconsistent  with  the  pur- 
poses of  the  institution.  The  funds  arising  from  the  lease  and 
sale  of  lands,  and  interest  on  investments  are  sufficient  for  the 
support  of  the  institution. 

The  Board  of  Trustees,  in  1881,  was  composed  of  Charles  W. 
Tenney,  Plymouth;  George  H.  Wricht,  Sioux  City;  Henry  Q. 
Little,  Grinnell;  William  McClintock,  West  Union;  John  N. 
Dixon,  Oskaloosa.  A.  S.  Welch,  President  of  the  Faculty;  W. 
D.  Lucas,  Treasurer;  E.  W.  Stanton,  Secretary. 

The  Trustees  are  elected  by  the  General  Assembly,  in  Joint 
Convention,  for  lour  years,  three  being  elected  at  one  session  and 
two  the  next. 

THE  STATE  UNIVERSITY. 
Iowa  City^  Johnson  County. 

In  the  famous  Ordinance  of  1787,  enacted  by  Congress  before 
the  Territory  of  the  United  States  extended  beyond  the  Missis- 
sippi River,  it  was  declared  that  in  all  the  territory  northwest  of 
the  Ohio  River;  ''Schools  and  the  means  of  education  shall  for- 
ever be  encouraged."  By  act  of  Congress,  approved  July  20, 1840, 
the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  was  authorized  *'to  set  apart  and  re- 
serve from  sale,  out  of  anv  of  the  public  lands  within  the  Terri- 
tory of  Iowa,  to  which  tfee  Indian  title  has  been  or  may  be  ex- 
tinguished, and  not  otherwise  appropriated,  a  quantity  of  land,  not 
exceeding  the  entire  townships,  tor  the  use  and  support  of  a  uni- 
versity within  said  Territory  when  it  becomes  a  State,  and  for  no 
other  use  or  purpose  whatever;  to  be  located  in  tracts  of  not  less 
than  an  entire  section,  corresponding  with  jmy  of  the  large  divis- 
ions into  which  the  public  land  are  authorized  to  be  surveyed." 

William  W.  Dodge,  of  Scott  County,  was  appointed  by  the 
Secretary  of  the  Treasury  to  make  the  selections.  He  selected 
Section  5,  in  Township  78,  north  of  Range  3,  east  of  the  Fifth 
Principal  Meridian,  ana  then  removed  from  the  Territory.  No 
more  land  were  selected  until  1846,  when,  at  the  request  of  the 
Assembly,  John  M.  Whitaker,  of  Van  Buren  Countv,  was  appoint- 
ed, who  selected  the  remainder  of  the  grant  except  about  122  acres. 

In  the  first  Constitution,  under  which  Iowa  was  admitted  to  the 
Union,  the  people  directed  the  disposition  of  the  proceeds  of  this 
munificent  grant  in  accordance  with  its  terms,  and  instructed  the 


68  HISTOBY  OF  IOWA. 

General  Assembly  to  provide,  as  soon  as  may  be,  effectual  means 
for  the  improvement  and  permanent  secarity  of  the  funds  of  the 
university  derived  from  the  lands. 

The  first  General  Assembly,  by  act  approved  February  25,  1847, 
established  the  ''State  University  of  Iowa"  at  Iowa  City,  then 
the  Capital  of  the  State,  ''with  such  other  branches  as  public  con- 
venience may  hereafter  require."  The  "  public  buildings  at 
Iowa  City,  together  with  the  ten  acres  of  land  in  which  they  are 
situated,  were  granted  for  the  use  of  said  university  provided^ 
however,  that  the  sessions  of  the  Legislature  and  State  offices 
should  be  held  in  the  capitol  until  otherwise  provided  by  law.  The 
control  and  management  of  the  Universitv  were  committed  to  a 
Board  of  fifteen  Trustees,  to  be  appointed  by  the  Legislature,  five 
of  whom  were  to  be  chosen  bienially.  The  Superintendent  of 
Public  Instruction  was  made  President  of  this  Board.  Provisions 
were  made  for  the  disposal  of  the  two  townships  of  land,  and  for 
the  investment  of  the  funds  arising  therefrom.  The  act  further 
provides  that  the  University  shall  never  be  under  the  exclusive 
control  of  any  religious  denomination  whatever,  and  as  soon  as 
the  revenue  for  the  grant  and  donations  amounts  to  $2,000  a  year, 
the  University  should  commence  and  continue  the  instruction, 
free  of  charge,  of  fifty  students  annually.  The  General  Assembly 
retained  full  supervision  over  the  University,  its  officers  and  the 
grants  and  donations  made  and  to  be  made  to  it  by  the  State. 

The  organization  of  the  University  at  Iowa  City  was  impractic- 
able, however,  so  long  as  the  seat  of  government  was  retained  there. 

In  January,  1849,  two  branches  of  the  University  and  three 
Normal  Schools  were  established.  The  branches  were  located — 
one  at  Fairfield,  and  the  other  at  Dubuque,  and  were  placed  upon 
an  equal  footing,  in  respect  to  funds  and  all  other  matters,  with 
the  tJniversity  established  at  Iowa  City.  "  This  act,"  says  Col. 
Benton,  "  created  three  State  Universities,  with  equal  rights  and 
powers,  instead  of  a  'University  with  such  branches  as  pnblic  con- 
venience may  hereafter  demamt,^  as  provided  bv  the  Constitution." 

The  Board  of  Directors  of  the  Fairfield  Branch  consisted  of 
Barnet  Ristine,  Christian  W.  Slagle,  Daniel  Rider,  Horace  Gay- 
lord,  Bernhart  Henn  and  Samuel  S.  Bayard.  At  the  first  meeting 
of  the  Board  Mr.  Henn  was  elected  President,  Mr.  Slagle  Secretary, 
and  Mr.  Gaylord  Treasurer.  Twenty  acres  of  land  were  purchased, 
and  a  building  erected  thereon,  costing  $2,500.  This  building  was 
nearly  destroyed  by  a  hurricane,  in  1850,  but  was  rebuilt  more 
substantially,  all  by  contributions  of  the  citizens  of  Fairfield.  This 
branch  never  received  any  aid  from  the  State  or  from  the  Univer- 
sity Fund,  and  by  act  approved  January  24, 1853,  at  the  request  of 
the  Board,  the  General  Assembly  terminated  its  relation  to  the  State. 

The  branch  at  Dubuque  was  placed  under  the  control  of  the  Su- 
perintendent of  Public  Instruction.  The  Trustees  never  organ- 
ized, and  its  existence  was  only  nominal. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  69 

The  Normal  Schools  were  located  at  Andrew,  Oskaloosa  and 
Moont  Pleasant,  respectively.  Each  was  to  be  governed  by  a  board 
of  seven  Trustees,  to  be  appointed  by  the  Trustees  of  the  Univer- 
sity. Each  was  to  receive  $500  annually  from  the  income  of  the 
University  fund,  upon  condition  that  they  should  educate  eight 
common  school  teachers,  free  of  charge  for  tuition,  and  that  the 
citizens  should  contribute  an  equal  sum  for  the  erection  of  the 
requisite  buildings.  The  several  Boards  of  Trustees  were  appointed. 
At  Andrew,  the  school  was  organized  November  21,  1849.  A 
building  was  commenced  and  over  $1,000  expended  on  it,  but  it 
was  never  completed.  At  Oskaloosa,  the  Trustees  organized  in 
April,  1852.  This  school  was  opened  in  the  Court  House,  Septem- 
ber 13,  1852.  A  two-story  brick  building  was  completed  in  1853, 
costing  $2,473.  The  school  at  Mount  Pleasant  was  never  organ- 
ized. Neither  of  these  schools  received  any  aid  from  the  Univer- 
sity Fund,  but  in  1857  the  Legislature  appropriated  $1,000  each 
for  those  at  Oskaloosa  and  Andrew,  and  repealed  the  law  author- 
izing the  payment  of  money  to  them  from  the  University  Fund. 
From  that  time  they  made  no  further  eflFort  to  continue  in  ope- 
ration. 

At  a  special  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Trustees,  held  February 
21,  1850,  the  ''College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  of  the  Upper 
Mississippi,^^  established  at  Davenport,  was  recognized  as  the  '*(Jol- 
lege  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  of  the  Stabe  University  of  Iowa," 
expressly  stipulating,  however,  that  such  recognition  should  not 
render  the  University  liable  for  any  pecuniary  aid,  nor  was  the 
Board  to  have  any  control  over  the  property  or  management  of  the 
Medical  Association.  Soon  after,  tnis  College  was  removed  to  Ke- 
okuk, its  second  session  being  opened  there  in  November,  1850. 
In  1851,  the  General  Assembly  confirmed  the  action  of  the  Board, 
and  by  act  approved  January  22,  1855,  placed  the  Medical  College 
under  the  supervision  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  the  University, 
and  it  continued  in  operation  until  this  arrangement  was  termin- 
ated by  the  new  Constitution,  September  3,  1857. 

From  1847  to  1855,  the  Board  of  Trustees  was  kept  full  by  reg- 
ular elections  by  the  Legislature^  and  the  Trustees  held  frequent 
meetings,  but  tnere  was  no  eflFectual  organization  of  the  University. 
In  March,  1855,  it  was  partially  opened  for  a  term  of  sixteen  weeks. 
July  16,  1855,  Amos  Dean,  or  Albany,  N.  Y.,  was  elected  Presi- 
dent, but  he  never  entered  fully  upon  its  duties.  The  University 
was  again  opened  in  September,  1855,  and  continued  in  operation 
until  June,  1856,  under  Professors  Johnson,  Welton,  Van  Valken- 
bui^  and  Ouffin. 

In  the  Spring  of  1856,  the  capital  of  the  State  was  located  at 
Des  Moines;  but  there  were  no  buildings  there,  and  the  capitol  at 
Iowa  City  was  not  vacated  by  the  State  until  December,  1857. 

In  June,  1856,  the  faculty  was  re-organized,  with  some  changes, 
and  the  University  was  agam  opened  on  the  third  Wednesday  of 


70  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

September,  1850.  There  were  one  hundred  and  twenty-four  stu- 
dents— eighty-three  males  and  forty-one  females  in  attendance 
during  the  year  1856-7,  and  the  first  regular  catalogue  was  pub- 
lished. 

Article  IX,  Section  11,  of  the  new  State  Constitution,  which 
went  into  force  September  3, 1857,  provided  as  follows: 

The  State  University  shall  be  established  at  one  place,  without  branches  at 
any  other  place;  and  the  University  fund  shall  be  applied  to  that  institution, 
and  no  other. 

Article  XI,  Section  8,  provided  that 

The  seat  of  Government  is  hereby  permanentiv  established,  as  now  fixed  by 
law,  at  the  diy  of  Des  Moines,  in  the  county  of  Polk;  and  the  State  University 
at  Iowa  City,  in  the  county  of  Johnson. 

The  new  Constitution  created  the  Board  of  Education,  consist- 
ing of  the  Lieutenant  Governor,  who  was  ex  oflScio  President,  and 
one  member  to  be  elected  from  each  judicial  district  in  the  State. 
This  Board  was  endowed  with  "full  power  and  authority  to  legis- 
late and  make  all  needful  rules  and  regulations  in  relation  to  com- 
mon schools  and  other  educational  institutions,^^  subject  to  altera- 
tion, amendment  or  repeal  by  the  General  Assemblv,  which  was 
vested  with  authority  to  abolish  or  re-organize  the  Board  at  any 
time  after  1863. 

In  December,  1857,  the  old  capitol  building,  now  known  as  Cen- 
tral Hall  of  the  University,  except  the  rooms  occupied  by  the 
United  States  District  Court,  and  the  property,  with  that  excep- 
tion, passed  under  the  control  of  the  Trustees,  and  became  the  seat 
of  the  University.  The  old  building  had  had  hard  usage,  and  its 
arrangement  was  illy  adapted  for  University  purposes.  Extensive 
repairs  and  changes  were  necessary,  but  the  Board  was  without 
funds  for  these  purposes. 

The  last  meetmg  of  the  Board,  under  the  old  law,  was  held  in 
January,  1858.  At  this  meeting,  a  resolution  was  introduced,  and 
seriously  considered,  to  exclude  females  from  the  University;  but 
it  finally  failed. 

March  12,  1858,  the  first  Legislature  under  the  new  Constitution 
enacted  a  new  law  in  relation  to  the  University,  but  it  was  not 
materially  different  from  the  former.  March  11,  1858,  the  Leg- 
islature appropriated  $3,000  for  the  repair  and  modification  of 
the  old  capitol  building,  and  $10,000  for  the  erection  of  a  boarding 
house,  now  known  as  South  Hall. 

The  Board  of  Trustees  created  by  the  new  law  met  and  duly  or- 
ganized April  27,  1858,  and  determined  to  close  the  University 
until  the  income  from  its  fund  should  be  adequate  to  meet  the  cur- 
rent expenses,  and  the  buildings  should  be  ready  for  occupation. 
Until  tnis  term,  the  building  known  as  the  ''Mechanics'  Academy" 
had  been  used  for  the  school.  The  Faculty,  except  the  Chancellor 
(Dean),  was  dismissed,  and  all  further  instruction  suspended,  from 
the  close  of  the  term  then  in  progress  until  September,  1869.     At 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  71 

this  meetiDg,  a  resolution  was  adopted  excluding  females  from  the 
University  after  the  close  of  the  existing  term;  oat  this  was  after- 
ward, in  August,  modified,  so  as  to  admit  them  to  the  Normal  De- 
partment. 

An  '^Act  for  the  Government  and  Regulation  of  the  State  Uni- 
versity of  Iowa,"  approved  December  25, 1858,  was  mainly  a  re-en- 
actment of  the  law  of  March  12,  1858,  except  that  changes  were 
made  in  the  Board  of  Trustees,  and  manner  of  their  appomtment. 
This  law  provided  that  both  sexes  were  to  be  admittea  vn  equal 
terms  to  all  departments  of  the  institution,  leaving  the  Board  no 
discretion  in  the  matter. 

At  the  annual  meeting,  June  28,  1860,  a  full  Faculty  was  ap- 
jK>inted,  and  the  University  re-opened,  under  this  new  organiza- 
tion, September  19,  1860  (third  Wednesday);  and  at  this  date  the 
actual  existence  of  the  University  may  be  said  to  commence. 

August  19, 1862,  Dr.  Totten  having  resigned.  Prof.  Oliver  M. 
Spencer  was  elected  President  and  the  honorary  degree  of  Doctor 
01  Laws  was  conferred  upon  Judge  Samuel  F.  l&iiller,  of  Keokuk. 

At  the  commencement,  in  June,  1863,  was  the  first  class  of 
graduates  in  the  Collegiate  Department. 

The  Board  of  Education  was  abolished  March  19,  1864,  and  the 
office  of  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction  was  restored ;  the 
General  Assembly  resumed  control  of  the  subject  of  education, 
and  on  March  21,  an  act  was  approved  for  the  goverment  of  the 
University.  It  was  substantially  the  same  as  the  former  law,  but 
provided  that  the  Governor  should  be  ex-officio  President  of  the 
board  of  Trustees.  Until  1858,  the  Superintendent  of  Public  In- 
struction had  been  ex-officio  President.  During  the  period  of  the 
Board  of  Education,  the  University  Trustees  were  elected  by  it, 
and  elected  their  own  President. 

The  North  Hall  was  completed  late  in  1866. 

The  Law  Department  was  established  in  June,  1868,  and,  in 
September  following  au  arrangement  was  perfected  with  the  Iowa 
Law  School,  at  Des  Moines,  which  had  been  in  successful  opera- 
tion for  three  years,  by  which  that  institution  was  transferred  to 
Iowa  City  and  merged  in  the  Law  Department   of  the  University. 

At  a  special  meeting  of  the  Board,  on  the  I7th  of  September, 
1868,  a  committee  was  appointed  to  consider  the  expediency  of 
establishing  a  Medical  Department.  This  Committee  reported  at 
once  in  favor  of  the  proposition,  the  Faculty  to  consist  of  the 
President  of  the  University  and  seven  Professors,  and  recom- 
mended that,  if  practicable,  the  new  department  should  be  opened 
at  the  commencement  of  the  University  year,  in  1869-70. 

By  an  act  of  the  General  Assembly,  approved  April  11,  1870, 
the  ''Board  of  Regents"  was  instituted  as  the  governing  power  of 
the  University,  and  since  that  time  it  has  been  the  fundamental 
law  of  the  institution.  The  Board  of  Regents  held  its  first  meet- 
ing June  28,  1870. 


72  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

The  South  Hall  having  been  fitted  up  for  the  purpose,  the  first 
term  of  the  Medical  Department  was  opened  Octooer  24,  1870,  and 
continued  until  March,  1871. 

In  June,  1874,  the  "Chair  of  Military  Instruction"  was  estab- 
lished, and  the  President  of  the  United  States  was  requested  to 
detail  an  officer  to  perform  its  duties.     At  the  annual  meeting,  in 

1876,  a  Department  of  Homoeopathy  was  established.     In  March, 

1877,  a  resolution  was  adopted,  affiliating  the  High  Schools  of  the 
State  with  the  University. 

In  1872,  the  eanyfficio  membership  of  the  Superintendent  of 
Public  Instruction  was  abolished;  but  it  was  restored  in  1876. 

The  Board  of  Regents,  in  1881,  was  composed  as  follows: 
John  H.  Gear,  Governor,  ex-officio^  President;  Carl  W.  vonCoelln, 
Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  ex-^fficio;  J.  L.  Pickard, 
President  of  the  University,  ex^jfficio;  C.  W.  Slagle,  Fairfield, 
First  District;  D.  N.  Richardson,  Davenport,  Second  District;  H. 
C.  Bulis,  Decorah,  Third  District;  A.  T.  Reeve,  Hampton,  Fourth 
District;  J.  N.  W.  Rumple,  Marengo,  Fifth  District;  W.  O. 
Crosby,  Centerville,  Sixth  District;  T.  S.  Parr,  Indianola,  Seventh 
District;  Horace  Everett,  Council  BluiBfs,  Eighth  District;  J.  F. 
Duncombe,  Fort  Dodge,  Ninth  District.  John  N.  Coldren,  Iowa 
City,  Treasurer;  W.  J.  Haddock,  Iowa  City,  Secretary. 

I'he  Regents  are  elected  by  the  General  Assembly,  in  Joint 
Convention,  for  six  yeara,  one-third  being  elected  at  each  re^lar 
session,  one  meml>er  to  be  chosen  from  each  Congressional 
District. 

The  present  educational  corps  of  the  University  consists  of  the 
President,  nine  Professors  in  the  Collegiate  Department,  one  Pro- 
fessor and  six  Instructors  in  Military  Science;  Chancellor,  three 
Professors  and  four  Lecturers  in  the  Law  Department;  eight 
Professor  Demonstrators  of  Anatomy;  Prosector  of  Surgery  and 
two  Lecturers  in  the  Medical  Department,  and  two  Professors  in 
the  Homoeopathic  Medical  Department. 

STATE  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

By  act  of  the  General  Assembly,  approved  January  28, 1857,  a 
State  Historical  Society  was  provided  for  in  connection  with  the 
University.  At  the  commencement,  an  appropriation  of  $250  was 
made,  to  be  expended  in  collecting,  embodying,  and  preserving  in 
an  authentic  form,  a  library  of  books,  pamphlets,  cnarts,  maps, 
manuscripts,  papers,  paintings,  statuary,  and  other  materials  illus- 
trative of  the  history  of  Iowa;  and  with  the  further  object  to 
rescue  from  oblivion  the  memory  of  the  early  pioneers;  to  obtain 
and  preserve  various  accounts  of  their  exploits,  perils  and  hardy 
adventures;  to  secure  facts  and  statements  relative  to  the  history 
and  genius,  and  progress  and  decay  of  the  Indian  tribes  of  Iowa, 
to  exnibit  faithfully  the  antiquities  and  past  and  present  resources 


HI8T0BT  OF  IOWA,  78 

of  the  state;  to  aid  in  the  pablication  of  such  collections  of  the 
Society  as  shall,  from  time  to  time  be  deemed  of  value  and  inter- 
est; to  aid  in  binding  its  books,  pamphlets,  manuscripts  and  papers, 
and  in  defraying  other  necessary  incidental  expenses  of  the  So- 
ciety. 

'fhere  was  appropriated  by  law  to  this  institution,  till  the  Gen- 
eral Assembly  snail  otherwise  direct,  the  sum  of  ¥5()0  per  annum. 
The  Society  is  under  the  mana^ment  of  a  Board  of  Curators, 
consisting  of  eighteen  persons,  nine  of  whom  are  appointed  by  the 
Governor,  and  nine  elected  by  the  members  of  the  Society.  The 
Curators  receive  no  compensation  for  their  services.  The  annual 
meeting  is  provided  for  oy  law,  to  be  held  at  Iowa  City  on  Mon- 
day preceding  the  last  Wednesday  in  June  of  each  year. 

The  State  Historical  Society  has  published  a  series  of  very 
valuable  collections,  including  history,  biography,  sketches,  remin- 
iscences, etc.,  with  quite  a  large  number  of  finely  engraved  por- 
traits of  prominent  and  early  settlers,  under  the  title  of  ^^  Annals 
of  Iowa.' 

THE  PENITENTIARY. 

Located  at  Fort  Madison^  Lee  County, 

The  first  act  of  the  Territorial  Legislature,  relating  to  a  Peni- 
tentiary in  Iowa,  was  approved  January  25,  1830,  the  fifth  section 
of  which  authorized  the  Governor  to  draw  the  sum  of  $20,000 
appropriated  by  an  act  of  Congress  approved  July  7,  1838,  for 
public  buildings  in  the  Territory  of  Iowa. .  It  provided  for  a 
Board  of  Directors  of  three  persons  elected  by  the  Legislature, 
who  should  direct  the  building  of  the  Penitentiary,  which  should 
be  located  within  one  mile  of  the  public  square,  in  the  town  of 
Port  Madison,  Lee  County,  provided  Fort  Madison  should  deed  to 
the  Directors  a  tract  of  land  suitable  for  a  site,  and  assira  them, 
by  contract,  a  spring  or  stream  of  water  for  the  use  of  the  Peni- 
tentiary. To  the  Directors  was  also  given  the  power  of  appoint- 
ing the  Warden;  the  latter  to  appoint  his  own  assistants. 

The  first  Directors  appointed  were  John  S.  David  and  John 
Claypole.  They  made  tneir  first  report  to  the  Legislative  Council 
November  9,  1839.  The  citizens  of  the  town  of  Fort  Madison 
had  executed  a  deed  conveying  ten  acres  of  land  for  the  building 
site.  Amos  Ladd  was  appointed  Superintendent  of  the  building 
June  5,  1839.  The  building  was  designed  of  sufiBcient  capacity  to 
contain  one  hundred  and  thirty-eight  convicts,  and  estimated  to 
cost  $55,933.90.  It  was  begun  on  the  9th  of  July,  1839;  the 
main  building  and  Warden's  house  were  completed  in  theFall  of 
1841.  Other  additions  were  made  from  time  to  time  till  the  build- 
ing and  arrangements  were  all  complete  according  to  the  plan  of 
the  Directors.     It  has  answered  the  purpose  or  the  State  as  a 


74  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

Penitentiary  for  more  than  thirty  years,  and  during  that  period 
many  items  of  practical  experience  in  prison  management  have 
been  gained. 

ADDITIONAL  PENITENTIARY. 
Located  at  Anamosa,  Jones  County. 

By  an  Act  of  the  Fourteenth  General  Assembly,  approved  April 

23,  1872,  William  Ure,  Foster  L.  Downing  and  Martin  Heisey 
were  constituted  Commissioners  to  locate  and  provide  for  the  erec- 
tion and  control  of  an  additional  Penitentiary  for  the  State  of 
Iowa.  These  Commissioners  met  on  the  4th  of  the  following 
June,  at  Anamosa,  Jones  County,  and  selected  a  site  donated  by 
the  citizens,  within  the  limits  of  the  city.  L.  W.  Foster  &  Co., 
architects,  of  Des  Moines,  furnished  the  plan,  drawings  and  speci- 
fications, and  work  was  commenced  on  the  building  on  the  28th 
day  of  September,  1872.  May  13,  1873,  twenty  convicts  were 
transferred  to  Anamosa  from  the  Fort  Madison  Penitentiarjr. 
The  entire  enclosure  includes  fifteen  acres,  with  a  frontage  of  663 
feet.- 

IOWA  HOSPITAL  FOR  THE  INSANE. 
Mount  Pleasant^  Henry  County, 

By  an  act  of  the  General  Assembly  of  Iowa,  approved  January 

24,  1855,  $4,425  were  appropriated  for  the  purchase  of  a  site,  and 
$50,000  for  building  an  Insane  Hospital,  and  the  Governor 
(Grimes),  Edward  Johnston,  of  Lee  County,  and  Charles  S.  Blake, 
of  Henry  County,  were  appointed  to  locate  the  institution  and 
Superintend  the  erection  of  the  building.  These  Commissioners 
located  the  institution  at  Mt.  Pleasant,  Henry  County.  A  plan 
for  a  building  designed  to  accommodate  300  patients  was  accepted, 
and  in  October  work  was  commenced.  Up  to  February  25,  1858, 
and  including  an  appropriation  made  on  that  date,  the  Legislature 
had  appropriated  $258,555.67  to  this  institution,  but  the  building 
was  not  finished  readv  for  occupancy  by  patients  until  March  1, 
1861.  April  18,  187o,  a  portion  of  the  hospital  building  was  de- 
stroyed by  fire. 

Trustees,  1881:— Timothy  Whiting,  Mt.  Pleasant;  J.  H.  Kulp, 
Davenport;  Denison  A.  Hurst,  Oskaloosa;  John  Conaway,  Brook- 
lyn; L.  E.  Fellows,  Lansing.  Mark  Ranney,  M.  D.,  Mt.  Pleasant, 
is  the  Medical  Superintendent;  C.  V.  Arnold,  Mt.  Pleasant,  Treas- 
urer. 

HOSPITAL  FOR  THE  INSANE 

Independence,  Buchanan  County. 

In  the  winter  of  1867-8  a  bill  providing  for  an  additional  Hos- 
pital for  the  insane  was  passed  by  the  Legislature,  and  an  appro- 
priation  of  ¥125,000  was  made  for  that  purpose.     Matunn  L. 


HISTORY  0?  IOWA.  75 

Fisher,  of  Clayton  County;  E,  6.  Morgan,  of  Webster  County,  and 
Albert  Clark,  of  Buchanan  County,  were  appointed  Commissioners 
to  locate  and  supervise  the  erection  of  the  Duilding. 

The  Commissioners  met  and  commenced  their  labors  on  the  8th 
day  of  June,  1868,  at  Independence.  The  act  under  which  they 
were  appointed  required  them  to  select  the  most  eligible  and  de- 
sirable location,  of  not  less  than  320  acres,  within  two  miles  of 
the  City  of  Independence,  that  might  be  offered  by  the  citizens 
free  of  charge  to  the  State.  Several  such  tracts  were  offered,  but 
the  Commissioners  finally  selected  the  south  half  of  southwest 
<]^uarter  of  Section  5;  the  north  half  of  northeast  quarter  of  Sec- 
tion 7;  the  north  half  of  northwest  quarter  of  Section  8,  and  the 
north  half  of  northeast  quarter  of  Section  8,  all  in  Township  88 
north,  Ran^  0  west  of  the  Fifth  Principal  Meridian.  This  loca- 
tion is  on  tne  west  side  of  the  Wapsipinicon  River,  and  about  a 
mile  from  its  banks,  and  about  the  same  distance  from  Indepen- 
dence. 

The  contract  for  erecting  the  building  was  awarded  for  $88,114. 
The  contract  was  signed  November  7,  1868,  and  work  was  at  once 
commenced.  The  main  buildings  were  constructed  of  dressed 
limestone,  from  the  quarries  at  Anamosa  and  Farley.  The  base- 
ments are  of  the  local  granite  worked  from  the  immense  boulders 
found  in  large  quantities  in  this  portion  of  the  State. 

In  1872,  the  building  was  so  far  completed  that  the  Commis- 
sioners called  the  first  meeting  of  the  Trustees,  on  the  10th  day  of 
July  of  that  year.  The  building  was  ready  for  occupancy  April 
21,  1873. 

In  1877,  the  south  wing  was  built,  but  was  not  completed  ready 
for  occupancy  until  the  Spring  or  Summer  of  1878. 

Trustees,  1881: — Erastus  G.  Morgan,  Fort  Dodge,  President; 
Jed.  Lake,  Independence;  Mrs.  Jennie  C.  McKinney,  Decorah; 
Lewis  H.  Smith,  Algona;  David  Hammer,  McGregor:  A.  Reynolds, 
M.  D.,  Independence,  Medical  Superintendent;  W .  G.  Donnan,  In- 
dependence, Treasurer. 

IOWA  COLLEGE  FOR  THE  BLIND. 
Vinton^  Benton  County, 

In  August,  1852,  Prof.  Samuel  Bacon,  himself  blind,  estab- 
lished an.Institution  for  the  Instruction  of  the  blind  of  Iowa,  at 
Keokuk. 

By  act  of  the  General  Assembly,  entitled,  "  An  act  to  establish 
an  Asylum  for  the  Blind,"  approved  January  18,  1853,  the  institu- 
tion was  adopted  by  the  State,  removed  to  Iowa  City,  February  3d, 
and  opened  for  the  reception  of  pupils  April  4,  1853,  free  to  all 
the  blind  in  the  State. 


76  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

The  Board  of  Trustees  appointed  Prof.  Samuel  Bacon,  Principal; 
T.  J.  McGittigen,  Teacher  of  Music,  and  Mrs.  Sarah  K.  Bacon, 
Matron.     Twenty-three  pupils  were  admitted  during  the  first  term. 

In  his  first  report,  made  in  1854,  Prof.  Bacon  suggested  that  the 
nnme  should  be  changed  from  ^^Asylum  for  the  Blind,^*  to  that 
of  "  Institution  for  the  Instruction  of  the  Blind."  This  was  done 
in  1855,  when  the  General  Assembly  made  an  annual  appropriation 
for  the  College  of  $55  per  quarter  for  each  pupil.  This  was  subse- 
quently changed  to  $3,000  per  annum,  and  a  charge  of  $25  as  an 
admission  fee  for  each  pu^il,  which  sum,  with  the  amounts  real- 
ized from  the  sale  of  articles  manufactured  by  the  blind  pupils, 
proyed  sufficient  for  the  expenses  of  the  institution  during  Mr. 
Bacon ^s  administration. 

On  the  8th  of  May,  1868,  the  Trustees  met  at  Vinton,  and  made 
arrangements  for  securing  the  donation  of  $5,000  made  by  the  cit- 
izens of  that  town. 

In  June  of  that  year  a  Quarter  section  of  land  was  donated  for 
the  College,  by  John  W.  6.  Webb  and  others,  and  the  Trustees 
adopted  a  plan  for  the  erection  of  a  suitable  building.  In  1860, 
the  plan  was  modified,  and  the  contract  for  enclosing  let  for 
$10,420. 

In  Au^st,  1862,  the  building  was  so  far  completed  that  the  goods 
and  furniture  of  the  institution  were  remoyed  from  Iowa  City  to 
Vinton,  and  early  in  October  the  School  was  opened  there  with 
twen ty-f our  pupils. 

Trustees,  1881: — Clinton  0.  Harrington,  Vinton;  S.  H.  Watson, 
Vinton,  Treasurer;  J .  F.  White,  Sidney;  M.  H.  Westerbrook,  Lyons; 
W.  H.  Leavitt,  Waterloo;  Jacob  Springer,  ^  atkins;  Rey.  Robert 
Carothers,  Principal  of  the  Institution,  and  Secretary  of  the  Board. 

INSTITUTION  FOR  THE  DEAF  AND  DUMB. 

Council  Bluffs,  Pottawattamie  County.  • 

The  Iowa  Institution  for  the  Deaf  and  Dumb  was  established 
at  Iowa  City  by  an  act  of  the  General  Assembly,  approyed  January 
24, 1855.  The  number  of  deaf  mutes  then  in  the  State  was  301; 
the  number  attending  the  Institution,  50. 

A  strong  effort  was  made,  in  1866,  to  remoye  this  important  in- 
stitution to  Des  Moines,  but  it  was  located  permanently  at  Council 
Bluffs,  and  a  building  rented  for  its  use.  In  1868,  Commissioners 
were  appointed  to  locate  a  site  for,  and  to  superintend  the  erection 
of  a  new  building,  for  which  the  Legislature  appropriated  $125,- 
000  to  commence  the  work  of  construction.  The  Commissioners 
selected  ninety  acres  of  land  about  two  miles  south  of  the  city  of 
Council  Bluffs.  The  main  building  and  one  wing  were  completed 
October  1,  1870,  and  immediately  occupied  by  the  Institution. 
February  25, 1877,  the  main  building  and  east  wing  were  des- 
troyed by  fire;  and  August  6th,  following,  the  roof  of  the  new 


mSTORY  OP  IOWA«  77 

west  wing  was  blown  o£F  and  the  walls  partially  demolished 
by  a  tornado.  At  the  time  of  the  lire,  about  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  pupils  were  in  attendance.  After  the  fire,  half  the 
classes  were  dismissed  and  the  number  of  scholars  reduced  to 
about  seventy,  and  in  a  week  or  two  the  school  was  in  running 
order. 

Trustees,  1881 : — B.  F.  Clayton,  Macedonia,  President;  J.  H. 
Stnbenrauch,  Pella,  Treasurer;  Louis  Weinstein,  Burlington.  Rev. 

A.  Rogers,  Superintendent. 

SOLDIERS'  ORPHANS'  HOMES, 
Davenport,  Cedar  Falls,  Glentwod. 

The  movement  which  culminated  in  the  establishment  of  this 
beneficient  institution  was  originated  by  Mrs.  Annie  Wittenmeyer, 
during  the  civil  war  of  1861-65.  This  noble  and  patriotic  lady 
called  a  convention  at  Muscatine,  on  the  7th  of  October,  1863, 
for  the  purpose  of  devising  measures  for  the  support  and  educa- 
tion of  the  orphan  children  of  the  brave  sons  of  Iowa,  who  had 
fallen  in  defense  of  national  honor  and  integrity.  So  great  was 
the  public  interest  in  the  movement  that  there  was  a  large  repre- 
sentation from  all  parts  of  the  State  on  the  day  named,  and  an 
association  was  organi^  called  the  Iowa  State  Orphan  Asylum. 

The  first  meeting  of  the  Trustees  was  held  February  14,  1864, 
in  the  Representative  Hall,  at  Des  Moines.  Committees  from 
both  branches  of  the  General  Assembly  were  present  and  were  in- 
vited to  participate  in  their  deliberations.  Arrangements  were 
made  for  raising  funds. 

At  the  next  meeting,  in  Davenport,  in  March,  1864,  the  Trus- 
tees decided  to  commence  operations  at  once,  and  a  committee  was 
appointed  to  lease  a  suitable  building,  solicit  donations,  and  pro- 
cure suitable  furniture.  This  committee  secured  a  large  brick 
building  in  Lawrence,  Van  Buren  County,  and  engaged  Mr. 
Fuller,  of  Mt.  Pleasant,  as  Steward. 

At  the  annual  meeting,  in  Des  Moines,  in  June,  1864,  Mrs.  C. 

B.  Baldwin,  Mrs.  6.  6.  Wright,  Mrs.  Dr.  Horton,  Miss  Mary  E. 
Shelton  and  Mr.  George  Sherman,  were  appointed  a  committee  to 
furnish  the  building  and  take  all  necessary  steps  for  opening  the 
"  Home,"  and  notice  was  given  that  at  the  next  meeting  of  the 
Association,  a  motion  would  be  made  to  change  the  name  of  the 
Institution  to  Iowa  Orphans^  Home. 

The  work  of  preparation  was  conducted  so  vigorously  that  on 
the  13th  day  of  July  following,  the  Executive  Committee  an- 
nounced that  they  were  ready  to  receive  the  children.  In  three 
weeks  twenty-one  were  admitted,  and  the  number  constantly  in- 
creased, so  that,  in  a  little  more  than  six  months  from   the  time 


78  HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 

of  opening,  there  were  seventy  children  admitted,  and  twenty 
more  applications,  which  the  Committee  had  not  acted  upon — all 
Orphans  of  Soldiers. 

The  '*  Home  "  was  sustained  by  the  voluntary  contributions  of 
the  people,  until  1866,  when  it  was  assumed  by  tne  State.  In  that 
year,  the  General  Assembly  provided  for  the  location  of  several 
such  ^^  Homes  ^Mn  the  different  counties,  and  trbich  were  estab- 
lished at  Davenport,  Scott  County;  Cedar  Falls,  Black  Hawk 
County,  and  at  Glenwood,  Mills  County. 

The  Board  of  Trustees,  elected  by  the  General  Assembly,  had 
the  oversight  and  management  of  the  Soldiers^  Orphans'  Homes 
of  the  State,  and  consisted  of  one  person  from  each  county  in 
which  such  Home  was  located,  and  one  for  the  State  at  large,  who 
held  their  offices  two  years,  or  until  their  successors  were  elected 
and  qualified.  An  appropriation  of  $10  per  month  for  each 
orphan  actually  supported  was  made  by  the  General  Assembly. 

The  Home  in  Cedar  Falls  was  organized  in  1865,  and  an  old 
hotel  building  was  fitted  up  for  it.  January,  1866,  there  were 
ninety-six  inmates. 

October  12,  1869,  the  Home  was  removed  to  a  large  brick  build- 
ing, about  two  miles  west  of  Cedar  Falls,  and  was  very  prosperous 
for  severalyears,  but  in  1876,  the  General  Assembly  established  a 
State  Normal  School  at  Cedar  Falls,  and  appropriated  the  build- 
ings and  grounds  for  that  purpose.  ^ 

By  "An  act  to  provide  for  the  organization  and  support  of  an 
asylum  at  Glenwood,  in  Mills  County,  for  feeble  minded  children,"^ 
approved  March  17,  1876,  the  buildings  and  grounds  used  by  the 
Soldiers'  Orphans'  Home  at  that  place  were  appropriated  for  thia 
purpose.  By  another  act,  approved  March  15,  1876,  the  soldiers* 
orphans,  then  at  the  Homes  at  Glenwood  and  Cedar  Falls,  were  to 
be  removed  to  the  Home  at  Davenport  within  ninety  days  there- 
after, and  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  the  Home  were  authorized  to 
receive  other  indigent  children  into  that  institution,  and  provide 
for  their  education  in  industrial  pursuits. 

Trustees  1881.— C,  M.  Holton,  Iowa  City;  Seth  P.  Bryant,  Da- 
venport; C.  C.  Horton,  Muscatine.  S.  W.  Pierce,  Davenport,  Su- 
penntendent. 

STATE   NORMAL  SCHOOL. 

Cedar  Falls^  Black  Hawk  County. 

Chapter  129  of  the  laws  of  the  Sixteenth  General  Assembly,  in 
1876,  established  a  State  Normal  School  at  Cedar  Falls,  Black 
Hawk  County,  and  required  the  Trustees  of  the  Soldiers'  Orphans' 
Home  to  turn  over  the  property  in  their  charge  to  the  Directors 
of  the  new  institution. 

The  Board  of  Directors  met  at  Cedar  Falls  June  7,  1876,  and 
duly  organized.    The  Board  of  Trustees  of  the  Soldiers'  Orphans.' 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  79 

Home  met  at  the  same  time  for  the  purpose  of  turning  over  to  the 
Directors  the  property  of  thpt  institution,  which  was  satisfactorily 
done  and  properly  receipted  for  as  required  by  law. 

On  the  12tn  of  July,  1876,  the  Bos^  again  met,  when  executive 
and  teachers^  committees  were  appointed  and  their  duties  assigned. 
A  Steward  and  a  Matron  were  elected,  and  their  respective  duties 
defined. 

The  building  and  grounds  were  repaired  and  fitted  up  as  well  as 
the  appropriation  would  admit,  and  the  first  term  of  school  opened 
September  6, 1876,  commencing  with  twenty-seven  and  closing 
with  eighty-fieven  students. 

Directors,  1881:— C.  C.  Cory,  Pella;  E.  H.  Thayer,  Clinton;  G. 
S.  Robinson,  Storm  Lake;  N.  W.  Boyes,  Dubuque;  L.  D.  Lewel- 
Un^,  Mitchell ville;  J.  J.  Tollerton,  Cedar  Falls;  E.  Townsend, 
Cedar  Falls,  Treasurer. 


ASYLUM  FOR  FEEBLE  MINDED  CHILDREN. 

Glenwood,  Mills  County. 

Chapter  152  of  the  laws  of  thn  Sixteenth  General  Assembly,  ap- 

f proved  March  17,  1876,  provided  for  the  establishment  of  an  asy- 
um  for  feeble  minded  children  at  Glenwood,  Mills  County,  and  the 
buildings  and  the  grounds  of  the  Soldiers^  Orphans^  Home  at  that 
place  were  to  be  used  for  that  purpose.  The  asylum  was  placed 
under  the  management  of  three  Trustees,  one  at  least  of  whom 
should  be  a  resident  of  Mills  County.  Children  between  the  ages 
of  7  and  18  years  are  admitted.  Ten  dollars  per  month  for  each 
child  actually  supported  by  the  State  was  appropriated  by  the  act, 
and  $2,000  for  salaries  of  officers  and  teachers  for  two  years. 

Hon.  J.  W.  Cattell,  of  Polk  County;  A.  J.  Russell,  of  Mills 
County,  and  W.  S.  Robertson,  were  appointed  Trustees,  who  held 
their  first  meeting  at  Glenwood,  April  26,  1876.  The  Trustees 
found  the  house  and  farm  which  had  been  turned  over  to  them  in 
a  shamefully  dilapidated  condition.  The  fences  were  broken  down 
and  the  lumber  aestroyed  or  carried  away;  the  windows  broken, 
doors  oflF  their  hinges,  fioors  broken  and  filthy  in  the  extreme,  cel- 
lars reeking  with  offensive  odors  from  decayed  vegetables,  ajd 
every  conceivable  variety  of  filth  and  garbage;  drains  obstructed, 
cisterns  broken,  pump  demoralized,  wind-mill  broken,  roof  leaky, 
and  the  whole  property  in  the  worst  possible  condition.  It  was 
the  first  work  of  the  Trustees  to  make  the  house  tenable. 

The  Institution  was  opened  September  1,  1876;  the  first  pupil 

admitted  September  4,  and  the  school  was  organized  September  10. 

Trustees,  1881:— Fred.  O'Donnell,  Dubuque;   S.  B.  Thrall,  Ot- 

tnmwa;  E.  R.  S.  Woodrow,  Glenwood;    0.  VV.  Archibald,  M.  D., 

Medical  Superintendent. 


80  HI8T0BY  OF  IOWA. 

THE  REFORM  SCHOOL. 

Eldora^  Hardin  County, 

By  ^'An  act  to  establish  and  organize  a  State  Reform  School  for 
Juvenile  OflFenders,"  approved  March  31, 1868,  the  General  Assem- 
bly established  a  State  Reform  School  at  Salem,  Lee  (Henry) 
County;  provided  for  a  Board  of  Trustees,  to  consist  of  one  person 
from  each  Congressional  District.  For  the  purpose  of  immediately 
openinc:  the  school,  the  Trustees  were  directed  to  accept  the  prop- 
osition of  the  Trustees  of  Whitens  Iowa  Manual  Labor  institute,  at 
Salem,  and  lease,  for  not  more  than  ten  years,  the  lands,  buildings, 
etc.,  of  the  Institute,  and  at  once  proceed  to  prepare  for  and  open 
a  reform  school  as  a  temporary  establishment. 

The  contract  for  fitting  up  the  building  was  let  Se{)tember  21, 
1868,  and  on  the  7th  of  October  following,  the  first  inmate  was 
received  from  Jasper  County.  The  law  provided  for  the  admission 
of  children  of  both  sexes  under  18  years  of  age.  In  1876,  this  was 
amended,  sd  that  they  are  now  received  at  ages  over  7  and  under 
16  years. 

April  19,  1872,  the  Trustees  were  directed  to  make  a  permanent 
location  for  the  school,  and  $45,000  was  appropriated  for  the  erec- 
tion of  the  necessary  buildings.  The  Trustees  were  further  di- 
rected, as  soon  as  practicable,  to  organize  a  school  for  girls  in  the 
buildings  where  the  boys  were  then  Kept. 

The  Trustees  located  the  school  at  Eldora,  Hardin  County,  and 
in  the  code  of  1873,  it  is  permanently  located  there  by  law. 

The  institution  is  managed  by  five  Trustees,  who  are  paid  mile- 
age, but  no  compensation  for  their  services. 

The  object  is  the  reformation  of  children  of  both  sexes,  under 
the  age  of  16  and  over  7  years  of  age;  and  the  law  requires  that 
the  Trustees  shall  require  the  boys  and  ^rls  under  their  charge  to 
be  instructed  in  piety  and  morality,  and  m  such  branches  of  useful 
knowledge  as  are  adapted  to  their  age  and  capacity,  and  in  some 
regular  course  of  labor,  either  mechanical,  manufacturing  or  agri- 
cultural, as  is  best  suited  to  their  age,  strength,  disposition  and 
capacity,  and  as  may  seem  best  adapted  to  secure  the  reformation 
and  future  benefit  of  the  boys  and  girls. 

A  bo^  or  girl  committed  to  the  State  Reform  School  is  there 
kept,  disciplined,  instructed,  employed  and  governed,  under  the  di- 
rection of  the  Trustees,  until  he  or  she  arrives  at  the  i^e  of  major- 
ity, or  is  bound  out,  reformed  or  legally  discharged.  The  binding 
out  or  discharge  of  a  boy  or  girl  as  reformed,  or  having  arrived  at  the 
age  of  majority,  is  a  complete  release  from  all  penalties  incurred  by 
conviction  of  the  crime  for  which  he  or  she  is  committed. 

Trustees^  1881: — J.  A.  Parvin,  Muscatine,  President;  W.  J. 
Moir,  Eldorado,  Treasurer;  W.  G.  Stewart,  Dubuque;  J.  T,  Moor- 


HISTOBT  OP  IOWA.  81 

head,  Ely;  T.  E.  CorkhUl,  Mount  Pleasant;  B.  j;  Miles,  Eldora, 
Superintendent.  L.  D.  Lewelling  is  Superintendent  of  the  Qiri^s 
Department,  at  Mitchellville,  Polk  County. 

FISH  HATCHING  ESTABLISHMENT. 

Near  Anamosa,  Jones  County. 

The  Fifteenth  General  Assembly,  in  1874,  passed  "  An  act  to 
provide  for  the  appointment  of  a  Board  of  Fish  Commissioners  for 
the  construction  of  Fishways  for  the  protection  and  propagation 
of  Fish,"  also,  "  an  act  to  provide  for  furnishing  the  rivers  and 
lakes  with  fish  and  fish  spawn."  .This  act  appropriated  $3,000  for 
the  purpose.  In  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  the  first  act 
above  mentioned,  on  the  9kh  of  April,  1874,  S.  B.  Evans  of  Ot- 
tumwa,  Wapello  County;  B.  F.  Shaw  of  Jones  County,  and  Charles 
A.  Haines,  of  Black  Hawk  County,  were  appointed  to  be  Fish  Com- 
missioners by  the  Governor.  These  Commissioners  met  at  Des 
Moines,  May  10,  1874,  and  organized  by  the  election  of  Mr.  Evans, 
President;  Mr.  Shaw,  Secretary  and  Superintendent,  and  Mr. 
Haines,  Treasurer. 

The  State  was  partitioned  into  three  districts  or  divisions  to  en- 
able the  Commissioners  to  better  superintend  the  construction  of 
fishways  as  required  by  law.  At  this  meeting,  the  Superintend- 
ent was  authorized  to  build  a  State  Hatching  House;  to  procure  the 
spawn  of  valuable  fish  adapted  to  the  waters  of  Iowa;  hatch  and 
prepare  the  young  fish  for  distribution,  and  assist  in  putting  them 
into  the  waters  of  the  State. 

In  compliance  with  these  instructions,  Mr.  Shaw  at  once  com- 
menced work,  and  in  the  summer  of  1874,  erected  a"  State  Hatch- 
ing House  "  near  Anamosa,  20x40  feet,  two  stories;  the  second  story 
being  designed  for  a  tenement;  the  first  story  being  the  "hatching 
room."  The  hatching  troughs  are  supplied  with  water  from  a 
magnificent  spring,  four  feet  deep  and  about  ten  feet  in  diameter, 
affording  an  aoundant  and  unfailing  supply  of  pure  running  water. 
Daring  the  first  year,  from  May  10, 1874,  to  May  10, 1875,  the  Com- 
missioners distributed  within  the  State  1(X),000  Shad,  300,000 
California  Salmon,  10,000  Bass,  80,000  Penobscot  (Maine)  Salmon, 
6,000  land-locked  Salmon,  20,000  of  other  species. 

By  act  approved  March  10,  1876,  the  law  was  amended  so  that 
there  should  be  one  instead  of  three  Fish  Commissioners,  and  B.  F. 
Shaw  was  appointed,  and  the  Commissioner  was  authorized  to  pur- 
chase twenty  acres  of  land,  on  which  the  State  Hatching  House 
was  located  near  Anamosa. 

In  the  fall  of  1876,  Commissioner  Shaw  gathered  from  the 
sloughs  of  the  Mississippi,  where  they  would  have  been  destroyed, 
over  a  million  and  a  halt  of  small  fish,  which  were  distributed  in 
the  various  rivers  of  the  State  and  turned  into  the  Mississippi. 


82  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

In  1875-6, 533,000  California  Salmon,  and  in  1877,  303,500  Lake 
Trout  were  distributed  in  various  rivers  and  lakes  in  the  State. 
The  experiment  of  stocking  the  small  streams  with  brook  trout  is 
being  tried,  and  81,000  of  the  speckled  beauties  were  distributed 
in  1877.  In  1876,  100,000  young  eels  were  distributed.  These 
came  from  New  York,  and  they  are  increasing  rapidly. 

A.  A.  Hosier,  of  Spirit  Lake,  was  appointed  Assistant  Fish  Com- 
missioner, by  the  Governor,  under  Chapter  156,  Laws  of  1880. 

THE  PUBLIC  LANDS. 

The  grants  of  public  lands  made  in  the  State  of  Iowa,  for  vari- 
ous purposes^  areas  follows: 

1 .  The  500,000  Acre  Grant. 

2.  The  16th  Section  Grant. 

3.  The  Mortga^  School  Lands. 
.  •   -        4.  The  University  Grant 

5.  The  Saline  Grant. 

6.  The  Des  Moines  River  Grant. 

7.  The  Des  Moines  River  School  J^ands. 

8.  The  Swamp  Land  Grant. 

9.  The  Railroad  Grant. 

10.    The  Agricultural  College  Grant. 

I.      THE  FIVE  HUNDRED  THOUSAND  ACRE  GRANT. 

When  the  State  was  admitted  into  the  Union,  she  became  en- 
titled to  500,000  acres  of  land  by  virtue  of  an  act  of  Congress,  'ap- 
proved  September  4,  1841,  which  granted  to  each  State  therein 
specified  500,000  acres  of  public  laud  for  internal  improvements; 
to  each  State  admitted  subsequently  to  the  passage  of  the  act,  an 
amount  of  land  which,  with  the  amount  that  might  have  been 
granted  to  her  as  a  Territory,  would  amount  to  500,000  acres.  All 
these  lands  were  required  to  be  selected  within  the  limits  of  the 
Skate  to  which  they  were  granted. 

The  Constitution  of  Iowa  declares  that  the  proceeds  of  this  grant, 
together  with  all  lands  then  granted  or  to  be  granted  by  Congress 
for  the  benefit  of  schools,  shall  constitute  a  perpetual  fund  for  the 
support  of  schools  throughout  the  State.  By  an  act  approved  Jan- 
uary 15,  1849,  the  Legislature  established  a  Board  of  School  Fund 
Commissioners,  and  to  that  Board  was  confided  the  selection,  care 
and  sale  of  these  lands  for  the  benefit  of  the  School  Fund.  Until 
1855,  these  Commissioners  were  subordinate  to  the  Superintendent 
of  Public  Instruction,  but  on  the  15th  of  January  of  that  year, 
they  were  clothed  with  exclusive  authority  in  the  management  and 
sale  of  school  lands.  The  office  of  School  Fund  Commissioner  was 
abolished  March  23,  1858,  and  that  officer  in  each  county  was  re- 

?uired  to  transfer  all  papers  to  and  make  full  settlement  with  the 
ounty  Judge.     By  this  act.  County  Judges  and  Township  Trus- 
tees were  made  the  agents  of  the  State  to  control  and  sell  the  six* 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA«  83 

ieenth  sections;  bat  no  further  provision  was  made  for  the  sale  of 
the  500,000  acre  grant  until  April  3d,  1860,  when  the  entire  managi&- 
ment  of  the  school  lands  was  committed  to  the  Boards  of  Super- 
yisors  of  the  several  counties. 

U.      THB  SIXTEKNTH  SECTIONS. 

By  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  Congress  admitting  Iowa  to  the 
Union,  there  was  granted  to  the  new  State  the  sixteenth  section 
in  everv  township,  or  where  that  section  had  been  sold,  other 
lands  of  like  amount  for  the  use  of  schools.  The  Constitution  of 
the  State  provides  that  the  proceeds  arising  from  the  sale  of  these 
sections  shall  constitute  a  part  of  the  permanent  school  fund.  The 
control  and  sale  of  these  lands  were  vested  in  the  School  Fund 
Commissioners  of  the  several  counties  until  March  23,  1858,  when 
they  were  transferred  to  the  County  Judges  and  Township  Trus- 
tees, and  were  finally  placed  under  the  supervision  of  the  County 
Boards  of  Supervisors  m  January,  1861. 

in.      THB  XOBTGAGB  SCHOOL  LANDS. 

These  do  not  belong  to  any  of  the  grants  of  land  proper.  They 
are  lands  that  have  been  mortgaged  to  the  school  fund,  and  became 
school  lands  when  bid  off  by  tne  State  by  virtue  of  a  law  passed  in 
1862.  Under  the  provisions  of  the  law  regulating  the  manage- 
ment and  mvestmeufc  of  the  permanent  school  fund,  persons  de- 
siring loans  from  that  fund  are  required  to  secure  the  payment 
thereof  with  interest  at  ten  per  cent,  per  annum,  by  promissory 
notes  endorsed  by  two  good  sureties  and  by  mortgage  on  unincum- 
bered real  estate,  which  must  be  situated  in  the  county  where  the 
loan  is  made,  and  which  must  be  valued  by  three  appraisers.  Mak- 
ing these  loans  and  taking  the  required  securities  was  made  the 
duty  of  the  County  Auditor,  who  was  required  to  repork  to  the 
Board  of  Supervisors  at  each  meeting  thereof,  all  notes,  mortgages 
and  abstracts  of  title  connected  with  the  school  fund,  for  examina- 
tion. 

When  default  was  made  of  payment  of  money  so  secured  by 
mortgage,  and  no  arrangement  made  for  extension  of  time  as  the 
law  provides,  the  Board  of  Supervisors  were  authorized  to  bring 
suit  and  prosecute  it  with  diligence  to  secure  said  fund;  and  in  ac- 
tion in  favor  of  the  county  for  the  use  of  the  school  fund,  an  in- 
junction may  issue  without  bonds,  and  in  any  such  action,  when 
service  is  made  by  publication,  default  and  judgment  may  be  en- 
tered and  enforced  without  bonds.  In  case  of  sale  of  land  on  exe- 
cution founded  on  any  such  mortgage,  the  attorney  of  the  board, 
or  other  person  duly  authorized,  shall,  on  behalf  of  the  State  or 
county  for  the  use  of  said  fund,  bid  such  sum  as  the  interests  of 
said  fund  may  require,  pnd  if  struck  off  to  the  State  the  land  shall 
be  held  and  disposed  of  as  the  other  lands  belonging  to  the  fund. 


84  HI8T0BT  OF  IOWA. 

These  lands  are  known  as  the  Mortgage  School  Lands,  and  reports 
of  them,  including  description  and  amount,  are  required  to  be 
made  to  the  State  Land  Office. 

ir.      UNIVEHSITY  LANDS. 

J3y  act  of  Congress,  July  20,  1840,  a  quantity  of  land,  not  ex- 
ceeding two  entire  townships,  was  reserved  in  the  Territory  of 
Iowa  for  the  use  and  support  of  a  university  within  said  Territory 
when  it  should  become  a  State.  This  land  was  to  be  located  in 
tracts  of  not  less  than  an  entire  section,  and  could  be  used  for  no 
other  purpose  than  that  designated  in  the  grant.  In  an  act  sup- 
plemental to  that  for  the  admission  of  Iowa,  March  3,  1845,  the 
grant  was  renewed,  and  it  was  provided  that  the  lands  should  be 
used  ^^solely  for  the  purpose  of  such  university,  in  such  manner  as 
the  Legislature  may  prescribe." 

Under  this  grant  there  were  set  apart  and  approved  by  the  Sec- 
retary of  the  Treasury,  for  the  use  of  the  State,  the  following 
lands. 

ACRES 

In  the  Iowa  City  Land  District,  Feb.  29,  1849 20,150.49 

In  the  Fairfield  Land  District,  Oct.  17,  1849 9.685.20 

In  the  Iowa  City  Land  District,  Jan.  28.  1850 2,571 .81 

In  the  Fairfield  Land  District,  Sept.  10,  1850 3,198.20 

In  the  Dubuque  Land  District.  May  19,  1852 10,552.24 

Total 45,957.94 

These  lands  were  certified  to  the  State  November  19, 1859.  The 
University  lands  are  placed  by  law  under  the  control  and  manage- 
ment of  tne  Board  of  Trustees  of  the  Iowa  State  University.  Prior 
to  1865,  there  had  been  selected  and  located  under  282  patents, 
22,892  acres  in  sixteen  counties,  and  23,036  acres  unpatented, 
making  a  total  of  45,928  acres. 

V.      SALINE  LANDS. 

By  act  of  Congress,  approved  March  3,  1845,  the  State  of  Iowa 
was  granted  the  use  of  the  salt  springs  within  her  limits,  not  ex- 
ceeding twelve.  By  a  subsequent  act,  approved  May  27,  1852, 
Congress  granted  the  springs  to  the  State  in  fee  simple,  together 
with  six  sections  of  land  contiguous  to  each,  to  be  disposed  of  as 
the  Legislature  might  direct.  In  1861,  the  proceeds  of  these  lands 
then  to  be  sold  were  constitutued  a  fund  for  founding  and  sup- 
porting a  lunatic  asylum,  but  no  sales  were  made.  In  1856,  the 
proceeds  of  the  saline  lands  were  appropriated  to  the  Insane 
Asylum,  repealed  in  1858.  In  1860,  tne  saline  lands  and  funds 
were  made  a  part  of  the  permanent  fund  of  the  State  University. 
These  lands  were  located  in  Appanoose,  Davis,  Decatur,  Lucas, 
Monroe,  Van  Buren  and  Wayne  Counties. 


HI8T0BT  OF  IOWA.  85 

VI.      THE  DE8  KOIKES  BIVER  GRAlirr. 

Bj  act  of  Congress,  approved  Augast  8,  1846,  a  grant  of  land 
was  made  for  the  improvement  of  the  navigation  of  Des  Moines 
River,  as  follows: 

Be  it  enacted  by  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatires  of  the  United 
SttUee  of  America  in  Congress  assembled^  That  there  be,  and  hereby  is,  grant- 
ed to  said  Territory  of  Iowa,  for  the  purpose  of  aiding  said  Territory  to  improve 
the  navigation  of  tne  Des  Moines  River  from  its  moutn  to  the  Raccoon  Fors  (so 
called)  in  said  Territory,  one  equal  moietj,  in  alternate  sections,  of  the  publio 
lands  (remaining  unsold  and  not  otherwise  disposed  of,  incumbered  or  appro- 
priated), in  a  strip  five  miles  in  width  on  each  side  of  said  river,  to  be  selected 
within  said  Territory  by  an  agent  or  agents  to  be  appointed  by  the  Governor 
thereof,  subject  to  the  approvu  of  the  Secretaiy  of  tne  Treasury  of  the  United 
States. 

Sec.  2.  And  be  it  further  enacted  ^  That  the  lands  hereby  granted  shall  not 
be  conveyed  or  disposed  of  by  said  Territory,  nor  by  any  State  to  be  formed  out 
of  tlie  same,  except  as  said  improvement  shall  progress;  that  is,  the  said  Terri- 
tory or  State  may  sell  so  much  of  said  lands  as  shall  produce  the  sum  of  thirty 
thousand  dollars,  and  then  the  sales  shall  cease  until  the  Governor  of  said  Ter- 
ritoiT  or  State  shall  certify  the  fact  to  the  President  of  the  United  States  that 
one-naif  of  said  sum  has  been  expended  upon  said  improvements,  when  the 
said  Territory  or  State  may  sell  and  convey  a  quantity  of  the  residue  of  said 
lands  sufficient  to  replace  the  amount  expended,  and  thus  the  sales  shall  pro- 
gress as  the  proceeds  thereof  shall  be  expended,  and  the  fact  of  such  expendi- 
ture shall  be  certified  as  aforesaid. 

Sec.  3.  And  be  it  further  enacted^  That  the  said  River  Des  Moines  shall 
be  and  forever  remain  a  public  highway  for  the  use  of  the  Government  of 
the  United  States,  free  from  any  tollor  other  charge  whatever,  for  any  proper- 
ty of  the  United  States  or  persons  in  their  service  passing  through  or  alon^ 
the  same;  Provided  always.  That  it  shall  not  be  competent  for  the  said  Terri- 
tory or  future  State  of  Iowa  to  dispose  of  said  lands,  or  any  of  them,  at  a  price 
lower  than,  for  the  time  being,  shall  be  the  minimum  price  of  other  public 
lands. 

Skc.  4.  And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  whenever  the  Territory  of  Iowa 
shaU  be  admitted  into  the  Union  as  a  State,  the  lands  hereby  ^rranted  for  the 
above  purpose  shall  be  and  become  the  property  of  said  State  for  the  purpose 
contempla^  in  this  act,  and  for  no  otner:  Provided,  the  Legislature  of  the 
State  of  Iowa  shall  accept  the  said  grant  for  the  said  purpose/*  Approved 
August  8,  1846. 

By  joint  resolution  of  the  General  Assembly  of  Iowa,  approved 
January  9, 1847,  the  grant  was  accepted  for  the  purpose  specified. 
By  another  act,  approved  February  24,  1847,  entitled  "  An  act 
creating  the  Board  of  Public  Works,  and  providing  for  the  im- 
provement of  the  Des  Moines  River,"  the  legislature  provided  for 
a  Board  consisting  of  a  President,  Secretary  and  Treasurer,  to  be 
elected  by  the  people.  This  Board  was  elected  August  2,  1847, 
and  was  organized  on  the  22d  of  September  following.  The  same 
act  defined  the  nature  of  the  improvement  to  be  made,  and  pro- 
vided that  the  work  should  be  paid  for  from  the  funds  to  be  derived 
from  the  sale  of  lands  to  be  sold  by  the  Board. 

Agents  appointed  by  the  Governor  selected  the  sections  desig- 
nated by  "odd  numbers''  throughout  the  whole  extent  of  the 
mmt,  and  this  selection  was  approved  by  the  Secretary  of  the 
Treasury.    But  there  was  a  conflict  of  opinion  as  to  the  extent  of 


86  HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 

the  grant.  It  was  held  by  some  that  it  extended  from  the  month 
of  the  Des  Moines  River  only  to  the  Raccoon  Porks;  others  held, 
as  the  agents  to  make  selection  evidently  did,  that  it  extended 
from  the  mouth  to  the  headwaters  of  the  river.  Richard  M. 
Young,  Commissioner  of  the  General  Land  Office,  on  the  23d  of 
February,  1848,  construed  the  grant  to  mean  that  ^^the  State  is 
entitled  to  the  alternate  sections  within  five  miles  of  the  Des 
Moines  River,  throughout  the  whole  extent  of  that  river  within 
the  limits  of  Iowa."  Under  this  construction,  the  alternate  sec- 
tions above  the  Raccoon  Forks  would,  of  course,  belong  to  the 
State;  but  on  the  19th  of  June,  1848,  some  of  these  lands  were, 
by  proclamation,  thrown  into  market.  On  the  18th  of  September, 
the  Board  of  Public  Works  filed  a  remonstrance  with  the  Com- 
missioner of  the  General  Land  Office.  The  Board  also  sent  in  a 
protest  to  the  State  Land  Office,  at  which  the  sale  was  ordered  to 
take  place.  On  the  8th  of  January,  1849,  the  Senators  and  Repre- 
sentatives in  Congress  from  Iowa  also  protested  against  the  sale, 
in  a  communication  to  Hon.  Robert  J.  Walker,  Secretary  of  the 
Treasury,  to  which  the  Secretary  replied,  concurring  in  the  opin- 
ion that  the  grant  extended  the  whole  length  of  the  Des  Moines 
River  in  Iowa. 

On  the  1st  of  June,  1849,  the  Commissioner  of  the  General 
Land  Office  directed  the  Register  and  Receiver  of  the  Land  Office 
at  Iowa  City  ^^  to  withhold  from  sale  all  lands  situated  in  the  odd 
numbered  sections  within  five  miles  on  each  side  of  the  Des 
Moines  River,  above  the  Raccoon  Forks."  March  13,  1860,  the 
Commissioner  of  the  General  Land  Office  submitted  to  the  Secre- 
tary of  the  Interior  a  list  ' 'showing  the  tracts  falling  within  the 
limits  of  the  Des  Moines  River  grant,  above  the  Raccoon  Forks, 
etc.,  under  the  decision  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  of  March 
2,  1849,''  and  on  the  6th  of  April  following,  Mr.  Ewing,  then 
Secretary  of  the  Interior,  reversed  the  decision  of  Secretary 
Walker,  but  ordered  the  lands  to  be  withheld  from  sale  until  Con- 

Kess  could  have  an  opportunity  to  pass  an  explanatory  act.  The 
wa  authorities  appealed  from  this  decision  to  the  President 
(Taylor),  who  referred  the  matter  to  the  Attorney  General  {Mx. 
Johnson).  On  the  19th  of  July,  Mr.  Johnson  submitted  as  his 
opinion,  that  by  the  terms  of  the  grant  itself,  it  extended  to  the 
very  source  of  the  Des  Moines,  but  before  his  opinion  was  pub- 
lished President  Taylor  died.  When  Mr.  Tyler's  cabinet  was 
formed,  the  question  was  submitted  to  the  new  Attorney  General 
(Mr.  Crittenden),  who,  on  the  30th  of  June,  1851,  reported  that  in 
his  opinion  the  grant  did  not  extend  above  the  Raccoon  Forks.  Mr. 
Stewart,  Secretary  of  the  Interior,  concurred  with  Mr.  Crittenden 
at  first,  but  subsequently  consejited  to  lay  the  whole  subject  be- 
fore the  President  and  Cabinet,  who  decided  in  favor  of  the  State. 
October  29,  1851,  Mr.  Stewart  directed  the  Commissioner  of  the 
General  Land  Office  to  ^^submit  for  his  approval  such  lists  as  had 


HISTORY   OF   IOWA.  87 

been  prepared,  and  to  proceed  to  report  for  like  approval  lists  of 
the  alternate  sections  claimed  by  the  State  of  Iowa  above  the 
Raccoon  Forks,  as  far  as  the  surveys  have  progressed,  or  may  here- 
after be  completed  and  returned.'  And  on  the  following  day, 
three  lists  of  these  lands  were  prepared  in  the  General  Land  Office. 

The  lands  approved  and  certified  to  the  State  of  Iowa  under  this 
grant,  and  all  lying  above  the  Raccoon  Forks,  are  as  follows: 

By  Secretary  Stewart,  Oct.  30,  1851 81,707.93  acres. 

March  10,  1852 143,908.37 

By  Secretary  McLellan,  Dec.  17,  1853 33,142.4:^ 

Dec.  30,  1853 12,813.51 


4» 
4» 
H 


Total 271,572.24  acres. 

The  Commissioners  and  Register  of  the  Des  Moines  River  Im- 
provement, in  their  report  to  the  Governor,  November  30,  1852, 
estimate  the  total  amount  of  lands  then  available  for  the  work, 
including  those  in  possession  of  the  State  and  those  to  be  surveyed 
and  approved,  at  nearly  a  million  acres.  The  indebtedness  then 
standing  against  the  fund  was  about  $108,000,  and  the  Commis- 
sioners estimated  the  work  to  be  done  would  cost  about  $1,200,000, 

January  19,  1853,  the  Legislature  authorized  the  Commissioners 
to  sell  "any  or  all  the  lands  which  have  or  may  hereafter  be 
granted,  for  not  less  than  $1,300,000." 

On  the  24th  of  January,  1853,  the  General  Assembly  provided 
for  the  election  of  a  Commissioner  by  the  people,  and  appointed 
two  Assistant  Commissioners,  with  authority  to  make  a  contract, 
selling  the  lands  of  the  Improvement  for  $1,300,000.  This  new 
Board  made  a  contract,  June  9,  1855,  with  the  Des  Moines  Navi- 
gation &  Railroad  Company,  agreeing  to  sell  all  the  lands  donated 
to  the  State  by  Act  of  Congress  of  August  8,  1846,  which  the 
State  had  not  sold  prior  to  December  23,  1853,  for  $1,300,000,  to 
be  expended  on  the  improvement  of  the  river,  and  in  paying  the 
indebtedness  then  due.  This  contract  was  duly  reported  to  the 
Governor  and  General  Assembly. 

By  an  act  approved  January  25,  1855,  the  Commissioner  and 
Register  of  the  Des  Moines  River  Improvement  were  authorized 
to  negotiate  with  the  Des  Moines  Navigation  &  Railroad  Company 
for  the  purchase  of  lands  in  Webster  County,  which  had  been  sold 
by  the  School  Fund  Commissioner  as  school  lands,  but  which  had 
been  certified  to  the  State  as  Des  Moines  River  lands,  and  had, 
therefore,  become  the  property  of  the  Company,  under  the  provis- 
ions of  its  contract  with  tne  State. 

March  21,  1856,  the  old  question  of  the  extent  of  the  grant  was 
again  raised,  and  the  Commissioner  of  the  General  Land  Office 
decided  that  it  was  limited  to  the  Raccoon  Fork.  Appeal  was  made 
to  the  Secretary  of  the  Interior,  and  by  him  the  matter  was  re- 
ferred to  the  Attorney  General,  who  decided  that  the  grant  ex- 


88  HT8T0KY  OF  IOWA. 

tended  to  the  northern  boundary  of  the  State;  the  State  relin- 
quished its  claim  to  the  lands  lying  along  the  river  in  Minnesota, 
and  the  vexed  (][uestion  v^as  supposed  to  be  finally  settled. 

The  land  v^hich  had  been  certified,  as  v^ell  as  those  extending  to 
the  northern  boundary  within  the  limits  of  the  grant,  were  reserved 
from  pre-emption  and  sale  by  the  General  Land  Commissioner,  to 
satisfy  the  grant  of  August  8,  1846,  and  they  were  treated  as  hav- 
ing passed  to  the  State,  which  from  time  to  time  sold  portions  of 
them  prior  to  their  final  transfer  to  the  Des  Moines  Navigation  & 
Railroad  Company,  applying  the  proceeds  thereof  to  the  improve- 
ment of  the  river  in  compliance  with  the  terms  of  the  grant. 
Prior  to  the  final  sale  to  the  Company,  June  9, 1854,  the  State  had 
sold  about  827,000  acres,  of  which  amount  68,830  acres  were  lo- 
cated above  the  Raccoon  Fork.  The  last  certificate  of  the  General 
Land  Office  bears  date  December  30,  1853. 

After  June  9th,  1854,  the  Des  Moines  Navigation  &  Railroad 
Company  carried  on  the  work  under  its  contract  with  the  State. 
As  the  improvement  progressed,  the  State,  from  time  to  time,  by 
its  authorized  officers,  issued  to  the  Company,  in  payment  for  said 
work,  certificates  for  lands.  But  the  General  Land  Office  ceased 
to  certify  lands  under  the  grant  of  1846.  The  State  had  made  no 
other  provision  for  paying  for  the  improvements,  and  disagree- 
ments and  misunderstanding  arose  between  the  State  authorities 
and  the  Company. 

March  22,  1858,  a  joint  resolution  was  passed  by  the  Legislature 
submitting  a  proposition  for  final  settlement  to  the  Company, 
which  was  accepted.  The  Company  paid  to  the  State  $20,000  in 
cash,  and  released  and  conveyed  the  dredge  boat  and  materials 
named  in  the  resolution;  and  the  State,  on  the  3d  day  of  May, 
1858,  executed  to  the  Des  Moines  Navigation  &  Railroad  Company 
fourteen  deeds  or  patents  to  the  lands,  amounting  to  256,703.64 
acres.  These  deeds  were  intended  to  convey  all  the  lands  of  this 
grant  certified  to  the  State  by  the  General  Government  not  pre- 
viously sold;  but,  as  if  for  the  purpose  of  covering  any  tract  or 
parcel  that  might  have  been  omitted,  the  State  made  another  deed 
of  conveyance  on  the  18th  day  of  May,  1858.  These  fifteen  deeds, 
it  is  claimed,  by  the  Company,  convey  266,108  acres,  of  which 
about  53,367  are  below  the  Raccoon  Fork,  and  the  balance,  212,741 
acres,  are  above  that  point. 

Besides  the  lands  deeded  to  the  Company,  the  State  had  deeded 
to  individual  purchasers  58,830  acres  above  the  Raccoon  Fork, 
making  an  aggregate  of  271,571  acres,  deeded  above  the  Fork,  all 
of  which  had  been  certified  to  the  State  by  the  Federal  Government. 

By  act  approved  March  28, 1858,  the  Legislature  donated  the  re- 
mainder of  the  grant  to  the  Keokuk,  Fort  Des  Moines  &  Minne- 
sota Railroad  Company,  upon  condition  that  said  Company  assumed 
all  liabilities  resulting  from  the  Des  Moines  River  improvement 
operations,  reserving  50,000  acres  of  the  land  in  security  for  the 


HI8T0KT  OP  IOWA.  89 

payment  thereof,  and  for  the  completion  of  the  locks  and  dams  at 
Bentonsport,  Croton,  Keosauqaa  and  Plymouth.  For  every  three 
thousana  dollars^  worth  of  work  done  on  the  locks  and  dams,  and 
for  every  three  thousand  dollars  paid  by  the  Company  of  the  lia- 
bilities above  mentioned,  the  Register  of  the  State  Land  Office  was 
instructed  to  certify  to  the  Company  1 ,000  acres  of  the  50,000  acres 
reserved  for  these  purposes.  Up  to  1865,  there  had  been  presented 
by  the  Company,  under  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  1858,  and  al- 
lowed, claims  amounting  to  $109,579.37,  about  seventy-five  per 
cent,  of  which  had  been  settled. 

After  the  passa^  of  the  Act  above  noticed,  the  question  of  the 
extent  of  the  original  grant  was  again  mooted,  and  at  the  Decem- 
ber Term  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States,  in  1859-60, 
a  decision  was  rendered  declaring  that  the  grant  did  not  extend 
above  Raccoon  Fork,  and  that  all  certificates  of  land  above  the  Fork 
had  been  issued  without  authority  of  law  and  were,  therefore,  void 
(see  23  How.,  66). 

The  State  of  Iowa  had  disposed  of  a  large  amount  of  land  with- 
out authority,  according  to  this  decision,  and  appeal  was  made  to 
Congress  for  relief,  which  was  granted  on  the  3d  day  of  March, 

1861,  in  a  joint  resolution  relinquishing  to  the  State  all  the  title 
which  the  United  States  then  still  retjiined  in  the  tracts  of  land 
along  the  Des  Moines  River  above  Raccoon  Fork,  that  had  been 
improperly  certified  to  the  State  by  the  Department  of  the  Interior, 
and  wnich  is  now  held  by  bona  Jide  purchasers  under  the  State  of 
Iowa. 

In  confirmation  of  this  relinquishment,  by  act  approved  July  12, 

1862,  Congress  enacted: 

That  the  grant  of  lands  to  the  then  Territory  of  Iowa  lor  the  improvement  of  the 
Des  Moines  River,  made  b^  the  act  of  August  8,  1846,  is  hereby  extended  so  as 
include  the  alternate  sections  (designated  by  od<l  numbers)  lying-  withm  five 
miles  of  said  nver,  between  the  Raccoon  Fork  and  the  northern  boundary  of 
gaid  State;  such  lands  are  to  be  held  and  applied  in  accordance  with  the  provis- 
ions of  the  original  grant,  except  that  the  consent  of  Congress  is  hereby  ^iven  to 
the  application  of  a  portion  thereof  to  aid  in  the  construction  of  the  Keokuk, 
Fort  Des  Moines  &  Minnesota  Railroad,  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  the 
act  of  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  Iowa  approved  March  22.  1858. 
And  if  any  of  the  said  lands  shall  have  been  sold  or  otherwise  disposed  of  by 
the  Unitei  States  bafore  the  passag*  of  this  act,  except  tho^e  released  by  the 
United  States  to  the  grantees  of  the  State  of  Iowa,  under  joint  resolution  of 
March  3,  1861,  the  Secretary  of  the  Interior  is  hereby  directe(\  to  set  apart  an 
eqaal  amount  of  lands  within  said  State  to  be  certified  in  lieu  thereof;  Promded^ 
that  if  the  State  shall  have  sold  and  conveyed  any  portion  of  the  lands  lying 
within  the  limits  of  the  grant  the  title  of  which  has  proved  invalid,  any  lands 
which  shall  be  certified  to  said  State  in  lieu  thereof  by  virtue  of  the  provisions 
(Xf  this  act,  shall  inure  to  and  be  held  as  a  trust  fund  for  the  benefit  of  the  per- 
son, or  persons,  respectively,  whose  titles  shall  have  failed  as  aforesaid. 

The  grant  of  lands  by  the  above  act  of  (congress  was  accepted  by  a 
joint  resolution  of  the  ueneral  Assembly,  Sept.  11, 1862,  in  extra  ses- 
sion. On  the  same  day,  the  Governor  was  authorized  to  appoint  one 
or  more  Commissioners  to  select  the  lands  in  accordance  with  the 


90  HISTORY   OF   IOWA. 

• 

grant.  These  Commissioners  were  instructed  to  report  their  selec- 
tions to  the  Registrar  of  the  State  Land  Office.  The  lands  so  se- 
lected were  to  be  held  for  the  purposes  of  the  grant,  and  were  not 
to  be  disposed  of  until  further  legislation  should  be  had.  D,  W. 
Kilburne,  of  Lee  Qounty,  was  appointed  Commissioner,  and,  on  the 
25th  day  of  April,  1864,  the  General  Land  Officer  authorized  the 
selection  of  300,000  acres  from  the  vacant  public  lands  as  a  part  of 
the  grant  of  July  12,  1862,  and  the  selections  were  made  in  the 
Fort  Dodge  and  Sioux  City  Land  Districts. 

Many  difficulties,  controversies  and  conflicts,  in  relation  to  claims 
and  titles,  grew  out  of  this  ^ant,  and  these  difficulties  were  en- 
hanced by  the  uncertainty  of  its  limits  until  the  act  of  Congress  of 
July,  1862.  But  the  General  Assembly  sought,  by  wise  and  ap- 
propriate legislation,  to  protect  the  integrity  of  titles  derived  from 
the  State.  Especially  was  it  the  determination  to  protect  the  actual 
settlers,  who  had  paid  their  money  and  made  improvements  prior 
to  the  final  settlement  of  the  limits  of  the  grant  oy  Congress. 

VII. — TUE  DES  MOINES  RIVER  SCHOOL  LANDS. 

These  lands  constituted  a  part  of  the  500,000  acre  grant  made 
by  Congress  in  1841;  including  28,378.46  acres  in  Webster  County, 
selected  by  the  Agent  of  the  State  under  that  grant,  and  approved 
bv  the  Commissioner  of  the  General  Land  Office  February  20, 1851. 
They  were  ordered  into  the  mai'ket  June  6,  1853,  by  the  Superin- 
tendent of  Public  Instruction,  who  authorized  John  Tolman, 
School  Fund  Commissioner  for  Webster  County,  to  sell  them  as 
school  Linds.  Subsequently,  when  the  act  of  1846  was  construed 
to  extend  the  Des  Moines  Kiver  grant  above  Raccoon  Fork;  it  was 
held  that  the  odd  numbered  sections  of  these  lands  within  five 
miles  of  the  river  were  appropriated  by  that  act,  and  on  the  30th 
day  of  December,  1853,  12,813.51  acres  were  set  apart  and  ap- 
proved to  the  State  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Interior,  as  a  part  of 
the  Des  Moines  River  grant.  January  6,  1854,  the  Commissioner 
of  the  General  Land  Office  transmitted  to  the  Superintendent  of 
Public  Instruction  a  certified  copy  of  the  lists  of  these  lands,  in- 
dorsed by  the  Secretary  of  the  Interior.  Prior  to  this  action  of 
the  Department,  however,  Mr.  Tolman  had  sold  to  individual  pur- 
chasers 3,194.28  acres  as  school  lands,  and  their  titles  were,  of 
course,  killed.  For  their  relief,  an  act,  approved  April  2,  1860, 
provided  that,  upon  application  and  proper  showing,  these  purchas- 
ers should  be  entitled  to  draw  from  the  State  Treasury  the  amount 
they  had  paid,  with  10  per  cent,  interest,  on  the  contract  to  pur- 
chase made  with  Mr.  Tolman.  Under  this  act,  five  applications 
were  made  prior  to  1864,  and  the  applicants  received,  in  tne  aggre- 
gate, $949.53. 

By  an  act  approved  April  7,  1862,  the  Governor  was  forbidden 
to  issue  to  the  Dubuque  &  Sioux  City  Railroad  Company  any  cer- 
tificate of  the  completion  of  any  part  of  said  road,  or  any  convey- 


HISTOBT  OP   IOWA.  91 

aace  of  lands,  until  the  company  shoald  execute  and  file,  in  the 
State  Land  office,  a  release  of  its  claim — first  to  certain  swamp 
lands;  second,  to  the  Des  Moines  River  Lands  sold  by  Tolman; 
third,  to  certain  other  river  lands.  That  act  provided  that  '^the 
said  company  shall  transfer  their  interests  in  those  tracts  of  land 
in  Webster  and  Hamilton  Counties  heretofore  sold  by  John  Tol- 
man, School  Fund  Commissioner,  to  the  Register  oi  the  State 
Land  Office  in  trust,  to  enable  said  Register  to  carry  out  and  per- 
form said  contracts  in  all  cases  when  he  is  called  upon  by  the 
parties  interested  to  do  so,  before  the  1st  day  of  January,  A.  D., 
1864. 

The  company  filed  its  release  to  the  Tolman  lands,  in  the  Land 
Office,  February  27,  1864,  at  the  same  time  entered  its  protest  that 
it  had  no  claim  upon  them,  never  had  pretended  to  have,  and  had 
nerer  sought  to  claim  them.  The  Register  of  the  State  Land  Of- 
fice, under  the  advice  of  the  Attorney  General,  decided  that  pat- 
ents would  be  issued  to  the  Tolman  purchasers  in  all  cases  where 
contracts  had  been  made  prior  to  December  23,  1853,  and  remain- 
ing uncancelled  under  the  act  of  1860.  But  before  any  were  issued, 
on  the  27th  of  August,  1864,  the  Des  Moines  Navigation  &  Rail- 
road Company  commenced  a  suit  in  Chancery,  in  the  District 
Court  of  rolK  County,  to  enjoin  the  issue  of  such  patents.  On 
the  30th  of  August,  an  ex  'parte  injunction  wjjs  issued.  In  Janu- 
ary, 1868,  Mr.  J.  A.  Harvey,  Register  of  the  Land  Office,  filed  in 
the  court  an  elaborate  answer  to  plaintiffs'  petition,  denying  that 
the  company  had  any  right  to  or  title  in  the  lands.  Mr.  Harvey's 
successor,  Mr.  C.  C.  Carpenter,  filed  a  still  more  exhaustive  answer 
February  10,  1868.  August  3,  1868,  the  District  Court  dissolved 
the  injunction.  The  company  appealed  to  the  Supreme  Court, 
where  the  decision  of  the  lower  court  was  affirmed  in  December, 
1869. 

VIII.      SWAMP  LAND  GRANT. 

An  act  of  Congress,  approved  March  28,  1850,  to  enable  Ar- 
kansas and  other  States  to  reclaim  swampy  lands  within  their  lim- 
its, granted  all  the  swamp  and  overflowed  lands  remaining  unsold 
within  their  respective  limits  to  the  several  States.  Although  the 
total  amount  claimed  by  Iowa  under  this  act  does  not  exceed 
4,000,000  acres,  it  has,  like  the  Des  Moines  River  and  some  of  the 
land  grants,  cost  the  State  considerable  trouble  and  expense,  and 
required  a  deal  of  legislation.  The  State  expended  large  sums  of 
money  in  making  the  selections,  securing  proofs,  etc.,  but  the 
General  Government  appeared  to  be  laboring  under  the  impression 
that  Iowa  was  not  acting  in  good  faith;  that  she  had  selected  a 
large  amount  of  lands  under  the  swamp  land  grant,  transferred  her 
interest  to  counties,  and  counties  to  private  speculators,  and  the 
General  Land  Office  permitted  contests  as  to  the  character  of  the 
lands  already  selected  by  the  Agents  of  the  State  as  ''swamp  lands." 


92  HISTORY  OF  ICWA. 

Congress,  by  joint  resolution  Dec.  18,  1856,  and  by  act  March  3, 
1857,  saved  the  State  from  the  fatal  result  of  this  ruinous  policy. 
Many  of  these  lands  were  selected  in  1854  and  1855,  immediately 
after  several  remarkably  wet  seasons,  and  it  was  but  natural  that 
some  portions  of  the  selections  would  not  appear  swampy  after  a 
few  dry  seasons.  Some  time  after  these  first  selections  were  made 
persons  desired  to  enter  parcels  of  the  so-called  swamp  lands  and 
offering  to  prove  them  to  be  dry.  In  such  cases  the  General  Land 
Office  ordered  hearing  before  the  local  land  officers,  and  if  they 
decided  the  land  to  be  dry,  it  was  permitted  to  be  entered  and  the 
claim  of  the  State  rejected.  Speculators  took  advantage  of  this. 
Affidavits  were  bought  of  irresponsible  and  reckless  men,  who^ 
for  a  few  dollars,  would  confidently  testify  to  the  character  of  lands 
they  never  saw.  These  applications  multiplied  until  they  covered 
3,000,000  acres.  It  was  necessary  that  Congress  should  confirm 
all  these  selections  to  the  State,  that  this  gigantic  scheme  of  fraud 
and  plunder  might  be  stopped.  The  act  of  Congress  of  March  3, 
1857,  was  designed  to  accomplish  this  purpose.  But  the  Commis- 
sioner of  the  General  Land  Office  held  that  it  was  only  a  qualified 
confirmation,  and  under  this  construction  sought  to  sustain  the 
action  of  the  Department  in  rejecting  the  claim  of  the  State,  and 
certifying  them  under  act  of  May  15,  1856,  under  which  the  rail- 
road companies  claimed  all  swamp  land  in  odd  numbered  sections 
within  the  limits  of  their  respective  roads.  This  action  led  to 
serious  complications.  When  the  railroad  grant  was  made,  it  was 
not  intended,  nor  was  it  understood  that  it  included  any  of  the 
swamp  lands.  These  were  already  disposed  of  by  previous  grant. 
Nor  did  the  companies  expect  to  receive  any  of  them,  but  under 
the  decision  of  the  Department  adverse  to  the  State  the  way  was 
opened,  and  they  were  not  slow  to  enter  their  claims.  March  4, 
1862,  the  Attorney  General  of  the  State  submitted  to  the  General 
Assembly  an  opinion  that  the  railroad  companies  were  not  entitled 
even  to  contest  the  right  of  the  State  to  these  lands,  under  the 
swamp  land  grant.  A  letter  from  the  Acting  Commissioner  of 
the  General  Land  Office  expressed  the  same  opinion,  and  the  Gen- 
eral Assembly  by  joint  resolution,  approved  April  7, 1862,  expressly 
repudiated  the  acts  of  the  railroad  companies,  and  disclaimed  any 
intention  to  claim  these  lands  under  any  other  than  the  act  of 
Congress  of  September  28.  1850.  A  great  deal  of  legislation  has 
been  found  necessary  in  relation  to  these  swamp  lands. 

IX.      THE  RAILROAD  GRAKT. 

One  of  the  most  important  grants  of  public  lands  to  Iowa  for 
purposes  of  internal  improvement  was  that  known  as  the  ^^Railroad 
Grant,"  by  act  of  Congress,  approved  May  15,  1856..  This  act 
granted  to  the  State  of  Iowa,  for  the  purpose  of  aiding  in  the  con- 
struction of  railroads  from  Burlington,  on  the  Mississippi  River, 
to  a  point  on  the  Missouri  River,  near  the  mouth  of  Platte  River; 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  98 

from  the  city  of  Davenport,  via  Iowa  City  and  Fort  Des  Moines  to 
Council  Blal&;  from  Lyons  City  northwesterly  to  anoint  of  inter- 
section with  the  main  line  of  the  Iowa  Central  Air  Line  Railroad, 
near  Maquoketa;  thence  on  said  main  line,  running  as  near  as 

fracticable  to  the  Forty-second  Parallel;  across  the  said  State  of 
owa  to  the  Missouri  River;  from  the  city  of  Dubuque  to  a  point 
on  the  Missouri  River  near  Sioux  City,  with  a  branch  from 
the  mouth  of  the  Tete  des  Morts,  to  the  nearest  point 
on  said  road,  to  be  completed  as  soon  as  the  main  road 
is  completed  to  that  point,  every  alternate  section  of  land, 
designated  by  odd  numbers,  for  six  sections  in  width,  on 
each  side  of  said  roads.  It  was  also  provided  that  if  it  should 
appear,  when  the  lines  of  those  roads  were  definitely  fixed,  that 
the  United  States  had  sold,  or  right  of  pre-emption  nad  attached 
to  anjr  portion  of  said  land,  the  State  was  autnorized  to  select  a 
quantity  equal  thereto,  in  alternate  sections,  or  parts  of  sections, 
within  fifteen  miles  of  the  lines  so  located.  The  lands  remaining  to  the 
United  States  within  six  miles  on  each  side  of  said  roads  were  not 
to  be  sold  for  less  than  the  double  minimum  price  of  the  public 
lands  when  sold,  nor  were  any  of  said  lands  to  become  subject  to 
private  entry  until  they  had  been  first  oflFered  at  public  sale  at  the 
increased  price. 

Section  4  of  the  act  provided  that  the  lands  granted  to  said  State 
shall  be  disposed  of  by  said  State  only  in  the  manner  following, 
that  is  to  say:  ''That  a  quantity  of  land  not  exceeding  one  hundred 
and  twenty  sections  for  each  of  said  roads,  and  included  within  a 
continuous  length  of  twenty  miles  of  each  of  said  roads,  may  be 
sold ;  and  when  the  Governor  of  said  State  shall  certify  to  the  Sec- 
retary of  the  Interior  that  any  twenty  continuous  miles  of  any  of 
said  roads  is  completed,  then  another  quantity  of  land  hereby 
granted,  not  to  exceed  one  hundred  and  twenty  sections  for  each 
of  said  roads  having  twenty  continuous  miles  completed  as  afore- 
said, and  included  within  a  continuous  length  of  twenty  miles  of 
each  of  such  roads,  may  be  sold;  and  so  from  time  to  time  until  said 
roads  are  completed,  and  if  any  of  said  roads  are  not  completed 
within  ten  years,  no  further  sale  shall  be  made,  and  the  lands  un- 
sold shall  revert  to  the  United  States." 

At  a  special  session  of  the  General  Assembly  of  Iowa,  by  act  ap- 
proved July  14,  1856,  the  grant  was  accepted  and  the  lands  were 
granted  by  the  State  to  the  several  railroad  companies  named,  pro- 
vided that  the  lines  of  their  respective  roads  should  be  definitely 
fixed  and  located  before  April  1,  1857;  and  provided  further,  that 
if  either  of  said  companies  should  fail  to  have  seventy-five 
miles  of  road  completed  and  equipped  by  the  1st  day  of  December, 
1859,  and  its  entire  road  completed  by  December  1,  1865,  it  should 
be  competent  for  the  State  of  Iowa  to  resume  all  rights  to  lands 
remaining  undisposed  of  by  the  company  so  failing. 


94  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

The  railroad  companies,  with  the  single  exception  of  the  Iowa 
Central  Air  Line,  accepted  the  several  grants  in  accordance  with 
the  provisions  of  the  aoove  act,  located  their  respective  roads  and 
and  selected  their  lands.  The  grant  to  the  Iowa  Central  was  again 
granted  to  the  Cedar  Rapids  and  Missouri  River  Railroad  Company; 
which  accepted  it. 

By  act,  approved  April  7,  1862,  the  Dubuque  &  Cioux  City  Rail- 
road Company  was  required  to  execute  a  release  to  the  State  of  cer- 
tain swamp  and  school  lands,  included  within  the  limits  of  its  grant, 
in  compensation  for  an  extension  of  the  time  fixed  for  the  comple- 
tion of  its  road. 

A  careful  examination  of  the  act  of  Congress  does  not  reveal 
any  special  reference  to  railroad  companies.  The  lands  were  granted 
to  the  State^  and  the  act  evidently  contemplated  the  sale  of  them 
by  the  State,  and  the  appropriation  of  the  proceeds  to  aid  in  the 
construction  of  certain  lines  of  railroad  within  its  limits.  Section 
4  of  the  act  clearly  defines  the  authority  of  the  State  in  disposing- 
of  the  lands. 

Lists  of  all  the  lands  embraced  by  the  grant  were  made,  and  cer- 
tified to  the  State  by  the  proper  authorities.  Under  an  act  of  Con- 
gress approved  August  3,  1864,  entitled,  "-4n  act  to  vest  in  the 
several  States  and  Territories  the  title  in  fee  of  the  lands  which  have 
besn  or  may  be  certified  to  them^^'  these  certified  lists,  the  originals 
of  which  are  filed  in  the  General  Land  Office,  conveyed  to  the 
State  "  the  fee  simple  title  to  all  the  lands  embraced  in  such  lists 
that  are  of  the  character  contemplated  "  by  the  terms  of  the  act 
making  the  grant,  and  ''  intended  to  be  granted  thereby;  but  where 
lands  embraced  in  such  lists  are  not  of  the  character  embraced  by 
such  act  of  Congress,  and  were  not  intended  to  be  granted  thereby » 
said  lists,  so  far  as  these  lands  are  concerned,  shall  be  perfectly  null 
and  void;  and  no  right,  title,  claim  or  interest  shall  be  conveyed 
thereby."  Those  certified  lists  made  under  the  act  of  May  1 5, 1856^ 
were  forty-three  in  number,  viz:  For  the  Burlington  &  Missouri 
River  Railroad,  nine;  for  the  Mississippi  &  Missouri  Railroad,  eleven  ; 
for  the  Iowa  Central  Air  line,  thirteen;  and  for  the  Dubuque  & 
Sioux  City  Railroad,  ten.  The  lands  thus  approved  tb  the  State 
were  as  follows: 

Burlin^tun  &  MiBsouri  River  R  R 287.095.34  acres. 

Mississippi  &  Missouri  River  R  R 774,674.36 

Cedar  Rapids  &  Missouri  River  R  R 775,454.19 

Dubuque  &  Sioux  City  R  R 1,226,558.32 

A  portion  of  these  had  been  selected  as  swamp  lands  by  the 
State,  under  the  act  of  September  28,  1850,  and  these,  by  the  terma 
of  the  act  of  August  3,  1854,  could  not  be  turned  over  to  the  rail- 
roads unless  the  claim  of  the  State  to  them  as  swamp  was  first  re- 
jected. It  was  not  possible  to  determine  from  the  records  of  the 
State  Land  Officethe  extent  of  the  conflicting  claims  arising  un- 
der the  two  grants,  as  copies  of  the  swamp  land  selections  in  some' 


14 


HISTORY  OF   IOWA.  95 

of  the  counties  were  not  filed  of  record.  The  Commissioner  of  the 
General  Land  Office,  however,  prepared  lists  of  the  lands  claimed 
by  the  State  as  swamp  under  act  of  ISeptember  28,  1850,  and 
also  claimed  by  the  railroad  companies  under  act  of  May  15,  1856, 
amounting  to  553,293.33  acres,  the  claim  to  which  as  swamp  had 
been  rejected  by  the  Department.  These  were  consequently  cer- 
tified the  State  as  railroad  lands.  There  was  no  mode  other  than 
the  act  of  July,  1856,  prescribed  for  transferring  the  title  to  these 
lands  from  the  State  to  the  companies.  The  courts  had  d'^cided 
that,  for  the  purposes  of  the  grant,  the  lands  belonged  io  the 
State,  and  to  her  the  companies  should  look  for  their  titles.  It  was 
generally  accepted  that  the  act  of  the  Legislature  of  July,  1856, 
was  all  that  was  necessary  to  complete  the  transfer  of  title.  It  was 
assumed  that  all  the  rights  and  powers  conferred  upon  the  State  by 
the  act  of  Congress  of  May  14,  1856,  were  by  the  act  of  the  Gen- 
eral Assembly  transferred  to  the  companies;  in  other  words,  that 
it  was  designed  to  put  the  companies  in  the  place  of  the  State  as 
the  grantees  from  Congress — and,  therefore,  that  which  perfected 
the  title  thereto  to  the  State  perfected  the  title  to  the  companies 
by  virtue  of  the  act  of  July,  1856.  One  of  the  companies,  how- 
ever, the  Burlington  &  Missouri  River  Railroad  Company,  was  not 
entirely  satisfied  with  this  construction.  Its  managers  thought 
that  some  further  ani  specific  action  of  the  State  authorities  in  ad- 
dition to  the  act  of  the  Legislature  was  necessary  to  complete  their 
title.  This  induced  Gov.  Lowe  to  attach  to  the  certified  lists  his 
official  certificate,  under  the  broad  seal  of  the  State.  On  the  9th 
of  November,  1859,  the  Governor  thus  certified  to  them  (commenc- 
ing at  the  Missouri  River)  187,207.44  acres,  and  December  27th, 
43,775.70  acres,  an  aggregate  of  231,073.14  acres.  These  were 
the  only  lands  under  the  grant  that  were  certified  by  the  State  au- 
thorities with  any  design  of  perfecting  the  title  already  vested  in 
the  company  by  the  act  of  July,  1856.  The  lists  which  were  after- 
ward funaished  to  the  company  were  simply  certified  by  the  Gov- 
ernor as  being  correct  copies  of  the  lists  received  by  the  State  from 
the  United  States  General  Land  Office.  These  subsequent  lists  em- 
braced lands  that  had  been  claimed  by  the  State  under  the  Swamp 
Land  Grant. 

It  was  urged  against  the  claim  of  the  Companies  that  the  effect 
of  the  act  oi  the  Legislature  was  simply  to  substitute  them  for  the 
State  as  parties  to  the  grant.  1st.  That  the  lands  were  granted 
to  the  State  to  be  held  in  trust  for  the  accomplishment  of  a  specific 
purpose,  and  therefore  the  State  could  not  pnrt  with  the  title  until 
that  purpose  should  have  been  accomplished.  2d.  That  it  was 
not  tne  mtention  of  the  act  of  July  14,  1856,  to  deprive  the  State 
of  the  control  of  the  lands,  but  on  the  contrary  that  she  should 
retain  supervision  of  them  and  the  right  to  withdraw  all  rights 
and  powers  and  resume  the  title  conditionally  conferred  by  that  act 
upon  the  companies  in  the  event  of  their  failure  to  complete  their 


96  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

part  of  the  contract.  3d.  That  the  certified  Jists  from  the  Gen- 
eral Land  Office  vested  the  title  in  the  State  only  by  virtue  of  the 
act  of  Congress  approved  August  3, 1854.  The  State  Land  Office 
held  that  the  proper  construction  of  the  act  of  July  14,  1866,  when 
accepted  by  the  companies,  was  that  it  hecBme&  conditional  contract 
that  might  ripen  into  a  positive  sale  of  the  lands  as  from  time  to 
time  the  work  should  progress,  and  as  the  State  thereby  became 
authorized  by  the  express  terms  of  the  grant  to  sell  them. 

This  appears  to  have  been  the  correct  construction  of  the  act, 
but  by  a  subsequent  act  of  Congress,  approved  June  2,  1864, 
amending  the  act  of  1856,  the  terms  of  the  grant  were  changed, 
and  numerous  controversies  arose  between  the  companies  and  the 
State. 

The  ostensible  purpose  of  this  additional  act  was  to  allow  the 
Davenport  &  Council  BluflFs  Railroad  "to  modify  or  change  the 
location  of  the  uncompleted  portion  of  its  line,"  to  run  through 
the  town  of  Newton,  Jasper  County,  or  as  nearly  as  practicable  to 
that  point.  The  original  grant  had  been  made  to  the  State  to  aid 
in  the  construction  of  railroads  within  its  limits,  and  not  to  the 
companies,  but  Congress,  in  1864,  appears  to  have  been  utterly 
ignorant  of  what  had  been  done  under  the  act  of  1856,  or,  if  not, 
to  have  utterly  disregarded  it.  The  State  had  accepted  the  origin- 
al grant.  The  Secretary  of  the  Interior  had  already  certified  to 
the  State  all  the  lauds  intended  to  be  included  in  the  grant  within 
fifteen  miles  of  the  lines  of  the  several  railroads.  It  will  be  re- 
membered that  Section  4,  of  the  act  of  May  15,  1856,  specifies  the 
manner  of  sale  of  these  lands  from  time  to  time  as  work  on  the 
railroads  should  progress,  and  also  provided  that  ''if  any  of  said 
roads  are  not  completed  within  ten  years,  no  further  sale  shall  be 
made,  and  the  lands  unsold  shall  revert  to  the  United  States/' 
Having  vested  the  title  to  these  lands  in  trust,  in  the  State  of  Iowa, 
it  is  plain  that  until  the  expiration  of  the  ten  years  there  could  be 
no  reversion,  and  the  State,  not  the  United  States,  must  control 
them  until  the  grant  should  expire  by  limitation.  The  United 
States  authorities  could  not  rightfully  require  the  Secretary  of  the 
Interior  to  certify  directly  to  the  companies  any  portion  of  the 
lands  already  certified  to  the  State.  And  yet  Congress,  by  its  act 
of  June  2, 1864,  provided  that  whenever  the  Davenport  &  Council 
Bluffs  Railroad  Company  should  file  in  the  General  Land  Office,  at 
Washington,  a  map  definitely  showing  such  new  location,  the 
Secretary  of  the  Interior  should  cause  to  be  certified  and  con- 
veyed to  said  Company,  from  time  to  time,  as  the  road  progressed, 
out  of  any  of  the  lands  belonging  to  the  United  States,  not  sold, 
reserved,  or  otherwise  disposed  of,  or  to  which  a  pre-emption  claim 
or  right  of  homestead  had  not  attached,  and  on  which  a  bona  fide 
settlement  and  improvement  had  not  been  made  under  color  of 
title  derived  from  tne  United  States,  or  from  the  State  of  Iowa, 
within  six  miles  of  such  newly  located    line,  an  amount  of  land 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA,  97 

per  mile  equal  to  that  originally  authorize.d  to  be  granted  to  aid  in 
the  construction  of  said  road  by  the  act  to  which  this  was  an 
amendment. 

The  term  '^  out  of  any  lands  belonging  to  the  United  States^  not 
sold,  reserved  or  otherwise  disposed  of,  etc.,"  would  seem  to  indi- 
cate that  Congress  did  intend  to  grant  lands  already  granted,  but 
when  it  declared  that  the  Company  should  have  an  amount  per 
mile  equal  to  that  originally  authorized  to  be  granted^  it  is  plain 
that  the  f  ramers  of  the  bill  were  ignorant  of  the  real  terms  of  the 
original  grant,  or  that  they  designed  that  the  United  States  should 
r^swm^  the  title  it  had  already  parted  with  two  years  before  the 
lands  could  revert  to  the  United  States  under  the  original  act, 
which  was  not  repealed. 

A  similar  change  w.is  made  in  relation  to  the  Cedar  Rapids  & 
Missouri  Railroad,  and  dictated  the  conveyance  of  lands  in  a 
similar  manner. 

Like  provision  was  made  for  the  Dubuque  &  Sioux  City  Rail- 
road, and  the  Company  was  permitted  to  change  the  location  of 
its  line  between  l?ort  Dodge  and  Sicux  City,  so  as  to  secure  the 
best  route  between  those  points;  but  this  change  of  location  was 
not  to  impair  the  right  to  the  land  granted  in  the  original  act, 
nor  did  it  change  the  location  of  those  lands. 

By  the  same  act,  the  Mississippi  &  Missouri  Railroad  Company 
was  authorized  to  transfer  and  assi^  all  or  any  part  of  the  grant 
to  any  other  company  or  person,  ''if,  in  the  opinion  of  said  Com- 
pany, the  construction  of  said  railroad  across  the  State  of  Iowa 
would  be  thereby  sooner  and  more  satisfactorily  completed;  but 
such  assignee  should  not  in  any  case  be  released  from  the  liabili- 
ties and  conditions  accompanying  this  grant,  nor  acquire  perfect 
title  in  any  other  manner  than  the  same  would  have  been  ac- 
quired by  the  original  grantee." 

Still  further,  the  Burlington  &  Missouri  River  Railroad  was  not 
forgotten,  and  was,  by  the  same  act,  empowered  to  receive  an 
amount  of  land  per  mile  equal  to  that  mentioned  in  the  original 
act,  and  if  that  could  not  be  found  within  the  limits  of  six  miles 
from  the  line  of  said  road,  then  such  selection  might  be  made 
along  such  line  within  twenty  miles  thereof  out  of  any  public 
lands  belonging  to  the  United  States,  not  sold,  reserved  or  other- 
wise disposed  of,  or  to  which  a  pre-emption  claim  or  right  of 
homestead  had  not  attached. 

Those  acts  of  Congress,  which  evidently  originated  in  the 
"lobby,"  occasioned  much  controversy  and  trouble.  The  Depart- 
ment of  the  Interior,  however,  recognizing  the  fact  that  when  the 
Secretary  had  certified  the  lands  to  the  State,  under  the  act  of 
1856,  that  act  divested  the  United  States  of  title,  under  the  vest- 
ing act  of  August,  1854,  refused  to  review  its  action,  and  also  re- 
fused to  order  any  and  all  investigations  for  establishing  adverse 
claims  (except  in  pre-emption  cases),  on  the  ground  that  the 


98  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

United  States  had  parted,  with  the  title,  and,  therefore,  could  ex- 
ercise no  control  over  the  land. 

May  12,  1864,  before  the  passage  of  the  amendatory  act  above 
described,  Congress  granted  to  the  State  of  Iowa,  to  aid  in  the 
construction  or  a  railroad  from  McGregor  to  Sioux  City,  and  for 
the  benefit  of  the  McGregor  Western  Kailroad  Company,  every 
alternate  section  of  land,  designated  by  odd  numbers,  for  ten 
sections  in  width  on  each  side  of  the  proposed  road,  reserving  the 
right  to  substitute  other  lands,  whenever  it  was  found  that  the 
grant  infringed  upon  pre-empted  lands,  or  on  lands  that  had  been 
reserved  or  disposed  oi  for  any  other  purpose.  In  such  cases,  the 
Secretary  of  the  Interior  was  instructed  to  select,  in  lieu,  lands 
belonging  to  the  United  States  lying  nearest  to  the  limits  specified. 

X.      AGRICULTURAL  COLLEQB  AND  FARM  LAND. 

• 

An  Agricultural  College  and  Model  Farm  was  established  by  act 
of  the  General  Assembly,  approved  March  22,  1858,  By  the  elev- 
enth section  of  the  act,  the  proceeds  of  the  five-section  grant 
made  for  the  purpose  of  aiding  in  the  erection  of  public  buildings 
was  appropriated,  subject  to  the  approval  of  Congress,  together 
with  all  lands  that  Congress  might  thereafter  grant  to  the  State 
for  the  purpose  for  th«  oenifit  of  the  institution.  On  the  23d  of 
March,  by  joint  resolution,  the  Legislature  asked  the  consent  of 
Congress  to  the  proposed  transfer.  By  act  approved  Jnly  11, 1862, 
Congress  removed  the  restrictions  imposed  in  the  "five-section 
^ant,"  and  authorized  the  General  Assembly  to  make  such  disposi- 
tion of  the  lands  as  should  be  deemed  best  for  the  interests  or  the 
State.  By  these  several  acts,  the  five  sections  of  land  in  Jasper 
County  certified  to  the  State  to  aid  in  the  erection  of  public  buildings 
under  the  act  of  March  3,  1845,  entitled:  ''An  act  supple- 
mental to  the  act  for  the  admission  of  the  States  of  Iowa  and 
Florida  into  the  Union,"  were  fully  appropriated  for  the  ben- 
efit of  the  Iowa  Agricultural  College  and  Farm.  The  institu- 
tion is  located  in  Story  County.  Seven  hundred  and  twenty-one 
acres  in  that  and  two  hundred  in  Boone  County  were  donated  to 
it  by  individuals  interested  in  the  success  of  the  enterprise. 

By  act  of  Congress  approved  July  2,  1822,  an  appropriation  was 
made  to  each  State  and  Territory  of  30,000  acres  for  each  Senator 
and  Representative  in  Congress,  to  which,  by  the  apportionment 
under  tne  census  of  1850,  they  were  respectively  entitled.  This 
grant  was  made  for  the  purpose  of  endowing  colleges  of  agricul- 
ture and  mechanic  arts. 

Iowa  accepted  this  grant  by  an  act  passed  at  an  extra  session  of 
its  Legislature,  approved  September  11,  1862,  entitled  ''An  act  to 
accept  of  the  grant,  and  carry  into  execution  the  trust  conferred  upon 
the  State  of  Iowa  by  an  act  of  Congress  entitled  'An  act  granting 
public  lands  to  the  several  States  and  Territories  which  may  pro- 
vide colleges  for  the  benefit  of  agriculture  and  the  mechanic  arts,' 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  99 

approved  July  2,  1862."  This  act  made  it  the  duty  of  the  Govern- 
or to  appoint  an  asent  to  select  and  locate  the  lands,  and  provided 
that  none  should  be  selected  that  were  claimed  by  any  county  as 
swamp  lands.  The  agent  was  required  to  make  report  of  his  domgs 
to  the  Governor,  who  was  instructed  to  submit  the  list  of  selections 
to  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  tlie  Agricultural  College  for  their  ap- 
proval. One  thousand  dollars  were  appropriated  to  carry  the  law 
into  e£fect.  The  State,  having  two  Senators  and  six  Representa- 
tives in  Congress,  was  entitled  to  240,000  acres  of  land  under  this 
grant,  for  the  purpose  of  establishing  and  maintaining  an  Agricul- 
tural College.  Peter  Melendy,  Esq.,  of  Black  Hawk  County,  was 
appointed  to  make  the  selections,  and  during  August,  Septem- 
ber and  December,  1863,  located  them  in  the  Fort  Dodge,  Des 
Moines  and  Sioux  City  Land  Districts.  December  8,  1864,  these 
selections  were  certified  by  the  Commissioner  of  the  General  Land 
OfiSce,  and  were  approved  to  the  State  by  the  Secretary  of  the  In- 
terior December  13,  1864.  The  title  to  these  lands  was  vested  in 
the  State  in  fee  simple,  and  conflicted  with  no  other  claims  under 
other  grants. 

The  agricultural  lands  were  approved  to  the  State  as  240,000.96 
acres;  but  35,691.66  acres  werelocated  within  railroad  limits,  which 
were  computed  at  the  rate  of  two  acres  for  one,  the  actual  amount 
of  land  approved  to  the  State  under  this  grant  was  only  204,309.30 
acres,  located  as  follows: 

In  Des  Moines  Tjand  District 6,804.96  acres. 

In  Sioux  City  Land  District 59,025.37     *' 

In  Fort  Dodge  Land  District 138,478.97     ** 

By  act  of  the  General  Assembly,  approved  March  29,  1864,  en- 
titled, "An  act  authorizing  the  Trustees  of  the  Iowa  State  Agri- 
cultural College  and  Farm,  to  sell  all  lands  acquired,  granted,  do- 
nated or  appropriated  for  the  benefit  of  said  College,  and  to  make 
an  investment  of  the  proceeds  thereof ,''  all  these  lands  were  granted 
to  the  Agricultural  College  and  Farm,  and  the  Trustees  were  au- 
thorized to  take  possession  and  sell  or  lease  them.  They  were  then 
under  the  control  of  the  Trustees,  lands  as  follows: 

Under  the  act  of  July  2,  1852 304.309.30  acres. 

Of  the  five-section  grant 3,200.00 

Lands  donated  in  Story  County 721.00 

Lands  donated  in  Boone  County 200.00 


n 
n 


Total 208,430.30  acres. 

The  Trustees  opened  an  oflBce  at  Fort  Dodge,' and  appointed  Hon. 
G.  W.  Bassett  their  agent  for  the  sale  of  these  lands. 

THE  PUBLIC  SCHOOLS. 

The  germ  of  the  free  public  school  system  of  Towa,  which  now 
ranks  second  to  none  in  the  United  States,  was  planted  by  the  first 
settlers.     They  had  migrated  to  the  "  Beautiful  Land  "  from  other 


100  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

and  older  States,  where  the  common  school  system  had  been  tested 
by  many  years'  experience,  bringing  with  them  some  knowledge  of 
its  advantages,  which  they  determined  should  be  enjoyed  by  the 
children  of  the  land  of  their  adoption.  The  system  thus  planted 
was  expanded  and  improved  in  the  broad  fields  of  the  West,  until 
now  it  is  justly  considered  one  of  the  most  complete,  comprehen- 
sive and  liberal  in  the  country. 

Nor  is  this  to  be  wondered  at  when  it  is  remembered  humble  log 
school  houses  were  built  almost  as  soon  as  the  log  cabin  of  the  ear- 
liest seijblers  were  occupied  by  their  brave  builders.  In  the  lead 
mining  regions  of  the  btate,  the  first  to  be  occupied  by  the  white 
race,  the  hardy  pioneers  provided  the  means  for  the  education  of 
their  children  even  before  they  had  comfortable  dwellings  for  their 
families.  School  teachers  were  among  the  first  immigrants  to 
Iowa.  Wherever  a  little  settlement  was  made,  the  school  house 
was  the  first  united  public  act  of  the  settlers;  and  the  rude,  primi- 
tive structures  of  the  early  time  only  disappeared  when  the  com- 
munities had  increased  in  population  and  wealth,  and  were  able  to 
replace  them  with  more  commodious  and  comfortable  buildings. 
Perhaps  in  no  single  instance  has  the  ma^ificent  progress  of  the 
State  of  Iowa  been  more  marked  and  rapid  than  m  her  common 
school  system  and  in  her  school  houses,  which,  long  since,  super- 
seded the  log  cabins  of  the  first  settlers.  To-day,  the  school  houses 
which  everywhere  dot  the  broad  and  fertile  prairies  of  Iowa  are 
unsurpassed  by  those  of  any  other  State  in  the  great  Union.  More 
especially  is  this  true  in  all  her  cities  and  villages,  where  liberal 
and  lavish  appropriations  have  been  voted,  by  a  generous  people, 
for  the  erection  of  large,  commodious  and  elegant  building,  fur- 
nished with  all  the  modem  improvements,  and  costing  from^lO.OOO 
to  $60,000  each.  The  people  of  the  State  have  expended  more 
than  $10,000,000  for  the  erection  of  public  school  buildings. 

The  first  house  erected  in  Iowa  was  a  log  cabin  at  Dubuque, 
built  by  James  L.  Langworthy  and  a  few  other  miners,  in  the 
Autumn  of  1833. 

Mrs.  Caroline  Dexter  commenced  teaching  in  Dubuque  in  March, 
1836.  She  was  the  first  female  teacher  there,  aud  probably  the 
first  in  Iowa.  The  first  tax  for  the  support  of  schools  at  Dubuque 
was  levied  in  1840. 

Among  the  first  buildings  erected  at  Burlington  was  a  commodi- 
ous log  school  house  in  1834,  in  which  Mr.  Johnson  Pierson  taught 
the  first  school  in  the  Winter  of  1834-5. 

The  first  school  in  Muscatine  County  was  taught  by  George 
Bumgardner,  in  the  Spring  of  1837,  and  in  1839,  a  log  school 
house  was  erected  in  Muscatine,  which  served  for  a  long  time  for 
school  house,  church  and  public  hall.     The  first  school  in  Daven- 

Sort  was  taught  in   1838.      In    Fairfield    Miss    Clarissa  Sawyer, 
ames  F.  Chambers  and  Mrs.  Keed  taught  school  in  1839. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  101 

When  the  site  of  Iowa  City  was  selected  as  the  capital  of  the 
Territory  of  Iowa,  in  May,  1839,  it  was  aperfect  wilderness.  The 
first  sale  of  lots  took  place  August  18,  18o9,  and  before  January 
1, 1340,  about  twenty  families  had  settled  within  the  limits  of  the 
town;  and  during  the  same  year,  Mr.  Jesse  Berry  opened  a  school  in 
a  small  frame  building  he  had  erected,  on  what  is  now  College  street. 

The  first  settlement  in  Monroe  County  was  made  in  1843,  by 
Mr.  John  R.  Gtw^  about  two  miles  from  the  present  site  of  Eddy- 
Tille;  and  in  the  Summer  of  1844,  a  log  school  house  was  built, 
and  the  first  school  was  opened.  About  a  year  after  the  first  cabin 
was  built  at  Oskaloosa,  a  log  school  house  was  built. 

At  Fort  Des  Moines,  now  the  Capital  of  the  State,  the  first 
school  was  taught  in  the  Winter  of  1846-7. 

The  first  school  in  Pottawattamie  County  was  opened  at  Council 
Point,  prior  to  1849. 

The  first  school  in  Decorah  was  taught  in  1853.  In  Osceola, 
the  first  school  was  opened  by  Mr.  D.  W.  Scoville.  The  first 
school  at  Fort  Dodce  was  taught  in  1S55,  by  Cyrus  C.  Carpenter, 
since  Governor  of  the  State.  In  Crawford  County,  the  first  school 
house  was  built  in  Mason^s  Grove,  in  1856,  and  Morris  McHenry 
first  occupied  it  as  teacher. 

Daring  the  first  twenty  years  of  the  history  of  Iowa,  the  log 
school  houses  prevailed,  and  in  1861,  there  were  893  of  these 
primitive  structures  in  use  for  school  purposes  in  the  State.  Since 
that  time  they  have  been  gradually  disappearing.  In  1865,  there 
were  796;  in  1870,  336;  and  in  1875,  121. 

Iowa  Territory  was  created  July  3,  1838.  January  1,  1839,  the 
Territorial  Legislature  passed  an  act  providing  that  *^  there  shall 
be  established  a  common  school,  or  schools,  in  each  of  the  counties 
in  this  Territory,  which  shall  be  open  and  free  for  every  class  of 
white  citizens  between  the  ^es  of  five  and  twenty-one  years." 
The  second  section  of  the  act  provided  that  ''the  County  Board 
shall,  from  time  to  time,  form  such  districts  in  their  respective 
counties  whenever  a  petition  may  be  presented  for  the  purpose  by 
a  majority  of  the  voters  resident  within  such  contemplated  dis- 
trict. These  districts  were  governed  by  boards  of  trustees, 
usually  of  three  persons;  each  district  was  reauired  to  maintain 
school  at  least  three  months  in  every  year;  and  later,  laws  were 
enacted  providing  for  county  school  taxes  for  the  payment  of 
teachers,  and  that  whatever  additional  sum  might  be  required 
should  be  assessed  upon  the  parents  sending,  in  proportion  to  the 
length  of  time  sent. 

When  Iowa  Territory  became  a  State,  in  1846,  with  a  popula- 
tion of  100,000,  and  with  20,000  pupils  within  its  limits,  aoout 
four  hundred  school  districts  had  been  organized.  In  1850,  there 
were  1,200,  and  in  1857,  the  number  had  increased  to  3,265. 

In  March,  1858,  the  Seventh  General  Assembly  enacted  that 
^*each  civil  township  is  declared  a  school  district,^    and  provided 


102  HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 

that  these  should  be  divided  into  sub-districts.  This  law  went  into 
force  March  20,  1858,  and  reduced  the  number  of  school  districts 
from  about  3,500  to  less  than  900. 

This  change  of  school  organization  resulted  in  a  very  material 
reduction  of  the  expenditures  for  the  compensation  of  District 
Secretaries  and  Treasurers.  An  effort  was  made  for  several  years, 
from  1867  to  1872,  to  abolish  the  sub-district  system.  The  Le^s- 
lature  of  1870,  provided  for  the  formation  of  independent  districts 
from  the  sub-districts  of  district  townships.  The  system  of 
graded  schools  was  inaugurated  in  1849;  and  new  schools,  in  which 
more  than  one  teacher  is  employed,  are  universally  graded. 

The  first  official  mention  of  Teachers^  Institutes  in  the  educa- 
tional records  of  Iowa,  occurs  in  the  annual  report  of  Hon.  Thomas 
H.  Benton,  Jr.,  made  December  2, 1850. 

In  March,  1858,  an  act  was  passed  authorizing  the  holding  of 
Teachers'  Institutes  for  periods  not  less  than  six  working  days, 
whenever  not  less  than  thirty  teachers  should  desire.  The  Super- 
intendent was  authorized  to  expend  not  exceeding  $100  for  any  one 
Institute,  to  be  paid  out  by  the  County  Superintendent  as  the  In- 
stitute might  direct  for  teachers  and  lecturers,  and  one  thousand 
dollars  was  appropriated  to  defray  the  expenses  of  these  Institutes. 

The  Board  of  Education  at  its  first  session,  commencing  Decem- 
ber 6,  1858,  enacted  a  code  of  school  laws  which  retained  the  ex- 
isting provisions  for  Teachers'  Institutes.  In  March,  1860,  the 
General  Assembly  amended  the  act  of  the  Board  by  appropriating 
^^a  sum  not  exceeding  fifty  dollars  annually  for  one  such  Institute, 
held  as  provided  by  law  in  each  countv." 

By  act  approved  March  19,  1874,  Normal  Institutes  were  estab- 
lished in  eacn  county,  to  be  held  annually  by  the  County  Superin- 
tendent, and  in  1876"  the  Sixteenth  General  Assembly  established 
the  first  permanent  State  Normal  School  at  Cedar  Falls,  Black  Hawk 
County,  appropriating  the  building  and  property  of  the  Soldiers' 
Orphans'  Home  at  that  place  for  that  purpose. 

The  public  school  system  of  Iowa  is  admirably  organized,  and  if 
the  various  officers  who  are  entrusted  with  the  educational  interests 
of  the  commonwealth  are  faithful  and  competent,  should  and  will 
constantly  improve. 

'^The  public  schools  are  supported  by  funds  arising  from  several 
sources.  The  sixteenth  section  of  every  Congressional  Township 
was  set  apart  by  the  General  Government  for  school  purposes,  be- 
ing one-thirty-sixth  part  of  all  the  lands  of  the  State.  The  mini- 
mum price  of  these  lands  was  fixed  at  one  dollar  and  twenty-five 
cents  per  acre.  Congress  also  made  an  alditional  donation  to  the 
State  of  five  hundred  thousand  acres,  and  an  appropriation  of  five 
per  cent,  on  all  the  sales  of  public  lands  to  the  school  fund.  The 
otate  gives  to  this  fund  the  proceeds  of  the  sales  of  all  lands  which 
escheat  to  it;  the  proceeds  of  all  fines  for  the  violation  of  the 
liquor  and  criminal  laws.     The  money  derived  from  these  sources 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  103 

constitutes  the  permanent  school  fund  of  the  State,  which  cannot 
be  diverted  to  any  other  purpose.  The  penalties  collected  by  the 
courts  for  fines  and  forfeits  go  to  the  school  fund  in  the  counties 
where  collected.  The  proceeds  of  the  sale  of  hinds  and  the  five 
per  cent,  fund  go  into  the  State  Treasury,  and  the  State  distrib- 
utes these  proceeds  to  the  several  counties  according  to  their  re- 
quest, and  the  counties  loan  the  money  to  individuals  for  long 
terms  at  eight  per  cent,  interest,  on  security  of  land  valued  at  three 
times  the  amount  of  the  loan,  exclusive  of  all  buildings  and  im- 
provements thereon.  The  interest  on  these  loans  is  paid  into  the 
State  Treasury,  and  becomes  the  available  school  fund  of  the  State. 
The  counties  are  responsible  to  the  State  for  all  money  so  loaned, 
and  the  State  is  likewise  responsible  to  the  school  fund  for  all 
moneys  transferred  to  the  counties.  The  interest  on  these  loans 
is  appiortioned  by  the  State  Auditor  semi-annually  to  the  several 
counties  of  the  State,  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  persons 
between  the  ages  of  five  and  twenty-one  years.  The  counties  also 
levy  an  annual  tax  for  school  purposes,  which  is  apportioned  to 
the  several  district  townships  in  the  same  way.  A  district  tax 
is  also  levied  for  the  same  purpose.  The  money  arising  from  these 
several  sources  constitutes  the  support  of  the  public  schools,  and 
is  sufficient  to  enable  every  sub-district  in  the  State  to  afford  from 
six  to  nine  months'  school  each  year." 

The  taxes  levied  for  the  support  of  schools  are  self-imposed. 
Under  the  admirable  school  laws  of  the  State,  no  taxes  can  be  le- 
gally assessed  or  collected  for  the  erection  of  school  houses  until 
they  have  been  ordered  by  the  election  of  the  district  at  a  school 
meeting  legally  called.  The  school  houses  of  Iowa  are  the  pride 
of  the  State  and  an  honor  to  the  people.  If  they  have  been  some- 
times built  at  a  prodigal  expense,  the  tax  payers  have  no  one  to 
blame  but  themselves.  The  teachers'  and  contingent  funds  are 
determined  by  the  Directors,  under  certain  legal  restrictions. 
These  boards  are  elected  annually,  except  in  the  independent  dis- 
tricts, in  which  the  board  may  be  entirely  changed  every  three 
years.  The  only  exception  to  this  mode  of  levying  taxes  for  sup- 
port of  schools  is  the  county  school  tax,  which  is  determined  by 
the  County  Board  of  Supervisors.  The  tax  is  from  one  to  three 
mills  on  tne  dollar;  usually,  however,  but  one. 

In  his  admirable  message  to  the  General  Assembly,  just  previous 
to  retiring  from  the  Gubernatorial  chair.  Gov.  Gear  has  the  follow- 
ing to  say' concerning  the  public  schools  of  Iowa: 

"The  number  of  school  children  reported  is  594,750.  Of  this 
number  384,192  are,  by  approximation,  between  the  ages  of  six 
and  sixteen  years.  The  nuraoer  of  all  ages  enrolled  m  the  schools  is 
431,513,  which  shows  that  much  the  greater  proportion  of  chil- 
dren of  school  age  avail  themselves  of  the  benefits  of  our  educa- 
tional system.  The  average  attendance  is  254,088.  The  schools 
of  the  State  have  been  in  session,  on  an  average,  148  days. 


104  HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 

^There  is,  doubtless,  quite  a  percentage  of  children  who  attend 
schools  other  than  those  of  a  public  character.  Yet  the  figures  I 
have  quoted  show  clearly  that  very  many  children,  through  the 
negligence  or  unwillingness  of  parents,  do  not  attend  school  at  all, 
but  are  in  a  fair  way  to  grow  up  in  ignorance.  I,  therefore,  earn- 
estly suggest  that  you  consider  the  expediency  of  enacting  a  com- 
pulsory educational  law,  which  should  recjuire  attendance  upon 
schools  of  some  kind,  either  public  or  private.  To  me  it  does 
seem  as  if  the  State  shall  not  have  done  ner  full  duty  by  the  chil- 
dren, until  she  shall  have  completed  her  educational  system  by 
some  such  enacttnent. 

'^The  interest  in  the  normal  institutes  is  maintained,  and,  beyond 
doubt,  they  render  great  aid  in  training  the  teachers  who  attend 
them.  0 

"The  receipts  for  all  school  purposes  throughout  the  State  were 
$5,006,023.60,  and  the  expenditures  $5,129,279.49;  but  of  these  re- 
ceipts and  expenditures  about  $400,000  was  of  money  borrowed  to 
refund  outstanding  bonds  at  lower  rates  of  interest. 

^^The  amount  on  hand  aggregated,  at  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year, 
$2,653,356.55.  This  sum  is,  in  my  judgment,  much  larger  than 
the  necessities  of  the  schools  require,  and  it  would  be  well  to  im- 
pose some  check  to  prevent  an  excessive  or  unnecessary  levy  of 
taxes  for  school  purposes." 

The  significance  of  such  facts  as  these  is  unmistakable.  Such 
lavish  expenditures  can  only  be  accounted  for  by  the  liberality 
and  public  spirit  of  the  people,  all  of  whom  manifest  their  love  of 
popular  education  and  their  faith  in  the  public  schools  by  the  an- 
nual dedication  to  their  support  of  more  than  one  per  cent,  of  their 
entire  taxable  property;  this  too,  uninterruptedly  through  a  series 
of  years,  commencing  in  the  midst  of  a  war  which  taxed  their  en- 
ergies and  resources  to  the  extreme,  and  continuing  through  vears 
of  general  depression  in  business — years  of  moderate  yield  of  pro- 
duce, of  discouragingly  low  prices,  and  even  amid  the  scanty  sur- 
roundings and  privations  of  pioneer  life.  Few  human  enterprises 
have  a  grander  significance  or  give  evidence  of  a  more  noble  pur- 
pose than  the  generous  contributions  from  the  scanty  resources  of 
the  pioneer  for  the  purposes  of  public  education. 

POLITICAL  RECORD. 

TERRITORIAL  OFFICERS. 

Governors — Robert  Lucas,  1838-41;  John  Chambers,  1841-45; 
James  Clarke,  1845. 

Secretaries — William  B.  Conway,  1838,  died  1839;  James  Clarke, 
1839;  0.  H.  W.  Stull,  1841;  Samuel  J.  Burr,  1843;  Jesse  Wil- 
liams,  1845. 

Auditors— 3e&^  Williams,  1840;  Wm.  L.  Gilbert,  1843;  Robert 
M.  Secrest,  1845. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  105 

Treasurers — Thornton  Bajliss,  1839;  Morgan  Reno,  1840. 

Judges — Charles  Mason,  Chief  Ju«tice,  1838;  Joseph  Williams, 
1838,  Thomas  S.  WiUon,  1838. 

Presidents  of  Council — Jesse  B.  Browne,  1838-9 ;  Stephen 
Hempstead,  1839-40;  M.Bainridge,  1840-1;  Jonathan  W.  Parker, 
1841-2;  John  D.Elbert,  1842-3;  Thomas  Cox,  1843-4;  S.Clinton 
Hastinffs,  1845 ;  Stephen  Hempstead,  1845-6. 

Speakers  of  the  House— WiiMam  H.  Wallace,  1838-9;  Edward 
Johnston,  1839-40;  Thomas  Cox,  1840-1;  Warner  Lewis,  1841-2; 
James  M.Morgan,  1842-3;  James  P.  Carleton,  1843-4;  James 
M.  Morgan,  1845;  George  W.  McCleary,  1845-6. 

First  Constitutional  Uonvention^  1844— -Shepherd  Leffler,  Presi- 
dent; Geo.  S.  Hampton,  Secretary. 

Second  Constitutional  Convention,  1846 — Enos  Lowe,  President; 
William  Thompson,  Secretary. 

OFFICERS  OF  THE  STATE  GOVERNMENT. 

Governors — Ansel  Briggs,  1846  to  1850;  Stephen  Hempstead, 
1850  to  1854;  James  W.  Grimes,  1854  to  1858;  Ralph  P.  Lowe, 
1858  to  1860;  Samuel  J.  Kirkwood,  1860  to  18^4;  William  M. 
Stone,  1864  to  1868;  Samuel  Morrill,  lc68  to  1872;  Cyrus  C.  Car- 
penter,  1872  to  1876;  Samuel  J.  Kirkwood,  1876  to  1877;  Joshua 
G.  Newbold,  Acting,  1877  to  1878;  John  H.  Gear,  1878  to  1882; 
Buren  R.  Sherman,  1882  to . 

Lieutenant  Governors — OflBce  created  by  the  new  Constitution 
September  3,  1857— Oran  Faville,  1858-9;  Nicholas  J.  Rusch, 
1860-1;  John  R.  Needhara,  1862-3;  Enoch  W.  Eastman,  1864-5; 
Benjamin  F.  Gbe,  1866-7;  John  Scott,  1868-9;  M.  M.  Walden, 
1870-1;  H.  C.  Bulis,  1872-3;  Joseph  Dysart,  1874-5;  Joshua  G. 
Newbold,  1876-7;  Frank  T.  Campbell,  1878-82;  0.  H.  Manning, 
1882  to . 

Secretaries  of  State — Elisha  Cutler,  Jr.,  Dec.  5,  1846,  to  Dec.  4, 
1848;  Josiah  H.  Bonney,  Dec.  4, 1848,  to  Dec.  2, 1850;  George  W. 
McCleary,  Dec.  2,  1850,  to  Dec.  1, 1856;  Elijah  Sells,  Dec.  1,  1856, 
to  Jan.  5,  1863;  James  Wright,  Jan.  5,  1868,  to  Jan.  7,  1867;  Ed. 
Wright,  Jan.  7,  1867,  to  Jan.  6,  1873;  Josiah  T.  Young,  Jan.  6, 
i873,  to  1879;  J.  A.  T.  Hull,  1879  to ." 

Auditors  of  State— Joseph  T.  Falcs,  Dec.  5,  1846,  to  Dec.  2, 1850; 
William  Pattee,  Dec.  2, 1850,  to  Dec.  4, 1854;  Andrew  J.  Stevens, 
Dec.  4,  1854,  resigned  m  1855;  John  Pattee,  Sept.  22,  1855,  to 
Jan.  3,  1859;  Jonathan  W.  Cattell,  1859,  to  1865;  John  A.  Elliot, 
1865  to  1871;  John  Rassell,  1871  to  1875;  Buren  R.^Sherman, 
1875  to  1881;  W.  V.  Lucas,  1881  to . 

Treasurers  of  State — Morgan  Reno,  Dec.  18,  1846,  to  Dec.  2, 
1850;  Israel  Kister,  Dec.  2,  1850,  to  Dec.  4,  1852,  Martin  L.  Mor- 
ris, Dec.  4,  1852,  to  Jan.  2,  1859;  John  W.  Jones,  1859  to  1863; 
William  H.  Holmes,  1863  to  1867;    Samuel  E.  Rankin,  1867  to 


106  HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 

1873;  William  Christy,  1873  to  1877;  -George  W.  Bemis,  1877  to 
1881;  Edwin  G.  Conger,  1881  to . 

Superintendents  of  Public  Instruction — OflSce  created  in  1847 — 
James  Harlan,  June  5, 1845  (Supreme  Court  decided  election  void); 
Thomas  H.  Benton,  Jr.,  May  23,  1844,  to  June  7,  1854;  James  D. 
Eads,  1854-7;  Joseph  C.  Stone,  March  to  June,  1857;  Maturin  L. 
Fisher,  1857  to  Dec.  1858,  when  the  oflBce  was  abolished  and  the 
duties  of  the  office  devolved  upon  the  Secretary  of  the  Board  of 
Education. 

Secretaries  of  the  Board  of  Education — Thomas  H.  Benton,  Jr., 
1859-1863;  Oran  Faville,  Jan.  1,  1864.  Board  abolished  March 
23,  1864. 

Superintendents  of  Public  Instruction — Office  re-created  March 
23, 1864— Oran  Faville,  March  28, 1864,  resigned  March  1,  1867; 
D.  Franklin  Wells,  March  4,  1867,  to  Jan.,  1870;  A.  S.  Kissell, 
1870  to  1872;  Alonzo  Abemethy,  1872  to  1877;  Carl  W.  von 
Coelln,  1877  to  1882;  J.  W.  Akers,  1882  to . 

State  Binders — Office  created  February  21, 1855 — William  M. 
Coles,  May  1, 1855,  to  May  1, 1859;  Frank  M.  Mills,  1859  to  1867; 
James  S.  Cartel",  1867  to  1870;  J.  J.  Smart,  1870  to  1874;  H.  A. 
Perkins,  1874  to  1878;  Matt  Parrott,  1878  to . 

Registers  of  the  State  Land  Office — Anson  Hart,  May  5,  1855,  to 
Mav  13,  1857;  Theodore  S.  Parvin,  May  13,1857,  to  Jan.  3,  1859; 
Am'os  B.  Miller,  Jan.  3,  1859,  to  October,  1862;  Edwin  Mitchell, 
Oct.  31,  1862,  to  Jan.  5,  1863;  Josiah  A.  Harvey,  Jan.  5,  1863,  to 
Jan.  7,  1867;  Cyrus  C.  Carpenter,  Jan.  7,  1867,  to  January,  1871; 
Aaron  Brqwn,  January,  1871,  to  January,  1875;  David  Secor,  Jan- 
uary, 1875,  to  1879;  J.  K.  Powers,  1879  to . 

State  Printers — Office  created  Jan.  3,  1840 — Garrett  D.  Palmer 
and  George  Paul,  1849;  William  H.  Merritt,  1851  to  1853;  Wil- 
liam  A.  Hornish,  1853  (resigned  May  16,  1853);  Mahoney  &  Dorr, 
1853  to  1855;  Peter  Moriarty,  1855  to  1857;  John  Teesdale,  1857 
to  1861;  Francis  W.  Palmer,  1861  to  1869;  Frank  M.  Mills,  1869 
to  1870;  G.  W.  Edwards,  1870  to  1872;'  R.  P.  Clarkson,  1872  to 
1878;  Frank  M.  Mills,  1878  to . 

Adjutants  General — Daniel  S.  Lee,  1851-5;  Geo.  W.  McCleary, 
1855-7;  Elijah  Sells,  1857;  Jesse  Bowen,  1857-61;  Nathaniel  Ba- 
ker, 1861  to  1877;  John  H.  Looby,  1877  to  1879;  W.  L.  Alexan- 
der, 1879  to . 

Attorneys  General — David  C.  Cloud,  1853-56;  Samuel  A.  Rice, 
1856-60;  Charles  C.  Nourse,  1861-4;  Isaac  L.  Allen,  1865  (resigned 
January,  1866);  Frederick  E.  Bissell,  1866  (died  June  12, 1867); 
Henry  O'Connor,  1867-72;  Marsena  E.  Cutts,  1872-6;  John  F. 
McJunkin,  1877  to  1881;  Smith  McPherson,  1881  to . 

Presidents  of  the  Senate — Thomas  Baker,  1846-7;  Thomas 
Hughes,  1848;  'John  J .  Selman,  1848-9:  Enos  Lowe,  1850-1 ;  Wil- 
liam E.  Leffingwell,  1852-3;  Maturin  L.  Fisher,  1854-5;  William 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  JOT 

W.  Hamilton,  1856-7.  Under  the  New  Constitution,  the  Lieuten- 
ant Governor  is  President  of  the  Senate. 

Speakers  of  the  House — Jesse  B.  Brown,  1847-8;  Smiley  H. 
Bonhan,  1849-50;  George  Temple,  1851-2;  James  Grant,  1853-4; 
Reuben  Noble,  1855-6;  Samuel  McFarland,  1856-7;  Stephen  B. 
Sheledy,  1858-9;  John  Edwards,  1860-1;  Rush  Clark,  1862-3;  Ja- 
cob Butler,  1864-5;  Ed.  Wright,  1866-7;  John  Russell,  1868-9; 
Aylett  R.  Cotton,  1870-1;  James  Wilson,  1872-3;  John  H.  Gear, 
1874-7;  John  Y.  Stone,  1878-9;  Lore  Alford,  1880-1;  G.  R.  Stru- 
ble,  1882  to . 

New  Constitutional  Convention,  1859 — Francis  Springer,  Presi- 
dent; Thos.  J.  Saunders,  Secretary. 

STATE  OFFICERS,  1882. 

Buren  R.  Sherman,  Governor;  0.  H.  Manning,  Lieutenant  Gov- 
ernor; John  A.  T.  Hull,  Secretary  of  State;  William  V.  Lucas,  Au- 
ditor of  State;  Edwin  H.  Conger,  Treasurer  of  State;  James  K. 
Powers,  Register  of  State  Land  Office;  W.  L.  Alexamler.  Adjutant 
General;  Smith  McPherson,  Attorney  General;  Edward  J.  Holmes, 
Clerk  of  the  Supreme  Court;  Jno.  S.  Runnells,  Reporter  Supreme 
Court;  J.  W.  Akers,  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction;  Frank 
M.  Mills,  State  Printer;  Matt.  Parrott,  State  Binder;  Prof.  Nathan 
R.  Leonard,  Superintendent  of  Weights  and  Measures;  Mrs.  S.  B. 
Maxwell,  State  Librarian. 

THE  JUDICIARY. 

SUPREME  COURT  OF  IOWA,  1882. 

Chief  Justice,  Austin  Adams,  Dubuque;  Associate  Judges,  Wil- 
liam H.  Seevers,  Oskaloosa;  James  G.  Day,  Sidney;  James  H.  Roth- 
rock,  Tipton;  Joseph  M.  Beck,  Fort  Madison. 

DISTRICT  COURT&,  1882. 

First  Judicial  District,  Abraham  H.  Stutsman,  Burlington;  Sec- 
ond Judicial  District,  Edward  L.  Burton,  Ottumwa;  Third  Judicial 
District,  R.  C.  Henry,  Mount  Ayr;  Fourth  Judicial  District,  Charles 
H.  Lewis,  Cherokee;  Fifth  Judicial  District,  William  H.  McHenry, 
Des  Moines;  Sixth  Judicial  District,  John  C.  Cook,  Newton;  Sev- 
enth Judicial  District,  Walter  I.  Hayes,  Clinton;  Eighth  Judicial 
District,  John  Shane,  Vinton;  Ninth  Judicial  Distnct,  Sylvester 
Bagg,  Waterloo;  Tenth  Judicial  District,  Ezekiel  E.  Cooley,  De- 
coran;  Eleventh  Judicial  District,  James  W.  McKenzie,  Hampton; 
Twelfth  Judicial  District,  Geo.  W.  Ruddick,  Waverly;  Thirteenth 
Judicial  District,  Joseph  R.  Reed,  Council  Bluffs;  Fourteenth  Ju- 
dicial District,  Ed.  R.  Duffie,  Sac  City. 

ciRcmT  COURTS,  1882. 

First  Judicial  Circuit,  First  District,  William  J.  Jeffries,  Mt. 
Pleasant;  Second  Judicial  Circuit,  First  District,  Charles  Phelps, 


108  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

Burlington;  Second  Judicial  Circuit,  H.  C.  Traverse,  Bloomfield; 
Third  Judicial  Circuit,  D.  D.  Gregory,  Afton;  Fourth  Judicial 
Circuit,  J.  R.  Zuver,  Sioux  City;  First  Judicial  Circuit,  Fifth 
District,  Josiah  Given,  Des  Moines;  Second  Judicial  Circuit, 
Fifth  District,  Stephen  A.  Call  vert,  Adel;  Sixth  Judicial  Circuit. 
W.  R.  Lewis,  Montezuma;  First  Judicial  Circuit,  Seventh  District, 
Charles  W.  Chase,  Clinton;  Second  Judicial  Circuit,  Seventh  Dis- 
trict, DeWitt  C.  Richman,  Muscatine;  Eighth  Judicial  Circuit, 
Christian  Hedges,  Marengo;  Ninth  Judicial  Circuit,  Benjamin  W. 
Lacy,  Dubuque;  Tenth  Judicial  Circuit,  Charles  T.  Granger,  Wau- 
kon;  Eleventh  Judicial  Circuit,  D.  D.  Miracle,  Webster  City; 
Twelfth  Judicial  Circuit,  Robert  G.  Reineger,  Charles  City;  Thir- 
teenth Judicial  Circuit,  C.  F.  Loofbourrow,  Atlantic;  Fourteenth 
Judicial  Circuit,  John  N.  Weaver,  Algona. 

CONGRESSIONAL  REPRESENTATION. 

UXITED   STATES   SENATORS. 

(The  first  General  Assembly  failed  to  elect  Senators.) 
George  W.  Jones,  Dubuque,  Dec.  7,  1848-1858;  Augustus  C. 
Dodge,  Burlington,  Dec.  7,1848-1855;  James  Harlan,  Mt.  Pleas- 
ant, Jan.  6,  1855-1865;  James  W.  Grimes,  Burlington,  Jan.  26, 
1858-died  1870;  Samuel  J.  Kirkwood,  Iowa  City,  elected  Jan.  13, 
1866,  to  fill  vacancy  caused  by  resignation  of  James  Harlan;  James 
Harlan,  Mt.  Pleasant,  March  4,  1866-1872;  James  B.  Howell, 
Keokuk,  elected  Jan.  20, 1870,  to  fill  vacancy  caused  by  the  death  of 
J.  W.  GrimjBs — term  expired  March  3d;  George  G.  Wr^ht,  Des 
Moines,  March  4,  1871-1877;  William  B.  Allison,  Dubuque, 
March  4,  1872;  Samuel  J.  Kirkwood,  March  4,  1877;  James  W. 
McDill,  appointed  to  fill  vacancy  caused  by  the  resignation  of  S. 
J.  Kirkwood,  in  1881,  and  elected  Jan.  1882,  to  fill  the  unexpired 
term;  James  F.  Wilson,  elected  Jan.  1882,  for  the  full  term,  be- 
ginning March  4,  1883. 

MEMBERS   OF   HOUSE   OF  REPRESENTATIVES. 

Twenty-ninth  Congress — 1846  to  1847. — S.  Clinton  Hastings; 
Shepherd  Lefiler. 

Thirtieth  Congress— \U1  to  1849.— First  District,  William 
Thompson;  Second  District,  Shepherd  Leffler. 

Thirty-first  Congress— IS^^  to  1851.— First  District,  First  Ses- 
sion,  Wm.  Thompson;  unseated  by  the  House  of  Representatives 
on  a  contest,  and  election  remanded  to  the  people.  First  District, 
Second  Session,  Daniel  F.  Miller.  Second  District,  Shepherd 
Leffler. 

Thirty-second  Congress — 1851  to  1853. — First  Districb,  Bern- 
hart  Henn.     Second  District,  Lincoln  Clark. 

Thirty-third  Congress — 1853  to  1855. — First  District,  Bernhart 
Henn.    Second  District,  John  P.  Cook. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  109 

Thirty-fourth  Congress — 1855  to  1857. — First  District,  Augustus 
Hall.     Second  Distnct,  James  Thorington. 

Thirty-fifth  Congress— 1S57  to  1859.— First  District,  Samuel 
R.  Curtis.    Second  District,  Timothy  Davis. 

Thirty-sixth  Congress — 1859  to  1861. — First  District,  Samuel 
R.  Curtis.     Second  District,  William  Vandever. 

Thirtu-seventh  Congress— 1S61  to  1863.— First  District,  First 
Session,  Samuel  R.  Curtis.*  First  District,  Second  and  Third  Ses- 
sions, James  F.  Wilson.     Second  District,  William  Vandever. 

Thirty-eighth  Congress — 1863  to  1865. — First  District,  James 
F.  Wilson.  Second  District,  Hiram  Price;  Third  District,  William 
B.  Allison;  Fourth  District,  Josiah  B.  Grinnell;  Fifth  District, 
John  A.  Kasson;  Sixth  District,  Asahel  W.  Hubbard. 

Thirty-ninth  Congress — 1865  to  1867. — First  District,  James 
F.  Wilson;  Second  District,  Hiram  Price;  Third  District,  William 
B.Allison;  Fourth  District,  Josiah  B.  Grinnell,  Fifth  District, 
John  A.  Kasson;  Sixth  District,  Asahel  W.  Hubbard. 

Fortieth  Congress— 1S67  to  1869.— First  District,  James  F. 
Wilson;  Second  District,  Hiram  Price;  Third  District,  William  B. 
Allison;  Fourth  District,  William  Loughridge;  Fifth  District, 
Grenville  M.  Dodge;  Sixth  District,  Asahel  W.  Hubbard. 

Fortyfirst  Congress — 1869  to  1871. — First  District,  George  W. 
McCrary;  Second  District,  William  Smyth;  Third  District, 
William  B.  Allison ;  Fourth  District,  William  Loughridge;  Fifth 
District,  Frank  W.  Palmer;  Sixth  District,  Charles  Pomeroy. 

Forty-second  Congress — 1871  to  1873. — First  District,  George 
W.  McCrary;  Second  District,  Aylett  R.  Cotton;  Third  District, 
W.  G.  Donnan;  Fourth  District,  Madison  M.  Waldon;  Fifth  Dis- 
trict, Frank  W.  Palmer;  Sixth  District,  Jackson  Orr. 

Forty-third  Congress — 1873  to  1875. — First  District,  George  W. 
McCrary;  Second  District,  Aylett  R.  Cotton;  Third  District, 
William  G.  Donnan;  Fourth  District,  Henry  0.  Pratt;  Fifth  Dis- 
trict, James  Wilson;  Sixth  District,  William  Loughridge;  Seventh 
District,  John  A.  Kasson;  Eighth  District,  James  W.  McDill; 
Ninth  District,  Jackson  Orr. 

Forty-fourth  Congress — 1875  to  1877. — First  District,  George 
W.  McCrary;  Second  District,  John  Q.  Tufts;  Third  District,  L. 
L.  Ainsworth;  Fourth  District,  Henry  0.  Pratt;  Fifth  District, 
James  Wilson;  Sixth  District,  Ezekiel  S.  Sampson;  Seventh  Dis- 
trict, John  A.  Kasson;  Eighth  District,  James  W.  McDill;  Ninth 
District,  Addison  Oliver. 

Forty-fifth  Congress— 1^11  to  1879.— First  District,  J.  C. 
Stone;  Second  District,  Hiram  Price;  Third  District,  T.  W.  Bur- 
dick;  Fourth  District,  H.  C.  Deering;  Fifth  District,  Rush  Clark; 
Sixth  District,  E.  S.  Sampson;  Seventh  District,  H.  J.  B.  Cum- 
mings;  Eighth  District,  W.  F.  Sapp;  Ninth  District,  A.  Oliver. 

♦Vacated  seat  by  acceptance  of  commission  as  Biigradior  General,  and  J.  F.  Wilson 
chosen  his  sucoessor. 


110  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

FortU'Sixth  Congress. — 1879  to  1881. — First  District,  Moses  A. 
McCoid;  Second  District,  Hiram  Price;  Third  District,  Thomas 
UpdegraflF;  Fourth  District,  Nathaniel  U.  Deering;  Firth  District, 
W .  G.  Thompson;  Sixth  District,  James  B.  Weaver;  Seventh  Dis- 
iiict,  Edward  H.  Gillette;  Eighth  District,  William  F.  Sapp; 
Ninth  District,  Cyrus  C.  Carpenter, 

Forty-Seventh  Congress — 1881  to  1883. — First  District,  Moses 
A.  McCoid;  Second  District,  Sewall  S.  Farwell;  Third  District, 
Thomas  Updegraff;  Fourth  District,  Nathaniel  C.  Deering;  Fifth 
District,  W.  6.  Thompson;  Sixth  District,  Madison  E.  Cutts; 
Seventh  District,  John  A.  Kasson;  Eighth  District,  William  P. 
Hepburn;  Ninth  District,  Cyrus  C.  Carpenter. 

WAR  RECORD. 

The  State  of  Iowa  may  well  be  proud  of  her  record  during  the 
War  of  the  Rebellion,  from  1861  to  1865.  The  following  brief 
but  comprehensive  sketch  of  the  history  she  made  during  that  try- 
ing period,  is  largely  from  the  pen  of  Col.  A.  P.  Wooci,  of  Du- 
buque, the  author  of  "The  History  of  Iowa  and  the  War,"  one  of 
the  best  works  of  the  kind  jet  written. 

"  Whether  in  the  promptitude  of  her  responses  to  the  calls  made 
on  her  by  the  General  Government,  in  the  courage  and  constancy 
of  her  soldiery  in  the  field,  or  in  the  wisdom  and  efficiency  witn 
which  her  civil  administration  was  conducted  during  the  trying 
period  covered  by  the  War  of  the  Rebellion,  Iowa  proved  herself 
the  peer  of  any  loyal  State.  The  proclamation  of  her  Governor, 
responsive  to  that  of  the  President,  calling  for  volunteers  to  com- 
pose her  Fii-st  Regiment,  was  issued  on  the  fourth  day  after  the 
fall  of  Sumter.  At  the  end  of  only  a  single  week,  men  enough 
were  reported  to  be  in  quarters  (mostly  in  the  vicinity  of  their 
own  homes)  to  fill  the  regiment.  These,  however,  were  hardly 
more  than  a  tithe  of  the  number  who  had  been  offered  by  com- 
pany commanders  for  acceptance  under  the  President's  call.  So 
urgent  were  these  offers  that  the  Governor  requested  (on  the  24th 
of  April)  permission  to  organize  an  additional  regiment.  While 
awaiting  an  answer  to  this  re(j[uest,  he  conditionally  accepted  a 
sufficient  number  of  companies  to  compose  two  additional  regi- 
ments. In  a  short  time,  he  was  notified  that  both  of  these  would 
be  accepted.  Soon  after  the  completion  of  the  Second  and  Third 
Regiments  (which  was  near  the  close  of  May),  the  Adjutant  Gen- 
eral of  thie  State  reported  that  upwards  of  one  hundred  and  seventy 
companies  had  been  tendered  to  the  Governor  to  serve  against  the 
enemies  of  the  Union. 

''Much  difficulty  and  considerable  delay  occurred  in  fitting  the^e 
regiments  for  the  field.  For  the  First  Infantry  a  complete  outfit 
(not  uniform)  of  clothing  was  extemporized— principally  by  the 
volunteered  labor  of  loyal  |women  in  the  different  towns — from 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  Ill 

material  of  various  colors  and  qualities,  obtained  within  the  limits 
of  the  State.  The  same  was  done  in  part  for  the  Second  Infantry. 
Meantime,  an  extra  session  of  the  General  Assembly  had  been 
called  by  the  Governor,  to  convene  on  the  15th  of  May.  With 
but  Little  delay,  that  body  authorized  a  loan  of  $800,000,  to  meet 
the  extraordinary  expenses  incurred,  and  to  be  incurred,  by  the 
Executive  Department,  in  consequence  of  the  new  emergency.  A 
wealthv  merchant  of  the  State  (Ex-Governor  Merrill,  then  a  resi- 
dent of  McGregor)  immediately  took  from  the  Governor  a  con- 
tract to  supply  a  complete  outfit  of  clothing  for  the  three  regi- 
ments organized,  agreeing  to  receive,  should  the  Governor  so  elect, 
his  pay  therefor  in  State  bonds  at  par.  This  contract  he  executed 
to  tne  letter,  and  a  portion  of  the  clothing  (which  was  manufac- 
tured in  Boston,  to  his  order)  was  delivered  at  Keokuk,  the  place 
at  which  the  troops  had  rendezvoused,  in  exactly  one  month  from 
the  day  on  which  the  contract  had  been  entered  into.  The  re- 
mainder arrived  only  a  few  davs  later.  This  clothing  was  deliver- 
ed to  the  regiment,  but  was  subsequently  condemned  by  the  Gov- 
ernment, for  the  reason  that  its  color  was  ^ay,  and  blue  had  been 
adopted  as  the  color  to  be  worn  by  the  national  troops." 

Other  States  also  clothed  their  troops^  sent  forward  under  the 
first  call  of  President  Lincoln,  with  gray  uniforms,  but  it  was  soon 
found  that  the  Confederate  forces  were  also  clothed  in  gray,  and 
that  color  was  at  once  abandoned  by  the  Union  troops.  If  both 
armies  were  clothed  alike,  annoying  if  not  fatal  mistakes  were 
liable  to  be  made. 

But  while  engaged  in  these  efforts  to  discharge  her  whole  duty, 
in  common  with  all  the  other  Union-loving  States  in  the  great 
emergency,  Iowa  was  compelled  to  make  immediate  and  ample  pro- 
vision for  the  protection  or  her  own  borders,  from  threatened  inva- 
sion on  the  south  by  the  Secessionists  of  Missouri,  and  from 
incursions  from  the  west  and  northwest  by  bc^nds  of  hostile  Indians, 
who  were  freed  from  the  usual  restraint  imposed  upon  them  by 
the  presence  of  regular  troops  stationed  at  the  frontier  posts. 
These  troops  were  withdrawn  to  meet  the  greater  and  more  press* 
ing  danger  threatening  the  life  of  the  nation  at  its  very  heart. 

To  provide  for  the  adequate  defense  of  her  borders  from  the 
ravages  of  both  rebels  in  arms  against  the  Government,  and  of 
the  more  irresistible  foes  from  the  Western  plains,  the  Governor 
of  the  State  was  authorized  to  raise  and  equip  two  regiments  of 
infantry,  a  squadron  of  cavalry  (not  less  than  five  companies)  and 
a  battaUon  of  artillery  (not  less  than  three  companies).  Only 
cavalry  were  enlisted  for  home  defense,  however,  '*but,"  says  Col. 
Wood,  *'  in  times  of  special  danger,  or  when  calls  were  made  by 
the  Unionists  of  Northern  Missouri  for  assistance  against  their 
disloyal  enemies,  large  numbers  of  militia  on  foot  often  turned  out, 
and  remained  in  the  field  until  the  necessity  for  their  services  had 
passed. 


112  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

'*  The  first  order  for  the  Iowa  volunteers  to  move  to  the  field 
was  received  on  the  13th  of  Jane.  It  was  issued  by  Gen.  Lyon, 
then  commanding  the  United  States  forces  in  Missouri.  The 
First  and  Second  Infantry  immediately  embarked  in  steamboats, 
and  moved  to  Hannibal.  Some  two  weeks  later,  the  Third  In- 
fantry was  ordered  to  the  same  point.  These  three,  together  with 
many  other  of  the  earlier  organized  Iowa  regiments,  rendered  their 
first  field  service  in  Missouri.  The  First  Infantry  formed  a  part 
of  the  little  army  with  which  Gen.  Lyon  moved  on  Springfield, 
and  fought  the  bloody  battle  of  Wilson's  Creek.  It  received  un- 
qualified praise  for  its  gallant  bearing  on  the  field.  In  the  follow- 
ing month  (September),  the  Third  Iowa,  with  but  very  slight  sup- 
ert,  fought  with  honor  the  sanguinary  en^igement  of  Blue 
ills  Landing;  and  in  November,  the  Seventh  Iowa,  as  a  part  of 
a  force  commanded  by  Gen.  Grant,  greatly  distinguished  itself  in 
the  battle  of  Belmont,  where  it  poured  out  its  blood  like  water — 
losing  more  than  half  of  the  men  it  took  into  action. 

'^  The  initial  operations  in  which  the  battles  referred  to  took 
place,  were  followed  by  the  more  important  movements  led  by 
Gen.  Grant,  Gen.  Curtis,  of  this  State,  and  other  commanders, 
which  resulted  in  defeating  the  armies  defending  the  chief 
strategic  lines  held  by  the  Confederates  in  Kentucky,  Tennessee, 
Missouri  and  Arkansas,  and  compelling  their  withdrawal  from 
much  of  the  territory  previously  controlled  by  them  in  those 
States.  In  these  and  other  movements,  down  to  the  grand  culmin- 
ating campaign  by  which  Vicksburg  was  captured  and  the  Con- 
federacy permanently  severed  on  the  line  of  tne  Mississipiti  River, 
Iowa  troops  took  part  in  steadily  increasing  numbers.  In  the  in- 
vestment and  siege  of  Vicksburg,  the  State  was  represented  by 
thirty  regiment  and  two  batteries,  in  addition  to  which,  eight 
regiments  and  one  battery  were  employed  on  the  outposts  of  the 
besieging  army.  The  brilliancy  of  their  exploits  on>  the  many 
fields  where  they  served,  won  for  them  the  highest  meed  of  praise, 
both  in  military  and  civil  circles.  Multipled  were  the  terms  in 
which  expression  was  given  to  this  sentiment,  but  these  words  of 
one  of  the  journals  of  a  neighboring  State,  'The  Iowa  troops  have 
been  heroes  among  heroes,'  embody  the  spirit  of  all. 

''In  the  veteran  re -enlistments  that  distinguished  the  closing 
months  of  1863,  above  all  other  periods  in  the  nistory  of  re-enlist- 
ments for  the  national  armies,  the  Iowa  three  years'  men  (who 
were  relatively  more  numerous  than  those  of  "any  other  State) 
were  prompt  to  set  the  example  of  volunteering  for  another  term 
of  equal  length,  thereby  aading  many  thousands  to  the  great 
army  of  those  who  gave  this  renewed  and  practical  assurance  that 
the  cause  of  the  Union  should  not  be  left  without  defender?. 

"In  all  the  important  movements  of  18AM<5,  by  which  the 
Confederacy  was*  penetrated  iajaiH|IHH|iM^'  and  its  nmitary  power 
finally  overthrown,  t^^H||^^^^^^^H|Et*    Their  drum-beat 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  -  113 

was  heard  on  the  banks  of  every  great  river  of  the  South,  from 
the  Potomac  to  the  Rio  Grande,  and  everywhere  they  rendered 
the  same  faithful  and  devoted  service,  maintaining  on  all  occasions 
their  wonted  reputation  for  valor  in  the  field  and  endurance  on  the 
march. 

'TTwo  Iowa  three-year  cavalry  regiments  were  employed  during 
the  whole  term  of  service  in  the  operations  that  were  in  progress 
from  1863  to  1866  against  the  hostile  Indians  of  the  western 
plains.  A  portion  of  these  men  were  among  the  last  of  the  vol- 
unteer troops  to  be  mustered  out  of  service.  The  State  also  sup- 
plied a  considerable  number  of  men  to  the  navy,  who  took  part  m 
most  of  the  naval  operations  prosecuted  against  the  Confederate 
power  on  the  Atlantic  and  Grulf  coasts,  and  the  rivers  of  the 
West. 

''The  people  of  Iowa  were  early  and  constant  workers  in  the  san- 
itary field,  and  by  their  liberal  gifts  and  personal  eflforts  for  the 
benefit  of  the  soldierj,  placed  their  State  m  front  rank  of  those 
who  became  distinguished  for  their  exhibition  of  patriotic  benevo- 
lence during  the  period  covered  by  the  war.  Agents  appointed 
by  the  Governor  were  stationed  at  points  convenient  for  rendering 
assistance  to  the  sick  and  needy  soldiers  of  the  State,  while  others 
were  employed  in  visiting,  from  time  to  time,  hospitals,  camps  and 
armies  in  the  field,  and  doing  whatever  the  circumstauces  rendered 
possible  for  the  health  and  comfort  of  such  of  the  Iowa  soldiers  as 
might  be  found  there. 

"Some  of  the  benevolent  people  of  the  State  early  conceived  the 
idea  of  establishing  a  Home  for  such  of  the  children  of  deceased 
soldiers  as  might  be  left  in  destitute  circumstances.  This  idea 
first  took  form  in  1863,  and  in  the  following  year  a  Home  was 
opened  at  Farmington,  Van  Buren  County,  in  a  building  leased 
for  that  purpose,  and  which  soon  became  filled  to  its  utmost  ca- 
pacity. The  institution  received  liberal  donations  from  the  gen- 
eral public,  and  also  from  the  soldiers  in  the  field.  In  1865  it  be- 
came necessary  to  provide  increased  accommodations  for  the  large 
number  of  children  who  were  seeking  the  benefits  of  its  care. 
This  was  done  by  establishing  a  branch  at  Cedar  Falls,  in  Black 
Hawk  County,  and  by  securing,  during  the  same  year,  for  the 
use  of  the  parent  Home,  Camp  Kinsman,  near  the  city  of  Daven- 
port. This  property  was  soon  afterward  donated  to  the  institu- 
tion by  act  of  Congress. 

'•In  1866,  in  pursuance  of  a  law  enacted  for  that  purpose,  the 
Soldiers'  Orphans'  Home  (which  then  contained  about  four  hun- 
dred and  fifty  inmates)  became  a  State  institution,  and  thereafter 
the  sums  necessary  for  its  support  were  appropriated  from  the 
State  treasury.  A  second  branch  was  established  at  Glenwood, 
Mills'County.  Convenient  tracts  were  secured,  and  valuable  im- 
provements made  at  the  diflerent  points.  Schools  were  also  estab- 
lished, and  employments  provided  for  such  of  the  children  as  were 


114  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

of  suitable  age.  In  all  ways  the  provision  made  for  these  wards 
of  the  State  has  been  such  as  to  cnallenge  the  approval  of  every 
benevolent  mind.  The  number  of  children  who  have  been  in- 
mates of  the  Home  from  its  foundation  to  the  present  time  is  con- 
siderably more  than  two  thousand. 

"At  the  beginning  of  the  war,  the  population  of  Iowa  included 
about  one  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  men,  presumably  liable  to 
render  military  service.  The  State  raised,  for  general  service, 
thirty-nine  regiments  of  infantry;  nine  regiments  of  cavalry,  and 
four  companies  of  artillery,  composed  of  three  years'  men;  one 
regiment  of  Infantry,  composed  of  three  months  men;  and  four 
regiments  and  one  battallion  of  infantry  composed  of  one  hundred 
days'  men.  The  original  enlistments  m  these  various  organiza- 
tions, including  seventeen  hundred  and  twenty-seven  men  raised 
by  draft,  numbered  a  little  more  than  sixty-nine  thousand.  The 
re-enlistments,  including  upward  of  seven  thousand  veterans, 
numbered  very  nearly  eight  thousand.  The  enlistments  in  the 
regular  army  and  navv,  and  organizations  of  other  States,  will,  if 
added,  raise  the  total  to  upward  of  eighty  thousand.  The  number 
of  men  who,  under  special  enlistments,  and  as  militia,  took  part  at 
different  times  in  the  operations  on  the  exposed  borders  of  the 
State,  was  probably  as  many  as  five  thousand. 

"Iowa  paid  no  bounty  on  account  of  the  men  she  placed  in  the 
field.  In  some  instances,  toward  the  close  of  the  war,  bounty  to  a 
comparatively  small  amount  was  paid  by  cities  and  towns.  On 
only  one  occasion — that  of  the  call  of  July  18,  1864 — was  a  draft 
made  in  Iowa.  This  did  not  occur  on  account  of  her  proper  liabil- 
ity, as  established  by  previous  rulings  of  the  War  Department,  to 
supply  men  under  that  call,  but  grew  out  of  the  great  necessity 
that  there  existed  for  raising  men.  The  Government  insisted  on 
temporarily  setting  aside,  in  part,  the  former  rule  of  settlements, 
and  enforcing  a  draft  in  all  cases  where  sub-districts  in  any  of  the 
States  should  be  found  deficient  in  their  supply  of  men.  In  no 
instance  was  Iowa,  as  a  whole,  found  to  be  indebted  to  the  General 
Government  for  men,  on  a  settlement  of  her  quota  accounts." 

It  is  to  be  said  to  the  honor  and  credit  of  Iowa,  that  while  many 
of  the  loyal  States,  older  and  larger  in  population  and  wealth,  in- 
curred heavv  State  debts  for  the  purpose  of  fulfilling  their  obli- 
gations to  the  General  Government,  Iowa,  while  she  was  foremost 
m  duty,  while  she  promptly  discharged  all  her  obligations  to  her 
sister  btates  and  the  Union,  found  herself  at  the  close  of  the  war 
vrithout  any  material  addition  to  her  pecuniary  liabilities  incurred 
before  the  war  commenced.  Upon  final  settlement  after  the  res- 
toration of  peace,  her  claims  upon  the  Federal  Government  were 
found  to  be  fully  equal  to  the  amount  of  her  bonds  issued  and  sold 
during  the  war  to  provide  the  means  for  raising  and  equipping  her 
troops  sent  into  the  field,  and  to  meet  the  inevitable  demands  upon 
her  treasury  in  consequence  of  the  war. 


HI8T0BY  OP  IOWA 


115 


STATEMENT  showing  the  number  of  men  furnished  and  casualties  in  Iowa 

regiments  during  the  War  of  the  Rebellion. 


Regimknts. 


Ist  Battery 

2d  Battery 

3d  Battery 

4th  Battery 

l«t  Cavalry 

2d  Cavalry 

3d  Cavalry 

4tii  Cavalry 

5th  Cavalry 

6th  Cavalry 

7th  Cavalry 

8th  Cavahy 

9th  Cavahy 

Sioux  City  Cavalry 

Co.  A,  11th  Penn.  Cavalry. 

Ist  Infantry ,, 

2d  Infancy 

3d  Infantry 

2d  and  3d  Inf.  Consolidated 

4th  Infantry 

5th  InfJEuati^ 

6th  Infantry 

7th  Infantry 

Sth  Infantiy 

9th  Infantiy 

10th  Infantry 

11th  Infantiy 

12th  Infantiy 

13th  Infantry 

14th  Infantry 

14th  Inf.  Res.  Batt 

15th  Infantry 

16th  Infantry 

17th  Infantry 

18th  Infantry 

19th  Infantry 

20th  Infantry 

2l8t  Infantry 

22d  Infantry 

23d  Infantry 

24th  Infantry 

25th  Infentry 

26th  Infantry'. 

27th  Infantry 

28th  Infantry 

29th  Infantry 

30th  Infantry 

3l8t  Infantry 

32d  Infantry 

33d  Infantiy 

34th  Infantiy 


No.  of 
Men. 

Total 
Casualties. 

Killed.or 

died  of 

wounds. 

149 

124 

10 

128 

62 

2 

142 

79 

4 

152 

17 

•  • 

1478 

543 

54 

1394 

602 

65 

1360 

770 

77 

1227 

590 

48 

1245 

452 

43 

1125 

198 

21 

562 

402 

40 

1284 

274 

83 

1178 

258 

15 

93 

7 

•  • 

87 

5 

1 

959 

165 

17 

1247 

758 

72 

1074 

749 

80 

•  •  •  • 

28 

18 

1184 

973 

108 

1037 

699 

88 

1013 

855 

132 

1138 

885 

129 

1027 

761 

93 

1090 

973 

1:3:^ 

1027 

789 

91 

1022 

610 

79 

981 

768 

62 

989 

852 

99 

840 

526 

50 

•  •  •  » 

11 

•  • 

1196 

1029 

180 

918 

819 

89 

950 

614 

61 

875 

449 

38 

985 

562 

86 

925 

859 

18 

980 

5:31 

66 

1108 

634 

105 

961 

570 

69 

959 

761 

111 

995 

564 

61 

919 

562 

69 

940 

530 

21 

956 

696 

76 

1005 

511 

36 

978 

646 

63 

977 

540 

27 

925 

589 

89 

985 

580 

62 

958 

561 

6 

51 

29 

33 

5 

187 

191 

224 

186 

127 

59 

92 

91 

162 


7 
107 

99 

9 

237 

90 
124 
135 
187 
208 
184 
148 
243 
182 
122 
. .  • 
194 
217 

97 
109 

91 
180 
157 
126 
196 
197 
199 
204 
162 
180 
248 
233 
261 
203 
196 
228 


ai6 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 


Statement  of  Number  of  Men^  Casualties,  etc. — continued. 


Regiments. 


84th  Consolidated 

d5th  Infantry 

86th  Infantry 

37th  Infantay 

38th  Infantry 

89th  Infantry 

40th  Infantry 

4l8t  Infantry 

44th  Infantry 

45th  Infantry 

46th  Infantry 

47th  Infantry 

48th  Infantnr 

Ist  African  Infantry 

Totals 


• 
00 

^ 

0} 

S«^ 'S 

-2 '3 

o  p 

_2'd  53 

•  .  a  • 

72 

5 

984 

510 

42 

986 

619 

59 

914 

503 

3 

910 

431 

1 

983 

406 

54 

900 

361 

15 

294 

17 

•  • 

867 

15 

•  • 

912 

22 

1 

892 

28 

1 

884 

47 

•  • 

346 

4 

•  • 

903 

383 

5 

56,364 

30,394 

3,139 

O    W 

•i-i  '^^ 


13 

182 

226 

141 

310 

119 

179 

2 

14 

17 

23 

45 

4 

831 

8,695 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  117 


ABSTRACT  OF  IOWA  STATE  LAWS. 


BILLS  OF  EXCHANGE  AND  PROMISSORY  NOTES. 

Upon  oegotiable  bills,  and  notes  payable  in  this  State,  grace  shall 
be  allowed  according  to  the  law  merchant.  All  the  above  men- 
tionea  paper  falling  due  on  Sunday/New  Year's  Day,  the  Fourth 
of  July,  Christmas,  or  any  day  appointed  or  recommended  by  the 
President  of  the  United  States  or  the  Gorernor  of  the  State,  as  a 
day  of  fast  or  thanksgiring,  shall  be  deemed  as  due  on  the  day  pre- 
vious. No  defense  can  be  made  against  a  negotiable  instrument 
(assigned  before  due)  in  the  hands  of  the  assignee  without  notice, 
except  fraud  was  used  in  obtaining  the  same.  To  hold  an  indors- 
er,  due  diligence  must  be  used  by  suit  against  the  maker  or  his  rep- 
resentative. Notes  payable  to  persons  named  or  to  order,  in  order 
to  absolutely  transfer  title,  must  be  indorsed  by  the  payee.  Notes 
payable  to  bearer  may  be  transferred  by  delivery,  and  when  so  pay- 
able, every  indorser  thereon  is  held  as  a  guarantor  of  payment,  un- 
less otherwise  expressed. 

In  computing  interest  or  discount  on  negotiable  instruments,  a 
month  shall  be  considered  a  calendar  month  or  twelfth  of  a  year,  and 
for  less  than  a  month,  a  day  shall  be  considered  a  thirtieth  part  of 
a  month.  Notes  only  bear  interest  when  so  expressed;  but  after 
due,  they  draw  the  legal  interest,  even  if  not  stated. 

INTEREST. 

The  legal  rate  of^interest  is  six  per  cent.  Parties  may  agree,  in 
writing,  on  a  rate  not  exceeding  ten  per  cent.  If  a  rate  of  inter- 
est greater  than  ten  per  cent,  is  contracted  for,  it  works  a  forfeit- 
ure of  ten  per  cent,  to  the  school  fund,  and  only  the  principal  sum 
can  be  recovered.  * 

DESCENT. 

The  personal  property  of  the  deceased  (except  (1)  that  necessary 
for  payment  of  debts  and  expenses  of  administration;  (2)  property 
set  apart ^ to  widow,  as  exempt  from  execution;  (3)  allowance  by 
court,  if  necessary,  of  twelve  month's  support  to  widow,  and  to 
children  under  fifteen  years  of  age),  including  life  insurance,  de- 
scends as  does  real  estate. 

One-third  in  value  (absolutely)  of  all  estates  in  real  property, 
possessed  by  husband  at  any  time  during  marriage,  which  have  not 


118  HISTORY  OF  IOWA, 

been  sold  on  execution  or  other  judicial  sale,  and  to  which  the  wife 
has  made  no  relinquishment  of  her  right,  shall  be  set  apart  as  her 
property,  in  fee  simnle,  if  she  survive  nim. 

The  same  share  snail  be  set  apart  to  the  surviving  husband  of  a 
deceased  wife. 

The  widow's  share  cannot  be  affected  by  any  will  of  her  hus- 
band's, unless  she  consents,  in  writing  thereto,  within  six  months 
after  notice  to  her  of  provisions  of  the  will. 

The  provisions  of  the  statutes  of  descent  apply  alike  to  surviving 
husband  or  surviving  wife. 

Subject  to  the  above,  the  remaining  estate  of  which  the  deced- 
ent died  seized,  shidl  in  absence  of  other  arrangements  by  will,  de- 
scend; 

First,  To  his  or  her  children  and  their  descendants  in  equal 
parts;  the  descendants  of  the  deceased  child  or  grandchild  taking 
the  share  of  their  deceased  parents  in  equal  shares  among  them. 

Second.  Where  there  is  no  child,  nor  descendant  of  such  child, 
and  no  widow  or  surviving  husband,  then  to  the  parents  of  the 
deceased  in  equal  parts;  the  surviving  parent,  if  either  be  dead,  tak- 
ing the  whole;  and  if  there  is  no  parent  living,  then  to  the  broth- 
ers and  sisters  of  the  intestate  and  their  descendants. 

Third.  When  there  is  a  widow  or  surviving  husband,  and  no 
child  or  children,  or  descendants  of  the  same,  tnen  one-half  of  the 
estate  shall  descend  to  such  widow  or  surviving  husband,  absolutely ; 
and  the  other  half  of  the  estate  shall  descend  as  in  other  cases 
where  there  is  no  widow  or  surviving  husband,  or  child  or  children 
or  descendants  of  the  same. 

Fourth.  If  there  is  no  child,  parent,  brother  or  sister,  or  des- 
cendants of  either  of  them,  then  to  wife  of  intestate,  or  to  her  heirs, 
if  dead,  according  to  like  rules. 

Fifth.  If  any  intestate  leaves  no  child,  parent,  orother  or  sister 
or  descendant  of  either  of  them,  and  no  widow  or  surviving  hus- 
band, and  no  child,  parent,  brother  or  sister  (or  descendant  of 
either  of  them)  of  such  widow  or  surviving  husband,  it  shall  escheat 
to  the  State. 

WILLS  AND  ESTATES  OF  DECEASED  PERSONS. 

^  No^exactjform  of  words  are  necessary  in  order  to  make  a  will 
good  at  law.  Everv  male  person  of  the  age  of  twenty-one  years, 
and  every  female  oi  the  age  of  eighteen  years,  of  sound  mind  and 
memory,  can  make  a  valid  will;  it  must  be  in  writing,  signed  by 
the  testator,  or  by  some  one  in  his  or  her  presence,  and  by  his  or 
her  express  direction,  and  attested  by  two  or  more  competent  wit- 
nesses. Care  should  be  taken  that  tne  witnesses  are  not  interested 
in  the  will.  Inventory  to  be  made  by  the  executor  or  adminstrator 
within  fifteen  days  from  date  of  letters  testamentary  or  of  admin- 
istration.   Executors'  and  administrators'  compensation  on  amount 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  119 

of  personal  estate  distributed,  and  for  proceeds  of  sale  of  real  es- 
tate, five  per  cent,  for  first  one  thousand  dollars,  two  and  one-half 
per  cent,  on  overplus  up  to  five  thousand  dollars,  and  one  per  cent, 
on  overplus  above  five  thousand  dollars,  with  such  additional  allow- 
ance as  shall  be  reasonable  for  extra  services. 

Within  ten  days  aftes  the  receipt  of  letters  of  administration, 
the  executor  or  administrator  shall  give  such  notice  of  appointment 
as  the  court  or  clerk  shall  direct. 

Claims  (other  than  preferred)  must  be  filed  within  one  year  there^ 
after,  are  lorever  barred,  unless  the  claim  is  pending  in  tne  District 
or  Supreme  Court,  or  unless  peculiar  circumstances  entitle  the  claim- 
ant to  equitable  relief. 

Claims  are  classed  and  payable  in  the  following  order: 

1.  Expenses  of  administration. 

2.  Expenses  of  last  sickness  and  funeral. 

3.  Allowance  to  widow  and  children,  if  made  by  the  court. 

4.  Debts  preferred  under  laws  of  the  United  States. 

5.  Public  rates  and  taxes. 

6.  Claim  filed  within  six  months  after  the  Jirst  publication  of 
the  notice  given  by  the  executors  of  their  appointment. 

7.  All  other  debts. 

8.  Legacies. 

The  award,  or  property  which  must  be  set  apart  to  the  widow  in 
her  own  right,  by  the  executor,  includes  all  personal  property  which, 
in  the  hands  of  the  deceased,  as  head  of  a  family,  would  have  been 
exempt  from  execution, 

TAXES. 

The  owners  of  psrsonal  property,  on  the  first  day  of  January  of 
each  year,  and  tile  owners  of  real  property  on  the  nrst  day  of  No- 
vember of  each  year,  are  liable  for  the  taxes  thereon. 

The  following  property  is  exempt  from  taxation,  viz.: 

1.  The  property  of  the  United  States  and  of  this  State,  includ- 
ing university,  agricultural  college  and  school  lands  and  all  prop- 
erty leased  to  the  State;  property  of  a  county,  township,  city,  in- 
corporated town  or  school  district  when  devoted  entirely  to  the 
public  use  and  not  held  for  pecuniary  profit;  public  pounds,  in- 
cluding all  places  for  the  burial  of  the  dead;  nre  engines  and  all 
implements  for  extinguishing  fires,  with  the  grounds  used  exclu- 
sively for  their  buildings  and  for  the  meetings  of  the  fire  compan- 
ies; all  public  libraries,  grounds  and  buildings  of  literary,  scientific, 
benevolent,  agricultural  and  religious  institutions,  and  societies  de- 
voted solely  to  the  appropriate  objects  of  these  institutions,  not  ex- 
ceeding 640  acres  in  extent,  and  not  leased  or  otherwise  used  with 
a  view  of  pecuniary  profit;  and  all  property  leased  to  agricultural, 
charitable  institutions  and  benevolent  societies,  and  so  devoted  dur- 
ing the  term  of  such  leose;  provided,  that  all  deeds,  by  which  such 


120  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

property  is  held,  shall  be  duly  filed  for  record  before  the  property 
therein  described  shall  be  omitted  from  the  assessment. 

2.  The  books,  papers  and  apparatus  belonging  to  the  above  in- 
stitutions; used  solely  for  the  purposes  above  contemplated,  and  the 
like  property  of  students  in  any  such  institution,  used  for  their  ed- 
ucation. 

3.  Money  and  credits  belonging  exclusively  to  such  institutions 
and  devoted  solely  to  sustaining  them,  but  not  exceeding  in  amount 
or  income  the  sum  prescribed  by  their  charter. 

4.  Animals  not  nereafter  specified,  the  wool  shorn  from  sheep, 
belonging  to  the  person  giving  the  list,  his  farm  produce  harvested 
within  one  year  previous  to  the  listing;  private  libraries  not  exceed- 
ing three  hundred  dollars  in  value;  family  pictures,  kitehen  furni- 
ture, beds  and  bedding  requisite  for  each  famUy;  all  vvearing  ap- 
parel in  actual  use,  and  all  food  provided  for  the  family;  but  no 
person  from  whom  a  compensation  for  board  or  lodging  is  received 
or  expected,  is  to  be  considered  a  member  of  the  family  within  the 
intent  of  this  clause. 

5.  The  polls  or  estates  or  both  of  persons  who,  by  reason  of  age 
or  infirmity,  may,  in  the  opinion  of  the  Assessor,  be  unable  to  con- 
tribute to  the  public  revenue;  such  opinion  and  the  fact  upon  which 
it  is  based  being  in  all  cases  reported  to  the  Board  of  Equalization 
by  the  Assessor  or  any  other  person,  and  subject  to  reversal  by 
them. 

6.  The  farming  utensils  of  any  person  who  makes  his  livelihood 
by  farming^  and  the  tools  of  any  mechanic,  not  in  either  case  to  ex- 
ceed three  hundred  dollars  in  value. 

7.  Government  lands  entered  or  located,or  lands  purchased  from 
this  State,  should  not  be  taxed  for  the  year  in  which  the  entry,  lo- 
cation or  purchase  is  made. 

There  is  also  a  suitable  exemption,  in  amount,  for  planting  fruit 
trees  or  forest  trees  or  hedges. 

Where  buildings  are  destroyed  by  fire,  tornado,  or  other  unavoid- 
able casualty,  after  being  assessed  for  the  year,  the  Board  of  Super- 
visors may  rebate  taxes  for  that  year  on  the  property  destroyed,  if 
same  has  not  been  sold  for  taxes,  and  if  said  taxes  have  not  been  delin^ 
quentfor  thirty  days  at  the  time  of  destruction  of  property,  and  the 
rebate  shall  be  allowed  for  such  loss  only  as  is  not  covered  by  insur- 
ance. 

All  other  property  is  subject  to  taxation.  Every  inhabitant  of 
full  age  and  sound  mind  shall  assist  the  Assessor  in  listing  all  tax- 
able property  of  which  he  is  the  owner,  or  which  he  controls  or  man- 
ages, either  as  agent,  guardian,  father,  husband,  trustee,  executor, 
accounting  oflBcer,  partner,  mortgagor  or  lessor,  mortgagee  or 
lessee. 

Road  beds  of  railway  corporations  shall  not  be  assessed  to  owners 
of  adjacent  property,  but  shall  be  considered  the  property  of  the 
companies  for  purposes  of  taxation;  nor  shall  real  estate  used  as  a 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  121 

pablic  highway  be  assessed  and  taxed  as  part  of  adjacent  lands 
whence  the  same  was  taken  for  such  public  purpose. 

The  property  of  railway,  telegraph  and  express  companies  shall 
be  listed  and  assessed  for  taxation  as  the  property  of  an  indiridual 
would  be  listed  and  assessed  for  taxation.  Collection  of  taxes  made 
as  in  the  case  of  an  indiridual. 

The  Township  Board  of  Equalization  shall  meet  first  Monday  in 
April  of  each  year.    Appeal  lies  to  the  Circuit  Court. 

The  County  Board  of  Equalization  (the  Board  of  Supervisors) 
meet  at  their  regular  session  in  June  of  each  year.  Appeal  lies  to 
the  Circuit  Court. 

Taxes  become  delinquent  February  1st  of  each  year,  payable 
without  interest  or  penalty,  at  any  time  before  March  1st  of  each 
year. 

Tax  sale  is  held  on  first  Monday  in  October  of  each  year. 

Redemption  may  be  made  at  any  time  within  three  years  after 
date  of  sale,  by  paying  to  the  County  Auditor  the  amount  of  sale, 
and  twenty  per  centum  of  such  amount  immediately  added  as  pen-- 
alty  with  ten  per  cent,  interest  per  annum  on  the  whole  amount 
thus  made  from  the  day  of  sale,  and  also  subsequent  taxes,  interest 
and  costs  paid  by  purchaser  after  March  1st  of  each  year,  and  a  sim- 
ilar penalty  of  twenty  per  centum  added  as  before,  with  ten  per 
cent,  interest  as  before. 

If  notice  has  been  given,  by  purchaser,  of  the  date  at  which  the 
redemption  is  limited,  the  cost  of  same  is  added  to  the  redemption 
money.  Ninety  days  notice  is  required,  by  the  statute,  to  be  pub- 
lished by  the  purchaser  or  holder  of  certificate,  to  terminate  the 
right  of  redemption. 

JURISDICTION  OF  COURTS. 

DISTRICT   COURTS 

have  jurisdiction,  general  and  original,  both  civil  and  criminal,  ex- 
cept in  such  cases  where  Circuit  Courts  have  exclusive  jurisdiction. 
District  Courts  have  exclusive  supervision  over  courts  of  Justices 
of  the  Peace  and  Magistrates,  in  criminal  matters,  on  appeal  and 
writs  of  error. 

CIRCUIT   COURTS 

have  jurisdiction,  general  and  original,  with  the  District  Courts, 
in  all  civil  actions  and  special  proceedings,  2k\\^  exclusive  jurisdic' 
tion  in  all  appeals  and  writs  of  error  from  inferior  courts,  in  civil 
matters.  And  exclusive  jurisdiction  in  matters  of  estates  and 
general  probate  business. 

JUSTICES   OF   THE   PEACE 

have  jurisdiction  in  civil  matters  where  $100  or  less  is  involved. 
By  consent  of  parties,  the  jurisdiction   may   be  extended  to  an 

8 


122  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

amount  not  exceeding  $300.  They  have  jurisdiction  to  try  and 
determine  all  public  offense  less  than  felony,  committed  within 
their  respective  counties,  in  which  the  fine^  hf  law,  does  not  ex- 
ceed $100  or  the  imprisonment  thirty  days. 


P 


LIMITATION  OF  ACTIONS. 

Action  for  injuries  to  the  person  or  reputation;  for  a  statute 
enalty,  and  to  enforce  a  mechanics^  lien,  must  be  brought  in  two 
2)  years. 

Those  against  a  public  officer  within  three  (3)  years. 

Those  founded  on  unwritten  contracts;  for  injuries  to  property; 
for  relief  on  the  ground  of  fraud;  and  all  other  actions  not  other- 
wise provided  for,  within  five  (5)  years. 

Those  founded  on  written  contracts;  on  judgments  of  any  court 
(except  those  provided  for  in  next  section),  and  for  the  recovery  of 
real  property,  within  ten  (10)  years. 

Those  founded  on  judgment  of  any  court  of  record  in  the 
United  States,  within  twenty  (20)  years. 

All  above  limits,  except  those  for  penalties  and  forfeitures,  are 
extended  in  favor  of  mmors  and  insane  persons,  until  one  year 
after  the  disability  is  removed — time  during  which  defendant  is  a 
non-resident  of  the  State  shall  not  be  included  in  computing  any 
of  the  above  periods. 

Actions  for  the  recovery  of  real  property,  sold  for  non-payment 
of  taxes,  must  be  brought  within  five  years  after  the  Treasurer's 
Deed  is  executed  and  recorded,  except  where  a  minor  or  convict  or 
insane  person  is  the  owner,  and  they  shall  be  allowed  five  years 
after  disability  is  removed,  in  which  to  bring  action. 

JURORS. 

All  qualified  electors  of  tho  State,  of  good  moral  character, 
sound  judgment,  and  in  full  possession  of  the  senses  of  hearing 
and  seeing,  are  competent  jurors  in  their  respective  counties. 

United  States  officers,  practicing  attorneys,  physicians  and 
clergymen,  acting  professors  or  teachers  in  institutions  of  learning 
and  persons  disabled  by  bodily  infirmity  or  over  sixty-five  years  of 
age,  are  exempt  from  liability  to  act  as  jurors. 

Any  person  may  be  excused  from  serving  on  a  jury  when  his 
own  interests  or  the  public's  will  be  materially  injurea  by  his  at- 
tendance, or  when  the  state  of  his  health,  or  the  death,  or  sick- 
ness of  his  family  requires  his  absence. 

CAPITAL  PUNISHMENT 

was  restored  by  the  Seventeenth   General    Assembly,  making  it 
optional  with  the  jury  to  inflict  it  or  not. 


HISTORY  OF  XOWi.  128 

A  MARRIED  WOMAN 

may  convey  or  incumber  real  estate,  or  interest  therein,  belonging 
to  her;  may  control  the  same  or  contract  with  reference  thereto, 
as  other  persons  may  convey,  incumber,  control  or  contract. 

She  may  own,  acquire,  hold,  convey  and  devise  property,  as  her 
husband  may. 

Her  husband  is  not  liable  for  civil  injuries  committed  by  her. 

She  may  convey  property  to  her  husband,  and  he  may  convey 
to  her. 

She  may  constitute  her  husband  her  attorney  in  fact. 

EXEMPTIONS  FROM  EXECUTION. 

A  resident  of  the  State  and  head  of  a  family  may  hold  the  fol- 
lowing property  exempt  from  execution :  All  wearing  apparel  of 
himself  and  family  kept  for  actual  use  and  suitable  to  the  condi- 
tion, and  the  trunks  or  other  receptacles  necessary  to  contain  the 
same,  one  musket  or  rifle  and  shot-gun;  all  private  libraries, 
family  Bibles,  portraits,  pictures,  musical  instruments,  and  paint- 
ings not  kept  for  the  purpose  of  sale;  a  seat  or  pew  occupied  by 
the  debtor  or  his  family  in  any  house  of  public  worship;  an  inter- 
est in  a  public  or  private  burying  ground  not  exceeding  one  acre; 
two  cows  and  a  calf;  one  horse,  unless  a  horse  is  exempt  as  herein- 
after provided;  fifty  sheep  and  the  wool  therefrom,  and  the  ma- 
terials manufactured  from  said  wool;  six  stands  of  bees;  five  hogs 
and  all  pigs  under  six  months;  the  necessary  food  for  exempted 
animals  for  six  months;  all  flax  raised  from  one  acre  of  ground, 
and  manufactures  therefrom;  one  bedstead  and  necessary  bedding 
for  every  two  in  the  family;  all  cloth  manufactured  by  the  de- 
fendant not  exceeding  one  hundred  yards;  household  and  kitchen 
furniture  not  exceeding  $200  in  value;  all  spinning  wheels  and 
looms;  one  sewing  machine  and  other  instruments  of  domestic 
labor  kept  for  actual  use;  the  necessary  provisions  and  fuel  for 
the  use  of  the  family  for  six  months;  the  proper  tools,  instru- 
ments, or  books  of  the  debtor,  if  a  farmer,  mechanic,  surveyor, 
clergyman,  lawyer,  phvsician,  teacher  or  professor;  the  horse  or 
the  team,  consisting  or  not  more  than  two  horses  or  mules,  or  two 
yokes  of  cattle,  and  the  wagon  or  other  vehicle,  with  the  proper 
narness  or  tackle,  by  the  use  of  which  the  debtor,  if  a  physician, 

Eublic  officer,  farmer,  teamster  or  other  laborer,  habitually  earns 
is  living;  and  to  the  debtor,  if  a  printer,  there  shall  also  be  ex- 
empt a  printing  press  and  the  types,  furniture  and  material  neces- 
sary for  the  use  of  such  printing  press,  and  a  newspaper  office  to 
the  value  of  twelve  hundred  dollars:  the  earnings  of  such  debtor, 
or  those  of  his  family,  at  any  time  within  ninety  days  next  pre- 
ceding the  levy. 

Persons  unmarried  and  not  the  lu:ad  of  a  family,  and  non- 
residents, have  exempt  their  own  ordinary  wearing  apparel  and 
trunks  to  contain  the  same. 


124  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

There  is  also  exempt,  to  a  head  of  a  family,  a  homestead,  not 
exceeding  forty  acres;  or,  if  inside  city  limits,  one-half  acre  with 
improyemenls,  value  not  limited.  The  homestead  is  liable  for  all 
debts  contracted  prior  to  its  acquisition  as  such,  and  is  subject  to 
mechanics^  lien  for  work  or  material  furnished  for  the  same. 

An  article,  otherwise  exempt,  is  liable,  on  execution,  for  the  pur- 
chase money  thereof. 

Where  a  debtor,  if  a  head  of  a  family,  has  started  to  leave  the 
State,  he  shall  have  exempt  only  the  ordinary  wearing  apparel  of 
himself  and  family,  and  other  property  in  addition,  as  he  may  se- 
lect, in  all  not  exceeding  seventy-nve  dollars  in  value. 

A  policy  of  life  insurance  shall  inure  to  the  separate  use  of  the 
husband  or  wife  and  children,  entirely  independent  of  his  or  her 
creditors. 

ESTRAYS. 

An  unbroken  animal  shall  not  be  taken  up  as  an  estray  between 
May  1st  and  November  1st,  of  each  year,  unless  the  same  be  found 
within  the  lawful  enclosure  of  a  householder  who  alone  can  take 
up  such  animal^  unless  some  other  person  gives  him  notice  of  the  • 
fact  of  such  animal  coming  on  his  place;  and  if  he  fails,  within 
five  days  thereafter,  to  take  up  such  estray,  any  other  householder 
of  the  township  may  take  up  such  estray  and  proceed  with  it  as  if 
taken  on  his  own  premises,  provided  he  shall  prove  to  the  Justice 
of  the  Peace  such  notice,  and  shall  make  affidavit  where  such  estray 
was  taken  up. 

Any  swine,  sheep,  goat,  horse,  neat  cattle  or  other  animal  dis- 
trained (for  damage  done  to  one's  enclosure),  when  the  owner  is 
not  known,  shall  be  treated  as  an  estray. 

Within  five  days  after  taking  up  an  estray,  notice,  containing  a 
full  description  thereof,  shall  be  posted  up  in  three  of  the  most 
public  places  in  the  township;  and  in  ten  days,  the  person  taking 
up  such  estray  shall  go  before  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  in  the  town- 
snip  and  make  oath  as  to  where  such  estray  was  taken  up,  and  that 
the  marks  or  brands  have  not  been  altered,  to  his  knowlMge.  The 
estray  shall  then  be  appraised,  by  order  of  the  Justice,  and  the  ap- 
praisment,  description  of  the  size,  age,  color,  sex,  marks  and  brands 
of  the  estray  shall  be  entered  by  the  Justice  in  a  book  kept  for  that 
purpose,  and  he  shall,  within  ten  days  thereafter,  send  a  certified 
copy  thereof  to  the  County  Auditor. 

When  the  appraised  value  of  an  estray  does  not  exceed  five  dol- 
lars, the  Justice  ui»ed  not  proceed  further  than  to  enter  the  descrip- 
tion of  the  estray  on  his  oook,  and  if  no  owner  appears  within  six 
months,  the  pn>iwrty  shall  vest  in  the  finder,  if  he  has  complied 
with  the  law  ana  paid  all  costs. 

Where  appraiseil  value  of  estrav  exceeds  five  and  is  less  than  ten 
dolhirs,  if  no  owner  appears  in  nine  months,  the  finder  has  the 
proiHTty,  if  he  has  complied  with  the  law  and  paid  costs. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  125 

• 

An  estray,  legally  taken  up,  may  be  used  or  worked  with  care 
and  moderation. 

If  any  person  unlawfully  take  up  an  estray,  or  take  up  an  estray 
and  fail  to  comply  with  the  law  regarding  estrays,  or  use  or  work 
it  contrary  to  above,  or  work  it  before  having  it  appraised,  or  keep 
such  estray  out  of  the  county  more  than  five  days  at  one  time,  be- 
fore acquiring  ownership,  such  oflFender  shall  forfeit  to  the  county 
twenty  dollars,  and  the  owner  may  recover  double  damages  rritn 
costs. 

If  the  owner  of  any  estate  fail  to  claim  and  prove  his  title  for  one 
year  after  the  taking  up,  and  the  finder  shall  nave  complied  with 
the  law,  a  complete  title  vests  in  the  finder. 

But  if  the  owner  appear  within  eighteen  months  from  the  tak- 
ing  up,  prove  his  ownership  and  pay  all  costs  and  expenses,  the 
finder  shall  pay  him  the  appraised  value  of  such  estray,  or  may,  at 
his  option,  dehver  up  the  estray. 

WOLF  SCALPS. 
A  bounty  of  one  dollar  is  paid  for  wolf  scalps. 

MARKS  AND  BRANDS. 

Any  person  may  adopt  his  own  mark  or  brand  for  his  domestic 
animals,  and  have  a  description  thereof  recorded  by  the  Township 
Clerk. 

No  person  shall  adopt  the  recorde<l  mark  or  brand  of  any  other 
person  residing  in  his  township. 

DAMAGES  FROM  TRESPASS. 

When  any  person's  lands  are  enclosed  by  a  lawful  fence,  the 
owner  of  any  domestic  animal  injuring  said  lands  is  liable  for  the 
damages,  and  the  damages  may  be  recovered  by  suit  against  the 
owner,  or  may  be  made  by  distraining  the  animals  doing  the  dam- 
age; and  if  the  party  injured  elects  to  recover  by  action  against  the 
owner,  no  appraisement  need  be  made  by  the  Trustees,  as  in  case  of 
distraint. 

When  trespassing  animals  are  distrained,  within  twenty-four 
hours,  Sunday  not  included,  the  party  injured  shall  notify  the  own- 
er of  said  animals,  if  known;  ana  if  the  owner  fails  to  satisfy  the 
party  within  twenty-four  hours  thereafter,  the  party  shall  have  the 
township  Trustees  assess  the  damage,  and  notice  snail  be  posted 
up  in  three  conspicuous  places  in  the  township,  that  the  stock  or  part 
thereof,  shall,  on  the  tenthday  after  posting  the  notice^  between  the 
hours  of  1  and  3  P.  M.,  be  sold  to  tne  highest  bidder,  to  satisfy 
said  damages,  with  costs. 

Appeal  lies,  within  twenty  days,  from  the  action  of  the  Trustees, 
to  the  Circuit  Court. 


1^  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

Where  stock  is  retained,  by  police  regulation,  or  by  law,  from 
running  at  large,  any  person  injured  in  his  improved  or  cultivated 
lands  by  any  domestic  animal,  may,  by  action  against  the  owner 
of  such  animal,  or  by  distraining  such  animal,  recover  his  damages, 
whether  the  lands  whereon  the  injury  was  done  were  inclosed  by 
a  lawful  fence  or  not. 

FENCES. 

A  lawful  fence  is  fifty-four  inches  high,  made  of  rails,  wire  or 
boards,  with  posts  not  more  than  ten  feet  apart  where  rails  are 
used,  and  eight  feet  where  boards  are  used;  substantially  built  and 
kept  in  good  repair;  or  any  other  fence  which,  in  the  opinion  of  the 
Fence  Viewers,  shall  be  declared  a  lawful  fence — provided  the  low- 
er rail,  wire  or  board  be  not  more  than  twenty  nor  less  than  sixteen 
inches  from  the  ground. 

The  respective  owners  of  lands  enclosed  with  fences  shall  main- 
tain partition  fences  between  their  own  and  next  adjoining  enclos- 
ure so  long  as  they  improve  them  in  equal  shares,  unless  otherwise 
agreed  between  them. 

If  any  party  neglect  to  maintain  such  partition  fence  as  he  should 
maintain,  the  Fence  Viewers  (the  township  Trustees),  upoa  com- 
plaint of  aggrieved  party,  may,  upon  due  notioe  to  both  parties,  ex- 
amine the  fence,  and,  if  found  insuflBcient,  notify  the  delinquent 
party,  in  writing^  to  repair  or  re-build  the  same  within  such  time 
as  they  judge  reasonable. 

If  the  fence  be  not  repaired  or  rebuilt  accordingly,  the  complain- 
ant may  do  so,  and  the  same  being  adjudged  sufiBcient  by  the  Fence 
Viewers,  and  the  value  thereof,  with  their  fees,  being  ascertained 
and  certified  under  their  hands,  the  complainant  may  demand  of 
the  delinquent  the  sum  so  ascertained,  and  if  the  same  be  not  paid 
in  one  month  after  demand,  may  recover  it  with  one  per  cent  a 
month  interest,  by  action. 

In  case  of  disputes,  the  Fence  Viewers  may  decide  as  to  who 
shall  erect  or  maintain  partition  fences,  and  in  what  time  the  same 
shall  be  done;  and  in  case  any  party  neglect  to  maintain  or  erect 
such  part  as  may  be  assigned  to  nim,  the  aggrieved  party  may  erect 
and  maintain  the  same,  and  recover  double  damages. 

No  person,  not  wishing  his  land  inclosed,  and  not  using  it  oth- 
erwise than  in  common,  shall  be  compelled  to  maintain  any  parti- 
tion fence;  but  when  he  uses  or  incloses  his  land  otherwise  than 
in  common,  he  shall  contribute  to  the  partition  fences. 

Where  parties  have  had  their  lands  inclosed  in  common,  and  one 
of  the  owners  desires  to  occupy  his  separate  and  apart  from  the 
other,  and  the  other  refuses  to  divide  the  line  or  bund  a  sufficient 
fence  on  the  line  when  divided,  the  Fence  Fiewers  may  divide  and 
assign,  and  upon  neglect  of  the  other  to  build  as  oraered  by  the 
Viewers,  the  one  may  build  the  other's  part  and  recover  as  above. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  187 

t 

And  when  one  incloses  land  which  has  Iain  nninclosed,  he  must 
pay  for  one-half  of  each  partition  fence  between  himself  and  his 
neighbors. 

Where  one  desires  to  lay  not  less  than  twenty  feet  of  his  lands, 
adjoining  his  neighbor,  out  to  the  public  to  be  used  in  common,  he 
must  give  his  neighbor  six  months  notice  thereof. 

Where  a  fence  has  been  built  on  the  land  of  another  through 
mistake,  the  owner  may  enter  upon  such  premises  and  remove  his 
fence  and  material  within  six  months  after  the  division  line  has 
been  ascertained.  Where  the  material  to  build  such  a  fence  has 
been  taken  from  the  land  on  which  it  was  built,  then,  before  it  can 
be  removed,  the  person  claiming  must  first  pay  for  such  material  to 
the  owner  of  the  land  from  which  it  was  taken,  nor  shall  such  a 
fence  be  removed  at  a  time  when  the  removal  will  throw  open  or 
expose  the  crops  of  the  other  party;  a  reasonable  time  must  be 
given  beyond  the  six  months  to  remove  crops. 

MECHANICS'   LIENS. 

Every  mechanic,  or  other  person  who  shall  do  any  labor  upon, 
or  furnish  any  materials,  machinery  or  fixtures  for  any  building, 
erection  or  other  improvement  upon  Ismd,  including  those  engaged 
in  the  construction  or  repair  of  any  work  of  internal  improvement, 
by  virtue  of  any  contract  with  the  owner,  his  agent,  trustee,  con- 
tractor, or  sub-contractor,  shall  have  a  lien,  on  complying  with  the 
forms  of  law,  upon  the  building  or  other  improvement  for  his  labor 
done  or  materials  furnished. 

It  would  take  too  large  a  space  to  detail  the  manner  in  which  a 
sub-contractor  secures  his  lien.  He  should  file,  within  thirty  days 
after  the  last  of  the  labor  was  performed,  or  the  last  of  the  mate- 
rial shall  have  been  furnished,  with  the  Clerk  of  the  District  Court 
a  true  account  of  the  amount  due  him,  after  allowing  all  credits, 
setting  fort  the  time  when  such  material  was  furnished  or  labor 
performed,  and  when  completed,  and  containing  a  correct  descrip- 
tion of  the  property  sought  to  be  charged  with  the  lien,  and  the 
whole  verified  bv  affidavit. 

A  principal  contractor  must  file  such  an  affidavit  within  ninety 
days,  as  above. 

Ordinarily,  there  are  so  many  points  to  be  examined  in  order  to 
secure  a  mechanics'  lien,  that  it  is  much  better,  unless  one  is  ac- 
customed to  managing  such  liens,  to  consult  at  once  with  an  at- 
torney. 

Remember  that  the  proper  time  to  file  the  claim  is  ninety  days 
for  a  principal  contractor,  thirty  days  for  a  sub-contractor,  as 
above;  and  tnat  actions  to  enforce  these  liens  must  be  commenced 
within  two  years,  and  the  rest  can  much  better  better  be  done  with 
an  attorney. 


128  .PISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

ROADS  AND  BRIDGES. 

Persous  meeting  each  other  on  the  public  highways,  shall  give 
one-half  of  the  same  by  turning  to  the  rie:ht.  All  persons  failing 
to  observe  this  rule  shall  be  liable  to  pay  all  damages  resulting 
therefrom,  together  with  a  fine,  not  exceeding  five  dollars. 

The  prosecution  must  be  instituted  on  the  complaint  of  the  per- 
son wronged. 

Any  person  guilty  of  racing  horses,  or  driving  upon  the  public 
highway,  in  a  manner  likely  to  endanger  the  persons  or  the  lives 
of  others,  shall,  on  conviction,  be  fined  not  exceeding  one  hundred 
dollars  or  imprisoned  not  exceeding  thirty  days. 

It  is  a  misdemeanor,  without  authority  from  the  proper  Road 
Supervisor,  to  break  upon,  plow  or  dig  within  the  boundary  lines  of 
any  public  highway. 

The  money  tax  levied  upon  the  property  in  each  road  district  in 
each  township  (except  the  general  Township  Fund,  set  apart  for 
purchasing  tools,  machinery  and  guide  boards),  whether  collected 
oy  the  Road  Supervisor  or  County  Treasurer,  shall  be  expended  for 
highway  purposes  in  that  district,  and  no  part  thereof  shall  be  paid 
out  or  expended  for  the  benefit  of  another  district. 

The  Road  Supervisor  of  each  district,  is  bound  to  keep  the  roads 
and  bridges  therein,  in  as  good  condition  as  the  funds  at  his  dis- 

Sosal  wiU  permit;  to  put  guide  boards  at  cross  roads  and  forks  of 
ighways  m  his  district;  and  when  notified  in  writing  that  any 
portion  of  the  public  highway,  or  any  bridge  is  unsafe,  must  in  a 
reasonable  time  repair  the  same,  and  for  this  purpose  may  call  out 
any  or  all  the  able  bodied  men  in  the  district,  but  not  more  than 
two  days  at  one  time,  without  their  consent. 

Also,  when  notified  in  writing,  of  the  growth  of  any  Canada 
thistles  upon  vacant  or  non-resident  lands  or  lots,  within  his  dis- 
trict, the  owner,  lessee  or  agent  thereof  being  unknown,  shall  cause 
the  same  to  be  destroyed. 

Bridges  when  erected  or  maintained  by  the  public,  are  parts  of 
the  highway,  and  must  not  be  less  than  sixteen  feet  wide. 

A  penalty  is  imposed  upon  any  one  who  rides  or  drives  faster 
than  a  walk  across  any  such  bridge. 

The  manner  of  establishing,  vacating  Or  altering  roads,  etc.,  is  so 
well  known  to  all  township  officers,  that  it  is  sufficient  here  to  say 
that  the  first  step  is  by  petition,  filed  in  the  Auditor's  office,  ad- 
dressed in  substance  as  follows: 

The  Board  of  Supervisors  of  County:    The  undersigned 

asks  that  a  highway,  commencing  at  and  running  thence 

and  terminating  at  ,  be  established,  vacated'  or  al- 
tered (as  the  case  may  be). 

When  the  petition  is  filed,  all  necessary  and  succeeding  steps  will 
be  shown  ana  explained  to  the  petitioners  by  the  Auditor. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  139 

ADOPTION  OF  CHILDREN. 

Any  person  competent  to  make  a  will  can  adopt  as  his  own  the 
minor  cnild  of  another.  The  consent  of  both  parents,  if  livine 
and  not  divorced  or  separated,  and  if  divorced  or  separated,  or  re 
unmarried,  the  consent  of  the  parent  lawfully  having  the  custody 
of  the  child;  or  if  either  parent  is  dead,  then  the  consent  of  the 
survivor,  or  if  both  parents  be  dead,  or  the  child  have  been  and 
remain  abandoned  by  them,  then  the  consent  of  the  Mayor  of  the 
city  where  the  child  is  living,or  if  not  in  the  city,  then  of  the  Clerk 
of  the  Circuit  Court  of  the  county  shall  be  given  to  such  adoption 
by  an  instrument  in  writing,  signed  by  the  party  or  parties  consent- 
ing, and  stating  the  names  of  the  parties,  if  known,  tne  name  of  the 
child,  if  known,  the  name  of  the  person  adopting  such  child,  and 
the  residence  of  all,  if  known,  ana  declaring  the  name  bv  which 
the  child  is  hereafter  to  be  called  and  known,  and  stating,  also,  that 
such  child  is  given  to  the  person  adopting,  for  the  purpose]^of 
adoption  as  his  own  child. 

The  person  adopting  shall  also  sign  said  instrument,  and  all  the 
parties  shall  acknowledge  the  same  in  the  manner  that  deeds  con- 
yeying  lands  shall  be  acknowledged. 

The  instrument  shall  be  recorded  in  the  office  of  the  County 
Recorder. 

SURVEYORS  AND  SURVEYS. 

There  is  in  every  county  elected  a  Surveyor  known  as  County 
Surveyor,  who  has  power  to  appoint  deputies,  for  whose  official 
acts  he  is  responsible.  It  is  the  duty  of  the  County  Surveyor, 
either  by  himself  or  his  Deputy,  to  make  all  surveys  that  he  may 
be  callea  upon  to  make  witnin  his  county  as  soon  as  may  be  after 
application  is  made.  The  necessary  chainmen  and  other  assistance 
must  be  employed  hj  the  person  requiring  the  same  to  be  done, 
and  to  be  by  him  paid,  unless  otherwise  agreed:  but  the  chainmen 
must  be  disinterested  persons  and  approved  by  the  Surveyor  and 
sworn  by  him  to  measure  justly  and  impartially.  Previous  to  any 
survey,  he  shall  furnish  himself  with  a  copy  of  the  field  notes  of 
the  original  survey  of  the  same  land,  if  there  be  any  in  the  office 
of  the  County  Auditor,  and  his  survey  shall  be  made  in  accord- 
ance therewith. 

Their  fees  are  three  dollars  per  day.  For  certified  copies  of  field 
notes,  twenty-five  cents. 

SUPPORT  OF  POOR. 

The  father,  mother  and  children  of  any  poor  person  who  has 
applied  for  aid,  and  who  is  unable  to  maintain  himself  by  work, 
shall,  jointly  or  severally,  maintain  such  poor  person  in  such  man- 
ner as  may  be  approved  by  the  Township  Trustees. 


130  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

* 

In  the  absence  or  inability  of  nearer  relatives,  the  same  liability 
shall  extend  to  the  grandparents,  if  of  ability  without  personal 
labor,  and  to  the  male  grandchildren  who  are  of  ability,  by  personid 
labor  or  otherwise. 

The  Township  Trustees  may,  upon  the  failure  of  such  relative 
to  maintain  a  poor  person,  who  has  made  application  for  relief^ 
apply  to  the  Circuit  Court  for  an  order  to  compel  the  same. 

Upon  ten  days'  notice,  in  writing,  to  the  parties  sought  to  be 
charged,  a  hearing  may  be  had,  and  an  order  made  for  entire  or 
partial  support  of  the  poor  person. 

Appeal  may  be  taken  from  such  judgment  as  from  other  judg- 
ments of  the  Circuit  Court. 

When  any  person,  having  any  estate,  abandons  either  children, 
wife  or  husband,  leaving  tnem  chargeable^  or  likely  to  become 
chargeable,  upon  the  public  for  support,  upon  proof  of  above  fact, 
an  order  may  oe  had  from  the  Clert  of  the  Circuit  Court,  or  Judge, 
authorizing  the  Trustees  or  the  Sheriff  to  take  into  possession  such 
estate. 

The  Court  may  direct  such  personal  estate  to  be  sold,  to  be  ap- 
plied, as  well  OS  the  rents  and  profits  of  the  real  estate,  if  any,  to 
the  support  of  children,  wife  or  husband. 

If  the  party  against  whom  the  order  is  issued  return  and  sup- 
port the  person  abandoned,  or  give  security  for  the  same,  the  order 
shall  be  aischarged,  and  the  property  taken  returned. 

The  mode  of  relief  for  the  poor,  through  the  action  of  the 
Township  Trustees,  or  the  action  of  the  Board  of  Supervisors,  is 
so  well  known  to  every  township  ofiBcer,  and  the  circumstances 
attending  application  for  relief  are  so  varied,  that  it  need  now  only 
be  said  that  it  is  the  duty  of  each  county  to  provide  for  its  poor, 
no  matter  at  what  place  they  may  be. 

LANDLORD  AND  TENANT. 

A  tenant  giving  notice  to  quit  demised  premises  at  a  time  named, 
and  afterward  holding  over,  and  a  tenant  or  his  assignee  willfully 
holding  over  the  premises  after  the  term,  and  after  notice  to  quit, 
shall  pay  double  rent. 

Any  person  in  possession  of  real  property,  with  the  assent  of 
the  owner,  is  presumed  to  be  a  tenant  at  will  until  the  contrary  is 
shown. 

Thirty  days'  notice,  in  writing,  is  necessary  to  be  given  by  either 
party  before  he  can  terminate  a  tenancy  at  will;  but  When,  in  any 
case,  a  rent  is  reserved  payable  at  intervals  of  less  than  thirty 
days,  the  length  of  notice  need  not  be  greater  than  such  interval 
between  the  days  of  payment.  In  case  of  tenants  occupying  and 
cultivating  farms,  the  notice  must  fix  the  termination  of  the 
tenancy  to  take  place  on  the  1st  day  of  March,  except  in  cases  of 
field  tenants  or  croppers,  whose  leases  shall  be  held  to  expire  when 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA,  131 

the  crop  is  harvested;  provided,  that  in  case  of  a  crop  of  com,  it 
shall  not  be  later  than  the  1st  day  of  December,  unless  otherwise 
agreed  upon.  But  when  an  express  agreement  is  made,  whether 
the  same  has  been  reduced  to  writing  or  not,  the  tenancy  shall 
cease  at  the  time  agreed  upon,  without  notice. 

If  such  tenant  cannot  be  found  in  the  county,  the  notices  above 
required  may  be  ^ven  to  any  sub-tenant  or  other  person  in  posses- 
sion of  the  premises;  or,  if  the  premises  be  vacant,  by  affixing  the 
notice  to  the  principal  door  of  the  building  or  in  some  conspicuous 
position  on  the  lana,  if  there  be  no  building. 

The  landlord  shall  have  a  lien  for  his  rent  upon  all  the  crops 
grown  on  the  premises,  and  upon  any  other  personal  property  of 
the  tenant  used  on  the  premises  during  the  term,  and  not  exempt 
from  execution,  for  the  period  of  one  yepr  after  a  year's  rent  or 
the  rent  of  a«shorter  period  claimed  falls  due;  but  such  lien  shall 
not  continue  more  than  six  months  after  the  expiration  of  the 
term. 

The  lien  may  be  effected  by  the  commencement  of  an  action, 
within  the  period  above  described,  for  the  rent  alone;  and 
the  landlord  is  entitled  to  a  writ  of  attachment,  upon  filing 
an  affidavit  that  the  action  is  commenced  to  recover  rent  accrued 
within  one  year  previous  thereto  upon  the  premises  described  in 
the  affidavit. 

WEIGHTS  AND  ME  AS  ORES. 

Whenever  any  of  the  following  articles  shall  be  contracted  for, 
or  sold  or  delivered,  and  no  special  contract  or  agreement  shall  be 
made  to  the  contrary,  the  weight  per  bushel  shall  be  as  follows, 
to-wit: 

AppleSf  Peaches  or  Quinces 48    Sand 130 

Cherries,  Grapes,  Currants  or  Goose-        Sorghum  Seed 30 

berries ..40    Broom  Com  Seed 30 

Strawberries,  Raspberries  or  Black-        Buckwheat 52 

berries 32    Salt • 50 

Osage  Orange  Seed 32    Barley 48 

Millet  Seed 45    Com  Meal 48 

Stone  Coal 80    Castor  Beans 46 

Lime 80    Timothy  Seed 45 

Com  in  the  ear 70    Hemp  Seed 44 

Wheat 60    Dried  Peaches 33 

Potatoes 60    Oats 33 

Beans 60    Dried  Apples 24 

aover  Seed 60    Bran 20 

Onions 57    Blue  Grass  Seed 14 

Shelled  Com 56    Hungarian  Grass  Seed 45 

Rye 56    Flax  Seed 56 

Sweet  Potatoes 46 

Penalty  for  giving  less  than  above  standard  is  treble  damages 
and  costs  and  five  dollars  addition  thereto  as  a  fine. 


132  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

DEFINITION  OF  COMMERCIAL  TERMS. 

$ means  dollars,  being  a  contraction  of  IT.  S.,  which  was  for- 
merly placed  before  any  denomination  of  money,  and  meant,  as  it 
means  now.  United  States  Currency. 

£ means  pounds^  English  money. 

@  stands  for  a^or  to;  fc  tor  pounds^  and  bbl.  for  barrels;  ^  for 

fer  or  by  the.  Thus,  Butter  sells  at  20@30c  f)  fc,  and  Flour  at 
8@$12  ^  bbl. 

May  1.  Wheat  sells  at  $1.20@$1.25,  "seller  June."  Seller  June 
means  that  the  person  who  sells  the  wheat  ha»  the  privilege  of  de- 
livering it  at  any  time  during  the  month  of  June. 

Selling  shorty  is  contracting  to  deliver  a  certain  amount  of  grain 
or  stock,  at  a  fixed  price,  within  a  certain  length  of  time,  when  the 
seller  has  not  the  stock  on  hand.  It  is  for  the  interest  of  the  per- 
son selling  "short"  to  depress  the  market  as  much  as  possible,  in 
order  that  he  may  buy  and  fill  his  contract  at  a  profit.  Hence  the 
"shorts"  are  termed  "bears." 

Buying  long^  is  to  contract  to  purchase  a  certain  amount  of  grain 
or  shares  of  stock  at  a  fixed  nnce,  deliverable  within  a  stipulated 
time,  expecting  to  make  a  pront  by  the  rise  in  prices.  The  "longs" 
are  termed  "bulls,"  as  it  is  for  their  interest  to  "operate"  so  as  to 
"toss"  the  prices  upward  as  much  as  possible. 

NOTES. 

Form  of  note  is  legal,  worded  in  the  simplest  way,  so  that  the 
amount  and  time  of  payment  are  mentioned: 

$100.  Chicago,  111.,  Sept.  15, 1876. 

Sixty  days  from  date  I  promise  to  pay  to  E.  F.  Brown  or  order, 
one  hundred  dollars,  for  value  received.  L.  D.  Lowky. 

A  note  to  be  payable  in  anything  else  than  money  needs  only 
the  facts  substituted  for  money  in  tn6  above  form. 

ORDERS. 

Orders  should  be  worded  simply,  thus: 
Mr.  F.  H.  Coats:  Chicago,  Sept.  15, 1876. 

Please  pay  to  H.  Birdsall  twenty-five  dollars,  and  charge  to 

F.  D.  SiLVA. 

■ 

RECEIPTS. 

Receipts  should  always  state  when  received  and  what  for,  thus: 
$100.  Chicago,  Sept.  15, 1876. 

Received  of  J.  W.  Davis,  one  hundred  dollars,  for  ser- 
vices rendered  in  grading  his  lot  in  Fort  Madison,  on  account. 

Thomas  Bbady. 
If  receipt  is  in  full,  it  should  be  so  stated. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  183 

BILLS   OF  PURCHASE. 

W.  N.  Mason,  Salem,  Illinois,  Sept.  18,  1870. 

Bought  of  A.  A.  Graham. 

4  Bushels  of  Seed  Wheat  at  $1.50 $6  00 

2  seamless  Sacks  ''        30 60 


Received  payment,  $6  60 

A.  A.  Graham. 

CONFESSION  OF  JUDGMENT. 

$ .  ,  Iowa, ,  18 — . 

after  date  —  promises  to  pay  to  the  order  of 


dollars,  at ,  for  value  receivwi,  with  interest  at  ten  per  cent. 

per  annum  after until  paid.     Interest  payable ,  and  on 

interest  not  paid  when  due,  interest  at  same  rate  and  conditions. 

A  failure  to  pay  said  interest,  or  any  part  thereof,  within  20  days  after  due, 
shall  cause  the  whole  note  to  become  due  and  collectible  at  once. 

If  this  note  is  sued,  or  judgment  is  confessed  hereon,  $ shall  be  allowed 

as  attorney  fees. 

No.  — .  P.  0. ,  . 

CONFESSION  OF  JUDGMENT. 

—  vs.  — .    In Court  of  County,  Iowa, ,  of 

County,  Iowa,  do  hereby  confess  that justly  indebted 


to ,  in  the  sum  of  dollars,  and  the  further  sum  of 

$ as  attorney  fees,  with  interest  thereon  at  ten  per  cent,  from 

,  and  —  hereby  confess  judgment  against as  defend- 
ant   in  favor  of  said ,  for  said  sum  of  $ ,  and  $ as 

attorney  fees,  hereby  authorizing  the  Clerk  of  the Court  of 

said  county  to  enter  up  judgment  for  said  sum  against with 

costs,  and  interest  at  10  per  cent,  from ,  the  interest  to  be 

paid . 

Said  debt  and  judgment  being  for , 

It  is  especially  agreed,  however.  That  if  this  judgment  is  paid 
vrithin  twenty  days  after  due,  no  attorney  fees  need  be  paid.     And 

herebv  sell,  convey  and  release  all  right  of  homestead  we  now 

occupy  in  favor  of  said so  far  as  this  judgment  is  concerned, 

and  agree  that  it  shall  be  liable  on  execution  for  this  judgment. 

Dated ,  18 — . 


The  State  of  Iowa,  ) 
County.      ) 


being  duly  sworn  according  to  law,  depose  and  say  that 

the  foregoing  statement  and  Confession   of  Judgment  was  read 
over  to ,  and  that  —  understood  the    contents  thereof,  and 


134  HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 

that  the  statements  contained  therein  are  true,  and  that  the  sums 
therein  mentioned  are  justly  to  become  due  said as  afore- 
said. 


Sworn  to  and  subscribed  before  me  and  in  may  presence  by  the 

said this day  of ,  18 — . 

,  Notary  Public. 

ARTICLES  OF  AGREEMENT. 

An  agreement  is  where  one  party  promises  to  another  to  do  a 
certain  thing  in  a  certain  time  for  a  stipulated  sum.  Good  busi- 
ness men  alwajrs  reduce  an  agreement  to  writing,  which  nearly 
always  saves  misunderstandings  and  trouble.  No  particular  form 
is  necessary,  but  the  facts  must  be  clearly  and  explicitly  stated, 
and  there  must,  to  make  it  valid,  be  a  reasonable  consideration. 

GENERAL  FORM  OF  AGREEMENT. 

This  Agreement,  made  the  second  day  of  June,  1878,  between 
John  Jones,  of  Keokuk,  County  of  Lee,  State  of  Iowa,  of  the  first 
part,  and  Thomas  Whiteside,  of  the  same  place,  of  the  second 
part — 

WITNESSETH,  That  the  said  John  Jones,  in  consideration  of  the 
agreement  of  the  party  of  the  second  part,  hereinafter  contained, 
contracts  and  agrees  to  and  with  the  said  Thomas  Whiteside,  that 
he  will  deliver  in  good  and  marketable  condition,  at  the  Village 
of  Melrose,  Iowa,  during  the  month  of  November,  of  this  year; 
One  Hundred  Tons  of  Prairie  Hay,  in  the  following  lots,  and  at 
the  followinff  specified  terms;  namely,  twenty-five  tons  by  the 
seventh  of  November,  twenty-five  tons  additional  by  the  four- 
teenth of  the  month,  twenty-five  tons  more  by  the  twenty-first, 
and  the  entire  one  hundred  tons  to  be  all  delivered  by  the  thirtieth 
of  November. 

And  the  said  Thomas  Whiteside,  in  consideration  of  the  prompt 
fulfillment  of  this  contract,  on  the  part  of  the  party  of  the  first 
part,  contracts  to  and  agrees  with  the  said  John  Jones,  to  pay  for 
said  hay  five  dollars  per  ton,  for  each  ton  as  soon  as  delivered. 

In  case  of  failure  of  agreement  by  either  of  the  parties  hereto, 
it  is  hereby  stipulated  and  agreed  that  the  party  so  failing  shall 
pay  to  the  other  One  Hundred  dollars,  as  fixed  and  settled  damages. 

In  witness  whereof,  we  have  hereunto  set  our  hands  the  aay 
and  year  first  above  written.  John  Jones, 

Thomas    Whiteside. 

agreement  with  clerk  for  services. 

This  Agreement,  made  the  first  day  of  May,  one  thousand 
eight  hundred  and  seventy-eight,  between  Reuben  Stone,  of  Du- 
buque, County  of  Dubuque,  State  of  Iowa,  party  of  the  first  part^ 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  185 

and  George  Barclay,  of  McGregor,   County  of  Clayton,  State  of 
Iowa,  party  of  the  second  part — 

WITNESSETH,  that  said  George  Barclay  agrees  faithfully  and 
diligently  to  work  as  clerk  and  salesman  for  the  said  Reuben 
Stone,  for  and  during  the  space  of  one  year  from  the  date  thereof, 
should  both  live  such  len^tn  of  time,  without  absenting  himself 
from  his  occupation;  during  which  time  he,  the  said  Barclay,  in 
the  store  of  said  Stone,  of  Dubuque,  will  carefully  and  honestly 
attend,  doing  and  performing  all  duties  as  clerk  and  salesman 
aforesaid,  in  accordance  and  in  all  respects  as  directed  and  desired 
by  the  said  Stone. 

'  In  consideration  of  which  services,  so  to  be  rendered  by  the 
said  Barclay,  the  said  Stone  agrees  to  pay  to  said  Barclay  the 
annual  sum  of  one  thousand  dollars,  payable  in  twelve  equal 
monthly  payments,  each  upon  the  last  aay  of  each  month;  pro- 
vided tnat  all  dues  for  days  of  absence  from  business  by  said  bar- 
clay,  shall  be  deducted  from  the  sum  otherwise  by  the  agreement 
due  and  payable  by  the  said  Stone  to  the  said  Barclay. 

Witness  our  hands.  Reuben  Stone. 

George  B.irclay. 

BILLS  OF  SALE. 

A  bill  of  sale  is  a  written  agreement  to  another  party,  for  a 
consideration  to  convey  his  right  and  interest  in  the  personal  pro- 
perty. The  purchaser  must  take  actual  possession  of  the  property^ 
or  the  bill  or  sale  must  he  acknoicledged  and  recorded. 

COMMON   FORM   OF  BILL  OF  SALE. 

Know  all  Men  by  this  instrument,  that  I,  Louis  Clay,  of 
Burlington,  Iowa,  of  the  first  part,  for  and  in  consideration  of 
Five  Hundred  and  Ten  Dollars,  to  me  paid  by  John  Floyd,  of  the 
same  place,  of  the  second  part,  the  receipt  whereof  is  hereby 
acknowledged,  have  sold,  and  by  this  instrument  do  convey  unto 
the  said  Floyd,  party  of  the  second  part,  his  executors,  adminis- 
trators and  assigns,  my  undivided  half  of  ten  acres  of  corn,  now 
growing  on  the  farm  of  Thomas  Tyrell,  in  the  town  above  men- 
tioned; one  pair  of  horses;  sixteen  sheep,  and  five  cows,  belonging 
to  me  and  in  my  possession  at  the  farm  aforesaid;  to  have  and  to 
hold  the  same  unto  the  party  of  the  second  part,  his  executors  and 
assigns  forever.  And  I  do,  for  myself  and  legal  representatives, 
agree  with  the  said  party  of  the  second  part,  and  his  legal  repre- 
sentatives, to  warrant  and  defend  the  sale  of  the  afore-mentioned 
property  and  chattels  unto  the  said  party  of  the  second  part, 
and  his  legal  representatives,  against  all  and  every  person  whatso- 
ever. 

In  witness  whereof,  I  have  hereunto  affixed  my  hand,  this  tenth 
day  of  October,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  seventy-six. 

Louis  Clay. 


136  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

NOTICE  TO  QUIT. 

To  JoHK  Wontpay: 

You  are  hereby  notified  to  quit  the  possession  of  the  premises 
you  now  occupy  to  wit: 

[Insert  Description,'] 
on  or  before  thirty  days  from  the  date  of  tnis  notice. 
Dated  January  1, 1878.  Landlord. 

[Reverse  for  Notice  to  Landlord.'] 

GENERAL  FORM  OF  WILL  FOR  REAL  AND  PERSONAL 

PROPERTY. 

1,  Charles  Mansfield,  of  the  town  of  Bellevue,  County  of  Jackson, 
State  of  Iowa,  being  aware  of  the  uncertainty  of  life,  and  in  fail- 
ing health,  but  of  sound  mind  and  memory,  do  make  and  declare 
this  to  be  my  last  will  and  testament,  in  manner  following,  to- 
wit: 

First.  I  give,  devise  and  bequeath  unto  my  eldest  son,  Sidney  H. 
Mansfield,  the  sum  of  Two  Thousand  Dollars  of  bank  stock,  now  in 
the  Third  National  Bank,  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  and  the  farm  owned 
by  myself,  in  the  Township  of  Iowa,  consisting  of  one  hundred  and 
sixty  acres,  with  all  the  houses,  tenements  and  improvements 
thereunto  belonging;  to  have  and  to  hold  unto  my  said  son,  his 
heirs  and  assigns,  forever. 

Second.  I  give,  devise  and  bequeath  to  each  of  my  two  daugh- 
ters, Anna  Louise  Mansfield  and  Ida  Clara  Mansfield,  each  Two 
Thousand  Dollars  in  bank  stock  in  the  Third  National  Bank  of 
Cincinnati,  Ohio;  and  also,  each  one  quarter  section  of  land,  owned 
by  myself,  situated  in  the  Township  of  Fairfield,  and  recorded  in 
my  name  in  the  Recorder's  office,  in  the  county  where  such  land  is 
located.  The  north  one  hundred  and  sixty  acres  of  said  half  sec- 
tion is  devised  to  my  eldest  daughter,  Anna  Louise. 

Third.  I  give,  devise  and  bequeath  to  my  son  Frank  Alfred 
Mansfield,  five  shares  of  railroad  stock  in  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio 
Railroad,  and  my  one  hundred  and  sixty  acres  of  land,  and  saw-mill 
thereon,  situated  in  Manistee,  Michigan,  with  all  the  improve- 
ments and  appurtenances  thereunto  belonging,  which  said  real  es- 
tate is  recorded  in  my  name,  in  the  county  where  situated. 

Fourth.  I  give  to  my  wife,  Victoria  Elizabeth  Mansfield,  all 
my  household  furniture,  goods,  chattels  and  personal  property, 
about  my  home,  not  hitherto  disposed  of,  including  Eight  Thous- 
and Dollars  of  bank  stock  in  the  Third  National  Sank  of  Cincin- 
nati, Ohio,  fifteen  shares  in  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Railroad,  and 
the  free  and  unrestricted  use,  possession  and  benefit  of  the  home 
farm  so  long  as  she  may  live,  in  lieu  of  dower,  to  which  she  is  en- 
titled by  law — said  farm  being  my  present  place  of  residence. 

Fifth.  I  bequeath  to  my  invalid  father,  Elijah  H.  Mansfield 
the  income  from  rents  of  my  store  building  at  145  Jackson  street 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  137 

Chicago,  Illinois,  during  the  term  of  his  natural  life.  Said  build- 
ing and  land  therewith  to  revert  to  my  said  sons  and  daughters  in 
equal  proportion,  upon  the  demise  of  my  said  father. 

Sixth.  It  is  also  my  will  and  desire  that,  at  the  death  of  my 
wife,  Victoria  Elizabeth  Mansfield,  or  at  any  time  when  she  may 
arrange  to  relinquish  her  life  interest  in  the  above  mentioned 
homestead,  the  same  may  revert  to  my  above  named  children,  or  to 
the  lawful  heirs  of  each. 

Afid  lastly.  I  nominate  and  appoint  as  the  executors  of  this, 
my  last  will  and  testament,  my  wife,  Victoria  Elizabeth  Mansfield 
and  my  eldest  son,  Sidney  H.  Mansfield. 

I  further  direct  that  my  debts  and  necessary  funeral  expenses 
shall  be  paid  from  moneys  now  on  deposit  in  the  Savings  Bank  of 
Bellevue,  the  residue  of  such  moneys  to  revert  to  my  wife,  Vic- 
toria Elizabeth  Mansfield,  for  her  use  forever. 
K  In  witness  whereof,  I  Charles  Mansfield,  to  this  my  last  will  and 
testament,  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  seal,  this  fourth  day  of 
April,  eighteen  hundred  and  seventy-two. 

Charles  Mansfield. 
r  Signed  and  declared  by  Charles  Mansfield,  as  and  for  his  last  will 
and  testament,  in  the  presence  of  us,  who,  at  his  request,  and  in 
his  presence,  and  in  the  presence  of  each  other,  have  subscribed  our 
names  hereunto  as  witness  thereof. 

Peter  A.  ScHENCK,Dubuque,  Iowa. 
Frank  E.  Dent,  Bellevue,  Iowa. 

CODICIL. 

Whereas  I,  Charles  Mansfield,  did,  on  the  fourth  day  of  April, 
one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  seventy-two,  make  my  last  will 
and  testament,  1  do  now,  by  this  writing,  add  this  codicil  to  my 
said  will,  to  be  taken  as  a  part  thereof. 

Whereas,  by  the  dispensation  of  Providence,  my  daughter,  Anna 
Louise,  has  deceased,  Movember  fifth,  eighteen  hundred  and 
seventy-three,  and  whereas  a  son  has  been  born  to  me,  which  son 
is  now  christened  Richard  Albert  Mansfield,  I  give  and  bequeath 
unto  him  my  gold  watch,  and  all  right,  interest  and  title  in  lands 
and  bank  stock  and  chattels  bequeatned  to  my  deceased  daughter, 
Anna  Louise,  in  the  body  of  this  will. 

In  witness  whereof,  I  hereunto  placed  my  hand  and  seal,  this 
tenth  day  of  March,  eighteen  hundred  and  seventy-five. 

Charles  Mansfield. 

Signed,  sealed,  published  and  declared  to  us  by  the  testator, 
Charles  Mansfield,  as  and  for  a  codicil  to  be  annexed  to  his  last 
will  and  testament.  And  we,  at  his  request,  and  in  his  presence, 
and  in  the  presence  of  each  other,  have  subscribed  our  names  as 
witnesses  thereto,  at  the  date  hereof. 

Frank  E.  Dent,  Bellevue,  Iowa. 
John  C.  Shay,  Bellevue,  Iowa. 


138  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

{Form  No,  1.) 

SATISFACTION  OF  MORTGAGE. 

State  of  Iowa,  ) 

j County,     )     ' 

I, ,  of  the  County  of ,  State  of  Iowa,  do  hereby  ac- 
knowledge that  a  certain  Indenture  of ,  bearing  date  the 

day  of ,  A.  D.  18. .,  made  and  executed  by and 

his  wife,  to  said on  the  following  described  Real  Estate,  in 

the  County  of ,  and  State  of  Iowa,  to-wit:  (here  insert  descrip- 
tion) and  filed  for  record  in  the  office  of  the  Recorder  of  the  County 

of ,  and  State  of  Iowa,  on  the day  of ,  A.  D.  18. ., 

at o'clock    .M.:    and  recorded   in   Book  of   Mortgage 

Records,  on  page . . . . ,  is  redeemed,  paid  ofiP,  satisfied  and  discharged 

in  full.  [seal.] 

State  of  Iowa,  ) 
....  County,  ) 

Be  it  Remembered,  That,  on  this day  of ,  A.  D.  18 . . , 

before  me  the  undersigned,  a in  and  for  said  county,  per- 
sonally appeared ,  to  me  personally  known  to  be  the  identical 

person  wno  executed  the  above  (satisfaction  of  mortgage)  as  grant- 
or, and  acknowledged signature  thereto  to  be vol- 
untary act  and  deed. 

Witness  my  hand  and seal,  the  day  and  year  last 

above  written. 

ONE  FORM  OF  REAL  ESTATE  MORTGAGE. 

Know  all  Mek  by  these  Presents:    That ,  of 

County,  and  State  of    ,  in  consideration  of   dollars,  in 

hand  paid  by of  ....  County, 'and  State  of  . . . . ,  do  hereby 

sell  and  convey  unto  the  said the  following  described  prem- 
ises, situated  in  the  County  of ,  and  State  of    ,  to-wit: 

(here  insert  description)  and    do  hereby  covenant  with  the 

said that  ....  lawfully  seized  of  said  premises,  that  they 

are  free  from  incumbrance,  that have  good  right  and  lawful 

authority  to  sell  and  convey  the  same;  and  ....  do  hereby  cove- 
nant to  warrant  and  defend  the  same  against  the  lawful  claims  of 
all  persons  whomsoever.     To  be  void  upon  condition  that  the  said 

shall  pay  the  full  amount  of  principal  and  interest  at  the 

time  therein  specified,  of   certain  promissory  note    for  the 

sum  of dollars. 

One  note  for  $  • . . ,  due i  18  • . ,  with  interest  annually  at  . . . 

per  cent. 
One  note  for  $ . . . ,  due ?  18 . . ,  with  interest  annually  at  . . . 

per  cent. 
One  note  for  ?. . .,  due i  18.  • ,  with  interest  annually  at  . . . 

per  cent. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  139 

One  note  for  $• . . ,  due ,  18. . ,  with  interest  annually' at  . . . 

per  cent. 

And  the  said  Mortgagor  agrees  to  pay  all  taxes  that  may  be  levied 
upon  the  above  described  premises.  It  is  also  agreed  by  the  Mort- 
gagor that  if  it  becomes  necessary  to  foreclose  this  mortga^,  a 
reasonable  amount  shall  be  allowed  as  An  attorney's  fee  for  fore- 
closing.    And  the  said hereby  relinquishes  all  her  right  of 

dower  and  homestead  in  and  to  the  above  described  premises. 
Signed  the day  of  . . . . ,  A.  D.  18 . . . 


[Acknowledge  as  in  Form  No.  1.] 

r 

SECOND  FORM  OF  REAL  ESTATE  MORTGAGE. 

This  Indenture,  made  and  executed by  and  between  .... 

of  the  county  of  ....  and  State  of ,  part    of  the  first  part,  and 

of  the  county  of  ....  and  State  of  ....  parfy  of  the  sec- 
ond part,  Witnessetn^  that  the  said  part  of  the  nrst  part,  for  and 
in  consideration  of  the  sum  of  ....  dollars,  paid  by  the  said  party 
of  the  second  part,  the  receipt  of  which  is  hereby  acknowledged, 
have  granted  and  sold,  and  do  by  these  presents,  grant,  bargain, 
sell,  convey  and  confirm,  unto  the  said  party  of  the  second  part, 
. . .  •  heirs  and  assigns  forever,  the  certam  tract  or  parcel  of  real 
estate  situated  in  the  county  of  ....  and  State  of  . . . . ,  described 
as  follows,  to-wit: 

{Here  insert  description.) 

The  said  part  of  the  first  part  represent  to  and  covenant  with 
the  part  of  the  second  part,  that  he  luive  good  right  to  sell  and 
convey  said  premises,  that  they  are  free  from  encumbrance  and 
that  he  will  warrant  and  defend  them  against  the  lawful  claims 
of  all  persons  whomsoever,  and  do  expressly  hereby  release  all 
rights  of  dower  in  and  to  said  premises,  and  relinquish  and  convey 
all  rights  of  homestead  therein. 

This  Instrument  is  made,  executed  and  delivered  upon  the  fol- 
lowing conditions,  to-wit : 

Firsts    Said  first  part     agree  to  pay  said or  order 

Second,  Said  first  part  further  agree  as  is  stipulated  in  said 
note,  that  if  he  shall  fail  to  pay  any  of  said  interest  when  due, 
it  shall  bear  interest  at  the  rate  of  ten  per  cent,  per  annum,  from 
the  time  the  same  becomes  due,  and  this  mortgage  shall  stand  as 
security  for  the  same. 

Third.  Said  first  part  further  agree  that  he  will  pay  all 
taxes  and  assessments  levied  upon  said  real  estate  before  they  be- 
come delinquent,  and  if  not  paid  the  holder  of  this  mortgage  may 
declare  the  whole  sum  of  money  herein  secured  due  and  collectible 
at  once,  or  he  may  elect  to  pay  such  taxes  or  assessments,  and  be 


140  HISTOEY   OF  IOWA. 

entitled  to  interest  on  the  same  at  the  rate  of  ten  per  cent,  per  an- 
num, and  this  mortgage  shall  stand  as  security  for  the  amount  so 
paid. 

Fourth,  Said  first  part  further  agree  that  if  he  fail  to  pay 
any  of  said  money,  either  principal  or  interest,  within  ....  days 
after  the  same  becomes  due,  or  fail  to  conform  or  comply  with 
any  of  the  foregoing  conditions  or  agreements,  the  whole  sum 
herein  secured  snail  become  due  and  payable  at  once,  and  this 
mortgage  may  thereupon  be  foreclosed  immediately  for  the  whole 
of  said  money,  interest  and  costs. 

Fifth.  Said  first  part  further  agree  that  in  the  event  of  the  non- 
payment of  either  principal,  interest  or  taxes  when  due,  and  upon 
the  filing  of  a  bill  of  foreclosure  of  this  mortgage,  an  attorney's 

fee  of dollars  shall  become  due  and  payable,  and  shall  be  by 

the  court  taxed,  and  this  mortgage  shall  stand  as  security  therefor, 
and  the  same  shall  be  included  in  the  decree  of  foreclosure  and 
shall  be  made  by  the  SheriflF  on  general  or  special  execution  with 
the  other  money,  interest  and  costs,  and  the  contract  embodied  in 
this  mortgage  and  the  note  described  herein,  shall  in  all  respects 

be  governed,  constructed  and  adjudged  bj'  the  laws  of ,  where 

the  same  is  made.  The  foregoing  conditions  being  performed,  this 
conveyance  to  be  void,  otherwise  in  full  force  and  virtue. 


[Acknowledge  as  in  form  No.  1.] 

FORM  OF  LEASE. 

This  Article  qf  Agreement,  Made  and  entered  into  on  this 

day  of  • . . . ,  A.  D.  187 . ,  by  and  between   ,  of  the 

county  of ,  and  State  of  Iowa,  of  the  first  part,  and 

of  the  countv  of   ,  and  State  of  Iowa,  of  the  second  part, 

witness^th,  tfiat  the  said  party  of  the  first  part  has  this  day  leased 
unto  the  party  of  the  second  part  the  following  described  prem- 
ises, to-wit: 

Here  insert  Descriptioyi. 

for  the  term  of  from   and   after  the  . .  day  of  . . . . ,  A. 

D.  187. . ,  at  the (rent)  of dollars,  to  be  paid  as 

follows,  to-wit: 

Here  insert  Terms, 

And  it  is  further  agreed  that  if  any  rent  shall  be  due  and  un- 
paid, or  if  default  be  made  in  any  of  the  covenants  herein  con- 
tained, it  shall  then  be  lawful  for  the  said  party  of  the  first  part 
to  re-enter  the  said  premises,  or  to  destrain  for  such  rent;  or  he 
may  recover  possession  thereof,  by  action  of  forcible  entry  and  de- 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  141 

tainer,  notwithstanding  the  provision  of  Section  3,612  of  the 
Code  of  1873;  or  he  may  use  any  or  all  of  said  remedies. 

And  the  said  party  of  the  second  part  agrees  to  pay  to  the  party 
of  the  first  part  the  rent  as  above  stated,  except  when  said  premises 
are  untenantable  by  reason  of  fire,  or  from  any  other  cause  than 
the  carelessness  of  the  party  of  the  second  part,  or  persons  .... 
family,  or  in  ....  employ,  or  by  superior  force  and  inevitable  ne- 
cessity.    And  the  said  party  of  the  second  part  covenants  that 

will  use  the  said  premises  as  a  . . . .,  and  for  no  other  purpose 

whatever;  and  that especially  will  not  use  said  premises,  or 

permit  the  same  to  be  used,  for  any  unlawful  business  or  purpose 

whatever;  that will  not  sell,   assign,  underlet   or  relinquish 

said  premises  without  the  written  consent  of  the    lessor,   under 

penalty  of  a  forfeiture  of  all rights  under  this  lease,  at  the 

election  of  the  party  of  the  first  part;  and  that will  use  all 

due  care  and  diligence  in  guarding  said  property,  with  the  build- 
ings, gates,  fences,  trees,  vines,  shrubberv,  etc.,  from  damage  by 

fire,  and  the  depredations  of  animals;  that will  keepbuila- 

ings,  gates,  fences,  etc.,  in  as  good  repair  as  they  now  are,  or  may 
at  any  time  be  placed  by  the  lessor,  damages  by  superior  force,  in- 
evitable necessity,  or  fire  from   any  other  cause  than   from   the 

carelessness  of  the  lessee,  or  persons  of family,  or  in 

employ,  excepted;  and  that  at  the  expiration  of  this  lease,  or  upon 
a  breach  by  said  lessee  of  any  of  the  said  covenants  herein  con- 
tained,   will,  without  further  notice  of  any  kind,   quit   and 

surrender  the  possession  and  occupancy  of  said  premises  in  as  good 
condition  as  reasonable  use,  natural  wear  and  decay  thereof  will 
permit,  damages  by  fire  as  aforesaid,  superior  force,  or  inevitable 
necessity,  only  excepted. 

In  witness  whereof,  the  said  parties  have  subscribed  their  names 
on  the  date  first  above  written. 

In  presence  of 


FORM  OF  NOTE. 

^9  ....  .•.•.•,JIO.*a 

On  or  before  the  . .  day  of  . . . . ,  18 . . ,  for  value  received,  I 
promise  to  pay or  order, dollars,  with  inter- 
est from  date  until  paid,  at  ten  per  cent,  per  annum,  payable  annu- 
ally, at Unpaid   interest  shall  bear  interest  at  ten  per 

cent,  per  annum.     On   failure   to   pay  interest  within days 

after  due,  the  whole  sura,  principal  and  interest,  shall  become  due 
at  once. 

I 

CHATTEL  MORTGAGE. 

IvNow  ALL  Men  by  these  Presents:    That of  .... 

County,  and  State  of in  consideration  of dollars,  in  hand 


142  HISTORY  OF   IOWA. 

paid  by ,  of County  and  State  of do  hereby  sell 

and  convey  unto  the  said the  following  described  per- 
sonal property,  now  in  the  possession  of in  the  County 

and  State  of ,  to-wit: 

Here  insert  Description, 

And  ....  do  hereby  warrant  the  title  of  said  property,  and  that  it 
is  free  from  any  incumbrance  or  lien.  The  only  right  or  interest 
retained  by  grantor  in  and  to  said  property  being  the  right  of  re- 
demption  as  herein  provided.  This  conveyance  to  be  void  upon 
condition  that  the  said  grantor  shall  pay  to  said  grantee,  or  his 
assigns,  the  full  amount  of  principal  and  interest  at  the  time  there- 
in specified,  of  • . . .  certain  promissory  notes  of  even  date  here- 
with, for  the  sum  of  ....  dollars. 

One  note  for  $ .... ,  due ,  18. . ,  with  interest  annually  at per  cent. 

One  note  for  ♦ ,  due ,  18. . ,  with  interest  annually  at per  cent. 

One  note  for  $ ,  due ,  18 . . ,  with  interest  annually  at  ....  per  cent. 

One  note  for  $ .... ,  due ,  18. . ,  with  interest  annually  at  ....  per  cent. 

The  grantor  to  pay  all  taxes  on  said  property,  and  if  at  any  time 
any  part  or  portion  of  said  notes  should  be  due  and  unpaid,  said 
grantee  may  proceed  by  sale  or  foreclosure,  to  collect  and  pay  him- 
self the  unpaid  balance  of  said  notes,  whether  due  or  not,  the 
grantor  to  pay  all  necessary  expenses  of  such  foreclosure,  includ- 
ing $. . . .  Attorney's  fees,  and  whatever  remains  after  paying  off 
said  notes  and  expenses,  to  be  paid  over  to  said  grantor. 

Signed  the  ....  day  of ,  18 . . . 

[Acknowledged  as  in  form  No.  1.]         

WARRANTY  DEED. 

« 

Know  all  Mek  by  these  Presents  :    That of 

County,  and  State  of  . . . . ,  in  consideration  of  the  sum   of 

Dollars,  in  hand  paid   by of  ....  County   and   State  of 

. . . . ,  do  hereby  sell  and  convey  unto  the  said  ....  and  to  ... . 
heirs  and  assigns,  the  following  described  premises,  situated  in  the 
County  of  . . . .,  State  of  Iowa, to-wit: 

Here  insert  Description, 

And  I  do  hereby  covenant  with  the  said that  . .  lawfully 

seized  in  fee  simple,  of  said  premises,  that  they  are  free  from  in- 
cumbrance ;  that  . .  ha  good  right  and  lawful  authority  to  sell 
the  same,  and  . .  do  hereby  covenant  to  warrant  and  defend  the 
said  premises  and  appurtenances  thereto  belonging,   against  the 

lawful  claims  of  all  persons  whomsoever;  and   the  said 

hereby  relinquishes  all  her  right  of  dower  and  of  homestead  in 
and  to  the  above  described  premises. 

Signed  the   day  of ,  A.  D.  18 . . . 

IN  presence  of 


[Acknowledged  as  in  Form  No.  1.] 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  148 

QUIT  CLAIM  DEED. 

Know  all  Men  by  these  Presents:    That of  

County,  State  of ,  in  consideration  of  the  sum  of  . . .  /  dollars 

to  ....  in  hand  paid  bj  . . . . ,  of  ....  County,  State  of ,  the 

receipt  whereof  ...  do  hereby  acknowledge,  have  bar^ined,  sold 
and  quit-claimed,  and  by  these  presents  do  bargain,  sell  and  Quit- 
claim unto  the  said  ....  and  to  . .  heirs  and  assigns  forever,  all  . . 
right,  title,  interest,  estate,  claim  and  demand,  both  at  law  and  in 
equity,  and  as  well  in  possession  as  in  expectancy,  of,  in  and  to  the 
following  described  premises,  to  wit:  [here  insert  description]  with 
all  and  singular  the  Hereditaments  and  appurtenances  thereto  be- 
longing. 

Signed  this  . . .  day  of  . . . .,  A.  D.,  18. .. 

Signed  in  Presence  of  


•  •  • 


• .  •  • 


[Acknowledged  as  in  form  No.  1.] 

BOND  FOR  DEED. 

Know  all  Men  by  these  Presents:    That of 

County,  and  State  of  ....  am  held  and  firmly  bound  unto 

of  ....  County,  and  State  of  . . . . ,  in  the  sum  of Dollars, 

to  be  paid  to  the  said ,  his  executors  or  assigns,  for  which 

payment  well  and  truly  to  be  made,  I  bind  myself  firmly  by  these 
presents.     Signed  the  ....  day  of A.  D.  18. . . 

The  condition  of  this  obligcition  is  such,  that  if  said  obligee  shall 
pay  to  said  obligor,  or  his  assigns,  the  full  amount  of  principal  and 
interest  at  the  time  therein  specified,  of  . .  certain  promissory  note, 
of  even  date  herewith,  for  the  sum  of Dollars, 

One  note  for  $ ,  due i  18  •  • ,  with  interest  annually  at .  • 

per  cent. 
One  note  for  $....,  due ,  18 . . ,  with  interest  annually  at  . . 

per  cent. 
One  jioie  for  $....,  due ,  18  • . ,  with  interest  annually  at . . 

per  cent. 

and  pay  all  taxes  accruing  upon  the  lands  herein  described,  then 
said  obligor  shall  convey  to  the  said  obligee,  or  his  assigns,  that 
certain  tract  or  parcel  of  real  estate,  situated  in  thu  County  of  .  .^. 
and  State  of  Iowa,  described  as  follows,  to  wit:  [here  insert  descrip- 
tion] by  a  Warranty  Deed,  with  the  usual  covenants,  duly  execut- 
ed and  acknowledged. 

If  said  obligee  should  fail  to  make  the  payments  as  above  stipu- 
lated, or  any  part  thereof,  as  the  same  becomes  due,  said  obligor 
may  at  his  option,  by  notice  to  the  obligee  terminate  his  liability 
under  the  bond  and  resume  the  possession  and  absolute  control  of 
said  premises,  time  being  the  essence  of  this  agreement. 


144  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

.  On  the  fulfillment  of  the  above  conditions  this  obligation  to  be- 
come void,  otherwise  to  remain  in  full  force  and  virtue;  unless  ter- 
minated by  the  obligor  as  above  stipulated. 

*•..         ...a 

[Acknowledged  as  in  form  No.  1] 

CHARITABLE,  SCIENTIFIC   AND   RELIGIOUS  ASSOCIA- 
TIONS. 

Any  three  or  more  persons  of  full  age,  citizens  of  the  United 
States,  a  majority  of  whom  shall  be  citizens  of  this  State,  who  de- 
sire to  associate  themselves  for  benevolent,  charitable,  scientific, 
religious  or  missionary  purposes,  may  make,  sign  and  acknowledge 
before  any  officer  authorized  to  take  acknowledgements  of  deeds  m 
this  State,  and  have  recorded  in  the  office  of  the  Recorder  of  the 
county  in  which  the  business  of  such  society  is  to  be  conducted,  a 
certificate  in  writing,  in  which  shall  be  stated  the  name  or  title  by 
which  such  society  shall  be  known,  the  particular  business  and  ol>- 
jects  of  such  society,  the  number  of  Trustees,  Directors  or  Manag- 
ers to  conduct  the  same,  and  the  names  of  the  Trustees,  Directors 
or  Managers  of  such  society  for  the  first  year  of  its  existence. 

Upon  filing  for  record  the  certificate,  as  aforesaid,  the  persons 
who  shall  have  signed  and  acknowledged  such  certificate,  and  their 
associates  and  successors,  shall,  by  virtue  hereof,  be  a  body  politic 
and  corporate  by  the  name  stated  in  such  certificate,  and  that  they 
and  their  successors  shall  and  may  have  succession,  and  shall  he 
persons  capable  of  suing  and  being  sued,  and  may  have  and  use  a 
common  seal,  which  they  may  alter  or  change  at  pleasure;  and 
they  and  their  successors,  by  their  corporate  name,  shall  be  capable 
of  taking,  receiving,  purchasing  and  holding  real  and  personal  estate 
and  of  making  by-laws  for  the  management  of  its  affairs,  not  in- 
consistent with  law. 

The  society  so  incorporated  may,  annually  or  of  tener,  elect  from 
its  members  its  Trustees,  Directors  or  Managers  at  such  time  and 
place,  and  in  such  manner  as  may  be  specified  in  its  by-laws,  who 
shall  have  the  control  and  management  of  the  affairs  and  funds  of 
the  society,  a  majority  of  whom  shall  be  a  quorum  for  the  transac- 
tion of  business,  and  whenever  any  vacancy  shall  happen  among 
such  Trustees,  Directors  or  Managers,  by  death,  resignation 
or  neglect  to  serve,  such  vacancy  shall  be  filled  in  such  manner  as 
shall  be  provided  by  the  by-laws  of  such  society.  When  the  body 
corporate  consists  of  the  Trustees,  Directors  or  Managers  of  any 
benevolent,  charitable,  literary,  scientific,  religious  or  missionary 
institution,  which  is  or  may  be  established  in  tne  State,  and  which 
is  or  may  be  under  the  patronage,  control,  direction  or  supervision 
of  any  synod,  conference,  association  or  other  ecclesiastical  body  in 
such  State,  established  agreeably  to  the  laws  thereof,  such  eccles- 
iastical body  may  nominate  and  appoint  such  Trustees,  Directors  or 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  145 

Managers,  according  to  usages  of  the  appointing  body,  and  may 
fill  any  vacancy  which  may  occur  among  such  Trustees,  Directors 
or  Managers;  and  when  any  such  institution  may  be  under  the  pat- 
ronage, control,  direction  or  supervision  of  two  or  more  of  such  sy- 
nods, conferences,  associations  or  other  ecclesiastical  bodies,  such 
bodies  may  severally  nominate  and  appoint  such  proportion  of  such 
Trustees,  Directors  or  Managers  as  snail  be  agreed  upon  by  those 
bo<lies  immediately  concerned.  And  any  vacancy  occurring  among 
such  appointees  last  named,  sh:\U  be  filled  by  tne  synod,  confer- 
ence, association  or  body  having  appointed  the  last  incumbent. 

In  case  any  election  of  Trustees,  Directors  or  Managers  shall  not 
be  made  on  the  day  designated  by  the  by-laws,  said  society  for  that 
cause  shall  not  be  dissolved,  but  such  election  may  take  place  on 
any  other  day  selected  by  such  by-laws. 

Any  corporation  formed  under  this  chapter  shall  be  capable  of 
taking,  holding  or  receiving  property  by  virtue  of  any  devise  or  be- 
quest contained  in  any  last  will  or  testament  of  any  person  what- 
soever; but  no  person  leaving  a  wife,  child  or  parent,  shall  devise 
or  bequeath  to  such  institution  or  corporation  more  than  one-fourth 
of  his  estate  after  the  payment  of  his  debts,  and  such  devise  or  be- 
quest shall  be  valid  only  to  the  extent  of  such  one-fourth. 

Any  corporation  in  this  State  of  an  academical  character,  the 
membership  of  which  shall  consist  of  lay  members  and  pastors  of 
churches,  delegates  to  any  synod,  conference  or  council  holding 
its  annual  meetings  alternately  in  this  and  one  or  more  adjoining 
States,  may  hold  its  annual  meeting  for  the  election  of  officers  and 
the  transaction  of  business  in  any  adjoining  State  to  this,  at  such 
place  therein  as  the  said  synod,  conference  or  council  shall  hold  its 
annual  meetings;  and  the  elections  so  held  and  business  so  trans- 
acted shall  be  as  legal  and  binding  as  if  held  and  transacted  at  the 
place  of  business  of  the  corporation  in  this  State. 

The  provisions  of  this  chapter  shall  not  extend  or  apply  to  any 
association  or  individual  who  shall,  in  the  certificate  filea  with  the 
Recorder,  use  or  specify  a  name  or  style  the  same  as  that  of  any 
previously  existing  incorporated  society  in  the  county. 

The  Trustees,  Directors  or  stockholders  of  any  existing  benevo- 
lent, charitable,  scientific,  missionary  or  religious  corporation  may, 
by  conforming  to  the  requirements  of  Section  1,095  of  this  chap- 
ter, re-incorporate  themselves  or  continue  their  existing  corporate 
powers,  and  all  the  property  and  eflfects  of  such  existing  corpora- 
tion shall  vest  in  and  belong  to  the  corporation  so  re-incorporated 
or  continued. 

INTOXICATING  LIQUORS. 

No  intoxicating  liquors  (alcohol,  spirituous  and  vinous  liquors), 
except  wine  manufactured  from  grapes,  currants  or  other  fruit 
grown  in  the  State,  shall  be  manufactured  or  sold,  except  for  me- 


146  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

chanical,  medicinal,  culinary  or  sacramental  purposes;  and  even 
such  sale  is  limifced  as  follows: 

Any  citizen  of  the  State,  except  hotel  keepers,  keepers  of  saloons, 
eating  houses,  grocery  keepers  and  confectioners,  is  permitted  to 
buy  and  sell,  within  the  county  of  his  residence,  such  liquors  for 
such  mechanical,  etc.,  purposes  only,  provided  he  shall  obtain  the 
consent  of  the  Board  of  Supervisors.  In  order  to  get  that  consent 
he  must  get  a  certificate  from  a  majority  of  the  electors  of  the 
town  or  township  or  ward  in  which  he  desires  to  sell,  that  he  is  of 
good  moral  character,  and  a  proper  person  to  sell  such  liquors. 

If  the  Board  of  Supervisors  grant  him  permission  to  sell  such 
liquors,  he  must  give  bonds,  and  shall  not  sell  such  liquors  at  a 
greater  profit  than  thirty-three  per  cent,  on  the  cost  of  the  same. 
Any  person  having  a  permit  to  sell,  shall  make,  on  the  last  Satur- 
day of  every  month,  a  return  in  writing  to  the  Auditor  of  the 
county,  showing  the  kind  and  quantitv  of  the  liquors  purchased  by 
him  since  the  date  of  his  last  report,  the  price  paid  and  the  amount 
of  freights  paid  on  the  same;  also  the  kind  and  quantity  of  liquors 
sold  by  him  since  the  date  of  his  last  report,  to  whom  sold,  for 
what  purpose  and  at  what  price,  also  the  kind  and  quantity  of 
liquors  on  hand;  which  report  shall  be  sworn  to  by  the  person 
having  the  permit,  and  shall  be  kept  by  the  Auditor,  subject  at  all 
times  to  the  inspection  of  the  public. 

No  person  shall  sell  or  give  away  any  intoxicating  liquors,  in- 
cluding wine  or  beer,  to  any  minor,  for  any  purpose  whatever,  ex- 
cept upon  written  order  of  parent,  guardian  or  family  physician;  or 
sell  the  same  to  an  intoxicated  person  or  a  person  m  the  habit  of 
becoming  intoxicated. 

Any  person  who  shall  mix  any  intoxicating  liquor  with  any 
beer,  wine  or  cider,  by  him  sold,  and  shall  sell  or  keep  for  sale,  as 
a  beverage,  such  mixture,  shall  be  punished  as  for  sale  of  intoxi- 
cating liquor. 

But  nothing  in  the  chapter  containing  the  laws  governing  the 
sale,  or  prohibiting  the  sale  of  intoxicating  liquors,  shall  be  con- 
strued to  forbid  the  sale  by  the  importer  thereof  of  foreign  intox- 
icating liquor,  imported  under  the  authority  of  the  laws  of  the 
United  States,  regarding  the  importation  of  such  liquors,  and  in 
accordance  with  such  laws;  provided  that  such  liquor,  at  the  time 
of  the  sale  by  the  importer,  remains  in  the  original  casks  or  pack- 
ages in  which  it  was  by  him  imported,  and  in  quantities  not  less 
than  the  quantities  in  which  the  laws  of  the  United  States  require 
such  liquors  to  be  imported,  and  is  sold  by  him  in  such  original 
casks  or  packages,  and  in  said  quantities  only. 

All  payment  or  compensation  for  intoxicating  liquor  sold  in  vio- 
lation of  the  laws  of  this  State,  whether  such  payments  or  com- 
pensation be  in  money,  goods,  lands,  labor,  or  anything  else  what- 
soever, shall  be  held  to  have  been  received  in  violation  of  law  and 
equity  and  good  conscience,  and   to  have  been  received  upon  a 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  147 

yalid  promise  and  agreement  of  the  receiver,  in  consideration  of 
the  receipt  thereof,  to  pay  on  demand  to  the  person  furnishing 
such  consideration,  the  amount  of  the  money  on  the  just  value  of 
the  goods  or  other  things. 

All  sales,  transfers,  conveyances,  mortgages,  liens,  attachments, 
pledges  and  securities  of  every  kind,  which,  either  in  whole  or  in 
part^  shall  have  been  made  on  account  of  intoxicating  liquors  sold 
contrary  to  law,  shall  be  utterly  null  and  void. 

Nep^otiable  paper  in  the  hands  of  holders  thereof,  in  good  faith, 
for  valuable  consideration,  without  notice  of  any  illegality  in  its 
inception  or  transfer,  however,  shall  not  be  aiFected  by  the  above 
provisions.  Neither  shall  the  holder  of  land  or  other  property 
who  may  have  taken  the  same  in  good  faith,  without  notice  of  any 
defect  in  the  title  of  the  person  from  whom  the  same  was  taken, 
growing  out  of  a  violation  of  the  liquor  law,  be  affected  by  the 
above  provision. 

Every  wife,  child,  parent,  guardian,  employer,  or  other  person, 
who  shall  be  injured  in  person  or  property  or  means  of  support, 
by  an  intoxicated  person,  or  in  consequence  of  the  intoxication, 
has  a  right  of  action  against  any  person  who  shall,  by  selling  in- 
toxicating liquors,  cause  the  intoxication  of  such  person,  for  all 
damages  actually  sustained  as  well  as  exemplary  damages. 

For  any  damages  recovered,  the  person  and  real  property  (except 
homestead,  as  now  provided)  of  the  person  against  whom  the  dam- 
ages are  recovered,  as  well  as  the  premises  or  property,  personal  or 
real,  occupied  and  used  by  him,  with  consent  and  knowledge  of 
owner,  either  for  manufacturing  or  selling  intoxicating  liquors 
contrary  to  law,  shall  be  liable. 

The  only  other  exemption,  besides  the  homestead,  from  this 
sweeping  liability,  is  that  the  defendant  may  have  enough  for  the 
support  of  his  family  for  six  months,  to  be  determined  by  the 
Township  Trustee. 

No  ale,  wine,  beer  or  other  malt  or  vinous  liquors  shall  be  sold 
within  two  miles  of  the  corporate  limits  of  any  municipal  corpora- 
tion, except  at  wholesale,  for  the  purpose  of  shipment  to  places 
outside  of  such  corporation  and  such  two  mile  limits.  The  power 
of  the  corporation  to  prohibit  or  license  sale  of  liquors  not  prohib- 
ited by  law  is  extended  over  the  two  miles. 

No  ale,  wine  beer  or  other  malt  or  vinous  liquors  shall  be  sold 
on  the  day  on  which  any  election  is  held  under  the  laws  of  this 
State,  within  two  miles  of  the  place  where  said  election  is  held; 
except  only  that  any  person  holding  a  permit  may  sell  upon  the 
prescription  of  a  practicing  physician. 


148  HISTORY   OP  IOWA. 

SUGGESTIONS  TO    THOSE    PURCHASING    BOOKS    BY 

SUBSCRIPTION. 

The  business  of  publishing  books  by  subscription,  having  so  often 
been  brought  into  disrepute  by  agents  making  representations  and 
declarations  not  authorized  by  the  publisher,  in  order  to  prevent 
that  as  much  as  possible,  and  that  there  may  be  more  general 
knowledge  of  the  relation  such  agents  bear  to  their  principal,  and 
the  law  governing  such  cases,  the  following  statement  is  made: 

A  subscription  is  in  the  nature  of  a  contract  of  mutual  prom- 
ises, bv  which  the  subscriber  agrees  to  pay  a  certain  sum  for  the 
work  described;  the  consideration  is  concurrent  that  the  publisher 
ehall  publish  the  book  named,  and  deliver  the  same,  for  which  the 
subscriber  is  to  pay  the  price  named.  The  nature  and  character 
of  the  work  is  described  by  the  prospectus  and  sample  shown. 
These  should  be  carefully  examined  pefore  subscribing,  as  they 
are  the  basis  and  consideration  of  the  promise  to  pay^  and  not  the 
too  often  exaggerated  statements  of  the  agent,  who  is  merely  employed 
to  solicit  subscriptions,  for  which  he  is  usually  »a/d  a  commission 
for  each  subscriber,  and  has  no  authority  to  change  or  alter  the 
conditions  upon  which  the  subscriptions  are  authorized  to  be  made 
by  the  publisher.  Should  the  agent  assume  to  agree  to  make  the 
subscription  conditional  or  modjfy  or  change  the  agreement  of  the 
publisher,  as  set  out  l^y  the  prospectus  and  sample,  in  order  to 
oind  the  principal,  the  subscriber  should  see  that  such  condition  or 
changes  are  stated  over  or  in  connection  with  his  signature,  so  that 
the  publisher  may  have  notice  of  the  same. 

All  persons  making  contracts  in  reference  to  matters  of  this 
kind,  or  any  other  business,  should  remember  that  the  law  as 
written  is,  that  they  can  7iot  be  altered,  varied  or  rescinded  ver^ 
bally,  but  if  done  at  all,  must  be  done  in  writing.  It  is  therefore 
important  that  all  persons  contemplating  subscribing  should  dis- 
tinctly understand  that  all  talk  before  or  after  the  subscription  is 
made,  is  not  admissible  as  evidence,  and  is  no  part  of  the  contract. 

Persons  employed  to  solicit  subscriptions  are  known  to  the  trade 
as  canvassers.  They  are  agents  appointed  to  do  a  particular 
business  in  a  prescribed  mode,  and  have  no  authority  to  do  it  in  any 
other  way  to  the  prejudice  of  their  principal,  nor  can  they  bina 
their  principal  in  any  other  matter.  They  can  not  collect  money 
or  agree  that  payment  may  be  made  in  anything  else  but  money. 
They  cannot  extend  the  time  of  payment  beyond  the  time  of  de- 
livery, nor  bind  their  principal  for  the  payment  of  expenses  in^ 
curred  in  their  business. 

It  would  save  a  great  deal  of  trouble,  and  often  serious  loss,  if 
persons,  before  signing  their  names  to  any  subscription  book,  or  any 
written  instrument,  would  examine  carefully  what  it  is;  if  they 
can  not  read  themselves,  call  on  some  one  disinterested  who  can. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  149 


Practical  Rules  for  Every  Day  Use. 


Hovi  to  find  the  gain  or  loss  per  cent,  when  the  cost  and  selling  price 
are  given. 

Rule. — Find  the  difference  between  the  cost  and  selling  price, 
which  will  be  the  gain  or  loss. 

Annex  two  ciphers  to  the  gain  or  loss,  and  divide  it  by  the  cost 
price;  the  result  will  be  the  gain  or  loss  per  cent. 

How  to  change  gold  into  currency. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  given  sum  of  gold  by  the  price  of  gold. 

How  to  change  currency  into  gold. 

Rule. — Divide  the  amount  in  currency  by  the  price  of  gold. 

How  to  find  each  partners  share  of  the  gain  or  loss  in  a  copartner- 
ship business. 

RULE.T— Divide  the  whole  gain  or  loss  by  the  entire  stock  the 
quotient  will  be  the  gain  or  loss  per  cent. 

Multiply  each  partner's  stock  by  this  per  cent.,  the  result  will 
be  each  one's  share  of  the  gain  or  loss. 

How  to  find  gross  and  net  weight  and  price  of  hogs, 
A  short  and  simple  rrethod  for  finding  the  net  weight,  or  price  of 
hogs,  when  the  gross  weight  or  price  is  given^  and  vice  versa. 

Note.— It  is  ^onerally  assumed  tbat  the  grross  weight  of  Hogs  dlmtntubed  by  i-S 
or  S3  per  cent,  of  itself  gives  the  not  weight,  and  the  net  weight  Increaiied  by  14  or  25 
per  cent,  of  itself  equals  the  gross  weight. 

To  find  the  net  weight  or  gross  price. 
Multiply  the  given  number  by  .08  (tenths). 

To  find  the  gross  weight  or  net  price. 
Divide  the  given  number  by  .08  (tenths). 

How  to  find  the  capacity  of  a  granary,  bin  or  wagon-bed. 

Rule. — Multiply  by  short  method)  the  number  of  cubic  feet  by 
6,308,  and  point  off  one  decimal  place — the  result  will  be  the 
correct  answer  in  bushels  and  tenths  of  a  bushel. 

For  only  an  approximate  answer,  multiply  the  cubic  feet  by  8, 
and  point  off  one  decimal  place. 

How  to  find  the  contents  of  a  corn-crib. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  number  of  cubic  feet  by  54,  short  method, 
or  by  4J  ordinary  method,  and  point  off  one  decimal  place — the 
result  will  be  the  answer  in  bushels. 

NOTB.— In  estimating  com   in  the  ear,  the  qnaltty  and   the  time  It  liaii  been 

erlbbed  must  be  talccm  into  consideration,  since  corn  will  shrink  oonsldcrnbly  during 
winter  and  spring.  Thi!)  rule  gonerally  holds  good  for  com  measured  at  the  time  it  is 
cribbed,  provided  it  is  sound  and  clean. 

How  to  find  the  contents  of  a  cistern  or  tank. 
Rule. — Multiply  the  square  of  the  mean  diameter  by  the  depth 
(all  in  feet)  and  tnis  product  by  5,681  (short  method),  and  point  off 


150  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

ONE  decimal  place — the  result  will  be  the  conteuts  in   barrels   of 
31^  gallons. 

How  to  find  the  contents  of  a  barrel  or  cask. 

Rule. — Under  the  square  of  the  mean  diameter,  write  the  length 
(all  in  inches)  in  reversed  order,  so  that  its  units  will  fall  under 
the  tens;  multiply  by  short  method,  and  this  product  again  by 
430;  point  oflF  one  decimal  place,  and  the  result  will  be  the  answer 
in  wine  gallons. 

How  to  measure  boards. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  length  (in  feet)  by  the  width  (in  inches) 
and  divide  the  product  by  12 — the  result  will  be  the  contents  in 
square  feet. 

How  to  measure  scantlings,  joists,  planks^  sills,  etc. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  width,  the  thickness,  and  the  length  to- 
gether (the  widtn  and  thickness  in  inches,  and  the  length  in  feet), 
and  divide  the  product  by  12 — the  result  will  be  square  feet. 

How  to  find  the  number  of  acres  in  a  body  of  land. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  length  by  the  width  (in  rods),  and  divide 
the  product  by  160  (carrying  the  division  to  2  decimal  places  if 
there  is  a  remainder);  the  result  will  be  the  answer  in  acres  and 
hundredths. 

When  the  opposite  sides  of  a  piece  of  land  are  of  uneaual  length, 
add  them  together  and  take  one-half  for  the  mean  length  or  width. 

How  to  find  the  number  of  square  yards  in  a  floor  or  wall. 
Rule. — Multiply  the  length  by  the  width   or  height  (in  feet), 
an!  divide  the  product  by  9,  the  result  will  be  square  yards. 

How  to  find  the  number  of  bricks  required  in  a  building. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  number  of  cubic  feet  by  22|. 

Tl^e  number  of  cubic  feet  is  found  by  multiplying  the  length, 
height  and  thickness  (in  feet)  together. 

Bricks  are  usually  made  8  inches  long,  4  inches  wide,  and  two 
inches  thick;  hence,  it  requires  27  bricks  to  make  a  cubic  foot 
without  mortar,  but  it  is  generally  assumed  that  the  mortar  fills 
1-6  of  the  space. 

How  to  find  the  number  of  shingles  required  in  a  roof. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  number  of  square  feet  in  the  roof  by  8,  if 
the  shingles  are  exposed  4^  inches,  or  by  7  1-5  if  exposed  5  inches. 

To  find  the  number  of  square  feet,  multiply  the  length  of  the 
roof  by  twice  the  length  of  the  rafters. 

To  find  the  length  of  the  rafters,  at  one-fourth  pitch,  multiply 
the  width  of  the  building  by  .56  (hundredths);  at  one- third  pitch 
by  .6  (tenths);  at  two-fifths  pitch,  by  .64  (hundredths);  at  one- 
half  pitch,  by  .71  (hundredths).  This  gives  the  length  of  the 
rafters  from  the  apex  to  the  end  of  the  wall,  and  whatever  they 
are  to  project  must  be  taken  into  consideration. 

Note.— By  MorH  pitch  is  meant  that  the  apex  or  oomb  of  the  roof  is  to  be  H  or  H 
the  width  of  the  building  liisl&er  than  the  walls  or  base  of  the  rafters. 


HISTOKY  OF  IOWA.  151 

How  to  reckon  the  cost  of  hay. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  number  of  pounds  by  half  the  price  per 
ton,  and  remove  the  decimal  point  threa  places  to  the  left. 

How  to  measure  grain. 

Rule. — Level  the  grain,  ascertain  the  space  it  occupies  in  cubic 
feet;  multiply  the  number  of  cubic  feet  by  8,  and  point  off  one 
place  to  the  left. 

Note.— Exactness  requires  the  ad  lit!  )n  to  every  three  hundred  hustaelfl  of  one 
extra  bashel. 

The  foregoing  rule  may  be  used  for  finding  the  number  of  gal- 
lons, by  multiplying  the  number  of  bushels  by  8. 

If  the  corn  in  the  box  is  in  the  ear,  divide  the  answer  by  2,  to 
find  the  number  of  bushels  of  shelled  corn,  because  it  requires  2 
bushels  of  ear  corn  to  make  1  of  shelled  corn. 

Rapid  rules  for  measuring  land  without  instruments. 

In  measuring  land,  the  first  thing  to  ascertain  is  the  contents  of 
any  given  plot  in  square  yards;  then,  given  the  number  of  yards, 
find  out  the  number  of  rods  and  acres. 

The  most  ancient  and  simplest  measure  of  distance  is  a  step. 
Now,  an  ordinary-sized  man  can  train  himself  to  cover  one  yard 
at  a  stride,  on  the  average,  with  suflBcient  accuracy  for  ordinary 
purposes. 

To  make  use  of  this  means  of  measuring  distances,  it  is  essential 
to  walk  in  a  straight  line;  to  do  this,  fix  the  eye  on  two  objects  in 
a  line  straight  ahead,  one  comparatively  near,  the  other  remote, 
and,  in  walking,  keep  these  objects  constantly  in  line. 

Farmers  and  others  by  adopting  the  following  simple  and  ingenious 
contrivance,  may  always  carry  with  them  the  scale  to  construct  a  cor- 
rect yard  measure. 

Take  afoot  rule,  and  commencing  at  the  base  of  the  little  finger 
of  the  left  hand,  mark  the  quarters  of  the  foot  on  the  outer  borders 
of  the  left  arm,  pricking  in  the  marks  with  indelible  ink. 

To  find  how  many  rods  in  length  will  make  an  acre^  the  width  being 
given. 

Rule. — Divide  160  by  the  width,  and  the  quotient  will  be  the 
answer. 

How  to  find  the  number  of  acres  in  any  plot  of  land,  the  number  of 
rods  being  given. 

Rule. — Divide  the  number  of  rods  by  8,  multiply  the  quotient 
by  5,  and  remove  the  decimal  point  two  places  to  the  left. 

The  diameter  being  given,  to  find  the  circumference. 

Rule. — Multiply  the  diameter  by  3  1-7. 

To  find  the  diameter,  when  the  circumference  is  given. 

Rule. — Divide  the  circumference  by  3  1-7. 

To  find  how  many  solid  feet  a  round  stick  of  timber  of  the  same  thick' 
ness  throughout  will  contain  when  squared 

Rule. — Sauare  half  the  diameter  in  inches,  multiply  by  2,  mul- 
tiply by  the  length  in  feet,  and  divide  the  product  by  144. 


152  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

General  rule  for  measuring  timber,  to  find  the  solid  contents  in  feet. 
Rule. — Multiply  the  depth  in  inches  by  the  breadth  in  inches, 
and  then  multiply  by  the  length  in  feet,  and  divide  by  144. 

To  find  the  number  of  feet  of  timber  in  trees  with  the  bark  on. 
Rule. — Multiply  the  square  of  one-fifth  of  the  circumference  in 
inches,  by  twice  the  length,  ih  feet,  and  divide  by  144.     Deduct 
1-10  to  1-15  according  to  the  thickness  of  the  bark. 

Howard's  new  rule  for  computing  interest. 

Rule. — The  reciprocal  of  the  rate  is  the  time  for  which  the  in- 
terest on  any  sum  of  money  will  be  shown  by  simply  removing  the 
decimal  point  two  places  to  the  left;  for  ten  times  that  time, -re- 
move the  point  one  place  to  the  left;  for  1-10  of  the  same  time, 
remove  the  point  three  places  to  the  left. 

Increase  or  diminish  the  results  to  suit  the  time  given. 

Note  —The  reciprocal  of  the  rate  is  found  by  InverUiis  the  rate;  thus  3  per  cent 
per  monthf  inverted,  becomes  HotA  month,  or  10  days 

When  the  rate  is  expressed  by  one  figure,  always  write  it  thus: 
3-1,  three  ones. 

Rule  for  converting  English  into  American  currency. 

Multiply  the  pounds,  with  the  shillings  and  pence  stated  in  dec- 
imals, by  400  plus  the  premium  in  fourths,  and  divide  the  product 
by  90. 

U.  S.  GOVERNMENT  LAND  MEASURE. 

A  township — 36  sections  each  a  mile  square. 

A  section — 640  acres. 

A  quarter  section,  half  a  mile  square — 160  acres. 

An  eighth  section,  half  a  mile  long,  north  and  south,  and  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  wide — 80  acres. 

A  sixteenth  section,  a  quarter  of  a  mile  square — 40  acres. 

The  sections  are  all  numbered  1  to  36,  commencing  at  the  north- 
east comer. 

The  sections  are  divided  into  quarters,  which  are  named  by  the 
cardinal  points.  The  quarters  are  divided  in  the  same  way.  The 
description  of  a  forty-acre  lot  would  read:  The  south  half  of  the 
west  half  of  the  south-west  quarter  of  section  1  in  township  24, 
north  of  range  7  west,  or  as  the  case  might  be;  and  sometimes  will 
fall  short  and  sometimes  overrun  the  number  of  acres  it  is  sup- 
posed to  contain. 

The  nautical  mile  is  795  4-5  feet  longer  than  the  common  mile. 

SURVEYORS'  MEASURE. 

7  92-100  inches make  1  link. 

25  links: "     1  rod. 

4   rods "     1  chain. 

80   chains '^     1  mile. 

Note. — A  chain  is  100  links,  equal  to  4  rods  or  66  feet. 


HISTORY   UF   lOW.V. 


153 


Slioemakers  formerly  uaed  a  subdiviMioti  of  the  inch  called  a  bar- 
leycorn; three  of  whicn  made  an  inch. 

Horses  are  measured  directly  over  the  fore  feet,  aiid  the  stand- 
ard of  measure  is  four  inches. — called  a  hand. 

In  Biblical  and  other  old  measurements,  the  term  span  is  some- 
times used,  which  is  a  leugth  of  nine  inches. 

The  sacred  cubit  of  the  Jews  was  24.024  inches  in  length. 

The  common  cubit  of  the  Jews  was  21.704  inches  in  length. 

A  pace  is  equal  to  a  yard  or  36  inches. 

A  fathom  ia  ei^ual  to  6  feet. 

A  le^ue  is  three  miles,  butits  length  is  variable,  for  it  in.  strictly 
speaking,  a  nautical  term,  and  should  be  three  geographical  miles, 
equal  to  3.45  statute  miles,  but  when  used  on  land,  tliree  statute 
miles  are  said  to  be  a  league. 

In  cloth  measure  an  auno  is  equal  to  1^  yards,  or  45  inches. 

An  Amsterdam  ell  is  equal  to  2<1.T96  inches. 

A  Trieste  ell  is  equal  to  25.284  inches. 

A  Brabant  ell  is  equal  to  27.116  inches. 

MISCELLANEOUS  TABLE. 


12  unit^,  or  things,  1  Dozen. 
12  dozen,  1  Grom. 
20  things,  1  Score. 
4  sheela  of  paper,  1  Qi 


fif 


lOG  pounds.  1  Barrel  of  Kloiir. 
■200  pounds,  1  Bam'I  of  Pork. 
■''6  pounds,  1  Firkin  of  Bulbar. 


4  ft.  wide,  4  tt.  high,  and  8  feet  long,  1  Cord  Wood. 

HOW  TO  KEEP  ACCOUNTS. 

Every  farmer  and  mechanic,  whether  he  does  much  or  little  bus- 
iness, should  keep  a  record  of  his  trtinsitctions  in  a  clear  and  sys- 
tematic manner.  For  the  benefit  of  tliuse  who  have  not  had  the 
opportunity  of  acquiring  a  primary  knowledge  of  the  principles  of 
book-keeping,  we  iiere  present  a  simple  form  of  keeping  accounts 
which  is  easily  comprehended,  and  well  adapted  to  record  the  busi- 
ness transactions  of  farmers,  mechanics  and  laborers. 

1882.  A.  H.  J.\CKSON.  Dr.         Cr. 


Jan 

...  .1   i>r 

G 

1 

48 
6 

17 
1W 

r" 

»2 

18 
2 

25 

4 

35 
»88 

n 

4 
4 

8 
S 
13 
17 
9 

6 
•2i 

4 

30 
25 

Of) 
26 

50 
05 

Feb. 

ToUbuBhekOatB 

To  5  lb  Butler 

at»  .45 

at       25 

April 

May 

''> 

05 

HISTORY  Of   IOWA. 


CASSA  MASON. 


Si«.,.h 

21 
21 

2a 

1 
1 

19 
26 
10 
29 
12 
1 

Hy  ;i  claja'  labur 

To  2  Shoate 

To  18  iJiwIiels  Com 

at  $1.25 

at    3.CNJ 

at     .46 

n 

10 

i 

so 
1? 

00 
10 

00 

75 
70 

00 
20 

25 
12 

18 

U 

1m 

To  Cash 

June 

Ry  8  day'a  Movfing 

at«1.50 

July 

t^t. 

By  9  Days  Harveeting 

By  6  days- Labor 

at    2.00 

at    1.50 

*67 

75 

INTEEEST  TABLE. 


Multiply  the^rinci/ioi  (amount  of  moneyatipterest)  by  the  lime  reduced  to 
daifS:  then  divide  thU;ir(irfuf(  by  the  guoIiVHfobtainedbvdiviiling  360  (the  num- 
ber of  days  in  the  intert'st  yenr)  hythepercenl.  at  iateieat.aadthe  quotient  thus 
obtained  will  be  Ihe  required  interest. 


Bwjuire  the  interest  of  |462.50  for  one  month  ana  .48 

eighteen  days  at  6  per  cent.     An  interest  month  is  SO  

days;  one  month  and  eighteen  days  equu!  48  days .  370000 

f462,50mu]Hpliedby.48gi¥ea  f222.0000;H60diviiled  6)3601  185000 

by6(thepercent.  of  interest)  (fives  60.  and|222,0000  — 

(hvidedby  60  will  give  you  the  eiact  interest,  which  60  J  *222.0000(^'J.70 

IB  $3.70.     If  the  rate  of  interest  in  the  above  example  180 

were  12  percent..we  would  divide  the  1222,0000  hy;W  — 

(because  H60  divided  by  twelve  gives  30];  if  4  percent.  420 

we  would  divide  by  90;  il  8  per  cent.,  by  45;  and  in  4:J0 

like  manner  for  any  other  per  cent.  — 

0 

NAMES  OF  THE  STATES  OF  THE  UNION,  AND  THEIR 
SIGNIFICATIONS. 

Virginit — The  oldest  of  the  States,  waa  so  called  in  honor  of 
Queen  Elizabeth,  the  '"  Virgin  Queen,"  in  whose  reign  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh  made  his  first  attempt  to  colonize  that  region. 

Florida — Ponce  deLeou  landed  on  the  coast  of  Florida  on  Easter 
Sunday,  and  called  the  country  in  commemoration  of  the  day,  which 
waa  the  Paaqua  Florida  of  the  Spaniards,  or  "'Feast  of  Flowers." 

ioHi'sinntf  waa  called  after  Louis  the  Fourteenth,  who  at  one 
time  owned  that  section  of  the  countrj-. 

Alabama  waa  so  named  by  the  Indiana,  and  signifies  "  Here  we 
Rest." 

Mississippi  is  likewise  an  Indian  name,  meaning  "  Long 
River." 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  165 

Arkansas,  from  Kansas,  the  Indian  word  for  *'  Smoky  Water." 
Itsjprefix  was  really  arc,  th^  French  word  for  "  bow." 

The  Carolinas  were  originally  one  tract,  and  were  called  "Caro- 
lina," after  Charles  the  ]Sinth  of  France. 

Georgia  owes  its  name  to  George  the  Second  of  England,  who 
first  established  a  colony  there  in  1782. 

Tennessee  is  the  Indian  name  for  the  "River  of  the  Bend,"  t.  e., 
the  Mississippi  which  forms  its  western  boundary. 

Kentucky  is  the  Indian  name  for  '*  at  the  head  of  the  river." 

Ohio  means  "  beautiful;" /oera,  "the  beautiful  land;"  Minfiesota^ 
"  cloudy  water,"  and  Wisconsin,  "  wild-rushing  channel." 

Illinois  is  derived  from  the  Indian  word  iUini,  men,  and  the 
French  suffix  ois,  together  signifying  "  tribe  of  men." 

Michigan  was  called  by  the  name  given  the  lake,  j^«A-tr«iV,  which 
was  so  styled  from  its  fancied  resemblance  to  a  fish  trap. 

Missouri  is  from  the  Indian  word  "  muddy,"  which  more  prop- 
erly applies  to  the  river  that  flows  through  it. 

Oregon  owes  its  Indian  name  to  its  principal  river. 

Cortez  named  California. 

Massachusetts  is  the  Indian  name  for  "  The  country  around  the 
great  hills." 

Connecticut,  from  the  Indian  Quon-ch-ta-Cut,  signifying  "Long 
River. 

Maryland,  after  Henrietta  Maria,  Queen  of  Charles  the  First, 
of  England. 

New  York  was  named  by  the  Duke  of  York. 

Pennsylvania,  means  ''  Penn's  Woods,"  and  was  so  called  after 
Wm.  Penn,  its  owner. 

Delaware,  after  Lord  De  La  Ware. 

New  Jersey,  so  called  in  honor  of  Sir  George  Carteret,  who  was 
Governor  of  the  Island  of  Jersey,  in  the  British  Channel. 

Maine  was  called  after  the  province  of  Maine  in  France,  in  com- 
pliment of  Queen  Henrietta  or  England,  who  owned  that  province. 

Vermont,  from  the  French  word  Vert  Mont,  signifying  Green 
Mountain. 

New  Hampshire,  from  Hampshire  County  in  England.  It  was 
formerly  called  Laconia. 

The  little  State  of  Rhode  Island  owes  its  name  to  the  Island  of 
Rhodes  in  the  Mediterranean,  which  domain  it  is  said  to  greatly 
resemble. 

Texas  is  the  American  word  for  the  Mexican  name  by  which 
all  that  section  of  the  country  was  called  before  it  was  ceded  to  the 
United  States. 


156 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 


POPULATION  OF  THE  SEVERAL  COUNTIES  OF  IOWA,  1880  CENSUS. 


COUNTIES. 


COUNTY  BEAT. 


Population 
in  1880. 


Adair 

Adams 

Allamakee . . 
Appanoose. . 
Audubon... 

Benton 

Blackhawk., 

Boone 

Bremer.... 
Buchanan . . 
Buena  Vista. 

Butler 

Calhoun . . . . 

Carroll 

Cass 

Cedar , 

Cerro  Gordo. 
Cherokee.... 
Chickasaw. . 

Clarke 

Clay 

Clayton 

Clinton 

Crawford.... 

Dallas 

Davis 

Decatur 

Delaware... 
Des  Moines. 
Dickinson... 
Dubuque. . . . 
Emmet   .... 

Fayette 

Floyd 

Franklin 

Fremont . . . . 

Greene 

Grundy 

Guthrie 

Hamilton. . . , 
Hancock.... 

Hardin 

Harrison.... 

Henry , 

Howard 

Humboldt 

Ida 

Iowa 

Jackson 

Jasper , 

Jefferson 


1854 

1853 

1849 

1846 

1855 

1846 

1853 

1849 

1853 

1847 

1858 

1854 

1855 

1856 

1853 

1&% 

1855 

ia56 

1853 

1851 

1858 

18:38 

1840 

1855 

1847 

1844 

1850 

1840 

18:34 

1857 

1834 

1859 

1850 

1854 

1855 

1849 

1854 

1856 

1851 

1857 

1858 

1853 

18,53 

18:36 

ia55 

ia57 

1858 
1845 

ia38 

1846 
1838 


Greenfield 

Coming 

Waukon 

Centerville.... 

Audubon 

Vinton 

Waterloo 

Boonsboro 

Waverly 

Independence . 

Storm  Lake. . . . 

Butler  Center. . 

Rockwell  City. 

Carroll 

Atlantic 

Tipton 

Mason  City.... 

Cherokee 

New  Hampton. 

Osceola 

Si»encer 

Elkader 

Clinton 

Denison 

Adel 

Bloomfield 

Leon 

Delhi 

Burlington 

Spirit  Lake 

Dubuque 

Swan  Lake 

West  Union... 
Charles  City. . . 

Hampton 

Sidney 

Jefferson 

Grundy  Center. 
Guthrie  Center. 
Webster  City.. 

Concord 

Eldora 

Logan 

Mt.  Pleasant... 

Cresco 

Dakota 

Ida  Grove 

Marengo 

Maquoketa 

Newton 

Fairfield 


11,199 
11,888 
19,791 
16,936 

7,448 
24,888 
23,913 
20,838 
14,081 
18,547 

7,537 
14,293 

5,595 
12,351 
16,943 
18,937 
11,461 

8,240 
14.534 
11,512 

4.248 
28,829 
36,764 
12,413 
18,746 
16,468 
15,336 
17,952 
a3,099 

1,901 
42.997 

1,550 
22.258 
14,677 
10,248 
17,653 
12,725 
12,639 
14,863 
11,252 

3,453 
17,808 
16,649 
20,826 
10,8:37 

5,341 
4,382 
19,221 
2:3,771 
25,962 
17,478 


HISTORY  OF  lO'VTA. 


167 


POPULATION  OF  THE  SEVERAL  COUNTIES  OF  IOWA,  1880  CENSUS. 


COUNTIES. 


1 


o 


COUNTY  SEATS. 


Johxiflon 

Jones 

Keokuk 

Kossuth 

Lee 

Linn 

Louisa 

Lucas 

Lvon 

Madison 

Mahaska...... 

Marion 

Marshal} 

Mills 

Mitchell 

Monona 

Monroe 

Montgomery.. 
Muscatine...., 

O'Brien 

Osceola 

Page 

Palo  Alto 

Plymouth 

Pocahontas ... 

Polk 

Pottawattamie 
Poweshiek.... 

Binggold 

Sac 

Scott 

Shelby 

Sioux 

Story 

Tama 

Taylor 

Union 

Van  Buren 

Wapello 

Warren 

Washington . . . 

Wayne 

Webster 

Winnebago. . . . 
Winneshiek... 

Woodbury 

Worth 

Wright 


Total 


1848 
1839 
1844 
1855 
1837 
1839 
1839 
1849 
1872 
1850 
1844 
1845 
1840 
1851 
1854 
ia54 
1851 

ia58 

1838 
1860 
1872 
18,51 
1857 

185a 

1859 

1846 

1848 

1848 

1855 

1858 

1838 

1853 

1860 

1853 

1854 

1851 

ia53 

ia37 

1844 

1839 

1849 

1851 

185:3 

1857 

ia5i 

1853 
1857 
1855 


Population 
in  1880. 


Iowa  City , 

Anamosa 

Sigourney 

Algona , 

Ft.  Madison , 

Marion 

Wapello 

Chariton 

Rock  Rapids 

Winterset 

Oskaloosa 

Knoxville 

Marshalltown 

Glenwood 

Osage 

Onawa 

Albia 

Red  Oak 

Muscatine 

Primghar , 

Sibley 

Clarinda 

Emmetsburg 

Le  Mars 

Pocahontas  Center. 

Des  Moines 

Council  Bluffs 

Montezuma 

Mt.   Ayr 

Sac  City 

Davenport 

Harlan 

Orange  City 

Nevada , 

Toledo 

Bedford 

Afton 

Keosauqua 

Ottumwa 

Indianola 

Washington 

Corydon 

Fort  Dodge 

Forest  City 

Decorah 

Sioux  City 

Northwood 

Clarion 


25,249 
21,052 
21,259 

6,179 
34,859 
37,235 
13,146 
14,530 

1,968 
17,225 
25,201 
25,111 
23,752 
14,135 
14,361 

9,055 
13,719 
15,895 
23,168 

4,155 

2,219 
19,667 

4,131 

3.567 

3,713 
41,395 
39,846 
18,936 
12,085 

8.774 
42,270 
12,696 

5,436 
16,906 
21,585 
15,635 
14.900 
17,042 
25,282 
19,578 
20,375 
16,127 
15,950 
4,917 
23,937 
14,997 
7,953 
5,062 

1,624,463 


158  HISTOBT  0?  IOWA. 

The  total  footicge  for  the  State  of  Iowa,  according  to  the  censor,  are,  males, 
848,235;  females,  776,228;  naUve,  1,363,015;  foreign,  261,418;  white.  1,614.- 
610;  colored  (including  47  Chinese  and  464  Indians  and  half-breeds),  9,953, 
total,  1.624,463. 

POPULATION  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES. 

The  reyised  and  corrected  returns  of  the  census  bureau  show  the 
population  of  the  several  States  and  Territories  of  the  country  to 
be  as  follows: 

Alahama 1,262,505    Montana 39,159 

Arizona 40,440    Nebraska 452,402 

Arkansas 803,525    Nevada , 62,266 

California 864,694    New  Eampshire 336,991 

Colorado 194.827    New  Jersey 1,131,116 

Connecticut 622,700    New  Mexico 116,565 

Dafajtft 135,177    New  York 5,082,871 

Delaware 146.608    North  Carolina 1,899.750 

District  of  Columbia 177.624    Ohio 3.198,062 

Florida 269,493    Oregon..... '174,768 

Georgia I,542.1b0    Pniii''vlvania 4.282,891 

Idaho 32,610    Rh«li- Island 276,581 

Illinois 3,077,871    Son  I  h  Carolina 995,577 

Indiana 1,978,301    Tennessee 1,542,359 

Iowa 1,624,615    Teias 1,591,749 

Kansas 996,086    Utah 143,968 

Kentucky 1,648,690    Vermont 332.286 

Louisiana 939,946    Virginia 1,512,565 

Maine 648.936    Washington 7.5,116 

Maryland 934,942    West  Virginia 618,457 

Massachuaetts 1,783,085    Wisconsin 1,315,497 

Michigan 1.636,937    Wyoming 20,789 

Minnesota 780,773                                                      

Miaaissippi 1,131,-597            Grand  total 50,155,783 

Missoun 2,168,380 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  159 


Geological  and  Physical  Features. 


Prof.  J.  F.  Elsom. 

"  The  science  of  Geology  illustrates  many  astonishing  facts." 
Viewed  in  the  light  of  authentic  tests,  the  region  of  country  over 
which  this  work  extends,  presents  ample  study  for  the  Geologist 
and  Antiquarian,  for  nownere  in  the  broad  expanse  of  country 
traversed  by  the  writer — excepting,  perhaps,  some  sections  of  the 
country  of  mines — is  there  such  a  fine  field  for  the  labor  of  the 
geologist.  As  we  stood  upon  the  high  bluffs  viewing  the  beauti- 
ful valleys  below,  or  rowed  over  any  of  these  streams — commercial 
arteries  of  this  great  country — and  tried  to  peer  up  the  steep  sides 
of  the  overhanging  bluffs,  we  often  imagined  ourself  living  away 
amid  the  dim  cycles  of  the  past;  again  we  lived  in  the  present, 
wondering  what  unseen  agencies  and  gigantic  forces  had  been  em- 
ployed to  transform  wliat  was  evidently  once  a  vast  and  almost 
boundless  sea,  into  one  of  the  finest  sections  of  land — food  pro- 
ducing land — between  the  two  great  oceans.  Again,  as  the  author 
examined  with  hammer  and  chisel,  testing  the  chips  by  heat  and 
cold,  acid  and  alkali,  subjecting  the  fused  residuum  to  the  diaphragm 
of  the  microscope,  or  the  wonderful  spectra  of  the  spectroscope, 
he  was  often  amazed  at  the  broad  expanse  of  time  that  must  have 
elapsed  to  make  this  wonderful  strata  from  that  ungainly,  shapeless 
mass, which,  as  Sacred  History  teaches,was  this  earth's  original  form. 
Furthermore,  it  seems  almost  incredible  that  little  by  little  as  these 
sands  accumulate,  that  there  could  have  elapsed  sufficient  time  for 
these  marine  aggregations  and  changes.  This,  however,  is  merely 
prefaratory,  and  we  must  hasten  on  to  the  subject  matter,  accorded 
to  this  limited  space,  for  to  do  the  subject  anything  like  justice,  a 
book  much  larger  than  this  entire  history  would  be  required.  The 
reader  will  know  by  this  why  we  have  not  gone  more  into  detail 
in  our  discussion  of  this  interesting  and  valuable  portion  of  the 
work. 

To  the  geologist,  among  the  first  things  to  attract  the  attention 
in  this  section  is  the  ''Walled  Lakes"  of  Northern  Iowa,  one  of 
them  in  Wright  County — where  we  first  made  a  survey — is  about 
three-eighths  of  a  mile  wide,  with  a  wall  or  embankment  from  2  to 
10  feet  high  surrounding  it,  formerly  supposed  to  be  the  work  of 
ancient  races,  a  theory,  however,  now  discountenanced,  for  practi- 
cal tests  and  observation  go  to  prove  that  they  are  the  results  of 
natural  causes,  namely  the  periodical  action  of  alternate  heat  and 
cold,  aided  to  a  limited  extent  by  the  action  of  the  waves.  These 
little  lakes  are  very  shallow,  and  during  the  ordinary  winter  freeze 
nearly  solid,  so  that  little  or  no  water  remains  at  the  bottom,  but 


160  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

a  little  will  generally  be  found  in  the  middle.  As  a  consequence 
all  loose  substances  at  the  bottom  adhere  to  the  ice  below,  and  the 
expansive  power  of  water  when  freezing — which  must  be  immense 
in  such  a  large  body  as  some  of  these  lakes — acts  equally  in  all  di- 
rections from  the  center  to  the  circumference,  and  annually  what- 
ever was  on  the  bottom  of  the  lake  has  by  this  means  been  carried 
to  the  shore.  This  process,  imperceptible,  perhaps ,  to  the  casual  ob- 
server in  a  single  season,  has  been  going  on  frcJm  year  to  year, 
century  after  century,  causing  these  embankments,  formerly  a  great 
wonder  to  everyone,  but  perfectly  simple,  to  any  and  all,  if  the  va- 
rious strata  of  the  walls  be  carefully  examined  and  compared  with 
each  other. 

The  entire  State  contains  very  few  what  may  be  classed  as  large 
elevations,  the  highest  point  being  but  a  trifle  over  twelve  hundred 
feet  higher  than  its  lowest  point  as  shown  by  barometrical  surveys; 
there  are  two  such  points,  and  are  nearly  three  hundred  mUes 
apart;  then  if  we  think  for  a  moment,  it  will  be  seen  the  entire 
State  is  traversed  by  gently  flowing  rivers — rapids  nearly  unknown 
—hence  we  have  the  entire  State  resting  entirely  within,  compris- 
ing a  part  of  a  vast  plain,  with  no  mountain  or  hill  range  within 
its  limits. 

A  further  idea  of  the  general  uniformity  which  characterizes  the 
State  may  be  gleaned  from  the  survey  from  point  to  point,  and 
the  following  statement  of  the  general  slopes  m  feet  per  mile,  in 
straight  lines  across: 

From  the  NE  comer  to  the  SE  corner  1  foot  1  inch  per  mile. 
From  the  NE  corner  to  Spirit  Lake  5  feet  5  inches  per  mile. 
From  the  NW  corner  to  Spirit  Lske  5  feet  per  mile. 
From  the  NW  corner  to  the  S  W  comer  2  feet  per  mile. 
From  the  SW  corner  to  the  highest  ridge  4  feet  1  inch  per  mile. 
From  the  dividing  ridge  to  the  SE  corner  5  feet  7  inches  per  mile. 
From  the  highest  point  in  the  State  to  the  lowest  4  feet  per  mile. 

This  statement  shows  a  great  uniformity,  and  a  good  degree  of 
propriety  in  estimating  the  whole  State  as  part  of  a  great  plain, 
the  lowest  point  showing  but  144  feet  above  sea  level.  This  point, 
nearly  at  the  mouth  of  Des  Moines  River,  presents  a  geological 
formation  of  great  interest,  but  being  so  far  removed  from  the 
territory  within  the  scope  of  the  work  we  will  not  discuss  it  in 
this  connection.  Taking  the  highest  point — near  Spirit  Lake — 
and  the  lowest  point — near  the  mouth  of  the  Des  Moines — gives 
but  a  slight  elevation  and  depression,  ana  a  general  average  of  the 
entire  State  of  eight  hundred  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea, 
though  from  the  nearest  point  the  State  is  over  a  thousand  miles 
from  the  sea  coast,  a  rather  remarkable  instance,  and  another  proof 
of  being  a  part  of  a  vast  plain.  Of  course,  when  we  consider  the 
slightly  diversified  surface  of  Western  Iowa,  the  formation  of  small 
valleys  out  of  the  general  level,  which  have  been  evolved  by  the 
action  of  streams,  lakes,  etc.,  during  the  dim  cycles  of  the  past,  it 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  161 

may  appear  a  trifle  jejune,  but  will  not  alter  the  general  and  ac- 
cepted theory  aforesaid.  Especially  is  this  true  with  reference  to 
the  northwestern  portion,  the  seeming  deviation  being  much  more 
apparent  in  the  northeastern  portion  of  the  State. 

It  will  be  well  enough  to  mention  that  the  Missouri  River, 
though  washing  as  many  or  more  miles  of  lowa^s  shore  than  the 
Mississippi,  drams  but  about  one-third  of  its  surface,  going  to  par- 
tially prove  that  this  plain  of  which  we  speak,  extends  away  out 
in  Nebraska,  where  we  have  unmistakable  evidences  of  the  Mis- 
souri having  once  threaded  its  course,  the  other  side  being  the 
eastern  border  of  the  State,  giving  us  once  a  vast  ocean  about  one 
and  two-thirds  broader  than  the  State. 

Thus  much  with  reference  to  the  surface  indications.  We  will 
now  go  lower  and  see  what  can  be  found  beneath  this  beautiful 
and  somewhat  phenomenal  exterior. 

In  our  tests  of  the  soil,  we  will  make  but  three  general  divisions, 
which  of  themselves  not  only  differ  in  their  physical  character,  but 
are  widely  separated  in  their  ultimate  origin.  These  will  be 
classed  as  drift,  bluff,  and  alluvial,  and  belong  respectively  to  the 
deposits  bearing  the  same  names,  the  flrst  of  which  occupies 
over  two-thirds  the  surface  of  the  entire  State. 

£very  person  who  has  paid  the  least  atention  to  any  of  the  anar 
lytical  sciences,  so-callea,  knows  that  when  we  speak  of  soil,  in  the 
general  acceptation  of  the  term,  that  we  mean  disintegrated  or 
powdered  rock. 

The  drift  deposit  of  Iowa  was  derived,  to  a  consi3erable  extent, 
from  the  rocks  of  Minnesota;  but  the  greater  part  of  Iowa  drift 
was  derived  from  its  own  rocks,  much  of  whicn  has  been  trans- 
ported but  a  short  distance.  In  general  terms  the  constant  compo- 
nent element  of  the  drift  soil  is  that  portion  which  was  transported 
from  the  north,  while  the  inconntant  elements  are  those  portions 
which  were  derived  from  the  adjacent  or  underlying  strata.  For 
example,  in  Western  Iowa,  wherever  that  cretaceous  formation 
known  as  the  Nishnabotany  sandstone  exists,  the  soil  contains 
more  sand  than  elsewhere.  The  same  may  be  said  of  the  soil  of 
some  parts  of  the  State  occupied  by  the  lower  coal  measures,  the 
sandstones  and  sandy  shales  of  that  formation  furnishing  the  8?and. 

We  find  upon  examination,  however,  that  in  the  section  of  Iowa 
of  which  this  work  treats,  the  drift  contains  more  sand  and  ^avel 
than  any  other  portion  of  the  State.  There  is  no  question  m  my 
mind  but  this  was  derived  from  the  cretaceous  rocks  that  now  do, 
or  formerly  did  exist,  and  also  in  part  from  the  conglomerate  and 
pudding  stone  beds  of  the  Sioux  quart/ite. 

The  bluff  soil,  then,  is  that  which  rests  upon,  and  constitutes 
part  of  the  bluff  deposit,  and  is  found  only  in  the  western  portion 
along  the  Missouri  River.  Chemical  analysis  shows  but  one  per 
cent.,  generally  less,  of  alumina,  at  the  same  time  it  contains  other 
constituent  elements  which  render  it  little,  if  any,  inferior  for  ag- 


162 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 


ricultural  purposes;  a  very  large  portion  of  it  is  far  out  of  reach  of 
the  highest  ^oods,  and  must  be  very  productive. 

We  now  come  to  the  alluvial.  This  is  that  portion  called  the 
flood  plains  of  the  liver  bottoms  or  valleys.  That  portion  period- 
ically flooded  by  the  rivers,  of  course,  is  thereby  rendered  com- 
Earatively  valueless  for  agricultural  purposes  for  apparent  reasons; 
ut  much  of  it,  we  might  say  by  far  the  larger  portion,  is  beyond 
the  reach  of  floods,  and  is  very  rich  in  those  elements  which  enter 
into  plant  life. 

Speaking  more  properly  of  the  geology  of  this  particular  sec- 
tion of  Iowa,  we  And  the  rocks  to  range  all  along  from  the  Azoic 
to  the  Merazoic  inclusive.  Taking  the  State  as  a  whole,  the  sur- 
face is  generally  occupied  by  the  evidences  of  the  Palaezoic  age. 
The  following  tabular  statement  gives  each  of  these  formations  in 
the  order  in  which  they  occur: 


SYSTEMS. 


AGES. 


Cretaceous 


Carboniferous  . . 


Devonian  . . 

Upper  Silurian. . 


Lower  Silurian. 
Azoic 


GRODPS. 


PERIODS. 


(  Post  Tertiary 

(  Lower  Cretaceous 

Coal  Measures. 


Subcarboniferous. 


Hamilton . . . 
Nia^ra . . . . 
''  Cincinnati 


Trenton. 


\ 

Primordial.      ( 


luronian. 


FORMATIONS. 


EPOCHS. 


Drift 

Inoceramous  bed 

Woodbury  Sandstone,  Shales 

Nishnabotany  Sandstone 

Upper  Coal  Measures 

Middle  Coal  Measures 

Lower  Coal  Measures 

St.  Louis  Limestone 

Keokuk  Limestone 

Burlington  Limestone 

Kindernook  beds 

Hamilton  Limestone  and  Shales 

Niagara  Limestone 

Maquoketa  Shales 

Galena  Limestone 

Trenton  Limestone 

St.  Peter's  Sandstone 

Lower  Magnesian  Limestone. . 

Potsdam  Sandstone 

Sioux  Quartzite 


10to200 
50 

i:iO 

100 
200 
200 
200 

75 

90 
196 
175 
200 
350 

80 
250 
200 

80 
250 
300 

50 


We  now  arrive  at  what  is  known  as  the  Azoic  system.  In  this 
section  it  is  known  and  recognized  by  the  specific  name  of  Sioux 
quartzite,  and  is  found  exposed  in  natural  ledges,  only  in  a  few 
spots  away  up  in  the  extreme  northwestern  part  of  the  State, 
upon  the  banks  of  the  Big  Sioux  River,  which  position  doubtless 
^ve  it  its  local  name.  This  rock  is  intensely  hara,  disintegrates 
m  sort  of  splinters;  its  color  varying  according  to  locality  from 
nearly  a  yellow  to  a  deep  red.  One  thing  connected  with  this  rock 
is  its  process  of  metamorphism,  which  has  been  so  complete  all 
through  the  entire  formation  wherever  found.   Whether  exposed  to 


HISTORY  OF  IOWaJ  163 

the  surface  or  hidden  hundreds  of  feet  below  the  surface,  the  rock 
is  found  to  be  of  almost  uniform  texture.  As  far  as  we  have  been 
able  to  examine,  the  dip  is  found  to  be  from  4.75  to  5.20  degrees 
to  the  northward,  but  the  trend  of  the  outcrop  is  to  the  eastward 
and  westward.  In  some  rare  ca^es  the  rock  is  profitably  quarried,but 
generally  speaking,  it  is  very  difficult  to  secure  it  in  dry  forms, 
except  that  into  which  it  naturally  cracks,  and  the  tendency  is 
into  angular  places.  I  have  found  the  samples  sent  to  be  absolutely 
indestructible. 

There  are  many  other  systems,  of  themselves  very  interesting  to 
the  scientific  reader  and  investigator,  but  our  limited  space  stands 
as  an  insurmountable  barrier;  hence  we  will  have  to  pass  the  Lower 
Silurian  system  in  the  Primordial  group  of  the  eastern  part  of  the 
State;  it,  however,  is  valueless  for  building  purposes,  and  contains 
few  if  any,  fossils.  Then  we  have  the  Lower  Magnesian  Limestone, 
fouudbut  little  here,  containing  a  few  crinoids  and  smaller  fossils. 
Following  this  in  point  of  interest,  is  the  St.  Peter's  Sandstone, 
which  exists  in  uniform  thickness  throughout  the  State  where 
found,  which  is  beneath  the  drift. 

Of  the  Trenton  Group  of  the  Upper  and  Lower  Silurian  age, 
but  little  of  interest  to  anyone  can  be  said,  save  that  it  contains  a 
great  variety  of  fossils,  and  it  makes  very  ornamental  stone  for 
cap  and  window  sills.  In  this  section  of  the  State  the  drift  con- 
tains more  silex  and  gravel  than  elsewhere,  as  before  stated,  but  in 
those  sections  where  fossils  are  found,  they  are  new  to  all  I  have 
read  of  science,  open  new  fields  of  thought  and  investigation,  and 
are   found  peculiar  to   the  Hawkeye  btate. 

Passing  again  the  Galena  Limestone  of  Dubuque,  and  other 
counties:  This  is  always  the  upper  formation  of  the  Trenton 
Group.  It  seldom  extends  over  twelve  miles  in  width,  though 
fully  one  hundred  in  length.  In  Dubuque  County  the  greatest 
development  of  this  limestone  is  exhibited.  It  is  found  to  be 
merely  a  pure  dolomite,  with  an  occasional  slight  admixture  of 
silicious  matter.  It  is  almost  worthless  for  dressing;  its  princi- 
pal value  consisting  of  its  formation  being  the  source  of  lead  ore, 
but  the  lead  region  of  Iowa  is  confined  to  an  area  of  say  fifteen 
miles  square.  The  one  occurs  in  vertical  fissures,  which  traverse 
the  rock  at  regular  intervals  from  east  to  west;  some,  however,  is 
found  in  those  which  have  a  north  and  south  course.  Very  small 
quantities  of  what  is  known  as  carbonate  are  found  in  it;  its 
principal  being  what  assayers  call  sulphuret  of  lead. 

Probably  one  of  the  most  important  of  all  the  geological  forma- 
tions of  the  State  is  the  Coal-Measure  group.  This  is  divided  into 
three  formations,  viz.,  the  lower,  middle  and  upper  coal  measures, 
each  having  a  vertical  thickness  of  about  two  hundred  feet. 

A  line  drawn  upon  the  map  of  Iowa  as  follows,  will  represent 
the  eastern  and  northern  boundaries  of  the  coal  fields  of  the  State: 
Commencing  at  the  southeast  corner  of  Van  Buren  County,  carry 


164  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

the  line  to  the  northeast  corner  of  Jefferson  County  by  a  slight 
easterly  curve  through  the  western  portions  of  Lee  and  Henry 
Counties.  Produce  this  line  until  it  reaches  a  point  six  or  eight 
miles  northward  from  the  one  last  named,  and  then  carry  it 
northwestward,  keeping  it  at  about  the  same  distance  to  the  north- 
ward of  Skunk  River  and  its  north  branch  that  it  had  at  first,  un- 
til it  reaches  the  southern  boundary  of  Marshall  County,  a  little 
west  of  its  center.  Then  carry  it  to  a  point  three  or  four  miles 
northeast  of  Eldora,  Hardin  County;  thence  westward  to  a 
point  a  little  north  of  Webster  City,  in  Hamilton  County;  and 
thence  further  westward  to  a  point  a  little  north  of  Port  Dodge, 
in  Webster  County. 

In  consequence  of  the  recedence  to  the  southward  of  the  borders 
of  the  middle  and  upper  coal  measures,  the  lower  coal  measures 
alone  exist  to  the  eastward  and  northward  of  Des  Moines  River. 
They  also  occupy  a  large  area  westward  and  southward  of  that  river, 
but  their  southerly  dip  passes  them  below  the  middle  coal  measures 
at  no  great  distance  from  the  river. 

No  other  formation  in  the  whole  State  possesses  the  economic 
value  of  the  lower  coal  measures.  The  clay  that  underlies  almost 
every  bed  of  coal  furnishes  a  large  amount  of  material  for  potters' 
use.  The  sandstone  of  these  measures  is  usuallv  soft  ana  unfit, 
but  in  some  places,  as  near  Red  Rock,  in  Marion  County,  blocks  of 
large  dimensions  are  obtained  which  make  good  building  material, 
samples  of  which  can  be  seen  in  the  State  Arsenal  at  Des  Moines. 
On  the  whole,  that  portion  of  the  State  occupied  by  the  lower  coal 
measures,  is  not  well  supplied  with  stone. 

But  few  fossils  have  been  found  in  any  of  the  strata  of  the  low- 
er coal  measures,  but  such  animal  remains  as  have  been  found  are 
without  exception  of  marine  origin. 

Of  fossil  plants  found  in  these  measures  all  probably  belong  to 
the  class  acrogens.  Specimens  of  calamites^  and  several  species  of 
ferns  are  found  in  all  the  coal  measures,  but  the  genus  lipedaden- 
dron  seems  not  to  have  existed  later  than  the  epoch  of  the  middle 
coal  measures. 

This  formation  within  the  State  of  Iowa  occupies  a  narrow  belt  of 
territory  in  the  southern  central  portion  of  the  State,  embracing  a 
superficial  area  of  about  fourteen  nundred  square  miles.  The  coun- 
ties more  or  less  underlaid  by  .this  formation  are  Guthrie,  Dallas,  Polk, 
Madison,  Warren,  Clarke,  Lucas,  Monroe,  Wayne  and  Appanoose. 

This  formation  is  composed  of  alternating  beds  of  clay,  sandstone 
and  limestone,  the  clays  or  shales  constituting  the  bulk  of  the  form- 
ation, the  limestone  occurring  in  their  bands,  the  lithological  pe- 
culiarities of  which  offer  many  contrasts  to  the  limestones  of  the 
upper  and  lower  coal  measures.  The  formation  is  also  character- 
ized by  regular  wave-like  undulations,  with  a  parallelism  which  in- 
dicates a  widespread  disturbance,  though  no  dislocation  of  the  strata 
has  been  discovered. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  165 

Generally  speaking,  few  species  of  fossils  occur  in  these  beds. 
Some  of  the  snales  aud  sandstone  have  afforded  a  few  imperfectly 
preserved  land  plants — three  or  four  species  of  ferns,  belonging  to 
the  ^nera.  Some  of  the  carboniferous  shales  afford  beautiful 
specimens  of  what  appear  to  have  been  sea-weeds.  Radiates  are 
represented  bv  corals.  The  moUusks  are  most  numerously  repre- 
sented. Tritobites  and  ostracoids  are  the  only  remains  known  of 
articulates.  Vertebrates  are  only  known  by  the  remains  of  sala- 
chianSy  or  sharks,  and  ganoids. 

The  area  occupied  by  this  formation  in  Iowa  is  very  great,  com- 
prising thirteen  whole  counties,  in  the  southwestern  part  of  the 
State.  It  adjoins  by  its  northern  and  eastern  boundaries  the  area 
occupied  by  the  middle  coal  measures. 

The  prominent  hthological  features  of  this  formation  are  its 
limestones,  yet  it  contains  a  considerable  proportion  of  shales  and 
sandstones.  Although  it  is  known  by  the  name  of  upper  coal 
measures,  it  contains  but  a  single  bed  of  coal,  and  that  only  about 
twenty  inches  in  maximum  thickness. 

The  limestone  exposed  in  this  formation  furnishes  good  material 
for  building  as  in  Madison  and  Fremont  counties.  The  sandstones 
are  quite  worthless.  No  beds  of  clay  for  potters'  use  are  found  in 
the  whole  formation. 

The  fossils  in  this  formation  are  much  more  numerous  than  in 
either  the  middle  or  lower  coal  measures.  The  vertebrates  are  rep- 
resented by  the  fishes  of  the  orders  selachians  and  ganoids.  The 
articulates  are  represented  by  the  trilobites  and  ostracoids.  Mol- 
lusks  are  represented  by  the  classes  cepltalopoda^  gasteropoda^  lam- 
elliy  branchtata,  brachiapoda  polyzoa.  Radiates  are  more  numer- 
ous than  in  the  lower  and  middle  coal  measures.  Protogoans  are 
represented  in  the  greatest  abundance,  some  layers  of  limestone 
being  almost  entirely  composed  of  their  small  fusiform  shells. 

There  being  no  rocks,  in  Iowa,  of  permian,  triassic  or  Jurassic 
age,  the  next  strata  in  the  geological  series  are  of  the  cretaceous 
age.  They  are  found  in  the  western  half  of  the  State,  and  do  not 
dip  as  do  all  the  other  formations  upon  which  they  rest,  to  the 
southward  and  westward,  but  huve  a  general  dip  of  their  own  to 
the  north  of  westward,  which,  however,  is  very  slight.  Although 
the  actual  exposures  of  cretaceous  rocks  are  few  in  Iowa,  there  is 
reason  to  believe  that  nearly  all  the  western  half  of  the  State  was 
originally  occupied  by  them;  but  being  very  friable,  they  have  been 
removed  by  denundation,  which  has  taken  place  at  two  separate 
periods.  The  first  period  was  during  its  elevation  from  the  creta- 
ceous sea,  and  during  the  long  tertiary  age  that  passed  between  the 
time  of  that  elevation  and  the  commencement  of  the  glacial  epoch. 
The  second  period  was  during  the  glacial  epoch,  when  the  ice  pro- 
duced their  entire  removal  over  considerable  areas. 

It  is  difl&cult  to  indicate  the  exact  boundaries  of  these  rocks;  the 
following  will  approximate  the  outlines  of  the  area: 


166  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

From  the  northeast  corner  to  the  southwest  comer  of  Kossuth 
County;  thence  to  the  southeast  corner  of  Guthrie  County;  thence 
to  the  southeast  corner  of  Cass  County;  thence  to  the  middle  of  the 
south  boundary  of  Montgomery  County;  thence  to  the  middle  of 
thenorthboundary  of  Pottawattamie  Cfounty;  thence  to  the  mid- 
dle of  the  south  boundary  of  Woodbury  Countv;  thence  to  Ser- 
geant^s  Bluffs;  up  the  Missouri  and  Big  Sioux  Rivers  to  the  north- 
west comer  of  the  State;  eastward  along  the  State  line  to  the  place 
of  beginning. 

.  All  the  cretaceous  rocks  in  Iowa  are  a  part  of  the  same  deposits 
farther  up  the  Missouri  River,  and  in  reality  from  their  eastern 
boundary. 

Nishnahotany  Sandstone, — This  rock  has  the  most  easterly  and 
southerly  extent  of  the  cretaceous  deposits  of  Iowa,  reaching  the 
southeastern  part  of  Guthrie  County  and  the  southern  part  of 
Montgomery  County.  To  the  northward,  it  passes  beneath  the 
Woodbury  sandstones  and  shales,  the  latter  passing  beneath  ino- 
ceramus,  or  chalky,  beds.  This  sandstone  is,  with  few  exceptions, 
almost  valueless  for  economic  purposes. 

The  only  fossils  found  in  this  formation  are  a  few  fragments  of 
angiospermous  leaves. 

Woodbury  Sandstones  and  Shales, — These  strata  rest  upon  the 
Nishnahotany  sandstone,  and  have  not  been  observed  outside  of 
Woodbury  County,  hence  their  name.  Their  principal  exposure  is 
at  Sergeant's  Bluffs,  seven  miles  below  Sioux  City. 

This  rock  has  no  value  except  for  purposes  of  common  ma- 
sonry. 

Fossil  remains  are  rare.  Detached  scales  of  a  lepidoginoid  spe- 
cies have  been  detected,  but  no  other  vertebrate  remains.  Of  re- 
mains of  vegetation,  leaves  of  salix  meekii  and  sassafras  cretaceum 
have  been  occassionally  found. 

Inoceramus  beds. — These  beds  rest  upon  theWoodbury  sandstones 
and  shales.  They  have  not  been  observed  in  Iowa,  except  in  the 
Bluffs  which  border  the  Big  Sioux  River  in  Woodbury  and  Ply- 
mouth Counties.  They  are  composed  almost  entirely  of  calcareous 
material,  the  upper  portion  of  wnich  is  extensively  used  for  lime. 
No  building  material  is  to  be  obtained  from  these  beds;  and  the  only 
value  they  possess,  except  lime,  are  the  marls,  which  at  some  time 
may  be  userul  on  the  soil  of  the  adjacent  region. 

The  only  vertebrate  remains  found  in  the  Cretaceous  rocks  are 
the  fishes.  Those  in  the  inoceramus  beds  of  Iowa  are  two  species 
of  squoloid  selachians,  or  cestratront,  and  three  genera  of  teliosts. 
Molluscan  remains  are  rare. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  167 

Extensive  beds  of  peat  exist  in  Northern  Middle  Iowa,  which,  it 

is  estimated,  contain  the  following  areas: 

Counties.  Acres, 

Cerro  G  ordo 1 ,  500 

Worth 2  000 

Winnebago 2,000 

Hancock 1,500 

Wright 500 

Kossath 700 

Dickinson 80 

Several  other  counties  contain  peat  beds,  but  the  character  of  the 
peat  is  inferior  to  that  in  the  northern  part  of  the  State.  The 
character  of  the  peat  named  is  equal  tp  that  of  Ireland.  The  beds 
are  of  an  average  depth  of  four  feet.  It  is  estimated  that  each  acre 
of  these  beds  will  furnish  two  hundred  and  fifty  tons  of  dry  fuel 
for  each  foot  in  depth.  At  present,  owing  to  the  sparseness  of 
the  population,  this  peat  is  not  utilized;  but,  owing  to  its  great  dis- 
tance from  coal  fields  and  absence  of  timber,  the  time  is  coming 
when  their  value  will  be  realized,  and  the  fact  demonstrated  that 
Nature  has  abundantly  compensated  the  deficiency  of  other  fuel. 

GYPSUM. 

The  only  deposits  of  the  sulphates  of  the  alkaline  earths  of  any 
economic  value  in  Iowa  are  those  of  gypsum  at,  and  in  the  vicinity 
of  Fort  Dodge,  in  Webster  County.  AH  others  are  small  and  un- 
important. The  deposit  occupies  a  nearly  ^entral  position  in 
Webster  County,  the  Des  Moines  River  rrAi^iing  nearly  centrally 
through  it,  along  the  valley  sides  of  wh'.c.i  the  gypsum  is  seen  in 
the  form  of  ordinary  rock  cliflF  and  ledges,  and  also  occurring  abun- 
dantly in  similar  positions  along  boin  sides  of  the  valleys  of  the 
smaller  streams  and  of  the  numerous  ravines  coming  into  the  river 
valley. 

The  most  northerly  known  limit  of  the  deposit  is  at  a  point  near 
the  mouth  of  Lizard  Creek,  a  tributary  of  the  Des  Moines  River, 
and  almost  adjoining  the  town  of  Fort  Dodge.  The  most  southerly 
point  at  which  it  has  been  found  exposed  is  about  six  miles,  by 
way  of  the  river,  from  this  northerly  point  before  mentioned.  Our 
knowledge  of  the  width  of  the  area  occupied  by  it  is  limited  by  the 
exposures  seen  in  the  valleys  of  the  small  streams  and  in  the 
ravines  which  come  into  the  valley  within  the  distance  mentioned. 
As  one  goes  up  these  ravines  and  minor  valleys,  the  gypsum  be- 
comes lost  beneath  the  overlying  drift.  There  can  be  no  doubt 
that  the  JiflFerent  parts  of  this  deposit,  now  disconnected  by  the 
valleys  and  ravines  having  been  cut  through  it,  were  originally 
connected  as  a  continuous  deposit,  and  there  seems  to  be  as  little 
reason  to  doubt  that  the  gypsum  still  extends  to  considerable  dis- 
tance on  each  side  of  the  vallev  of  the  river  beneath  the  drift  which 
covers  the  region  to  a  depth  of  from  twenty  to  sixty  feet. 


168  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

The  country  round  about  this  region  has  the  prairie  surface  ap- 
proximating a  general  level  which  is  so  characteristic  of  the  greater 
part  of  the Btate,  and  which  exists  irrespective  of  the  character  or 
geological  age  of  the  strata  beneath,  mainly  because  the  drift  is  so 
deep  and  uniformly  distributed   that  it  frequently  almost  alone 

S'ves  character  to  the  surface.  The  valley  sides  of  the  Des 
oines  River,  in  the  vicinity  of  Port  Dodge,  are  somewhat  abrupt, 
having  a  depth  there  from  the  general  level  of  the  upland  of  about 
one  hundrea  and  seventy  feet,  and  consequently  presents  some- 
what bold  and  interesting  features  in  the  landscape. 

As  one  walks  up  and  down  the  creeks  and  ravines  which  come 
into  the  valley  of  the  Des  Moines  River  there,  he  sees  the  gypsum 
exposed  on  either  side  of  them,  jutting  out  from  beneath  the  drift 
in  the  form  of  ledges  and  bold  quarry  fronts,  having  almost  the 
exact  appearance  of  ordinary  limestone  exposures,  so  horizontal 
and  regular  are  its  lines  of  stratification,  and  so  similar  in  color  is 
it  to  some  varieties  of  that  rock.  The  principal  quarries  now 
opened  are  on  Two  Mile  Creek,  a  couple  of  miles  below  Fort 
Dodge. 

The  reader  will  please  bear  in  mind  that  the  gypsum  of  this  re- 
markable deposit  does  not  occur  in  "heaps"  or  "nests"  as  it  does 
in  most  deposits  of  gvpsum  in  the  States  farther  eastward,  but  that 
it  exists  here  in  the  form  of  a  regularly  stratified,  continuous  for- 
mation, as  uniform  in  texture,  color  and  quality  throughout  the 
whole  region,  and  from  top  to  bottom  of  the  deposit  as  the  granite 
of  the  Quincy  quarries  is.  Its  color  is  a  uniform  gray,  resulting 
from  alternating  fine  horizontal  lines  of  nearly  white,  with  similar 
lines  of  darker  shade.  The  gypsum  of  the  white  lines  is  almost 
entirely  pure,  the  darker  lines  containing  the  impurity.  This  is 
at  intervals  barely  sufficient  in  amount  to  cause  the  separation  of 
the  mass  upon  those  lines  into  beds  or  layers,  thus  facilitating  the 
quarrying  of  it  into  desired  shapes.  These  bedding  surfaces  have 
occasionally  a  clayey  feeling  to  the  touch,  but  there  is  nowhere 
any  intercalation  of  clay  or  other  foreign  substance  in  a  separate 
form.  The  deposit  is  known  to  reach  a  thickness  of  thirty  feet  at 
the  quarries  reierred  to,  but  although  it  will  probably  be  found  to 
exceed  this  thickness  at  some  other  points,  at  the  natural  expo- 
sures, it  is  seldom  seen  to  be  more  that  from  ten  to  twenty  feet 
thick. 

Since  the  drift  is  usually  seen  to  rest  directly  upon  the  gypsum, 
with  nothing  intervening,  except  at  a  few  points  where  traces  ap- 
pear of  an  overlying  bed  of  clayey  material  without  doubt  of  the 
same  age  as  the  gypsum,  the  latter  probably  lost  something  of  its 
thickness  by  mechanical  erosion  during  the  glacial  epoch;  and  it 
has,  doubtless,  also  suffered  some  diminution  of  thickness  since 
then  by  solution  in  the  waters  which  constantly  percolate  through 
the  drift  from  the  surface.  The  drift  of  this  region  being  spme- 
what  clayey,  particularly  in  its  lower  part,  it  has  doubtless  served 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  169 

in  some  degree  as  a  protection  against  the  diminution  of  the 
gypsum  by  solution  in  consequence  of  its  partial  imperviousness  to 
water.  If  the  eypsum  had  been  covered  by  a  deposit  of  sand  in- 
stead of  the  drift  clays,  it  would  have  no  doubt  disappeared  by  be- 
infif  dissolved  in  the  water  that  would  have  constantly  reached  it 
from  the  surface.  Water  merely  resting  upon  it  would  not  dis- 
solve it  away  to  any  extent,  but  it  rapidl v  disappears  under  the  ac- 
tion of  running  water.  Where  little  rills  of  water  at  the  time  of 
every  rain  run  over  the  face  of  an  unused  quarry,  from  the  surface 
above  it,  deep  grooves  are  thereby  cut  into  it,  giving  it  somewhat 
the  appearance  of  melting  ice  around  a  waterfall.  The  fact  that 
^psum  is  now  suflfering  a  constant,  but,  of  course,  very  slight, 
diminution,  is  apparent  in  the  fact  the  springs  of  the  region  con- 
tain more  or  less  of  it  in  solution  in  their  waters. 

Besides  the  clayed  beds  that  that  are  sometimes  seen  to  rest  upon 
the  gypsum,  there  are  occasionally  others  seen  beneath  them  tnat 
are  also  of  the  same  age,  and  not  of  the  age  of  the  coal-measure 
strata  upon  which  they  rest. 

In  neither  the  gypsum  nor  the  associated  clays  has  any  trace  of 
any  fossil  remains  been  found,  nor  has  any  other  indication  of  its 
geological  age  been  observed,  except  that  which  is  afforded  by  its 
stratigraphical  relations;  and  the  most  that  can  be  said  with  cer- 
taintv  is  that  it  is  nearer  than  the  coal  measures,  and  older  than 
^the  drift.  The  indications  afforded  by  the  stratigraphical  relations 
of  the  gypsuDi  deposit  of  Fort  Dodge  are,  however,  of  considerable 
value. 

As  already  shown,  it  rests  in  that  region  directly  and  uncon- 
formably  upon  the  lower  coal  measures;  but  going  southward  from 
there,  the  whole  series  of  coal-measure  strata  from  the  top  of  the 
subcarboniferous  group  to  the  upper  coal  measures,  inclusive,  can 
be  traced  without  break  or  unconformability.  The  strata  of  the 
latter  also  may  be  traced  in  the  same  manner  up  into  the  Permian 
rocks  of  Kansas;  and  through  this  long  series,  there  is  no  place  or 
horizon  which  suggests  that  the  gypsum  deposit  might  belong 
there. 

Again,  no  Tertiary  deposits  are  known  to  exist  within  or  near 
the  borders  of  Iowa  to  suggest  that  the  gypsum  might  be  of  that 
age;  nor  are  any  of  the  palaeozoic  strata  newer  than  the  subcar- 
boniferous unconformable  upon  each  other  as  the  other  gypsum  is 
unconformable  upon  the  strata  beneath  it.  It  therefore  seems,  in 
a  measure,  conclusive,  that  the  gypsum  is  of  Mesozoic  age,  perhaps 
older  than  the  Cretaceous. 

LITHOLOGICAL  ORIGIN. 

As  little  can  be  said  with  certainty  concerning  the  lithological 
origin  of  this  deposit  as  can  be  said  concerning  its  geological  age, 
for  it  seems  to  present  itself  in  this  relation,  as  in   tne  former  one 

11 


170  HISTORY   OF   IOWA. 

as  an  isolated  fact.  None  of  the  associated  strata  show  any  traces 
of  a  double  decomposition  of  pre-existing  materials,  such  as  some 
have  supposed  all  deposits  of  gypsum  to  have  resulted  from.  No 
considerable  quantity  of  oxide  oi  iron  nor  any  trace  of  native  sul- 
phur have  been  found  in  connection  with  it;  nor  has  any  salt  been 
found  in  the  waters  of  the  region.  These  substances  are  common 
in  association  with  other  gypsum  deposits,  and  are  regarded  by  some 
persons  as  indicative  of  the  method  of  or  resulting  from  their  origin 
as  such.  Throughout  the  whole  region,  the  Fort  Dodge  gypsum 
has  the  exact  appearance  of  a  sedimentary  deposit.  It  is  arranged 
in  layers  like  the  regular  layers  of  limestone,  and  the  whole  mass, 
from  top  to  bottom,  is  traced  with  fine  horizontal  laminae  of  alter- 
nating white  and  gray  gypsum,  parallel  with  the  bedding  surface 
of  the  layers,  but  the  whole  so  intimately  blended  as  to  form  a  solid 
^lass.  The  darker  lines  contain  almost  all  the  impurity  there  is 
in  the  gypsum,  and  that  impurity  is  evidently  sedimentary  in  its 
character.  From  these  facts,  and  also  from  the  further  one  that 
no  trace  of  fossil  remains  has  been  detected  in  the  gypsum,  it  seems 
not  unreasonable  to  entertain  the  opinion  that  the  gypsum  of  Fort 
Dodge  originated  as  a  chemical  precipitation  in  comparatively  still 
waters,  which  were  saturated  with  sulphate  of  lime  and  destitute 
of  life;  its  stratification  and  impurities  being  deposited  at  the  same 
time  as  clayey  impurities  which  had  been  held  suspended  in  the 
same  waters. 

Much  has  already  been  said  of  the  physical  properties  or  charac- 
ter of  this  gypsum,  but  as  it  is  so  different  in  some  respects  from 
that  of  other  deposits,  there  are  yet  other  matters  worthy  of  men- 
tion in  connection  with  those.  According  to  the  results  of  a  com- 
plete and  exhaustive  analysis  by  Prof.  Emery,  the  ordinary  gray 
gypsum  contains  only  about  eight  per  cent,  of  impurity;  and  it  is 
possible  that  the  average  impurity  for  the  whole  deposit  will  not 
exceed  that  proportion,  so  uniform  in  quality  is  it  from  top  to  bot- 
tom, and  from  one  end  of  the  region  to  the  other. 

When  it  is  remembered  that  plaster  for  agricultural  purposes  is 
sometimes  prepared  from  gypsum  that  contains  as  much  as  thirty 
per  cent,  of  impurity,  it  will  be  seen  that  ours  is  a  very  superior 
article  for  such  purposes.  The  impurities  are  also  of  such  a  char- 
acter that  they  do  not  in  anyway  interfere  with  its  value  for  use 
in  the  arts.  Although  the  gypsum  rock  has  a  gray  color,  it  be- 
comes quite  white  by  grinding,  and  still  whiter  by  the  calcining 
process  necessary  in  the  preparation  of  plaster  of  Paris.  These 
tests  have  all  been  practically  made  in  the  rooms  of  the  Geological 
Survey,  and  the  quality  of  the  plaster  of  Paris  still  further  tested 
by  actual  use  and  experiment.  No  hesitation,  therefore,  is  felt  in 
stating  that  the  Fort  Dodge  gypsum  is  of  as  good  a  quality  as  any 
in  the  country,  even  for  the  finest  uses. 

In  view  of  the  bounteousness  of  the  primitive  fertility  of  our 
Iowa  soils,  many  persons  forget  that  a  time  may  come  when  Na- 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  171 

ture  will  refuse  to  respond  so  generously  to  our  demand  as  she  does 
now,  without  an  adequate  return.  Such  are  apt  to  say  that  this 
vast  deposit  of  gypsum  is  valueless  to  our  commonwealth,  except 
to  the  small  extent  that  it  may  be  used  in  the  arts.  This  is  un- 
doubtedly a  short-sighted  view  of  the  subject,  for  the  time  is  even 
now  rapidly  passing  away  when  a  man  may  purchase  a  new  farm 
for  less  money  than  he  can  re-fertilize  and  restore  the  partially 
wasted  primitive  fertility  of  the  one  he  now  occupies.  There  are 
farms  even  now  in  a  large  part  cf  the  older  settled  portions  of  the 
State  that  would  be  greatly  benefited  by  the  proper  application  of 

Slaster,  and  such  eras  will  continue  to  increase  untu  it  will  be 
ifficult  to  estimate  the  value  of  the  deposit  of  gypsum  at  Fort 
Dodge.  It  should  be  remembered,  also,  that  the  innaoitants  of  an 
extent  of  country  adjoining  our  State  more  than  three  times  as  great 
as  its  own  area,  will  find  it  more  convenient  to  obtain  their  supplies 
from  Fort  Dodge  than  from  any  other  source. 

For  want  of  direct  railroad  communication  between  this  region 
and  other  parts  of  the  State,  the  only  use  yet  made  of  the  gypsum 
by  the  inhabitants  is  for  the  purpose  of  ordimiry  building  stone. 
It  is  so  compact  that  it  is  found  to  be  comparatively  unaffected  by 
the  frost,  and  its  ordinary  situation  in  walls  of  houses  is  such  that 
it  is  protected  from  the  dissolving  action  of  water,  which  can  at 
most  reach  it  only  from  occasional  rains,  and  the  effect  of  these  is 
too  slight  to  be  perceived  after  the  lapse  of  several  years. 

One  of  the  citizens  of  Fort  Dodge,  Hon.  John  F.  Duncombe, 
built  a  large,  fine  residence  of  it,  in  1861,  the  walls  of  which 
appear  as  unaffected  by  the  exposure  and  as  beautiful  as  they  were 
when  first  erected.  It  has  been  so  long  and  successfully  used  for 
building  stone  by  the  inhabitants  that  they  now  prefer  it  to  the 
limestone  of  good  quality,  which  also  exists  in  the  immediate 
vicinity.  This  preference  is  due  to  the  cheapness  of  the  gypsum, 
as  compared  with  the  stone.  The  cheapness  of  the  former  is 
largely  due  to  the  facility  with  which  it  is  quarried  and  wrought. 
Several  other  houses  have  been  constructed  of  it  in  Fort 
Dodge,  including  the  depot  building  of  the  Dubuque  &  Sioux  City 
Bailroad.  The  company  have  also  constructed  a  large  culvert  of 
the  same  material  to  span  a  creek  near  the  town,  limestone  only 
being  used  for  the  lower  courses,  which  come  in  contact  with  the 
water.  It  is  a  fine  arch,  each  stone  of  gypsum  being  nicely  hewn, 
and  it  will  doubtless  prove  a  very  durable  one.  Many  of  the  side- 
walks in  the  town  are  made  of  the  slabs  or  flags  or  gypsum  which 
occur  m  some  of  the  quarries  in  the  form  ot  thin  layers.  They 
are  more  durable  than  their  softness  would  lead  one  to  suppose. 
They  also  possess  an  advantage  over  stone  in  not  becoming  slip- 
pery when  worn. 

The  method  adopted  in  quarrying  and  dressing  the  blocks  of 
gypsum  is  peculiar,  and  quite  unlike  that  adopted  m  similar  treat- 
ment of  ordinary  stone.     Taking  a  stout  auger-bit   of  an  ordi- 


172  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

nary  brace,  such  as  is  used  by  carpenters,  and  filing  the  cutting 
parts  of  it  into  a  peculiar  form,  the  quarryman  bores  his  holes 
into  the  gypsum  quarry  for  blasting,  in  the  same  manner  and 
with  as  great  facility  as  a  carpenter  would  bore  hard  wood.  The 
pieces  being  loosened  by  blasting,  they  are  broken  up  with  sledges 
into  convenient  sizes,  or  hewn  into  tne  desired  shape  by  means  of 
hatchets  or  ordinary  chopping  axes,  or  cut  by  means  by  means  of 
ordinary  wood-saws.  So  little  grit  does  the  gypsum  contain  that 
these  tools,  made  for  working  wood,  are  found  to  be  better  adapted 
for  working  the  former  substance  than  those  tools  are  which  are 
universally  used  for  working  stone. 

MINOR  DEPOSITS   OF  SULPHATE  OF  LIME. 

Besides  the  great  gypsum  deposit  of  Fort  Dodge,  sulphate  of 
lime  in  the  various  forms  of  fibrous  gypsum,  selenite,  and  small, 
amorphous  masses,  has  also  been  discovered  in  various  formations 
in  different  parts  of  the  State,  including  the  coal-measure  shales 
near  Fort  Dodge,  where  it  exists  in  small  quantities  quite  inde- 
pendently of  the  great  gypsum  deposit  there.  The  quantity  of 
f^psum  in  these  minor  deposits  is  always  too  small  to  be  of  any 
practical  value,  and  frequently  minute.  They  usually  occur  in 
shales  and  shaly  clays  associated  with  strata  that  contain  more  or  less 
sulphuret  of  iron  (iron  pyrites).  Gypsum  has  thus  been  detected  in 
the  coal  measures,  the  St.  Louis  limestone,  the  cretaceous  strata, 
and  also  in  the  lead  caves  of  Dubuque.  In  most  of  these  cases  it 
is  evidently  the  result  of  double  decomposition  of  iron  pyrites  and 
carbonate  of  lime,  previously  existing  there;  in  which  cases  the 

fypsum  is  of  course  not  an  original  deposit  as  the  great  one  at 
*ort  Dodge  is  supposed  to  be. 

The  existence  or  these  comparatively  minute  quantities  of  gyp- 
sum in  the  shales  of  the  coal  measures  and  the  subcarboniferous 
limestone  which  are  exposed  within  the  region  of  and  occupy  a 
stratigraphical  position  beneath  the  great  gypsum  deposits,  sug- 
gest the  possibility  that  the  former  may  have  originated  as  a  pre- 
cipitate from  percolating  waters,  holding  gypsum  in  solution 
wnich  they  had  derived  from  that  deposit  in  passifig  over  or 
through  it.  Since,  however,  the  same  suostance  is  found  in  simi- 
lar small  quantities  and  under  similar  conditions  in  regions  where 
they  could  have  had  no  possible  connection  with  that  deposit,  it  is 
believed  that  none  of  those  mentioned  have  necessarily  originated 
from  it,  not  even  those  that  are  found  in  close  proximity  to  it. 

The  gypsum  found  in  the  leai  caves  is  usually  in  the  form  of 
efflorescent  fibers,  and  is  always  in  small  quantity.  In  the  lower 
coal-measure  shale  near  Fort  Dodge,  a  small  mass  was  found  in  the 
form  of  an  intercolated  layer,  which  had  a  distinct  fibrous  struc- 
ture, the  fibers  being  perpendicular  to  the  plane  of  the  layer.  The 
same  mass  had  also  distinct,  horizontal  planes  of  cleavage  at  right 
angles  with  the   perpendicular  fibers.     Thus,  being  more  or  less 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  173 

transparent,  the  mass  combined  the  characters  of  both  fibrous 
gypsam  and  selenite.  No  anhydrous  sulphate  of  lime  {anhydrite) 
has  been  found  in  connection  with  the  great  gypsum  deposit,  nor 
elsewhere  in  Iowa,  so  far  as  yet  known. 

SULPHATE  OF  8TR0NTIA. 

(Celestine.) 

The  only  locality  at  which  this  interesting  mineral  has  yet 
been  found  in  Iowa,  or,  so  far  as  is  known,  in  the  great  valley  of 
the  Mississippi,  is  at  Fort  Dodge.     It  occurs  there  in  very  small 

Siantity  in  both  the  shales  of  the  lower  coal  measures  and  in  the 
ays  that  overlie  the  gypsum  deposit,  and  which  are  regarded  as 
of  the  same  age  with  it.  The  first  is  just  below  the  city,  near 
Rees^  coal  bank,  and  occurs  as  a  layer  intercolated  among  the  coal 
measure  shales,  amounting  in  quantity  to  only  a  few  hundred 
pounds^  weight.  The  mineral  is  fibrous  and  crystaline,  the  fibers 
being  perpendicular  to  the  plane  of  the  layer.  Breaking  also  with 
more  or  less  distinct  horizontal  planes  of  cleavage,  it  resembles, 
in  physical  character,  the  layer  of  fibro-crystaline  gypsum  before 
mentioned.  Its  color  is  light  blue,  is  transparent  and  shows  crys- 
taline facets  upon  both  the  upper  and  under  surfaces  of  the  layer; 
those  of  the  upper  surface  being  smallest  and  most  numerous.  It 
breaks  up  readily  into  small  masses  along  the  lines  of  the  perpen- 
dicular fioers  or  columns.  The  layer  is  probably  not  more  than  a  rod 
in  extent  in  any  direction  and  about  three  inches  in  maximum 
thickness.  Apparent  lines  of  stratification  occur  in  it,  correspond- 
ing with  those  of  the  shales  which  imbed  it. 

The  other  deposit  was  still  smaller  in  amount,  and  occurred  as  a 
mass  of  crystals  imbedded  in  the  clays  that  overlie  the  gypsum  at 
Cummins'  quarry  in  the  valley  of  Soldier  Creek.  Here  the  mineral 
is  nearly  without  color,  and  were  it  not  for  the  form  of  the  sepa- 
ate  crystals  would  closely  resemble  a  mass  of  impure  chlonde. 
These  crystals  are  so  closely  aggregated  that  they  enclose  but  little 
impurity  in  the  mass,  but  in  nearly  every  case  brought  to  my  no- 
tice their  fundamental  forms  are  obscured.  The  mineral  of  itself 
is  of  no  practical  value,  and  its  occurrence  is  only  interesting  as  a 
mineralogical  fact. 

Epsomite,  or  native  epsom  salts,  having  been  discovered  near 
Burlington,  we  have  thus  recognized  in  Iowa  all  the  sulphates  of 
the  alkaline  earths  of  natural  origin;  all  of  them,  except  the  sul- 
phate of  lime,  being  in  very  small  quantity.  Even  if  the  sulphate 
of  magnesia  were  produced  in  nature,  in  large  quantities,  it  is  so 
very  soluble  that  it  can  accumulate  only  in  such  positions  as  afibrd 
it  complete  shelter  from  the  rains  or  running  water.  The  epso- 
mite mentioned  was  found  beneath  the  overhanging  cliflFof  Bur- 
lington limestone,  near  Starr's  mill. 


174 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 


It  occurs  in  the  form  of  efflorescent  encrustations  upon  the  surface 
of  stones  and  in  similar  small  fragile  masses  among  the  fine  debris 
that  has  fallen  down  beneath  the  overhanging  cliflf.  The  projec- 
tion of  the  cliff  over  the  perpendicular  face  of  the  strata  beneath 
amounts  to  near  twenty  feet  at  the  point  where  epsomite  was 
found.  Consequently  the  rains  never  reach  far  beneath  it  from 
any  quarter.  The  rock  upon  which  the  epsomite  accumulates  is 
an  impure  limestone,  containing  also  some  carbonate  of  magnesia, 
together  with  a  small  proportion  of  iron  pyrites  in  afinelv  divided 
condition.  It  is  doubtless  by  double  decomposition  of  tnese  that 
the  epsomite  results.  By  experiments  with  this  native  salt  in  the 
office  of  the  Survey^  a  fine  article  of  epsom  salts  was  produced, 
but  the  quantity  that  might  be  annually  obtained  there  would 
amount  to  only  a  few  pounds,  and  of  course  is  of  no  practical 
value  whatever,  on  account  of  its  cheapness  in  the  market. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  175 


WOODBURY  COUNTY. 


Woodbury  County  is  situated  on  the  western  border  of  the  State, 
in  the  third  tier  from  the  north  line.  It  is  twenty-four  miles  north 
and  south,  by  from  thirty  to  thirty-six  miles  east  and  west,  em- 
bracing a  superficial  area  of  about  832  square  miles,  or  432,480 
acres.  About  146,000  acres  of  this  land  is  Missouri  River  bottom, 
of  great  fertility,  and  unsurpassed  for  agricultural  and  grazing  pur- 
poses. This  bottom  is  from  six  to  ten  miles  in  width  and  mostly 
above  high  water  mark  in  the  Missouri  River.  Although  appar- 
ently nearly  level,  it  is  dry  and  susceptible  of  easy  tillage.  The 
soil  IS  a  deep  loam,  with  a  sufficient  proportion  of  silicious  material 
to  render  it  retentive  of  moisture,  while  it  seldom  remains  for  any 
length  of  time  so  wet  as  to  prevent  the  farmer  from  giving  atten- 
tion to  his  crops.  Immediately  adjacent  to  the  valleys  are  the 
blui&,  forming  a  narrow  belt,  usually  too  much  broken  for  cultiva- 
tion, but  a  short  distance  back  the  land  becomes  gently  rolling, 
and  is  well  adapted  to  farming  purposes.  The  Missouri,  one  of  the 
great  rivers  of  the  continent,  forms  the  western  boundary  of  the 
county  as  far  up  as  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Sioux  River.  Thence, 
to  the  northwest  corner,  a  distance  of  about  five  miles,  the  latter 
stream  marks  the  western  boundary.  The  principal  streams  flow- 
ing through  the  interior  are  Floyd,  east  and  west  forks  of  the  Lit- 
tle Sioux,  and  Maple  Rivers.  Perry  Creek  is  also  a  stream  of  con- 
siderable size.  All  these  streams  flow  through  rich  and  beautiful 
valleys,  and  receive  many  small  affluents  that  completely  drain  the 
entire  surface.  The  Little  Sioux  and  Floyd  Rivers  furnish  water 
power  for  machinery.  There  is  a  deficiency  of  native  timber  in 
this,  as  in  other  counties  of  this  part  of  the  State.  There  are  som§ 
groves  of  valuable  timber,  however,  bordering  on  the  Missouri  and 
along  the  Big  and  Little  Sioux  Rivers.  The  varieties  common  are 
Cottonwood,  hickory,  oak,  walnut,  elm,  and  maple — the  first  named 
largely  predominating  along  the  Missouri  River.  It  has  been 
found  that  many  kinds  of  timber  may  be  easily  propagated,  and 
when  planted  on  the  prairies  make  a  rapid  growth. 

The  geological  formation  is  such  as  to  allow  but  few  exposures 
of  rock  in  the  county,  or  indeed,  in  this  portion  of  Iowa.  The  en- 
tire surface  is  covered  by  the  peculiar  formation  known  by  the 
name  of  ''bluff*  deposit,"  extending  to  the  depth  of  many  feet. 
The  bed  of  the  Missouri  River  at  Sioux  City  is  340  feet  above  that 
of  the  Mississippi  at  Dubuque,  in  the  same  latitude.  There  are  at 
Sioux  City,  and  one  or  two  other  places,  exposures  of  a  sandstone 
formation  of  the  cretaceous  age,  with  a  stratum  of  soft,  chalky 


173  HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 

limestone  overlying  it.  This  is  too  soft  for  masonry,  but  is  used 
for  making  quicklime.  The  sandstone  is  quarried  for  ordinary 
building  purposes.  The  same  formation  appears  on  Big  Sioux 
River  about  two  miles  above  the  mouth,  and  extends,  with  occa- 
sional exposures,  to  the  northwest  corner  of  the  county.  The  sur- 
face of  the  ^'bluflF  deposit"  is  used  for  making  brick.  The  clays  in 
the  cretaceous  deposit  furnish  an  excellent  material  for  making 
pottery.  Woodbury,  however,  must  rely  chiefly  on  its  fertile  prai- 
ries for  its  development  into  a  prosperous  and  wealthy  county. 

On  the  14th  of  May,  1804,  Captains  Lewis  and  Clarke,  with  for- 
ty-two men,  under  tne  direction  of  the  War  Department  of  the 
Government,  started  from  their  encampment  at  the  mouth  of 
Wood  River,  in  what  is  now  the  State  of  Illinois,  to  explore  the 
Missouri  River  and  the  unknown  regions  of  the  Northwest.  After 
many  strange  adventures,  and  the  accomplishment  of  a  thousand 
miles  of  their  jouriey,  on  the  18th  of  August  they  landed  on  the 
Nebraska  side  of  the  river,  nearly  opposite  the  southwest  corner  of 
the  present  County  of  Woodbury,  where  they  held  a  council  with 
a  party  of  Ottoe  and  Missouri  Indian  Chiefs.  On  the  morning  of 
the  20th  the  Indians  mounted  their  horses  and  left,  having  re- 
ceived some  presents  from  the  whites.  On  the  19th,  in  camp  at 
the  place  where  the  council  was  held,  Sergeant  Charles  Floyd,  of 
the  expedition,  became  very  sick  and  remained  so  all  night.  The 
next  morning,  however,  wnich  was  Monday,  August  20,  the  party 
set  out  on  their  journey  up  the  river.  Having  a  "fine  wina  and 
fine  weather,"  they  made  thirteen  miles,  and  at  two  o'clock  landed 
for  dinner  on  the  Iowa  side  of  the  river.  Here  Sergeant  Flovd 
died.  About  one  mile  farther  up  the  river,  on  the  summit  of  a 
high  bluflF,  his  body  was  buried  with  the  honors  due  to  a  brave  sol- 
dier. His  comrades  marked  the  place  with  a  cedar  post,  on  which 
were  inscribed  his  name  and  the  date  of  his  death.  About  one 
mile  above,  a  small  river  flows  into  the  Missouri,  and  here  the  party 
encamped  until  the  next  day.  Captains  Lewis  and  Clarke  gave 
this  stream  the  name  of  Floyd's  River,  to  perpetuate  the  memory 
of  the  first  man  who  had  fallen  in  their  expedition.  The  next  day 
they  set  out  early,  passed  the  blufis,  now  within  the  limits  of  Sioux 
City,  which  are  mentioned  in  the  journal  of  Patrick  Gass,  a  mem- 
ber of  the  expedition,  as  ^'handsome,  pale  colored  bluffs."  Willow 
Creek  and  Big  Sioux  River,  the  latter  just  above  where  Sioux  City 
now  stands,  are  also  mentioned.  During  a  great  freshet  in  the 
Spring  of  1857,  the  turbulent  Missouri  washed  away  a  portion  of 
the  bluff",  so  as  to  expose  the  remains  of  Sergeant  Floyd.  The 
citizens  of  Sio  jx  City  and  vicinitv  collected  the  remains  and  re-in- 
terred them  some  distance  back  irom  the  river  on  the  same  bluff. 

The  title  of  the  Indians  to  the  land  in  this  portion  of  Iowa  be- 
came extinct  in  1847,  and  in  the  summer  of  1848,  forty-four  years 
after  the  burial  of  Sergeant  Floyd,  a  single  pioneer,  named  Wil- 
liam Thompson,  settled  at  Floyd's  Bluff — the  first  white  man  who 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  177 

became  a  permanent  settler  of  the  countj.  In  the  autumn  of  the 
same  year  his  brother  Charles  and  another  man  followed  and  spent 
the  winter  there,  being,  at  that  time  the  only  white  men  in  the 
county.  Anticipating  an  immense  immigration,  he  laid  out  a  town 
here  and  named  it  in  honor  of  himself — Thompsontown.  Like 
other  western  towns,  this  for  a  while  was  supposed  to  be  Hie  point. 
To  give  it  an  air  of  business,  and  aid  in  its  development,  he  erected 
here  his  cabin,  and,  on  the  organization  of  the  county,  in  1853, 
this  was  made  the  county  seat.  It  was  a  sort  of  post  for  Indian 
traders  for  some  years,  but  the  city  lots  were  too  steep  for  cultiva- 
tion, or  for  building,  and,  unfortunately,  there  was  no  place  for  a 
landing  on  the  bank  of  the  river,  and  tne  stakes  are  all  that  now 
remain  to  mark  the  progress  of  the  town. 

In  may,  1849,  Theophile  Brughier,  a  native  of  Canada,  but  of 
French  descent,  settled  at  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Sioux  River,  about 
two  miles  above  where  Sioux  City  now  stands.  Three  years  before 
he  had  visited  the  spot  and  made  selection  of  the  location.  In  1835, 
at  the  age  of  twenty,  Brughier  left  Canada  and  went  to  St.  Louis, 
where  he  had  an  uncle  who  was  a  member  of  the  American  Fur 
Company.  Under  the  advice  of  his  uncle  he  engaged  in  the  ser- 
vice of  the  company,  but  remained  in  their  employ  only  a  short 
time,  when  he  joined  the  Yankton  Sioux  Indians  and  married  a 
daughter  of  the  somewhat  distinguished  chief,  Hu-yan-e-ka  (War 
Eagle).  He  became  a  prominent  man  in  the  tribe,  and  had  acouired 
great  influence  among  them.  After  remaining  with  the  Inaians, 
and  sharing  the  fortunes  of  the  tribe  for  some  ten  years,  he  con- 
cluded to  change  his  manner  of  life,  and  notified  the  tribe  of  his 
intentions.  Accordingly,  with  his  faithful  Indian  wife  and  chil- 
dren, he  left  the  post  of  the  American  Fur  Company  and  came 
down  the  river  and  settled,  as  above  stated,  at  the  mouth  of  Big 
Sioux  River.  War  Eagle,  the  Indian  father-in-law  of  Brughier, 
died  in  his  house  in  the  fall  of  1851,  aged  about  sixty-five  years. 
He  was  a  noted  warrior  among  the  Sioux,  but  always  amend  of  the 
whites.  He  was  first  recognized  as  a  Chief  of  the  Yankton  Sioux 
by  Major  Pilcher,  the  Indian  agent.  About  the  year  1830  he  was 
for  some  time  employed  as  a  pilot  on  the  Upper  Mississippi.  His 
remains,  with  those  of  his  two  daughters,  one  of  them  the  deceased 
wife  of  Mr.  Brughier,  now  repose  on  the  summit  of  a  lofty  bluff 
on  the  Iowa  side  of  the  Big  Sioux  River,  just  above  its  mouth. 
Here  are  also  the  graves  of  several  other  Indians,  as  well  as  whites 
— eight  or  ten  in  all.  From  this  romantic  spot  may  be  seen  for 
many  miles  the  broad  winding  Missouri,  with  its  noble  valley,  the 
far  off  Blackbird  Hills  in  Nebraska,  with  the  intervening  plains, 
islands  and  groves,  and  a  portion  of  the  rich  bottom  lands  of  Da- 
kota, stretching  as  far  as  the  eye  can  reach  between  the  two  rivers 
toward  the  northwest. 

In  the  fall  of  1849,  Robert  Perry,  a  man  of  somewhat  eccentric 
character,  but  of  fine  education,  removed  from  Washington,  D.  C, 


178  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

and  settled  on  the  small  creek  which  meanders  through  Sioux  City, 
where  he  remained  two  years,  and  then  removed  elsewhere.  The 
creek  now  bears  his  name.  The  next  year  Paul  Pacquette  located 
at  the  crossing  of  Big  Sioux  River,  about  two  miles  above  the 
mouth. 

In  the  spring  of  1852,  Mr.  Brughier  sold  a  portion  of  his  culti- 
vated land,  including  what  Ls  now  a  part  of  Sioux  City,  to  a  French- 
man named  Joseph  Lionais,  for  one  thousand  dollars.  About  this 
time  some  difficulty  occurred  with  the  Indians  at  Fort  Vermillion, 
and  a  small  number  of  French  descended  the  river  and  made  a  tem- 
porarjr  settlement  in  the  same  vicinity.  After  this  no  further  perma- 
nent improvement  was  made  until  the  spring  of  1854,  when  Doctor 
John  K.  Cook,  who  had  a  government  contract  for  surveying,  ar- 
rived with  his  party.  Being  impressed  with  the  eligibility  of  the 
place  for  the  location  of  ^  town,  and  the  romantic  beauty  of  its 
surroundings,  he  and  his  party  immmediately  located  claims. 
Among  those  who  selected  and  located  claims  at  nn  early  day  in 
the  vicinity  of  Sioux  City,  was  the  brave  General  Lyon,  who  fell 
at  Wilson  s  Creek. 

At  the  mouth  of  the  Floyd  River,  Dr.  Cook  found  encamped 
the  red  men  of  the  forest,  with  Smutty  Bear,  their  Chief, 
who  ordered  him  to  desist  from  his  work  under  penalty  of  being 
driven  from  the  place  by  his  wariors,  whom  Smutty  Bear  would 
summon  from  the  upper  country.  The  belligerent  Doctor  boldly 
replied,  through  the  interpreter,  that  he  would  go  at  once,  if  nec- 
essary, for  a  sufficient  force  to  exterminate  Smutty  Bear  and  his 
band.  Dr.  Cook  plainly  told  him  that  he  had  come  there  to  make 
a  survey,  and  he  meant  to  complete  his  undertaking.  The  savages, 
impressed  with  the  determination  evinced  bv  Dr.  Cook,  and  intim- 
idated by  his  well-timed  threatenings,  struct  their  tepees  and  de- 
parted, leaving  him  to  complete  his  labors  uninterrupted. 

In  the  Winter  of  1854-5,  the  town  of  Sioux  City  was  laid  out. 
Among  the  settlers  at  that  time  were  the  following:  Hiram  Nel- 
son, Marshall  Townsley,  Franklin  Wixon,  G.  W.  Chamberlain, 
and  Francis  Chappel.  About  this  time  the  Indians  became  trouble- 
some, and  began  to  steal  horses,  cattle  and  other  property.  Ex- 
peditions were  fitted  out  against  them,  none  of  whicn,  however,  were 
attended  with  bloodshed.  In  the  spring  of  1855,  Joseph  Lionais 
sold  his  land  for  three  thousand  dollars,  and  on  this  an  addition  to 
Sioux  City  was  laid  out.  It  then  contained  two  log  cabins,  but  now 
comprises  the  "principal  business  portion  of  the  city.  The  first 
stage  and  mail  arrived  in  Sioux  City  about  the  first  week  in  Septem- 
ber of  this  year,  a  postoffice  having  first  been  established.  This 
event  was  hailed  by  the  settlers  as  the  beginning  of  the  era  of 
civilization.  By  Christmas  Day  there  were  seven  log  houses,  two 
of  them  being  hotels — the  ''Sioux  City  House,"  and  the  "Western 
Exchange."  Two  stores  were  opened,  one  of  which  was  kept  in  a 
.tent,  and  the  other  in  a  log  cabin.      Late   in  the  season    settlers 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  179 

came  in  rapidly,  and  many  who  could  not  obtain  houses  were 
obliged  to  camp  out.  In  the  Spring  of  1856  the  population  had 
reached  about  150.  The  land  office  had  been  opened  here  for  pre- 
emptions, October  22,  1855,  but  the  public  lauds  were  not  offered 
for  sale  until  May  4,  1857. 

By  an  act  of  the  Legislature  the  county  seat  had,  1853,  been  lo- 
cated at  Floyd^s  Bluff.  In  the  Spring  of  1856  it  was  removed  to 
Sioux  City  by  a  vote  of  the  citizens  or  the  county,  the  majoritv  in 
favor  of  removal  being  fourte(  n.  The  county  was  organized  in 
1853. 

The  first  steamboat  freighted  for  Sioux  City  was  the  "Omaha," 
and  arrived  in  June,  1856.  Her  freight  consisted  of  ready  framed 
houses  and  provisions.  In  July  of  this  yepr  a  steam  saw  mill  was 
erected.  Mrs.  S.  H.  Casady  and  Mrs.  J.  R.  Myers  were  the  first 
women  who  spent  a  Winter  in  Sioux  City.  Both  came  in  the 
Summer  of  lo55.  The  first  white  child  born  in  the  place  was  a 
daughter  of  S.  H.  Casady  and  wife,  in  1856. 

Among  transcriptions  from  the  earliest  records,  we  find  the  fol- 
lowing: 

Sebgeakt's  BLtrFFs.  Woodbury  County,  State  of  Iowa  : 

To  the  or^^izing  Sheriff  of  said  County :  We  have  fixed  upon  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  1,  township  88,  range  4??,  west  of  the  Fifth  Principal  Meridian, 
as  the  point  for  the  seat  of  justice  for  the  aforesaid  county  of  Woodbury,  and 
set  a  stake  on  the  avenue,  coming  east  and  west  between  lots  131  and  97,  as 
laid  down  in  Thompson's  plat  of  Floyd's  Bluffs,  in  said  County,  and  recorded 
in  the  Recorder's  Oiiice  of  rottawattamic  County,  Iowa,  this  18th  day  of  July, 
1853.  Thomas  L.  Griffey, 

In  A  Peryiek, 

Commissioners. 

This  appears  to  be  a  copy  from  the  Pottawattamie  County 
records.  The  next  entry  bears  date  of  January  2,  1854,  and  men- 
tions that  Thomas  L.  Griffey  is  allowed  for  services  as  Locating 
Commissioner  $18.50,  the  same  being  Order  No.  1.  It  would  seem 
that  men  were  scarce;  for  Order  No.  3  is  also  to  Thomas  L.  Griffey 
for  services  as  Locating  Sheriff.  July  16th,  1854,  Ray  Harvey  is 
allowed  $2  for  hauling  a  box  of  books  from  Council  bluffs  City. 
These  were  doubtless  the  first  permanent  records  kept  by  the 
county.  By  a  warrant — or  bond,  it  is  called  in  the  record, — issued 
August  10,  1854,  it  appears  that  Leonard  Bates  had  acted  as  Clerk 
of  Elections,  and  that  II.  E.  Knox  acted  as  the  first  District  Clerk, 
probably  Clerk  of  Election. 

August  12th,  1854,  is  the  first  entry  bearing  date  of  Sergeant's 
Blufis,  which  appears  to  have  been  written  there.  This  entry 
mentions  that  L.  Bates  is  allowed  $16.05  for  services  as  Treasurer 
and  Recorder,  and  is  signed  by  M.  Townsley,  County  Judge.  On 
the  same  day,  Lewis  Cunningham  is  allowed  $10.50  for  services 
rendered  as  Assessor. 

The  oflBcials  mentioned  appear  to  have  been  appointed  to  hold 
until  the  first  election ;  for  on  August  10th  of  the  year  following, 


180  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

John  K.  Cook  ^ves  his  bond  as  County  Judge;  Samuel  H.  Casady 
as  Treasurer;  M.  F.  Moore,  Prosecuting  Attorney. 

October  15th  this  entry  appears:  "John  R.  Myers  was  this  day 
appointed  District  Clerk  for  this  county,  in  place  of  Theophile 
Brughier,  suspended  by  the  District  Judge  at  the  last  term  of 
District  Court."  The  proceedings,  as  appears  by  this  record,  are 
mixed  as  to  dates,  as  if  some  were  original  entries  and  others  were 
copied  from  an  older  book. 

August  1,   1853,  Thomas  L.  Griffey  as  Organizing  Sheriff,  ap- 

Sointed  OrinB.  Smith  Prosecuting  Attorney  and  Eli  Lee,  Coroner. 
>n  the  30th  of  the  same  month,  Hiram  Nelson  gives  his  bonds  as 
Treasurer  and  Recorder. 

A  petition  is  on  record,  asking  Orin  B.  Smith,  County  Judge,  to 
call  an  election  on  the  first  Monday  of  April,  1855,  to  decide 
whether  the  county  seat  shall  not  be  removed  from  Sergeant's 
Blufis  to  Sergeant's  Bluffs  City.  The  petition  is  signed  by  twenty- 
six  persons.  The  first  seat  of  justice  was  half  way  between  Sioux 
City  and  the  present  station  of  Sergeant's  Bluffs.  It  is  called  on 
the  records  indifferently.  Sergeant  s  Bluffs,  Thompsontown  and 
Floyd's  Bluffs. 

The  election  removed  the  county  capital  to  Sergeant's  Bluffs 
City,  now  Sergeant's  Bluffs  Station,  on  the  Sioux  City  &  Pacific 
road,  where  it  remained  until  March  3d.  Here  let  the  record  un- 
der this  date  tell  the  story. 

March  term  of  County  Court  of  Woodbury  Countv :— Met  at  Sioux  City,  there 
being  no  place  at  the  county  seat  for  holding  said  court,  iiret  Monday  of 
March. 

Petition  of  S.  P.  Yeomans  and  Qeorge  Weare  and  others — forty-nine  others — 

graying  for  the  removal  of  the  county  seat  from  its  present  location  to  Sioux 
i^. 

Kemonstiance  presented  by  F.  E.  Clark,  J.  D.  M.  Crockwell  and  others, 
against  the  removal  of  the  county  seat. 

F.  Chapel,  Sheriff,  sworn;  that  the  notices  of  the  presentation  of  the  petition 
for  the  removal  of  the  county  seat  were  duly  posted,  according  to  law. 

This  is  all  that  is  disclosed  by  the  records  about  the  locating  of 
the  county  seat  at  Sioux  City.  When  it  is  remembered  that  the 
County  Judge  before  whom  the  petition  for  removal  came,  was 
John  K.  Cook,  the  founder  of  Sioux  City,  no  further  record  is 
needed  to  indicate  what  disposition  was  made  of  the  petition  for 
removal. 

April  15th,  1859,  Bemhard  Henn,  Jesse  Williams,  A.  C.  Dodge, 
and  others,  petition  the  County  Judge,  John  K.  Cook,  to  enter  for 
them  the  west  one-half  of  section  28,  township  89,  range  47,  as  a 
town-site  in  trust  for  the  lot  owners.  This  town-site  in  the  petition 
is  called  East  Sioux  City,  now  part  of  Sioux  City  east  addition, 
and  now  comprises  the  principal  business  and  residence  parts  of 
the  town. 

The  present  oflScers  of  Woodbury  County  are:  J.  R.  Zuver, 
Circuit  Judge,  Fourth  Judicial  District;  C.  H.  Lewis,  District 
Judge,  Fourth  Judicial  District;  S.  M.  Marsh,  District  Attorney; 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  181 

Auditor,  M.  L.  Sloan;  Treasurer,  John  P.  Allison;  Clerk  of  Courts, 
J.  H.  Bolton;  Recorder,  Phil  Carlin;  Sheriff,  D.  McDonald;  Coro- 
ner, Dr.  W.  0.  Davis;  Superintendent  of  Schools,  N.  E.  Palmer; 
Surveyor,  G.  W.  Oberholtzer;  Attordey,  G.  W.  Wakefield;  Insane 
Commissioners,  J.  H.  Bolton,  Isaac  Pendleton,  Dr.  J.  M.  Knott; 
Supervisors,  P.  C.  Eherley,  J.  S.  Horton,  John  Nairn,  A.  J. 
Weeks,  D.  T.  Gilman. 

SIOUX  CITY. 

While  other  cities  may  owe  their  location  to  some  accident,  the 
whim  of  an  officer  locating  a  military  post,  the  ambition  of  a  pio- 
neer to  have  a  townsite  on  his  pre-emption,  or  the  chance  settle- 
ment of  a  trader,  Sioux  City's  location  was  a  matter  of  foresight 
and  design  by  men  worthy  to  be  the  founders  of  such  a  city. 

When,  in  the  summer  of  1853,  John  K.  Cook  came  into  this  part 
of  Northwestern  Iowa  to  survey  the  land  for  the  Government,  he 
had  instructions  from  an  association  of  capitalists  and  politicians  to 
choose  for  them  a  site  for  a  city,  to  be  the  metropolis  of  this  part 
of  the  northwest.  The  principal  men  of  the  association  were  Gen. 
G.  W.  Jones  and  A.  C.  Dodge,  Iowa's  first  Senators^  Bemhard 
Henn,  of  Fairfield,  also  a  Con^essman;  his  partner  in  the  banking 
business,  Jesse  Williams;  Daniel  Rider,  also  of  Fairfield,  and  Wm. 
Montgomery,  a  Congressman  from  Pennsylvania,  the  author  of  the 
famous  Montgomery  Compromise:  John  K.  Cook,  who  surveyed 
the  land  for  the  Government;  and  S.  P.  Yeomans,  afterwards  Reg- 
ister of  the  Government  Land  Office  at  Sioux  City. 

This  land  office  was  secured  for  the  infant  metropolis  by  the  in- 
fluence of  the  men  who  founded  the  city,  and  this  and  the  business 
and  settlement  it  brought,  forced  the  town  rapidly  ahead  of  its 
many  competitors. 

Thompsontown,  once  the  county  seat,  dwindled  to  a  single  farm 
house;  Sergeant  Bluffs,  at  first  the  most  formidable  rival,  was  soon 
outstripped,  and  the  county  seat  that  had  been  moved  to  that  vil- 
lage from  Thompsontown,  was  again  moved  to  Sioux  City. 

Omadi,  on  the  Nebraska  side,  once  thought  to  be  the  coming 
town  in  this  part  of  the  northwest,  has  been  swallowed  up  by  the 
river,  and  the  main  channel  is  now  where  the  main  street  was;  of 
St.  John,  another  Nebraska  city  of  the  future,  only  two  or  three 
farm  houses  remain  on  the  town  site,  that  covered  one  thousand 
acres;  Dakota  City  and  Covington,  once  formidable  rivals  of  Sioux 
City,  still  exist,  but  only  as  villages.  Sioux  City  has  grown  and 
prospered  from  the  first.  The  securing  of  the  Government  Land 
Office  was  followed  by  the  city  securing  the  headquarters  for  the 
government  expeditions  against  the  hostile  Sioux,  and  afterwards 
by  its  becoming  the  terminus  of  railroads  created  by  land  grant 
bills. 


182  HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 

First  its  founders,  and  afterwards  the  leading  men  of  the  town, 
have  been  tireless  in  their  efforts  to  advance  the  interests  of  the 
city.  To  this,  even  more  than  to  its  superior  location,  is  the 
present  prosperity  of  the  city  indebted. 

The  population  of  the  city  has  more  than  doubled  since  1870. 
According  to  the  official  figures  of  the  federal  census  taken  in 
June,  1880,  the  population  was  7,367.  But  to-day  we  can  easily  cal- 
culate upon  10,000  bein^  the  correct  figures,  for  not  a  single  busi- 
ness-house is  unoccupied,  and  although  building  boomed  as  never 
before  last  season,  this  winter  sees  many  begging  for  houses  to  rent 
or  quarters  of  some  kind  in  which  to  locate.  The  demand  for  ten- 
ement houses  is  greater  than  the  supply,  and  in  many  cases  fami- 
lies are  crowded  into  one  room,  not  being  able  to  secure  more  avail- 
able quarters. 

The  population  of  the  county,  according  to  the  census,  exclud- 
ing Sioux  City,  was  7,626,  the  whole  county  exceeding  the  town  by 
259.  The  county  is  divided  into  twenty-two  townships,  and  the 
population  of  the  whole  county,  including  Sioux  City,  according  to 
census  figures,  is  given  as  follows: 

Sioux  City— First  Ward 1,707 

Second  Ward .2,074 

Third  Ward 1 ,786 

Fourth  Ward 1 ,800 

Sioux  City  township 480 

Arlington  township : 137 

Concord  township •. 340 

Banner  township 64 

Floyd  township. 194 

Grange  township 118 

Grant  Township 460 

Kedron  township. 316 

Little  Sioux  township 876 

Liberty  township 721 

Liston  township 408 

Lakeport  township 436 

Union  township 697 

Moville  township 117 

Willow  township 242 

Rock  township 250 

Rutland  township 197 

Sloan  township 312 

Wolk  Creek  township 418 

Morgan  township 63 

West  Fork  township 286 

Woodbury  township 594 

Total 14,993 

What  has  been  said  in  regard  to  the  city's  population  holds 
equally  true  of  the  county,  outside  of  the  city.  Since  the  census 
enumeration  many  families  have  bought  farms  and  settled  in  the 
county.  In  fact,  the  tide  of  immigration  to  Woodbury,  which  has 
never  been  greater  than  during  the  last  year,  did  not  set  in  until 


HISTOKY  OF  IOWA.  188 

after  June,  and  continued  until  cold  weather  set  in.  It  is  safe, 
therefore,  to  estimate  the  present  population  of  the  city  and 
county  at  19,000,  at  least. 

SIOUX  city's  railroad  interests. 

The  founders  of  Sioux  City  had  not  got  fairly  settled  on  their 
townsite  before  they  began  to  agitate  the  question  of  secur- 
ing railroads.  The  location  of  the  town  seemed  made  by  na- 
ture for  a  railroad  center,  supposing  that  nature  contemplated 
railroads  when  this  section  of  the  world  was  made.  The  great 
Missouri,  coming  down  through  its  wide  valley,  flows  in  a  general 
easterly  course  and  here  makes  an  abrupt  bend  to  the  south,  the 
first  great  change  in  course  above  Kansas  City.  The  Big  Sioux 
comes  down  from  the  north,  and  at  its  head  the  Ked  River  starts 
on  its  course  north,  the  valleys  of  the  two  streams  forming  a  nat- 
ural route  for  a  railroad  from  Sioux  City  to  the  British  Possessions. 
The  Niobrara  coming  from  the  west  flows  straight  toward  Sioux 
City  until  it  joins  the  Missouri  at  the  first  great  bend  above  the 
city.  The  Floyd  coming  from  the  northeast  invited  a  road  from 
the  Minnesota  lumber  country,  and  afforded  a  route  into  the  young 
metropolis  for  a  road  across  the  State,  while  the  rock  bluff  that 
crops  out  above  the  town  suggests  a  bridge  site  and  lines  beyond  the 
Missouri.  All  these  ideas  were  urged  by  the  more  progressive  of 
the  founders  of  the  city,  and,  thougn  visionary  then  to  a  common- 
place mind,  have  been  either  made  realities,  or  are  in  a  fair  way 
to  become  realities. 

Sioux  City  was  fortunate  in  having  as  a  member  of  Congress, 
during  the  years  in  which  land  grants  were  being  given  to  rail- 
roads, a  citizen  active,  far-sighted  and  tireless,  the  late  Judge  Hub- 
bard. It  was  this  gentleman  who  secured  the  insertion  of  a  clause 
in  the  original  land  grant  bill  of  the  Union  Pacific  providing  for 
a  branch  of  this  road  to  Sioux  City,  who  secured  the  change  of  the 
land  grant  from  the  bankrupt  Dubuque  &  Missouri  River  road  to 
the  Iowa  Falls  &  Sioux  City,  and  finally,  in  1864,  by  the  help  of 
the  Minnesota  Congressmen,  procured  the  passage  pf  a  bill  grant- 
ing lands  to  the  amount  of  10  sections  per  mile  to  the  Sioux  City 
&  St.  Paul  road.  But  in  spite  of  the  tempting  offers  of  lands,  and 
in  the  case  of  the  Sioux  City  branch  of  the  Union  Pacific,  of  guaran- 
teed government  bonds  as  well,  nothing  was  done  toward  building 
these  roads  until  late  in  1867. 

Sioux  City  d'  Pacific , — John  I.  Blair,  even  then  a  veteran  railroad 
man,  in  that  year  agreed  to  build  the  Sioux  City  branch  of  the 
Union  Pacific  if  a  modification  of  the  line  could  be  secured. 
What  he  wanted,  and  got,  was  permission  to  build  from  Missouri 
Valley  north  to  Sioux  City,  a  aistance  of  77  miles,  and  to  build 
f ri»m  Missouri  Valley  west,  across  the  Missouri  River  to  Fremont, 
a  distance  of  37  miles.  The  original  bill  did  not  contemplate  any 
such  line,  but  one  crossing  the  Kiver  at  Sioux  City,  and  running 


184  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

southwest  to  a  junction  with  the  Union  Pacific  at  Columbus.  Mr. 
Blair  having  secured  the  change  in  the  route  askedj  proceeded  to 
build  the  road.  Besides  the  land  grant  and  government  bonds,  the 
wily  railroader  secured  from  Sioux  City  a  tract  of  land  amounting 
to  about  14  acres  near  the  business  center  of  the  town,  and  several 
thousand  acres  of  swamp  land  from  the  county  of  Woodbury. 

The  road,  under  the  name  of  the  Sioux  City  &  Pacific,  was  finished 
so  as  to  allow  the  first  passenger  train  to  run  from  Missouri  Val- 
ley to  Sioux  City  on  March  9,  1868.  The  citizens  were  wild  with 
enthusiasm,  and  the  newspapers  flamed  with  head  lines  over  this 
connection  with  the  railroad  world.  The  year  following  the  com- 
pletion of  the  Sioux  City  road,  the  Blair  cut-off,  between  Missouri 
Valley,  on  the  Northwestern,  and  Fremont,  on  the  Union  Pacific, 
was  built.  This  gave  a  connection  with  the  Union  Pacific,  of 
which  great  things  were  expected;  but  the  bridging  of  the  Mis- 
souri at  Omaha  sent  most  of  the  busiiiess  that  way,  instead  of 
across  the  river  at  Blair,  where  a  transfer  boat  was  used.  From 
Blair  a  branch  was  started  up  the  Elkhorn  Valley,  that  has  grown 
from  year  to  year,  until,  at  the  close  of  1881,  it  rested  at  Long 
Pine,  250  miles  northwest  of  Blair.  Survevs  have  been  made  for 
an  extension  from  Long  Pine  west  to  the  Wyoming  line,  and  the 
line  seems  likely  to  become  in  reality,  what  it  is  name,  a  Sioux 
City  and  Pacific  road. 

Illinois  Central — The  general  joy  over  securing  the  first  rail- 
road, took  the  very  practical  form  of  a  move  to  secure  other  rail- 
roads. In  the  Spring  of  1869,  Mr.  Blair  and  his  associates  began 
building  from  Sioux  City  east,  and  from  Iowa  Falls  west,  to  secure 
the  land  grant  of  the  Iowa  Falls  &  Sioux  City  road.  That  year 
the  west  section  was  built  to  Cherokee,  and  from  the  east  as  far  as 
Fort  Dodge.  Early  in  the  summer  of  1870  the  road  was  finished. 
It  was  leased  to  the  Illinois  Central,  a  company  that  has  since 
operated  it.    The  rental  paid  is  35  per  cent,  of  the  gross  earnings. 

Chicago^  St,  Paid^  Minneapolis  and  Omaha. — Fast  following 
on  this  road  came  the  Sioux  City  &  St.  Paul.  As  has  been  men- 
tioned, Judge  Hubbard,  in  1864,  when  in  Congress,  procured  a 
land  grant  for  this  project,  but  no  work  was  done  until  1872, 
when  the  franchises  having  passed  to  the  St.  Paul  &  Sioux  City 
company,  the  road  was  built  from  the  Minnesota  State  line  to  Le 
Mars.  There  connection  was  made  with  the  Illinois  Central,  and 
the  right  to  run  trains  over  that  company's  track  to  Sioux  City 
secured.  The  year  following  Sioux  City  voted  the  company  $20,- 
000  in  consideration  of  establishing  repair  shops  in  the  town. 
Extensive  shops  were  built,  and  these  have  since  been  enlarged 
until,  during  the  past  summer,  over  200  men  were  employed  there. 
In  the  Spring  of  1881,  the  St.  Paul  &  Sioux  City  road  was  con- 
solidated with  various  Wisconsin  roads  and  now  forms  a  part  of 
the  Chicago,  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  &  Omaha  railway. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  185 

The  necessity  of  developing  a  system  of  roads  in  Nebraska  di- 
verging from  tnis  city,  was  early  apparent  to  the  public-spirited 
men  who  made  the  town  the  railroad  center  that  it  is.  In  tnis,  as 
in  most  other  railroad  enterprises  of  the  town,  the  late  Judge 
Hubbard  took  a  leading  a  part. 

After  much  preliminary  surveying  and  amtation,  work  was  be- 
gun on  a  line  from  Covington  to  Ponca  in  the  fall  of  1876..  The 
road,  a  narrow  guage,  was  finished  to  Ponca  early  in  1877.  Grad- 
ing was  done  beyond  that  town  into  Cedar  county,  but  the  com- 
pany became  involved  in  litigation  on  account  of  tne  bonds  issued 
by  the  Nebraska  counties  in  aid  of  the  road,  and  the  line  passed 
into  the  hands  of  a  receiver. 

At  the  time  the  Ponca  line  was  building  some  little  grading 
was  done  on  a  line  which  was  projected  between  this  city  and  Co- 
lumbus on  the  Union  Pacific  road.  This  project  rested  with  the 
resting  of  the  Ponca  line,  and  nothing  more  was  done  in  the  way 
of  work  on  the  Nebraska  lines  until  the  St.  Paul  &  Sioux  City 
acquired  possession  of  the  different  interests  in  the  Nebraska 
roads  in  tne  fall  of  1879. 

The  vrinter  following  material  was  crossed  for  extensive  work  on 
the  newly  acquired  road,  and  on  the  roads  projected,  and  the  next 
spring  business  began  in  earnest.  The  twenty-six  miles  of  narrow 
gauge  track  between  Covington,  on  the  Nebraska  shore  opposite 
this  city,  and  Ponca,  was  widened  to  standard  gauge,  and  substan- 
tially rebuilt.  Surveys  have  been  made  west  of  Ponca  looking  to 
an  extension  of  this  branch  to  Niobrara.  This  extension  will  be 
built  in  1882,  if  a  tax  asked  by  the  company  be  voted  in  Cedar 
County,  which  now  seems  probable. 

In  1880  a  track  was  built  from  Coburn  Junction,  on  the  Ponca 
line,  to  the  south  52  miles,  where  the  end  of  a  track  extending:  from 
Oakland  to  Omaha  was  met.  This  track  had  previously  been 
bought  by  the  St.  Paul  &  Sioux  City  Company.  This  line  gives  a 
new  connection  between  the  lumber  country  of  Minnesota  and 
Wisconsin,  and  the  Union  Pacific  road.  In  the  winter  of  1881-2 
the  47  miles  of  track  from  Emerson  Junction,  on  the  Omaha  line, 
was  completed  to  Norfolk,  the  railroad  center  of  Northern  Ne- 
braska. A  bill  recently  introduced  in  Congress  during  the  session 
of  1881-2,  to  revive  the  charter  of  the  Sioux  City  branch  of  the 
Union  Pacific,  indicates  that  this  line  is  to  be  extended  from  Nor- 
folk west  to  some  point  on  the  Union  Pacific. 

The  building  of  these  numerous  lines  by  the  company  in  Ne- 
braska will,  at  an  early  day,  make  necessary  a  bridge  at  this  city. 
Soundings  were  made  as  early  as  1809,  and  bed  rock  suitable  for 
the  foundation  of  bridge  piers  was  found  at  depths  ranging  from 
30  to  50  feet  below  low  water  mark.  The  range  of  bluffs  that 
comes  to  the  river  edge  in  the  west  part  of  the  city,  forms  a  con- 
venient approach  on  one  side,  which  is  all  that  any  bridge  site  on 
the  Missouri  offers.     The  building  of  a  bridge,  which  cannot  be 

12 


186  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

delayed  for  more  than  a  year  or  two,  will  do  much  to  fix  the  busi- 
ness of  Northern  Nebraska  at  this  city.  During  1881,  the  com- 
pany has,  in  a  measure,  prepared  for  an  increase  in  the  Nebraska 
Dusiness  by  building  nearly  four  miles  of  side  track  in  the  city, 
and  by  the  purchase  of  depot  grounds,  at  an  expense  of  $20,000 
near  the  business  center  of  the  town.  A  survey  nas  been  partially 
made  between  LeMars,  where  the  company's  track  joins  that  of 
the  Illinois  Central,  to  this  city,  and  there  is  good  assurance  that 
the  company  will  build  this  track  in  1882. 

Right  nere  it  may  be  in  order  to  speak  of  the  company^s  land  grants 
some  20,000  acres  of  which,  lying  in  this  county  and  in  Plymouth 
county,  is  in  dispute,  unfortunately,  and  so  cannot  be  sold  to  set- 
tlers until  the  question  between  the  State  and  the  company  is 
settled.  The  company  has  built  5T|  miles  of  road  in  Iowa,  which 
fact  has  been  duly  certified  by  the  dovemor  to  the  General  Gov- 
ernment, and  the  land  at  the  rate  of  ten  sections  per  mile  has  been 
turned  over  to  the  State  in  trust  for  the  ridlroad  company.  The 
State  has,  in  turn,  certified  the  land  grant  of  50  miles  of  road  to 
the  company.  The  lands  for  the  other  7J  miles  the  State  holds, 
claiming  that  the  road  was  entitled  to  it  only  as  sections  of  ten 
miles  of  road  were  completed,  and  the  showing  of  tae  Railroad 
company  was  that  the  last  secikion  lacked  2J  miles  of  being  ten 
miles  long.  The  company  holds  that  as  the  General  Goverment 
has  waived  the  ten-mile  point,  and  certified  the  lands  to  the  State 
for  the  use  and  benefit  of  the  company  the  State  should  certify 
the  lands  for  the  7^  miles  of  road  built  to  the  company.  Meantime 
the  State  holds  the  lands  in  abeyance,  and  settlement  is  kept  out.  It 
would  require  only  a  part  of  the  land  thus  held  by  the  State  to  give 
the  company  the  ten  sections  per  mile  for  the  74  miles  built  and  un- 
subsidized.  There  is  also  a  question  between  the  St.  Paul  and  the 
Milwaukee  companies  as  to  the  ownership  of  about  185,000  acres  of 
land  in  the  vicinity  of  the  crossing  poini  of  the  two  roads.  This 
land  is  now  being  sold,  and  both  companies  join  in  giving  title, 
and  agree  that  the  company  that  wins  in  the  courts  shall  have  the 
money  for  the  disputed  lands  sold.  If  this  dispute  is  settled  in 
favor  of  the  Milwaukee  Company,  it  will  take  all  the  lands  in  dis- 
pute between  the  State  and  the  St.  Paul  Company  to  make  good 
the  land  grant  of  that  Company. 

Chicago^  Milwaiikee  &  St,  PatiL — The  first  spike  on  the  track 
leading  from  Sioux  City  to  Yankton  was  driven  in  this  city  Aug. 
12,  1872,  and  the  track  was  finished  to  Yankton  on  the  28th  of 
January  following.  This  road  is  noticeable  as  the  first  built  in  this 
part  of  the  west  without  a  land  grant.  The  construction  com- 
pany, Wicker  &  Meckling,  of  Chicago,  obtained  a  tax  from  Sioux 
City,  voted  the  Sioux  City  &  Pembina  road,  and  it  was  under 
this  name  that  the  road  was  built  as  far  as  the  Big  Sioux  bridge. 
They  also  obtained  $200,000  in  bonds  from  Yankton  County,  and 
a  lesser  amount  from  stations  along  the  route.     This  was  the  first 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  187 

track  in  Dakota,  south  of  the  Northern  Pacific,  except  afewnxiles 
built  across  the  line  near  where  Watertown  now  i3,  but  abandon^ 
after  the  land  fi^rant  was  secured.  It  had  long  been  a  favorite 
plan  of  the  public  spirited  men  of  this  citv  to  build  a  road  north, 
up  the  Big  Sioux  Valley,  and  the  Sioux  Citjr  &  Pembina  was  or- 
ganized in  1871  for  this  purpose.  The  leading  spirit,  as  in  most 
other  railroad  projects  in  these  parts,  was  Judge  Hubbard.     The 

J  ear  following  the  organization,  taxes  were  voted  in  aid  of  the  road 
y  Sioux  City  township  and  by  the  townships  in  the  west  part  of 
Plymouth  County,  and  some  grading  was  done.  But  the  financial 
crisis  of  1873  coming  on,  work  was  suspended.  In  1875  the 
owners  of  the  track  between  Sioux  City  and  Yankton  began  work 
at  Davis  Junction  on  a  road  up  the  Big  Sioux  Valley,  and 
that  year  completed  sixteen  miles  to  Portlandville.  In  1878  the 
road  was  finished  to  Beloit,  and  in  December,  1879,  the  track  was 
laid  into  Sioux  Falls.  It  was  in  the  spring  of  this  year,  1879,  that 
John  I.  Blair  reappeared  on  the  railroad  stage,  after  several  years 
absence,  and  bought  what  he  supposed  was  a  contr..Iling  interest 
in  the  Yankton  and  Sioux  Falls  lines.  At  his  suggestion  the  two 
were  consolidated  into  the  Sioux  City  &  Dakota  Railway.  In  the 
summer  of  1880  the  Chicago,  Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul  Railway  Com- 
pany bought  Mr.  Wicker's  interest  in  the  Sioux  City  &  Dakota 
road,  and  after  a  tedious  litigation  Mr.  Blair  sold  his  interest  to 
the  same  company.  The  addition  of  a  third  road  to  Chicago  by 
this  purchase  was  hailed  with  enthusiasm  by  our  business  men. 
The  connection,  opening  up  as  it  does  to  the  trade  of  the  city,  the 
best  part  of  Southeastern  Dakota  and  Northern  Iowa,  has  been  a 
great  advantage,  while  as  an  eastern  connection  the  new  line  has 
done  much  to  bring  the  freight  rate  down  to  a  point  that  enabled 
our  wholesale  dealers  to  compete  with  those  of  Omaha  and  St. 
Paul.  During  the  piist  year,  1881,  the  company  has  completed 
its  line  up  the  Big  Sioux  Valley,  from  Sioux  Falls  to  Flandrau^ 
where  connection  is  made  with  the  company's  Southern  Minnesota 
division,  and  has  partly  graded  a  line  irom  Yankton  to  Scotland, 
which  when  ironed,  will  give  our  dealers  a  direct  line  to  the  lower 
Jim  River  Valley.  But  the  work  that  promised  to  be  of  most  ad- 
vantage to  the  city  is  the  line  surveyed  southeast,  ninety  miles,  to 
a  connection  with  the  company's  new  main  line,  that  during  1881 
was  nearly  completed  between  Marion  and  Council  BluflFs.  This 
line  when  built,  as  it  is  likely  to  be  in  1882,  will  not  only  open  up 
a  new  section  to  the  trade  or  our  city,  but  will  give  a  shorter  track 
between  Sioux  City  and  Chicago.  Some  steps  have  been  taken  to- 
ward securing  shops  of  this  company  at  this  city,  but  nothing  de- 
finite has  as  yet  been  assured. 

Railrocid  Prohah'dities, — These  are  the  railroad  lines  to  which 
Sioux  City  owes  her  importance  as  a  commercial  center.  There 
are  besides  several  roads  to  get,  which  mav  be  briefly  mentioned: 
The  Iowa  Railroad  Land  Company,  the  owners  of  the  Maple  Val- 


188  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

ley  branch  of  the  Chicago  &  Northwestern,  put  a  party  of  engi- 
neers in  the  field  in  December,  1881,  to  make  a  survey  for  a  line 
between  Sac  City,  the  terminus  of  a  spur  of  the  branch  mentioned, 
to  Sioux  City.  There  is  good  assurance  that  a  part  of  this  line, 
at  least,  will  be  built  in  1882,  and  that  the  line  will  eventually  be 
extended  to  a  connection  with  the  company's  system  of  roads  in 
Dakota.  The  Wabash,  in  the  Summer  of  1881,  leased  the  Des 
Moines  &  Northwestern,  a  narrow  gauge  road  running  north- 
west from  Des  Moines.  Late  in  the  year  the  company  secured  an 
old  roadbed  and  right  of  way  from  Rockwell  City  to  Sac  City,  and 
there  is  the  authority  of  the  President  of  the  Narrow  Gauge  Road 
for  saying  that  it  is  to  be  extended  either  to  Sioux  City  or  Sioux 
Falls.  The  branch  of  the  St.  Paul  Road  that  now  extends  down 
the  Rock  River  to  Doon,  it  is  hoped,  will  be  extended  south  to 
Sioux  City,  and  an  effort  is  being  made  to  have  the  20,000  acres  of 
disputed  land  grant  mentioned  diverted  to  the  aid  of  this  extension. 
The  St.  Paul  and  the  Sioux  City  &  Pacific,  together,  have  planned 
to  extend  from  Fremont  to  Lincoln,  and  this  Nebraska  line,  of  the 
greatest  usefulness  to  Sioux  City,  is  likely  to  be  built  during  1882. 
Most  important  of  all  the  expected  lines,  is  the  Central  Pacific. 
During  1881,  this  company  had  a  preliminary  survey  made  between 
Corinne,  near  its  eastern  terminus,  to  the  mouth  of  the  Niobrara 
River.  The  short  and  natural  route  for  a  road  coming  down  the 
Niobrara  Valley,  seeking  a  Chicago  connection,  is  to  cross  the  Mis- 
souri River  at  Sioux  City.  A  letter  written  by  Vice  President 
Huntington  of  this  road  to  one  of  our  citizens  says,  that  the  Cen- 
tral Pacific  will  be  extended  from  Corinne  to  some  point  on  the 
Missouri  River  not  yet  determined  on.  As  Sioux  City  presents 
a  good  bridge  site,  and  is  on  the  most  direct  route,  there  is  a  rea- 
sonable certainty  that  she  will  secure  this  prize.  With  the  roads 
already  built  into  this  city,  neither  the  Central  Pacific,  nor  any 
other  road,  can  afford  to  come  within  reaching  distance  of  Sioux 
City  and  not  send  in  a  line. 

BOATIXa   BUSINESS. 

The  first  steamboat  came  up  the  Missouri  to  Sioux  City  in  the 
Spring  of  1856.  TJie  river  route  was  then  the  only  one  open  for 
the  bringing  in  of  heavy  freight;  and  the  material  for  a  number 
of  residences  and  business  houses,  and  several  stocks  of  goods  came 
in  on  this  first  boat.  With  the  settlement  of  the  country  around 
the  city,  came  a  demand  from  the  military  posts  and  mining  camps 
further  up  the  river,  for  any  surplus  produce  marketed  in  the  city, 
and  orders  for  goods  began  to  be  sent  down  to  Sioux  City.  The 
up-river  business  of  the  city  grew  steadily,  and  new  boats  were 
aaded  every  year  to  the  carrying  trade.  The  opening  of  the  rich 
mines  in  the  Black  Hills  greatly  increased  this  business,  and  there 
has  been  a  steady  increase  in  the  amount  of  grain,  pork  and  mer- 
chandise sent  from  the  city  to  points  further  up  the  Missouri. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  189 

Sioux  City  is  the  headquarters  of  the  Peck  line  of  boats,  which 
line  comprises  the  steamers  C.  K.  Peck,  Nellie  Peek,  Terry,  Peni- 
nah,  Meade,  and  Far  West.  The  Benton  line,  Coulson  line  and 
Kountz  line  of  boats  also  find  much  profitable  freight  at  this  city. 
Costly  experience  has  proved  to  the  satisfaction  of  river  men  that 
the  winter  harbor  here  is  the  safest  on  the  upper  river,  and  num- 
bers of  the  river  steamers  are  put  on  the  ways  at  this  city  for  re- 
pair every  winter. 

Many  of  Sioux  City's  business  men  are  interested  in  stock  raid- 
ing, mining,  the  fur  trade,  and  other  up-river  enterprises,  and  their 
connection  with  the  "up-country"  forms  a  bond  of  union  of  great 
help  to  the  trade  of  the  city.  Several  hundred  thousand  bushels 
of  corn  and  oats  are  sent  every  summer  to  points  further  up  the 
Missouri,  and  more  than  half  the  immense  out-put  of  the  pork 
packing  establishment  finds  a  market  in  the  same  (quarter,  while 
the  growth  of  the  wholesale  trade  of  our  merchants  m  these  parts 
has  Eept  steady  pace  with  the  growth  of  this  newest  portion  of  the 
new  Northwest. 

During  the  winter  of  1878,  Congress  made  an  appropriation  for 
the  improvement  of  the  river,  and  the  protection  of  the  levee  at 
Sioux  City,  and  has,  each  subsequent  winter,  miide  further  appro- 
priations for  carrying  on  the  work.  The  first  systematic  attempt 
to  prevent  the  encroachment  of  the  river  on  our  levee  was  maae 
during  the  Summer  of  1879,  by  Major  Yonge,  of  the  United  States 
Engineer  Corps.  The  work  has  been  carried  on  every  season  since 
with  results,  on  the  whole,  satisfactory.  The  banks  on  either  side 
now  appear  to  be  permanently  fixed,  and  much  valuable  data  has 
been  ootained  that  will  be  of  use  when  the  improvement  of  the  en- 
tire river  below  Sioux  City  is  attempted,  by  government,  as  it  evi- 
dently will  be  in  the  near  future. 

THE   NEWSPAPERS. 

The  press  of  Sioux  City  has  l>een  an  important  factor  in  the  up- 
building of  the  city,  and  no  other  single  agency  has  contributed 
more  to  make  the  city  what  it  is.  It  has  ever  been  said,  that  a 
town  may  be  judged  by  the  character  of  its  newspapers.  If  this 
be  true,  ^ioux  City  can  make  an  excellent  showing,  as  no  city  in  the 
State  of  its  size  htus  as  many  or  as  good  newspapers  as  are  published 
here.  To-day,  it  has  one  morning,  two  evening  and  three  weekly 
journals,  all  well  supported. 

The  pioneer  newspaper  of  Sioux  City,  as  well  as  of  Woodbury 
County,  was  called  the  Sioux  Citif  Ea^le^  and  the  first  number  was 
issued  July  4th,  1857,  with  S.  W.  Swiggett  as  editor  and  proprie- 
tor. It  was  independent  in  politics,  and  for  those  days,  a  sprightly, 
well  conducted  sheet.  Its  publication  wiis  continued  for  nearly 
three  years,  when  it  passed  out  of  existence. 

The  next  iiewspaj)er  venture  wius  made  by  F.  M.  Ziebach. 
The   August     previous,   he,   in   conjunction  with    J.    N.   Cum- 


190  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

min^,  under  the  firm  same  of  Cummiogs  &  Ziebach,  began  the 
pubheation  of  the  Western  Independent — independent  in  politics — 
at  Sergeant's  Blufls,  eight  miles  south  of  Sioux  City.  It  was  reg- 
ularly published  until  the  following  July,  when  Mr.  Ziebach  pur- 
chased his  partner's  interest  in  the  paper,  and  removed  the  mate- 
rial to  Sioux  City,  which,  even  then,  gave  promise  of  being  the 
metropolis  of  the  Northwest;  and  on  July  22d,  1858,  gave  to  Sioux 
City  its  second  weekly  newspaper,  the  Sioux  City  Register,  With 
the  change  of  name  also  came  a  change  in  politics,  the  Register 
being  the  first  to  champion  Democracy  in  Northwestern  Iowa. 

In  1859  William  Freney  purchased  an  interest  in  the  paper,  and 
the  year  following  it  was  consolidated  with  the  Eagle.  The  Regis- 
ter was  continued  under  the  management  of  Ziebacn  &  Freney  un- 
til 1862,when  Mr.  Ziebach  withdrew,  leaving  Mr.  Freney  to  continue 
it  alone,  which  he  did  until  1871,  when  its  publication  was  suspended. 

Shortly  after  the  consolidation  of  the  Register  and  Eagle^  in 
1860,  Pendleton  &  Swiggett  started  the  Sioux  City  Times — Re- 
publican in  politics.     It  survived  only  a  few  mouths. 

Three  years  later,  another  attempt  was  made,  by  J.  C.  Stillman, 
to  establish  a  Republican  paper,  'ihe  Sioux  City  Journal^  but  it 
ceased  to  exist  befcre  the  publication  of  a  dozen  numbers.  August 
29th,  1864,  it  was  resuscitated,  under  the  editorial  management  of 
J.  V.  Baugh,  and  its  publication  has  been  continued  uninter- 
ruptedly ever  since,  though  it  has  passed  through  many  trying 
ordeals,  with  several  changes  in  its  management. 

In  October  of  the  same  year,  S.  T.  Davis,  then  Register  of  the 
Land  Office,  succeeded  Mr.  Baugh  as  editor,  but  only  remained  in 
charge  until  the  close  of  the  Presidential  campaign  in  1864,  when 
the  paper  passed  into  the  hands  of  Mahlon  Gore,  a  brilliant  writer 
and  an  accomplished  journalist.  In  1808,  B.  L.  Northrup  pur- 
chased an  interest  in  the  paper,  but  retired  in  a  short  time,  leaving 
Mr.  Gore  to  continue  it  alone,  which  he  did  until  May  1st,  1809, 
when  he  disposed  of  it  to  George  D.  Perkins,  who  has  been  its 
editor  ever  since. 

The  following  Januarv,  H.  A.  Perkins  bought  an  interest  in  the 
paper,  and  the  firm  of  Perkins  Brothers  was  formed,  and  con- 
tinued until  July,  1875,  when  H.  A.  Perkins  retired;  but  after  an 
absence  of  nearly  two  years,  he  returned;  the  firm  name  of  Per- 
kins Brothers  was  restored,  and  continues  to  the  present  time. 

In  1870  a  morning  edition  was  issued  from  the  office,  and  has 
appeared  regularly  ever  since.  The  Daily  Journal  has  grown  and 
strengthened  wit6  its  years,  until  to-day  it  ranks  with  the  fore- 
most papers  of  the  State.  It  is  a  handsome,  nine-column  folio, 
printed  on  a  press  of  the  latest  pattern,  and  has  a  large  and  in- 
creasing circulation.  The  mechanical  execution  is  in  tJae  highest 
style  of  the  art.  Its  editor,  George  D.  Perkins,  is  a  polished,  con- 
scientious and  able  writer,  and  a  gentleman  who  has  a  high  ideal 
of  journalism. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  191 

The  Journal  building  is  a  fine  establishment,  and  the  whole 
enterprise  is  an  illustration  of  what  may  be  accomplished  by 
talent  and  ener^,  directed  by  sound  financial  ability  and  good 
management,  r  ew  papers  have  achieved  a  more  decided  and  per- 
manent success,  than  The  Sioux  City  Journal^  in  the  hands  of  its 
present  proprietors,  and,  it  may  be  added,  none  are  more  deserving 
of  the  grana  success  they  have  won,  as  they  have  built  up  an  in- 
stitution of  which  Sioux  City  may  well  feel  proud. 

In  May,  1869,  a  stock  company  began  the  publication  of  the 
Dailu  and  Weekly  Times^  a  journal  neutral  in  politics,  with 
Charles  Collins  as  the  editor.  In  a  short  time  Mr.  Collins  became 
sole  proprietor,  changing  the  publication  from  a  morning  to  an 
evening  paper.  In  1872,  the  daily  edition  was  discontinued,  but 
the  weekly  was  maintained  until  1874,  when  it  was  purchased  by 
Warner  &  Gore,  made  Democratic  in  politics,  and  the  name  changed 
to  the  Sioux  City  Tribune^  under  which  name  it  has  been  con- 
tinued until  the  present  time,  though  many  changes  have  occurred 
in  its  mana^ment.  At  the  close  of  the  Presidential  campaign,  in 
1876,  Mr.  Warner  retired,  being  succeeded  by  C.  R.  2Sme^,  the 
style  of  the  firm  becoming  Gore  &  Smead.  August,  1877,  Mr. 
Gore  left  the  paper,  because  of  ill  health,  Mr.  Smead  continuing 
its  publication  until  December  6th  of  the  same  year,  when  Albert 
Watkins  purchased  an  interest,  and  assumed  editorial  manage- 
ment. May  1st,  1879,  Mr.  Watkins  bought  his  partner's  interest, 
and  continued  the  publication  of  the  paper  alone  until  July  1st, 
1880,  when  he  disposed  of  it  to  John  C.  Kelley,  its  present  editor 
and  proprietor.  The  Tribune  is  a  six-column  quarto,  well  printed, 
ably  edited,  and  is  on  a  solid  financial  footing,  with  a  rapidly  in- 
creasing business.  It  is  an  unfaltering  advocate  of  Democracy, 
and  the  recognized  organ  of  the  party  in  the  Northwest. 

There  is  also  issued  from  the  Tribune  office  the  Anpao^  a  monthly 
journal,  in  the  Sioux  dialect,  in  the  interests  of  the  Niobrara  Mis- 
sion. It  is  edited  by  Rev.  Joseph  W.  Cook,  and  Rev.  J.  W.  Cleve- 
land, and  published  under  the  management  of  James  R.  Fraser. 

The  only  German  paper  ever  published  here  is  the  Sioux  City 
Weekly  Courier,  which  made  its  first  appearance  in  1870,  under 
the  management  of  Wetter  &  Danquara.  After  a  short  time,  Mr. 
Wetter  purchased  his  partner's  interest  and  continued  it  alone  for 
a  few  months,  when  he  disposed  of  it  to  Dr.  C.  J.  Krejci.  Subse- 
quently the  paper  passed  into  the  hands  of  Chas.  F.  Schroeder, 
who,  however,  sold  it  to  Herman  Schoruing.  Mr.  Schoming  con- 
tinued it  until  it  became  the  property  of  its  present  publisher,  Fred- 
erick Barth,  in  November,  187  <.  The  Courier  is  Democratic  in 
politics,  under  its  present  management,  is  well  conducted,  the  only 
German  paj>er  in  this  section,  and  has  a  wide  circulation. 

The  Cosmopolite,  a  sixteen-page  monthly,  was  established  by  D. 
H.  Talbot  July  1st,  1879,  and  continued  for  two  years.     It  was  is- 


192  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

sued  mainly  in  the  interest  of  private  enterprises,  but  contained 
much  matter  of  general  interest. 

In  August,  1881,  Charles  Collins  commenced  the  Sioux  City  Daily 
Times^  an  evening  sheet,  independent  in  politics.  The  Times  is  a 
sprightly  six-column  folio,  devoted  to  local  news,  and  rapidly  estab- 
lishing itself  on  a  firm  footing.  Its  editor  and  proprietor,  Mr. 
Charles  Collins,  is  a  veteran  journalist  and  a  ready  and  forcible 
writer. 

Two  weeks  after  the  first  issue  of  the  Daily  Times^  another  can- 
didate for  public  favor  made  its  appearance,  the  Sioux  City  Daily 
New8^  published  by  Watkins  &  Jay.  Like  its  contemporary,  The 
Times^  it  is  a  six-column  folio,  independent  in  politics,  but  with 
Democratic  tendencies. 

The  Sioux  City  Grocer,  established  in  1881,  is  a  handsome 
monthly,  published  by  E.  C.  Palmer  &  Co.,  and  issued  in  the  in- 
terest of  tne  grocery  trade. 

In  Auffust,  1877,  Alex.  Macready  began  the  publication  of  the 
Industrial  Press^  a  weekly  newspaper,  advocating  the  Greenback 
doctrine.     It  was  continued  about  a  year,  when  it  ceased  to  exist. 

The  Sioux  City  Gazette  was  commenced  by  R.  Goldie  &  Son., 
December  1st,  1877,  but  after  a  few  issues  suspended  publication. 

« 

PORK  PACKING. 

Pork  packing  was  begun,  in  a  small  way,  in  Sioux  City,  in  the 
winter  of  1872-3.  The  building  occupied  was  a  small  wooden  affair 
on  Water  street  above  Fifth.  That  season  H.  D.  Booge  &  Co. 
killed  5,000  hogs.  The  experiment  was  a  success,  and  the  follow- 
ing summer  a  large  brick  building  was  put  up  on  the  site  of  the 
frame  one,  where  the  business  first  started.  Additions  to  this 
building  were  made  from  year  to  year,  until  its  capacitv  was  in- 
creased to  500  hogs  per  day,  and  there  was  no  room  for  further  ex- 
tensions. In  the  spring  of  1881,  work  was  begun  on  the  pork 
house  now  occupied  in  the  east  part  of  the  city.  The  site  is  all 
that  could  be  wished.  The  Floyd  furnishes  drainage,  and  the 
nearness  to  railroads  allows  the  cars  of  the  different  lines  center- 
ing at  the  city  to  deliver  hogs  directly  into  the  yards  beside  the 
packing  house,  and  to  load  the  manufactured  product  directly  from 
the  storage  rooms  into  the  cars.  There  is  plently  of  ground, 
some  fourteen  acres  of  city  lots  having  been  bought.  The  new 
building  cost  over  $100,000,  and  more  than  a  million  and  a  half 
of  brick  were  used  in  its  building.  It  is  pronounced  by  competent 
judges  the  most  complete  structure  of  the  kind  in  the  State.  The 
ice  is  run  directly  from  the  Floyd  River  into  the  great  6,000  ton 
ice  house.  For  summer  packing  this  ice  in  skidded  from  the  ice 
house  into  the  refrigerator  that  occupies  an  entire  story  of  the 
main  building.  A  steam  elevator  connects  the  different  floors. 
In  the  fertilizer  room,  the  parts  that  would  otherwise  go  to  waste, 
are  worked  over  into  an  odorless  powder  that  is  in  demand  for 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  193 

enriching  the  worn-out  fields  of  the  east.  Every  part  of  the  de- 
funct porker  is  utilized,  from  the  tough  terminus  of  the  snout,  to 
the  brush  of  bristles  that  beautifies  the  tip  of  the  tail.  The  house 
has  a  capacity  of  1,000  hogs  t>er  day,  the  ca|)acity  bein^  measured 
by  the  hanging  capacity.  Tnis  has  been  found  insufiicient  f or  the 
hogs  ofiered,  and  tne  coming  season  an  addition  will  be  built  that 
will  increase  the  capacity  about  50  per  cent. 

The  firm  conducting  the  business  of  Jas.  £.  Booge  &  Co.,  consists 
of  Jas.  £.  Booge,  of  Sioux  City,  and  John  L.  Merriam,  A.  H. 
Wilder  and  Wm.  R.  Merriam,  of  St.  Paul.  The  first  named  gen- 
tleman has  been  connected  with  the  business  from  the  first,  and 
the  three  others  for  several  years.  As  appears  from  the  report 
made  to  the  Board  of  Trade,  the  pork  house  had,  during  the  two 
months  ending  January  1st,  1882,  killed  37^000  hogs,  and  paid  for 
these  $580,000.  The  labor  bills  during  this  time  footed  up  $14,000 
and  the  pay  roll  showed  188  men  employed. 

No  other  business  in  Sioux  City  does  so  much  to  advertise  the 
name  of  the  town.  The  hams  made  can  be  found  on  hotel  tables 
from  Chicago  to  San  Francisco.  The  side  meat  goes  mostly  to  the 
south,  Memphis,  New  Orleans  and  Mobile  being  the  principal 
points  of  sale.  The  lard  goes  to  Chicago  and  the  bacon  finds  a 
ready  market  all  over  the  west,  the  heaviest  demand  coming  from 
the  mining  camps  and  military  posts  of  the  Upper  Missouri.  The 
Sioux  City  Pork  house  has  a  practical  monopoly  of  supplying  hog 
products  to  the  military  posts  in  the  northwest,  having,  during 
the  past  year,  secured  more  than  eighty  per  cent,  of  the  contracts 
let.  The  position  of  the  town  as  a  railroad  center,  in  the  midst  of 
one  of  the  best  corn  growing  sections  of  the  Union,  makes  the 
steady  supply  of  swine  certain,  and  the  exceptional  advantages  for 
the  distribution  of  the  product,  allows  prices  to  be  paid  that  while 
renumerative  to  the  hog  grower,  leaves  a  fair  margin  of  profit  to 
the  packer. 

THE  CITY  LIBRARY. 

There  is  nothing  perhaps  that  speaks  higher  for  the  culture  and 
enterprise  of  the  city,  than  its  valuable  Public  Library  and  Read- 
ing Room.  Both  are  well  patronized  and  supported.  About  two 
thousand  well  selected  volumes  are  on  the  shelves,  and  mostly  all 
the  popular  magazines  and  leading  newspapers  of  the  country,  re- 
lificious  and  secular,  are  kept  on  file.  The  Library  is  a  large  and 
pleasant  room,  situated  in  the  City  Hall^  on  one  of  the  leading 
business  streets.  Miss  Helen  Smith  is  at  present,  and  has  been 
for  some  years  past,  the  Librarian. 

FOUNDRY   AND  MACHINE   SHOPS. 

The  Sioux  City  Foundry  and  Machine  Shop,  is  the  pioneer 
manufacturing  establishment  of  the  city.  Started  in  1871,  in  a 
small  way,  and  doing  work  only  of  the  simplest  kind,  it  has  grown 


194  mSTOKT  OF  IOWA. 

with  the  city,  until  now  its  buildings  extend  over  several  acres  of 
ground,  and  its  manufactures  embrace  everything  in  the  diflFerent 
branches  of  the  busii^ess,  from  the  plain  castings  in  iron  and  brass, 
to  the  building  of  heavy  machinery  for  steamboats,  saw  mills, 
quartz  mills,  planing  mills,  etc.  As  the  ^owth  of  the  city  and 
tne  wants  of  the  trtde  demanded,  new  buildings  with  the  required 
machinery,  have  been  added,  from  time  to  time,  until  the  works 
are  now  undoubtedly  the  largest  and  most  complete  of  the  kind  in 
the  West.  The  main  building  is  of  brick,  two  stories  hi&:h,  with 
a  frontage  of  120  feet.  There  is  also  an  extensive  boiler  shop,  de- 
tached from  the  main  building,  70  by  80  feet.  The  works  give 
employment  to  40  men,  and  their  trade  extends  throughout  the 
Northwest,  even  reaching  to  the  Black  Hills.  The  establishment 
is  in  every  way  creditable  to  Sioux  City,  as  well  as  to  the  country 
tributary. 

Plow  Works, — The  broad  and  liberal  policy  of  the  citizens  of 
Sioux  City  towards  manufacturing  enterprises  of  merit,  is  in  strik- 
ing contrast  with  the  narrow,  selfish  course  of  many  western  cities. 
At  all  times  they  have  been  ready  and  willing  to  extend  a  helping 
hand  to  any  enterprise  that  would  add  to  the  material  wealth 
and  advance  the  interests  of  the  city,  and  the  many  manufacturing 
industries  that  have  located  here  or  late  demonstrate,  beyond  ques- 
tion, that  the  policy  which  has  been  pursued  is  the  only  true  one, 
and  one  that  will  ultimately  place  Sioux  City  in  the  front  rank  of 
the  manufacturing  towns  of  the  State. 

The  Board  of  Trade,  of  which  appropriate  mention  is  made  else- 
where, has  performed  an  important  part  in  attracting  many  desir- 
'  able  manufacturers  hither,  and  among  the  first  brought  here, 
through  its  influence,  was  the  Sioux  City  Plow  Company,  an  insti- 
tution of  which  the  city  feels  justly  proud.  In  May,  1880,  a  stock 
company  of  practical  mechanics  was  organized  under  the  above 
name,  and  commenced  the  erection  of  a  suitable  building  for  the 
manufacture  of  plows,  and  in  the  following  September  the  first 
plow  was  turned  out.  The  next  season,  their  goods  were  placed 
upon  the  market  and  immediately  sprang  into  public  favor;  and 
though  the  works  have  a  capacity  of  fifty  finished  plows  per  day, 
so  great  has  become  the  demand  that  the  company  has  not  been 
able  to  fully  meet  the  requirements  of  its  trade,  and  an  increase  in 
the  building  capacity  of  the  works  has  become  an  imperative  ne- 
cessity. The  Sioux  City  Plow  is  made  with  special  reference  to  its 
adaptability  to  the  peculiar  soil  of  this  section,  and  possesses  many 
points  of  superiority  over  those  of  Eastern  manufacture.  The 
works  of  the  company,  situated  in  the  southeastern  part  of  the 
city,  are  substantial,  two-storv  brick  buildings,  supplied  with  all 
the  necessary  machinery  for  the  turning  out  of  first  class  work. 

THE   GAS   WORKS. 

Long  before  Sioux  City  had  a  population  of  five  thousand  sotils 
her  streets  were  lighted  with  gas.     Through  the  untiring  energy 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA,  195 

and  public  spirit  of  a  few  of  her  leading  citizens,  in  February,  1872, 
the  Sioux  City  Gas  Light  Company  was  incorporated  with  an 
authorized  capital  of  $100,000.  D.  T.  Hedges  was  President, 
6eor^  Weare,  Treasurer,  and  John  P.  Allison,  Secretary.  A  sub- 
stantial brick  building  was  soon  erected,  and  on  the  evening  of 
March  17th,  1873,  the  city  was  illuminated  by  gas,  the  event  being 
duly  celebrated.  It  was  not  expected  by  the  projectors  of  the  en- 
terprise, that  the  works  in  a  town  like  Sioux  City  then  was,  would 
be  self-sustaining;  but  they  had  an  abiding  faith  in  its  future. 
Time  has  demonstrated  that  their  confidence  was  not  misplaced. 
The  hazardous  venture  of  ten  years  ago,  is  now  a  paying  in- 
vestment. The  city  has  always  lent  the  company  a  helping  hand, 
and  encouraged  and  fostered  it  with  its  patronage,  oftentimes  when 
its  finances  would  hardly  justify  the  outlay.  The  works  are  now 
operated  by  private  parties,  under  a  lease  from  the  incorporators 
of  the  company.  Aoout  three  million  feet  of  gas  is  made  annually, 
of  which  the  city  is  a  large  consumer,  all  the  leading  thorough- 
fares being  lighted  by  gas, 

SIOUX   CITY   BOARD  OF  TRADE. 

During  the  autumn  of  1872,  the  first  Citizens'  Association,  for 
the  general  advancement  of  the  business  and  manufacturing  in- 
terests of  the  city  was  formed.  The  first  meeting  for  the  forma- 
tion of  this  association  was  held  November  21st,  1872,  at  the 
court  room,  which  was  at  that  time  in  the  Hubbard  block,  on 
Fourth  street.  It  was  called  by  the  Mayor,  G.  W.  Kingsnorth. 
Hon.  A.  W.  Hubbard  introduced  the  following  resolution,  which 
was  unanimously  adopted: 

** Besolvedt  That  this  meeting"  is  in  favor  of  or^nizing  an  association,  the 
object  of  which  shall  be  to  induce  manufactures  to  come  to  this  place.'* 

A  provisional  board  was  appointed;  also  committees  to  draft  a 
constitution,  by-laws,  and  for  procuring  members. 

December  9th  the  committee  reported  a  constitution,  which  was 
adopted;  and  that  they  had  secured  221  names  for  membership. 
The  name  this  association  adopted  was  "  The  Sioux  City  Cham- 
ber of  Commerce." 

January  18th,  1873,  the  following  officers  were  elected  for  the 
year:  President,  J.  C.  Flint;  First  Vice-President,  A.  W.  Hub- 
bard; Second  Vice-President,  S.  T.  Davis;  Directors,  J.  H.  Swan, 
M.  C.  Bogue,  J.  J.  Saville,  L.  C.  Sanborn,  C.  E.  Hedges,  A.  Gronin- 

fer,  J.  P.  Dennis,  E.  W.  Skinner,  A.  R.  Wright,  H.  L.  Warner, 
loard  of  Arbitration,  J.  C.  C.  Hoskins,  W.  L.  Joy,  L.  Wynn,  J. 
E.  Booge,  L.  McCarty;  Secretary,  F.  C.  Thompson.  Treasurer, 
J.  M.  rinckney. 

During  the  year  the  organization  secured  the  location  of  Joseph 
Trudell's  wagon'shop;  entertained  the  St.  Paul  Chamber  of  Com- 
merce on  its  visit  to  Sioux  City,  September  10th;  published    a 


196  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

w 

t 

twenty-four  page  pamphlet,  containing  statistics  and  description 
of  the  city,  and  did  a  good  deal  of  miscellaneous  work  toward  se- 
curing railroads,  Government  improvement  of  river,  etc. 

In  January,  1874,  the  followmg  oflScers  were  elected  for  the 
year:  President,  J.  C.  C.  Hoskins;  First  Vice-President,  J.  H. 
Swan;  Second  Vice-Presidept,  L.  C.  Sanborn;  Directors,  James  E. 
Booge,  Thomas  J.  Stone,  William  R.  Smith,  Joseph  Schulien,  L. 
McCartv,  James  M.  Bacon,  E.  B.  Crawford,  George  W.  Kings- 
north,  JB.  E.  Lewis,  C.  J.  Kathrens.  Committee  on  Arbitration, 
W.  S.  Joy,  H.  L.  Warner,  D.  T.  Hedges,  J.  C.  Flint,  A.  W. 
Hubbard.  F.  C.  Thompson  was  re-elected  Secretary,  and  J.  M. 
Pinckney,  Treasurer. 

This  organization — The  Chamber  of  Commerce — was  quite  ac- 
tive during  the  year  in  working  up  the  material  interests  of  the 
city;  but  a  qjuorum  of  members  dia  not  respond  to  the  call  for  the 
annual  meetmg  of  1875,  and  the  oflScers  previously  eleicfed  held 
over. 

In  October,  1877,  the  merchants  of  Sioux  City  met  and  formed 
the  Merchants  Exchange,  and  the  following  oflScers  were  elected 
for  the  year:  President,  J.  M.  Bacon;  Vice  President,  L.  C.  San- 
born; Secretarv,  E.  H.  Bucknam;  Treasurer,  A.  C.  Davis;  Direc- 
tors, H.   L.  Warner,  H,   A.   Jandt,  E.  W.  Rice,  F.  L.  Goewey, 

During  the  year,  the  subject  of  cheap  ferriage  to  Covington,  the 
adjusting  of  railroad  freights  and  the  commercial  interests  of  Sioux 
City  in  general,  had  the  attention  of  the  Exchange  with  marked 
success.  They  raised  by  voluntary  subscriptions  $1,  929.60  during 
the  year,  and  paid  to  secure  cheap  ferriage,  $1,500. 

In  October,  1878,  the  following  oflScers  were  elected  for  the 
year:  President,  J.  M.  Bacon;  Vice  President,  E.C.Tompkins: 
Secretary,  E.  W.  Bucknam;  Directors,  H.  L.  Warner,  H.  A.  Jandt, 
M.  W.  Murphy,  S.  Schulein,  F.  L.  Goewey. 

In  October,  1879,  the  following  oflScers  were  elected :  President, 
H.  A.  Jandt;  Vice  President,  M.  W.  Murphy,  Secretary,  E.  G. 
Burkam,  Jr.;  Treasurer,  A.  C.  Davis;  Directors,  J.  M.  Bacon, 
William  Tackaberry,  F.  L.  Goewey,  W.  H.  Livingston,  G.  H. 
Howell. 

During  the  year,  the  Exchange,  in  addition  to  other  important 
work,  raised  quite  a  boom  for  the  Chicago,  Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul 
Railroad  towards  the  purchase  of  depot  grounds. 

The  oflScers  elected  October,  1879,  held  over  until  July,  1881, 
when  the  exchange  was  reorganized,  the  name  changed  to  the 
Sioux  City  Board  of  Trade,  its  scope  extended  so  as  to  include  as 
eligible  to  membership  all  citizens  of  Sioux  City  and  to  embrace 
in  its  work  the  securing  of  manufactories.  The  following  oflScers 
were  elected  for  the  balance  of  the  year:  President,  H.  A.  Jandt; 
Vice  President,  John  Hornick;  Treasurer,  A.  S,  Garretson;  Secre- 
tary, E.  W.  Skinner;  Directors,  F.  H.  Peavey,  H.  A.  Perkins,  W. 
H.  Beck,  F.  L.  Goewey,E.  C.  Palmer,  Geo.  H.  Howell,  J.  P.  Dennis. 


t 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 


1^7 


In  November,  1381,  the  following  officers  were  elected:    Presi- 
dent,  F.  H.  Peavey;  Vice  President,  John  Hornick;  Treasurer,  A. 
S.  Garretson;  Secretary,  E.  W.  Skinner;  Directors,  H.  A.  Jandt,  F. 
L.  Goewey,  E.  C.  Palmer,  W.  H.  Livingston,  W.  H.  Beck,  H.  A. 
k         Perkins,  II.  S.  Van  Keiiren. 

I  Daring  the  first  six  months  of  the  new  organization,  the  Board 

r  of  Trade  has  aided  in  securing  for  the  city  several  important  ad- 
ditions to  its  industrial  and  mercantile  institutions,  among  which 
may  be  mentioned,  a  button  factory,  a  chemical  paint  and  color 
works,  a  branch  of  R.  G.  Dun  &  (Jo's  Commercial  agency,  Cum- 
ming8,Smith  &  Go.'s  large  wholesale  boot  and  shoe  house,  a  branch  of 
\  the  Consolidated  Oil  Tank  Line  Company;  a  United  States  Express 
(  Company's  office,  an  iron  pump  factory,  chemical  works,  increased 

f         telegraph  facilities,  and  has  in  prospect  a  paper  mill,  a  flax,  twine 
and  bagging  mill,  and  several  other  industries. 

The  subject  of  railroad  extensions,  and  increased  rail  facilities, 
and  the  improvement  of  the  Missouri  River  by  the  Government, 
have  also  had  consideration. 

BUSINESS   TRANSACTED. 

The  following  extracts  are  taken  from  the  JournaVs  last  annual 
review  of  the  city's  business  acchievements: 

''During  the  year  1881,  Sioux  City  merchants  and  dealers  sold 
goods  to  the  value  of  $0,427,626,  giving  employment  to  412  per- 
sons, who  received  for  salaries  $197,425.  These  figures  can  be  ac- 
cepted as  being  as  nearly  correct  as  it  is  possible  to  give  them,  and 
if  they  err  at  all,  it  is  in  being  too  small,  and  that  they  are  too 
small  is  clearly  indicated  by  the  amount  of  exchange  sold  by  our 
three  banks  during  the  past  year,  as  per  figures  furnished  the 
Board  of  Trade,  which  was  $10,256,127.02. 

''It  may  also  be  stated  that  several  dealers  refused  to  state  the 

amount  of  their  business,  and  as  no  estimated  figures  are  given,  it 

must  be  evident  to  all  that  the  total  of  $6,427,626  falls  tar  short 

I      of  naming  the  full  volume  of  business.     It  would  probably  not  be 

.      an  exaggeration  to  place  Sioux  City's  merchandise  sales  in  1881 

>      at  fully  $8,000,000. 

*  MANUFACTUBINO. 

"This  branch  of  industry  is  yet  in  its  infancy  in  Sioux  City,  and 
yet,  a  very  flattering  showing  is  made,  the  value  of  manufactured 
'  articles  in  1881  reaching  a  value  of  $1,189,050,  in  the  production 
of  which  555  persons  found  employment,  and  who  received  for 
wages  $237,410.  In  these  figures  are  not  included  the  business  of 
the  St.  Paul  machine  shops,  which  give  employment  to  hundreds 
of  men,  and  pay  out  many  thousands  of  dollars  for  wages.  Nor 
do  they  include  the  immense  transactions  at  the  new  pork-house, 
which,  during  the  two  months  it  has  been  in  cperation,  has  killed 
37,000  hogs,  bought  at  a  cost  of  $580,000,and  which,  during  the 


\ 


198  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

time,  has  also  paid  out  $36,000  for  packing  material,  which  includes 
cooperage,  etc.,  and  $14,()00  for  wages.  This  establishment  has 
188  men  now  on  its  pay-roll.  Several  new  manufacturing  enter- 
prises have  been  started  here  this  fall,  others  are  projected  with  a 
certainty  of  their  being  put  in  operation,  and  another  year  Sioux 
City  can  make  a  much  larger  showing  in  this  direction. 

THE  BUILDING  RECORD. 

^^The  opening  of  a  late  spring  found  Sioux  City  almost  destitute 
of  building  material.  The  wrecking  of  the  railroads  bv  the  spring 
floods  delayed  its  arrival,  so  that  it  was  nearly  the  middle  of  May 
before  mach  progress  w^  made  in  baUdin^.  When  this  materiaL 
did  arrive,  our  contractors  took  hold  of  tne  work  with  a  will. 

"Our  building  record  this  year,  in  its  sum  total,  very  largely  ex- 
ceeds that  of  any  previous  year  since  the  present  writer  has  made 
his  compilations.  The  amount  expended  is  nearly  $400,000  greater 
than  in  1879,  and  $300,000  greater  than  in  1880.  The  number  of 
buildings  built  is  308  greater  than  in  1879,  and  265  greater  than 
in  1880. 

"In  the  erection  of  buildings  for  manufacturing  purposes,  the 
showing  is  still  more  gratifying,  as  the  increase  is  over  six  fold. 
Our  great  pork-packing  establisnment,  the  butter  and  egg  house, 
and  tne  button  factory,  are  valuable  additions,  not  only  in  them- 
selves, but  from  the  fact  that  they  give  employment  permanently 
to  a  great  many  men,  and  necessitate  the  building  of  many  new 
homes,  and  very  largely  increase  our  population. 

"Our  tables  again  show,  that  Sioux  City  workingmen  are  build- 
ing their  own  homes,  and  the  vast  majority  of  them  are  neat,  warm 
and  comfortable. 

''The  increased  cost  of  building  has  not  been  as  great  as  expected, 
and  will  not  average  over  15  per  cent,  above  the  amounts  paid  for 
similar  work  in  the  two  previous  years.  This  increase  is  not  greater 
than  the  increase  in  the  earnings,  and  profits  of  almost  any  busi- 
ness in  the  city,  and  ought  not  to  deter  anyone  from  building. 

"We  ought  not  to  lose  sight  of  the  fact,  that  all  of  these  new 
houses  are  full  of  people,  and  the  smaller  the  house,  the  more  peo- 
ple it  seems  to  hold,  and  that  our  tables  show  the  completion  of 
nine  large  hotels  and  boarding-houses,  all  of  which  have  all  of  the 
rooms  that  they  can  spare  from  transient  guests  let  to  permanent 
boarders.  There  can  be  no  reason  to  doubt  that  the  population  of 
the  school  district  of  Sioux  City,  which  takes  in  all  of  the  town, 
is  now  fully  11,000  people." 

CITY   GOVERNMENT. 

Mayor,  W.  R.  Smith;  Treasurer,  G.  R.  Gilbert;  City  Solicitor, 
J.  M.  Cleland;  Clerk,  F.  Barth;  Marshal,  J.  R.  Thompson;  Dep- 
uty Marshal,  John  Colvin;  Street  Commissioner,  James  ScoUard; 
Night  Police,  Thomas  Budworth  and  Mike  Ahern;   Engineer,  G. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  199 

W.  Oberholtzer;  Engineer  of  Steamer,  H.  A.  Lyon;  Chief  of  Fire 
Department,  Jas.  P.  Wall;  Health  OflBcer,  Dr.  J.  W.  Frazey; 
Weighmaster,  James  Shanley;  Librarian,  Miss  Helen  Smith. 

Councilmen. — First  Ward,  D,  Dineen,  R.  G.  Grady;  Second 
Ward,  D.  A.  Magee,  H.  S.  Harmon;  Third  Ward,  N.  Tiedeman, 
R.  S.  Van  Keuren;  Fourth  Ward,  L.  Humbert,  E.  C.  Tompkins. 

FIBE  DEPARTMENT. 

The  fire  department  of  the  city  is  a  volunteer  organization, 
composed  of  ninety  members,  fifty-five  of  whom  are  active,  and 
thirty-five  exempt.  The  organization  was  first  efiected  in  1874, 
with  E.  R.  Kirk,  Chief  of  t£e  Department.  The  fire  apparatus 
belonging  to  the  city  consists  of  one  steamer,  three  hose  carts, 
2,500  feet  of  hose,  and  a  hook  and  ladder  truck,  fully  equipped. 
The  engine  house  is  a  substantial  two-story  brick  builaing,  located 
in  the  central  part  of  the  city.  The  members  of  the  company, 
with  the  exception  of  the  Chief  and  Engineer,  render  their  services 
gratuitously.  James  P.  Wall  is  the  present  Chief,  and  the  de- 
partment is  an  able  and  efficient  one. 

THE  TELEPHONE  EXCHANGE. 

The  Sioux  City  Telephone  Exchange  was  incorporated  August 
7th,  1880,  and  the  construction  of  lines  was  soon  aiter  commenced. 
December  10th,  of  the  same  year,  the  first  telephone  connection 
was  made,  but  only  a  few  instruments  were  put  in.  The  practic- 
ability of  this  new  and  novel  means  of  communication  was  soon 
demonstrated,  and  the  telephone  rapidly  grew  in  public  favor,  the 
success  of  the  Exchange  being  thereby  assured.  Lines  were  soon 
extended  all  over  the  city,  and  communication  established  between 
nearly  every  business  house,  as  well  as  with  many  private  resi- 
dences. Over  one  hundred  telephones  are  now  in  use  in  the  city, 
and  new  ones  are  constantly  bein;^  put  in.  In  December,  1881,  a 
line  was  extended  to  Sergeant's  Bluffs,  eight  miles  distant,  and  as 
it  is  found  to  be  entirely  practicable,  it  is  more  than  probable  that 
a  few  years  will  see  Sioux  City  connected  by  telephone  with  all  the 
towns  within  a  radius  of  twenty-five  miles,  thus  bringing  them  all 
into  closer  commercial  relations  with  Sioux  City  as  the  head  center. 

THE  POSTOFFICE. 

The  first  postoffice  was  located  in  an  unostentatious  log  building, 
the  private  residence  of  the  Postmaster,  Dr.  John  K.  Cook,  who, 
received  his  commission  from  President  Pierce,  by  the  first  mail 
that  arrived  in  the  place,  July  20th,  1855.  The  arrival  of  the 
first  mail  sack  was  an  occasion  of  no  small  consequence  to  the 
little  sturdy  band  of  settlers  who  had  cast  their  fortunes  in  the 
great  unknown  West,  as  the  contents  brought  them  tidings  of 
fheir  Eastern  friends,  and  seemed  to  link  them  once  more  with  the 
civilization  from  which  they  had  been  so  long  cut  off.     Though 


200  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

the  revenue  derived,  by  the  Postmaster  from  the  oflSce,  w^as  but  a 
small  sum,  it  is  related  that  the  Doctor  discharged  his  onorous 
duties  with  such  scrupulous  care  and  fidelity,  that  he  remained  in 
his  position,  undisturbed  by  place-hunting  politicians,  until  re- 
lievld  at  his  own  request.  The  mail  servici,  tlius  early  established, 
in  1856,  though  then  only  arriving  weekly,  via  Council  Bluffs,  has 
continued  uninterrupted.  As  the  place  grew  in  size  and  commer- 
cial importance,  semi-weekly,  then  tri-weekly,  and  finally,  in  1861, 
daily  mails  were  established,  and  the  postomce  was  removed  to 
more  commodious  quarters  in  the  "corner  grocery."  Previous  to 
the  removal  of  the  office.  Dr.  Cook  was  succeeded  as  Postmaster 
by  Charles  K.  Smith,  who  retained  the  position  until  the  close  of 
James  Buchanan's  administration.  On  Lincoln^s  accession  to  the 
Presidency,  A.  R.  Appleton,  was  appointed  Postmaster,  who,  in 
turn,  was  succeeded  by  J.  C*  C.  Hoskins,  who  was  continued  in 
office  until  March,  1878,  whenE.  R.  Kirk,  the  present  incumbent, 
was  appointed.  Until  the  appointment  of  Mr.  Kirk,  the  office 
was  located  according  to  the  fancy  of  the  official  in  charge,  which 
not  infrequently  resulted  in  great  inconvenience  to  the  public. 

The  growth  of  the  city  to  a  place  of  several  thousand  inhabi- 
tants, with  a  dozen  mails  arriving  and  departing  daily,  rendered 
more  commodious  quarters  necessary,  and  in  1879  the  office  was 
removed  to  its  present  central  location,  where  a  building  bad  been 
specially  erected  for  it.  It  is  conveniently  arranged,  both  for  the 
benefit  of  the  public  and  the  rapid  handling  of  the  mails.  The 
business  of  the  office  at  present  requires  the  services  of  five  clerks, 
and  is  rapidly  increasing. 

However  uninteresting  statistics  may  be  to  the  general  reader, 
they  are  very  significant  to  those  who  wish  to  trace  the  progress, 
determine  the  results,  or  estimate  the  future  of  a  growing  city,  and 
as  nothing  affords  a  oetter  index  of  the  business  of  a  place  than 
the  value  of  the  business  done  at  its  postoffice,  we  append  the  fol- 
lowing detailed  exhibit  of  the  Sioux  City  post  office  during  the 
year  1881: 

GENERAL   ACCOUNT. 

Receipts, 

stamps  sold $10,759.51 

Envelopes  sold 3,395.56 

Postal  cards  sold 1,662.57 

Paper  and  l^eriodical  Stamps  sold 750.18 

Postage  due  stamps  sold 259.02 

Box  Rent 1.659.50 

Total $18,446.34 

Expenses. 

Gen*^ral  Expense  Account $3,069.49 

Postmaster ^s  Salary 2,800.00 

$5,869.49 

Net  income $12,576.85 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  201 

MONET    ORDER  11U8INK88. 

Receipts. 

4,524   Domestic  orders  issued $57,570.75 

Fees  on  same 550.65 

43   Canadian  orders  issued 1,307.05 

Fees  on  same 20.85 

73   British  orders  issued 1,031.13 

Fees  on  same 30.45 

50   Herman  orders  issued 813.19 

Fees  on  same 14.10 

4  690  lotal  orders  and  fees  on  same $  61,338.17 

2,610  Remittances  received 294,989.29 

Balance  on  hand  Jan.  1,  1881 2,082.98 

Disbursements.  $358,410.44 

4,733  Domestic  orders  paid $  86,432.57 

43  Canadian  orders  paid 1,620.58 

39  British  orders  paid 824.76 

61  German  orders  paid 2.104.05 

4,876  Total  money  orders  paid $90,981.96 

31  Domestic  orders  repaid 373.44 

Money  order  expense  account 504.06 

Remitted  to  Omaha 364,650.00 

Balance  on  hand  Jan.  1,  1882 1,900.98 

$358,410.44 

HAILING   DEPARTMENT. 

Letters 603, 148 

Postal  Cards 155,220 

Transient  printed  matter 258,232 

Merchandise  packages 5,512 

Total 1,022,112 

REGI8TKY   DEPAJ'.  MENT. 

Number  of  Tjctters  received 6,808 

Number  of  Letters  dinpatched,  originating  at  Sioux  City 2,211 

Number  of  packages  in  transit. ! 18,394 

Total 27,413 

SOCIETY  ORGANIZATIONS. 

Jlfa5on/c.— Landmark  Lodge  No.  103,  A.  F.  &  A.  M.,  was  char- 
tered June  2d,  1857.  It  is  in  a  flourishing  condition,  and  has  a 
membership^  at  present,  of  about  140.  Meetings  are  held  the  sec- 
ond Monday  of  each  month. 

Sioux  City  Chapter,  R.  A.  M.,  No.  26,  was  organized  April  9th, 
1860,  and  has  a  membership  of  ninety-five.  Meetings  are  held  the 
third  Tuesday  of  each  month. 

Columbia  Commandery  No.  18,  K.  T.,  holds  stated  conclaves  on 
the  first  and  third  Fridays  of  each  month.  The  present  member- 
ship is  forty-three. 

i.  0.  0.  F.—The  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows  has  a  hall 
in  Hedges'  Block,  corner  of  Fourth  and  Douglas  streets. 

14 


202  HISTORY   OF  IOWA. 

Sioux  City  Lodge  No.  164  wa«  organized  October  22d,  1868. 
Meetings  are  held  regularly  Monday  night  of  each  week.  Th6 
membership  is  ninety-five. 

Western  Star  Lodge  No.  282  meets  every  Tuesday  night.  It 
was  organized  October  22d,  1874,  and  has  a  present  membership 
of  fifty-four. 

Sioux  City  Encampment  No.  44  meets  regularly  the  second  and 
fourth  Thursdays  of  each  month.  It  was  organized  October  20th, 
1869,  and  has  how  fifty-five  members. 

Knights  of  Pythias, — Columbia  Lodge  No.  13  was  organized 
July  10th,  1872,  and  has  a  membership  of  sixty-five.  This  society 
has  no  hall  of  its  own,  and  meetings  are  heH  every  Wednesday 
night  in  Odd  Fellows'  hall. 

Endowment  Section  No.  302  also  meets  every  Wednesday  night. 

Ancient  Order  of  United  Workmen:  membership  100;  meeting 
place  Odd  Fellows'  hall.  Officers:  T.  R.  Galbraith,  M.  W.;  Jas. 
Hutchins,  F.;  J.  T.  Orr,  0.;  Maris  Peirce,  S.;  M.  L.  Sloan,  F.; 
A.  F.  Nash,  II.;  H.  A.  Lyon,  P.  M.  W.,  and  delegate  to  State 
Lodge. 

The  Sionx  City  Medical  Society  was  organized  November  4th, 
1872,  and  has  for  its  object  the  mutual  improvement  of  members. 
Meetings  are  held  quarterly. 

The  Womans'  Christian  Temperance  Union  was  organized  in 
1875,  and  has  a  membership  of  sixty-five.  This  is  a  most  active 
organization,  and  has  for  its  object  the  suppression  of  intemper- 
ance. The  club  has  inviting  and  pleasant  rooms  in  Hedges'  Block, 
and  meetings  are  held  every  Tuesday  afternoon. 

llie  Woman's  Christian  Association,  was  organized  in  1876,  by 
the  christian  ladies  of  the  city.  It  has  a  large  and  increasing 
membership,  and  regular  meetings  are  held  quarterly. 

l^ie  Maennerchor  is  asocial  and  musical  organization  with  fortv- 
five  members.  Meetings  are  held  the  first  Sunday  in  each  month, 
in  the  society's  hall  on  Fourth  street. 

Society  of  United  Irishmen, — This  society  was  organized  Septem- 
ber 1st,  1880,  and  has  forty  members.  Meetings  are  held  every 
Sunday  afternoon. 

Q,  E.  D,  C7w6.— This  is  a  gentleman's  social  club,  organized 
November  20th,  1878.     The  membership  is  limited  to  twenty-one. 

B.  Xeque  D,  Club, — A  gentleman's  social  club,  with  rooms  in 
Hedges' Block.  It  was  organized  September  1st,  1880,  with  a  lim- 
ited membership  of  twenty-five. 

There  are  in  addition  several  musical,  literary  and  social  organi- 
zations holding  meetings. 

THE  ST.    PAUL  SHOPS. 

The  year  following  the  completion  of  the  Sioux  City  &  St.  Paul 
road,  the  city  voted  a  tax  of  $20,000  to  secure  the  location  of  the 
company's  repair  shops  at  this  city,  and  work  was  immediately  be- 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  203 

gun  on  the  extensive  buildings  now  occupied  by  the  company's 
machine  shops.  These  shops  have  been  enlarged  from  time  to 
time,  and,  during  the  summer  of  1881,  had  been  increased  to  a  ca- 

{acity  of  200  men,  whose  monthly  pay-roll  amounted  to  more  than 
10,000.  In  these  shops  a  specialty  is  made  of  repair  work.  All 
the  most  improved  macninery  has  been  put  in  for  this  line.  Be- 
sides the  repair  work,  a  great  number  of  new  freight  cars  have 
been  built.  But  the  point  in  which  the  shops  excel,  is  the  re- 
building of  passenger  cars,  and  the  best  trains  now  run  by  the 
company  are  of  cars  that  have  been  practically  rebuilt  in  the  shops 
at  Sioux  City.  The  increased  mileage  of  the  road  has,  and  will, 
make  necessary  further  enlargements  of  the  shops,  and  this  will 
keep  the  St.  ^aul  Railroad  Machine  Shops,  what  they  have  ever 
been,  one  of  the  leading  industrial  establishments  in  the  West. 

SIOUX  CITY  WATER  COMPANY. 

The  need  of  an  adequate  sjpply  of  water  for  the  city  for  fire, 
domestic  and  manufacturing  purposes  has  long  been  apparent,  and 
various  organizations  have  been  started  to  give  the  city  a  water 
supply;  but  it  was  not  until  the  Spring  of  1881  that  anything  tan- 
^iole  was  done.  Then  the  Sioux  City  Water  Company  was  organ- 
ized, with  David  Magee  as  President.  The  plan  of  the  company 
was  to  secure  a  supply  of  water  from  an  artesian  well.  Worlc  on 
this  well  was  begun  in  October  following,  and  by  New  Year's  a 
depth  of  1,290  feet  was  reached,  where  the  drill  entered  a  rotten 
sand-rock  that  promises,  when  it  is  curbed^  to  give  a  sufficient  sup- 
ply of  water.  The  company,  soon  after  the  formation,  secured  a 
fair  franchise  from  the  city  for  furnishing  water  for  fire  purposes. 
Lots  have  been  bought  on  Prospect  Hill,  a  bluff  rising  183  feet 
above  the  level  of  the  principal  street,  on  which  to  build  a  reser- 
voir, and  the  purpose  of  the  company  is  to  pump  water  from  the 
Missouri  River,  which  flows  at  the  foot  of  this  bluffs,  to  supply  the 
the  reservoir  in  case  the  artesian  well  should  fail  to  give  a  suffi- 
cient supply. 

THE   COURTS. 

The  first  term  of  the  Woodbury  County  Court  was  held  at  Sioux 
City  in  March,  1855,  John  K.  Cook  acting  as  Judge.  The  first 
term  of  District  Court  began  September  8d,  of  that  year,  with 
Samuel  H.  Riddle  as  Judge.  In  the  early  days  of  the  city,  court 
was  held  in  the  now  dilapidated  brick  building,  yet  standing  on 
lower  Fourth  street,  near  Virginia.  Afterwards,  the  county  built 
the  house  now  called  the  "old  jail,"  on  Virginia  street,  near 
Seventh.  This  was  used  as  a  jail,  and  occasionally  for  court  pur- 
poses, until  the  fall  of  1876,  when  the  commodious  and  imposing 
edifice,  which  had  been  begun  the  previous  spring,  w^as  completed. 
Woodbury  County  points  with  pnde  to  this  Court  Hou.se.  No 
other  county  in  the   State  has  one  of  more  architectural  beauty, 


204  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

and  few  are  larger  and  more  convenient.  The  contractors  were 
Sioux  City  men,  C.  E.  &  D.  T.  Hedges,  and  the  building  cost  (com- 
plete) $100,000.  The  present  Judiciary  are:  C.  E.  Lewis,  of 
Cherokee,  District  Judge,  and  J.  R.  Zuver,  of  Sioux  City,  Circuit 
Judge.  S.  M.  Marsh  is  District  Attorney.  A  bill  has  been  in- 
troduced in  Congress,  which,  if  it  becomes  a  law,  as  now  seems 
likely,  will  give  Sioux  City  terms  of  the  United  States  Court. 

THE  BUTTON  FACTORY. 

• 

The  Sioux  City  Button  Manufacturing  Company  was  incorporated 
October  15th,  1881,  with  a  paid-up  capital  or  $10,000.  Its  mahu- 
f actor V  is  located  on  the  West  Side,  and  is  a  substantial  three-story 
brick  building,  well  supplied  with  all  necessary  machinery.  The 
works  were  set  in  operation  in  January,  1882,  and  the  first  finished 
buttons  were  tumea  out  on  the  26th  of  the  same  month.  The 
factory,  at  present,  is  exclusively  devoted  to  the  manufacturing  of 
buttons  from  horn,  and  when  run  to  its  full  capacity,  will  afford 
employment  for  seventy  operatives.  The  advantages  enjoyed  by 
the  company  in  obtaining  the  raw  material  for  its  products,  enable 
them  to  successfully  compete  with  eastern  manufacturers  for 
trade  in  the  East,  while  the  freights  that  the  latter  have  to  pay, 
on  the  raw  material  and  manufactured  articles,  ^ill  preclude  the 
possibility  of  their  entering  Western  markets  as  competitors  of 
this  home  manufactorv.  AH  grades  of  buttons  will  be  made,  and 
it  is  the  intention  of  tne  company  to  handle  their  goods  through 
jobbers  only.  The  company  is  composed  entirely  of  Sioux  City 
men,  and  the  machinery,  excepting  the  lathes  and  presses,  are 
nearly  all  of  Sioux  City  make. 

THE    CHURCHES. 

The  moral  and  religious  wants  of  the  community  are  well  sup- 

f lied  in  this  city.  The  church  records  run  back  as  far  as  1856. 
n  1857,  Rev.  Mr.  Chessington,  a  Presbyterian  missionary,  organ- 
ized a  congregation  of  his  denomination  in  the  then  frontier  vil- 
lage, and  the  first  church  edifice  built  was  by  that  society,  the 
building  being  still  standing  on  lower  Fourth  street,  and  now  does 
duty  as  a  grocery  store.     The  churches  now  in  this  city  are: 

First  Presbyterian^ — Established  in  1857;  membership  193; 
church,  comer  Sixth  and  Nebraska  streets. 

Congregational, — Established  1857;  membership,  184;  church, 
on  Douglas  street,  between  Fifth  and  Sixth  streets. 

First  Methodist  Episcopal. — Established  in  1857;  membership, 
175;  church,  corner  of  Sixth  and  Pierce  streets. 

St.  Thomas  Episcopal, — Established  in  1859;  membership, 
eighty-three;  church,  corner  of  Nebraska  and  Seventh  streets. 

First  Baptist, — Fstabl  shed  in  1860;  membership,  156;  church, 
comer  Fifth  and  Nebraska  streets. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  305 

St.  Mary's  (Catholic). — Established  in  1856;  membership,  130 
families;  church,  comer  Sixth  and  Pierce  streets. 

German  Lutheran. — Established  in  1877;  membership  thirty- 
three;  church,  on  Jackson  street,  above  Sixth  street. 

Steedish  Evanaelical  Lutheran. — Established  in  1875;  member- 
ship, 160;  church,  corner  of  Vir^nia  and  Fifth  streets. 

Norwegian  Lutheran. — Established  in  1875;  membership,  sev- 
enty-three; church  on  Third  street  between  Jones  and  Jennings 
streets. 

Tre/oldighedskirken. — Established  in  1875;  membership,  forty- 
three;  church  on  Sixth  street,  West  Side. 

Norwegian  Methodist. — Established  1880;  membership,  sixty- 
two;  church,  on  Court  street,  near  Seventh  street. 

Swedish  Baptist. — Established  in  1881;  membership,  fifty-seven; 
church,  on  Wall  street  near  Sixth  street. 

In  connection  with  all  these  churches,  flourishing  Sunday 
Schools  are  maintained;  the  scholars  in  nearly  every  church  out- 
numbering the  membership.  It  shows  a  satisfactory  growth  in 
religious  matters,  that  during  1881,  three  new  churches,  the  Bap- 
tist, Swedish  Baptist,  and  Norwegian  Methodist,  have  been  built 
or  begun,  and  that  a  fourth,  the  First  Methodist,  took  the  prelim- 
inary steps  for  re-building  and  enlarging  their  place  of  worship. 

WOODBURY   COUNTY   AGRICULTURAL   SOCIETY. 

The  Woodbury  County  Agricultural  Society  was  organized  in 
1870,  and  the  present  handsome  fair  grounds,  located  one  and  a 
half  miles  northwest  of  the  city,  were  laid  out  soon  after.  Though 
the  organization  has  met  with  many  discouraging  reverses,  it  has 
done  much  to  advance  the  interests  of  farming,  and  created  a 
laudable  ambition  to  excel  among  the  agriculturists  of  the  county. 
Exhibitions  have  been  held  annually,  with  the  exception  of  one 
or  two  seasons,  when  bad  weather  made  it  inexpedient  to  attempt 
it.  Within  the  past  two  years  unusual  interest  has  been  taken  m 
the  Society  by  the  farming  and  stock-raising  community,  and  the 
organization  has  been  placed  in  a  prosperous  condition  and  on  a 
solid  financial  footing.  Men,  identified  with  the  pursuits,  whose 
interests  are  represented  by  an  association  of  this  kind,  have  as- 
sumed the  management,  and  made  the  Society  in  every  way 
creditable  to  the  county.  The  benefits  arising  from  these  annual 
exhibitions  of  the  agricultural,  mechanical,  and  manufacturing 
products  of  the  country,  are  being  recognized,  and  the  hearty  co- 
operation of  all  classes  is  accorded  them.  The  grounds  belonging 
to  the  Society  have  recently  been  improved  by  the  planting  oi 
shade  trees,  and  new  buildings  erected  for  the  convenience  of  ex- 
hibitors. The  officers  of  the  association  are:  G.  W.  Kingsnorth 
President;  Craig  L.  Wright,  Vice-President;  J.  M.  Cleland,  Sec- 
retary; G.  W.  Wakefield,  Treasurer;  R.  Hall,  W.  B.  Tredway, 
R.A.Broadbent,J.M.Cleland,G.  H.  Wright,  G.  W.Wakefield, 


206 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 


G.  W.  Kingsnorth,  C.  L.  Wright,  W.  P.  Holmaii,  B.  P.  Yeo- 
mans,  Directors.  The  fair  for  1882  is  to  be  held  September  12th» 
13th  and  14th. 

MISCELLANEOUS  MANUFACTORIES. 

Among  the  manufacturing  interests  of  the  city,  which  can  only 
be  mentioned  without  giving  any  detailed  account  are:  C,  F.  Hoyt  s 
Vinegar  Works,  employing  five  men;  John  Beck's  planing  mill, 
fifteen  men;  A.  J.  Millard  s  wood  working  shop,  four  men;  Barker 
&  Petty,  barrel  and  butter  tub  factbry,  fourteen  men;  R.  Selzer's 
brewery,  eleven  men;  Franz  &  Go's  brewery,  thirteen  men;  City 
flouring  mills  steam,  ten  men ;  the  Floyd  flouring  mills,  water  power, 
eight  men;  the  brick  vards  of  J.  Rochele,  Thomas  Green  and  C. 
B.  Woodley,  the  two  latter  having  steam  power,  and  altogether 
employing  ninety  men  during  the  season;  John  Griffin's  candy 
factory,  tnree  men;  and  the  wagon  shops  of  Trudell  Bros.,  Dineen 
Bros.,  and  Reeve  &  Trudell,  and  Brown  Bros.,  together  eniploying 
forty-three  men;  and  the  cigar  factories  of  Amsler  &  Radcli^ 
George  Mauer,  and  A.  M.  Ashley,  which  -furnish  employment  to 
twenty-four  workmen.  The  following  table,  showing  the  business 
of  these,  and  numerous  smaller  manufactories,  during  1881,  will 
give  the  reader  some  idea  of  the  importance  of  these  industries: 


• 

m 

>* 

'5 

O 

•3 

'E 

p« 

B 

00 

W 

& 

• 

OS 

ao 

-a 

00 

P 

O 

B 


Iron  and  wood  articles. . 

Eatables 

Cigars 

Beer 

Leather 

Clothing  and  other  items 

Brick 

Printing 

Marble 

Totals 


44,950 
37,780 
10,300 
21.000 
13,600 
46,280 
18,000 
41,100 
4,500 


$ 


167,400 

457,350 
69,000 

110,000 
79,200 

167,200 
43,400 
81,500 
14,000 


237,410*1,189,050 


This  table  does  not  include  the  output  of  the  pork  house,  nor  of 
the  St.  Paul  shops.  Owing,  mostly,  to  the  active  exertions  of  the 
Board  of  Trade,  several  other  manufacturing  enterprises  are  either 
assured  or  in  prospect.  Among  these  are  chemical  tvorks,  for 
which  part  of  the  apparatus  has  arrived  at  this  writing;  a  pump 
foundry,  for    which  ground  has  been   leased;  clay   pipe   works,  a 


HISTORY   OF  IOWA.  207 

large  distillery,  a  flax  mill,  and  numerous  others  yet   too  va«?ue  to 
take  position  as  historical  facts. 

THE  SCHOOLS  OF  SIOUX  CITY. 

Rapid  and  substantial  as  we  have  seen  the  growth  of  Sioux  City 
to  have  been,  in  population  and  commercial  importance,  intellec- 
tual progress  has  been  maintained  in  a  degree  fully  equal  to  its 
material  progress;  and,  to-day,  it  is  the  acknowledged  educational 
center  of  the  great  Northwest.  Fortunately,  from  the  birth  of 
the  city  to  the  present  time,  her  school  interests  have  been  con- 
fided to  earnest,  active,  representative  men,  with  broad  and  liberal 
views  of  education,  brought  with  them  from  their  New  England 
homes,  where  the  advantages  of  common  schools  had  been  tested 
by  experience,  and  under  whose  administration  and  fostering  care 
a  system  of  graded  schools  has  been  established  which  affords  edu- 
cational advantages  unsurpassed  by  any  city  in  the  State.  Her 
citizens  have  been  liberal — even  lavish — in  the  expenditure  of 
money  for  the  erection  of  elegant  and  commodious  school  build- 
ings, and  their  equipments,-  with  all  the  modern  improvements  cal- 
culated to  facilitate  the  acquisition  of  a  common  scnool  education. 

The  public  schools  of  the  city  are  embraced  in  what  is  known  as 
the  Independent  School  District  of  Sioux  City,  which  was  organ- 
ized in  July,  1869.  The  first  Board  of  Directors  was  composed  of 
six  members,  consisting  of  A.  M.  Hunt,  President;  William  L. 
Joy,  W.  R.  Smith,  John  Cleghom,  F.  J.  Lambert,  and  George 
Falkenhainer.  John  P.  Allison  was  Treasurer  and  F.  M.  Ziebacn, 
Secretary.  The  present  Board  of  Directors  consists  of  John  P. 
Allison,  President;  William  L.  Joy,  J.  C.  C.  Hoskins,L.  McCarty,  C. 
R.  Marks  and  A.  Groninger,  two  of  whom  are  elected  every  two 
years  for  a  term  of  three  years.  During  the  first  year  after  the 
organization  of  the  district  into  an  independent  one,  the  first 
school  house  of  any  now  in  use  was  built.  At  present  there  are 
eleven  school  houses  in  use,  of  which  three  are  rented,  and  the 
others  belong  to  the  district.  Additional  buildings  are  in  contem- 
plation to  meet  the  growing  wants  of  the  district.  The  schools 
are  all  graded,  as  primary,  secondary  and  intermediate,  culminat- 
ing in  the  High  School,  which  latter,  though  few  in  its  number 
of  pupils,  has  attained  a  high  degree  of  efficiency  as  a  factor  in  the 
educational  system  of  the  city.  The  schools  are  under  the  man- 
agement of  A.  Armstrong,  Superintendent,  with  a  corps  of  thirty- 
two  able  teachers.  Instructors  only  of  acknowledged  ability  and 
ripe  experience  are  employed,  who  are  emulous  of  attaining  the 
the  hign  standard  of  excellence  for  which  Iowa,  as  a  State,  has  be- 
come justly  renowned.  Of  these,  three  are  males,  at  an  average 
salary  of  $90  per  month,  and  twenty-nine  females,  at  an  average 
salary  of  §40  per  month.  The  Superintendent,  has  general  charge 
of  all  the  schools,  and  receives  a  salary  of  $1,250  per  annum.  The 
last  annual  report  of  the  County  Superintendent  gives  the  number 


208  HT8T0RT  OF  IOWA. 

of  school  affe  in  the  district,  as  2,185,  while  the  actual  attendance 
upon  school,  as  appears  by  the  City  Superintendent's  report,  is 
1,329.  School  is  in  session  ten  mouths  oi  the  year,  and  the  aver- 
age cost  per  pupil  is  $1.27.  *  The  value'  of  the  school  buildings  is 
estimated  at  about  $75,000.  The  grounds  in  most  cases,  are  sur- 
rounded by  substantial  fences  and  adorned  with  shade  and  orna- 
mental trees. 

A  CITY  OP  HOMES. 

To  give  some  idea,  though  necessarily  an  inadequate  one,  of  the 
rapid  growth  and  present  prosperity  of  the  city,  the  following  fig- 
ures are  given,  showing  the  number  of  new  buildings  and  the  cost 
of  improvements  made  during  the  past  three  years: 

NO.  COST. 

1879 103 $157,445 

1880 146 257.085 

1881 411 558.210 

While  many  of  these  buildings  were  substantial  business  blocks, 
solid  manufactories,  and  palatial  residences,  by  far  the  greater 
number  were  the  modest  nomes  of  mechanics,  small  tradesmen, 
and  laborers.  Sioux  City  is  emphatically  a  city  of  homes.  The 
possibility  of  securing  a  home  of  one's  own,  owing  to  the  moder- 
ate price  at  which  residence  lots  have  been  held,  the  prosperity  of 
all  cla.sses,  and  the  assistance  given  by  loan  and  building  associa- 
tions, has  been  improved,  and  these  have  combined  to  make  the 
city  the  Philadelphia  of  the  West. 

LAND  INTERESTS. 

As  well  as  being  a  center  of  wealth  and  business  for  a  large  sec- 
tion of  country,  Sioux  City  is  the  center  of  a  large  land  interest 
and  business.  The  location  of  a  government  land  oflSce  at  this 
city,  one  of  the  first  prizes  secured  by  the  founders  of  the  infant 
metropolis,  has  naturally  been  followed  by  the  centering  of  a  large 
landed  business  at  the  city.  The  fertile  acres  in  this  part  of  Iowa 
were  open  to  entry  at  $1.25  per  acre  for  several  years  after  being 
surveyed,  and  during  the  flush  of  times  of  1856-7  hundreds  or 
thousands  of  acres  were  entered  by  speculators  in  this  part  of  the 
State.  Then  came  the  era  of  land  grants  to  railroads,  and  these 
lands,  as  well  as  those  of  private  speculators,  were  placed  in  the 
hands  of  Sioux  City  agents  for  sale.  Among  the  resident  proprie- 
tors of  large  landed  estates  may  be  mentioned  T.  J.  Stone,  Weare 
&  Allison,  D.  T.  Gilman,  G.  W.  Wakefield,  John  Pierce  and  N.  A. 
McFaul.  The  two  latter,  beside  the  lands  which  they  own,  are 
agents  for  non-resident  and  railroad  lands,  the  former  in  selling 
the  lands  granted  railroads  in  this  part  of  Iowa,  and  the  latter  rep- 
resenting the  Burlington  and  Missouri  grant  in  Nebraska.  The 
sales  of  these  two  firms  alone  amounted  to  several  hundred  thou- 
sand dollars  during  1881. 

It  would  be  an  error  to  suppose  from  the  active  demand  for  real 
estate  that  the  country  was  becoming  crowded.     A  careful  study 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 


209 


of  the  plats  in  the  office  of  any  Sioux  City  land  dealer  will  show 
that  not  more  than  one-sixth  part  of  the  land  in  Woodbury  Counter 
has  yet  passed  into  the  hands  of  actual.occupants.  The  county  is 
capable  of  sustaining  a  population  equal  to  that  now  scattered  out 
over  the  entire  northwest  quarter  of  the  State. 

AS   A   DISTRIBUTING   POINT. 

Sioux  City,  situated  as  it  is,  on  the  convex  side  of  the  Missouri 
River,  on  its  first  great  bend  north  of  Kansas  City,  the  waters  of 
that  great  river  flow  toward  it  from  an  almost  due  westerly  course 
for  160  miles,  when  they  turn  southward,  while  smaller  streams 
flow  toward  it  from  the  north  and  east.  Its  location  thus  seems 
to  have  been  designed  by  nature  as  the  natural  spot  for  the  great 
metropolis  of  the  Upper  Missouri,  and  the  commerce  of  this  rapid- 
ly growing  empire  nows  as  naturally  toward  this  point  as  the 
waters  have  for  ages.  The  natural  advantages  of  this  location 
for  a  commercial  center,  were  seen  and  fully  appreciated  by  the  en- 
terprising, intelligent  men  who  selected  it  for  a  city,  and  they  not 
not  only  laid  it  out  on  a  grand  scale  for  substantial  business  blocks 
and  stately  residences,  but  they  worked  to  brin^  to  the  aid  of  its 
natural  resources  all  the  helps  that  the  artificial  arteries  of  com- 
merce can  command. 

Its  commanding  geographical  position,  coupled  with  its  ei^ht 
lines  of  railroad  and  migiity  river,  has  made  it  the  distributmg 
point  for  Dakota  and  Nebraska.  All  the  supplies  for  the  vast  ter- 
ritory to  the  north  and  westward  are  necessarily  handled  by  the 
railroads  centering  here,  and  the  business  thus  brought  to  her  very 
doors  has  contributed  not  a  little  to  the  upbuilding  of  the  city,  as 
it  necessitated  the  erection  of  warehouses  and  the  investment  of 
capital  in  the  wholesale  and  distributing  business.  The  following 
taole,  prepared  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Board  of  Trade,  will  give 
some  idea  of  the  extent  and  character  of  this  business  during  the 
year  1881 : 


• 

9P 

• 

A 

Q* 

a 

• 

o 
525 

-a 

GO 

on 
oo 
O 

O 


General  Merchandise 

Grain 

Hides,  Tallow  and  Furs 

Wood  and  Coai 

Lumber 

Agricultural  Implements,  etc 

Total 


320 

$  148,225 

18 

15,500 

10 

6,000 

16 

5,000 

23 

12,400 

25 

30  0 

412 

1  197,425 

549,:^22 
654,000 
188,000 
375,000 
170,000 


$6,477,626 


210  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

These  figures  can  be  accepted  as  being  as  nearly  correct  as  it  is 
possible  to  give  them,  and  if  the  jerr  at  all  it  is  in  being  too  small, 
and  that  they  are  too  small  is  clearly  indicated  by  the  amount  of 
exchange  sold  by  our  three  banks  during  the  past  year,  as  per 
figures  f  urnishea,  which  was  $10,256,127.02. 

Especially  is  this  true  of  grain,  as  one  firm,  during  the  period 
covered  by  this  table,  purchased  600,000  bushels  of  wheat  alone, 
and  the  shipments  of  corn  and  oats  to  the  up-river  military  posts 
amounted  to  15,000,000  pounds.  The  general  merchandise  sales 
of  the  city  during  the  same  year  reached  the  gratifying  total 
of  4,500,000  of  dollars.  Of  this  amount  $1,456,000  was 
sold  by  the  three  wholesale  dry  goods  houses,  and  about  $100,- 
000  in  round  numbers  by  the  two  wholesale  grocery  establish- 
ments. Of  the  other  lines  of  trade  engaged  in  the  distribution 
business,  of  the  magnitude  of  whose  operations  no  definite  figures 
can  be  given,  may  be  mentioned: 

The  Standard  Oil  Company  has  put  in  tanks  and  a  warehouse, 
whence  illuminating  and  lubricating  oil  is  distributed  all  over  this 
part  of  the  northwest. 

The  firms  of  F.  H.  Peavey  &  Co.,  H.  G.  WyckofiF,  Booge  Bros., 
and  Knud  Sunde  send  out  coal,  lime  and  plaster  by  the  ton,  car- 
load or  single  barrel. 

Two  wholesale  grocery  houses,  E.  C.  Palmer  &  Co.  and  Tacka- 
berry.  Van  Keuren  &  Floyd,  represent  their  line.  One  of  the  firms 
stated  that  its  business  in  1881  amounted  to  over  $500,000,  and 
the  other  refused  to  give  figures. 

The  wholesale  drug  business  is  carried  on  by  John  Hornick  and 
F.  Hansen. 

Liquors  are  sold  in  job  lots  by  John  Hornick,  E.  Ressegieu  and 
Joseph  Marks. 

The  cracker  factory  of  Goodwin  &  Mosseau  employs  seven  men, 
and  has  a  trade  extending  throughout  the  Northwest. 

In  the  wholesale  saddlery  hardware  line  there  are  J.  M.  McCon- 
nell  &  Co.  and  L.  Humbert. 

Dry  goods  and  notions  are  wholesaled  by  Tootle,  Livingston  & 
Co.  and  by  Jandt  &  Tompkins. 

The  jobbing  of  hardware  is  conducted  by  Peavey  Bros,  and 
Geowey  &  Co.,  the  former  firm  selling  only  at  wholesale. 

Agricultural  implements  are  sold  in  lots  to  dealers  by  Peavey 
Bros.,  W.  L.  Wilkins  and  Cottrell,  Bruce  &  Co. 

The  shipping  of  grain  is  the  specialty  of  F.  H.  Peavey  &  Co. 
and  Davis  &  Wann,  and  is  one  of  the  lines  of  John  H.  Charles  and 
Jas.  E.  Booge  &  Co. 

The  northwestern  distributing  point  is  at  Sioux  City  for  the 
Singer  Sewing  Machmes,  for  which  A.  P.  Provost  is  agent;  the 
American  Sewing  Machines,  represented  by  W.  W.  Griggs,  and 
for  KimbalTs  musical  instruments,  for  which  Arthur  Hubbard  is 
general  agent. 


HISTORY   OF  IOWA.  211 

Daring  1881,  Smith  &  Ftirr,  built  an  extensive  butter  and  egg 
packing  establishment,  costing  $20,000,  which  the  growth  of  the 
trade  in  this  produce  imperatively  demanded.  * 

Obeme,  Hosick  &  Co.,  of  Chicago,  have  a  branch  house  estab- 
lished here,  which  makes  a  specialty  of  hides  and  wool,  and  whose 
operations  extend  to  the  British  Possessions. 

Pinckney  &  Co.,  beside  their  retail  book  and  stationery  business, 
keep  several  men  on  the  road  selling  their  wares. 

Uumraings,  Smith  &  Co.  are  exclusively  engaged  in  the  whole- 
sale boot  and  shoe  trade. 

J.K.Prugh,in  connection  with  his  retail  crockery  and  queen's- 
ware  trade,  devotes  some  attention  to  the  wholesale  line  of  his 
business. 

Beside  these,  three  banks,  two  of  which  are  national  banks,  two 
express  offices  and  the  postoffice  handle  the  currency  used  in  the 
business  of  a  wide  extent  of  country.  Numerous  firms  and  indi- 
viduals who  do  not  figure  before  the  public  as  being  in  the  whole- 
sale trade,  are,  by  force  of  circumstances  compelled  to  sell  goods 
in  job  lots  to  out-of-town  customers.  Thus  a  number  of  our  cloth- 
ing merchants  supply  surrounding  country  stores,  grocers  send  out 
shipments  to  dealers  all  the  way  between  the  city  and  Deadwood, 
and  lumber  dealers  ship  small  lots  and  entire  car  lots  to  small 
dealers  out  of  the  city.  By  numberless  channels  the  goods  brought 
in  bulk  to  this  city  are  distributed,  and  the  produce  of  the  country 
collected  and  forwarded.  Much  of  this  business  has  not  been  cul- 
tivated, but  has  come  to  the  city  unasked.  The  need  of  more 
wholesale  houses  is  the  crying  need  of  the  city.  The  field  is  large, 
and  the  harvest  is  plenteous,  but  the  laborers  comparatively  few. 

INDIAN   ANTIQUITIES. 

When  Lewis  and  Clark's  expedition  ascended  the  Missouri  River, 
they  found  the  Sioux  in  possession  of  the  country  on  the  north 
side  of  the  river  above  the  Big  Sioux,  and  on  both  sides  from  the 
mouth  of  the  Niobrara  up  to  near  where  Ft.  Buford  now  is. 
On  the  west  side  of  the  river,  at  the  Blackbird  Hills,  was  the 
Omaha  village.  This  tribe,  whose  present  village  is  about  thirty 
miles  southwest  of  Sioux  City,  had  occupied  the  neighborhood  6t 
their  present  village  from  a  time  to  which  Indian  tradition  fixes 
no  limit.  Their  peaceful  ways  had  fixed  the  tribe  not  only  in  lo- 
cality, but  in  numbers,  and  from  the  best  accounts  attainable  they 
have  never  varied  much  in  the  the  latter,  from  1,200  souls.  On 
account  of  this  Chinese-like  fixedness,  this  tribe  has  always  been 
considered  one  of  the  most  interesting  by  students.  At  this  writ- 
ing a  cultured  young  lady  of  Boston,  Miss  A.  C.  Fletcher,  is  living 
with  the  tribe  as  a  member,  to  study  their  religion  and  traditions. 
Though  in  the  early  treaties  the  government  appears  to  recognize 
the  title  of  the  Omahas  to  the  country  about  this  city,  it  was  the 
common  hunting  ground  of  this  tribe  and  the  Sioux. 


312  HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 

The  Sioux  are,  as  a  tribe,  the  opposite  of  the  Omahas.  While 
the  Omahas  have  remained  stationary,  the  Sioux  have  ^own. 
From  the  time  of  Lewis  and  Clark^s  expedition  to  the  time  the  first 
lot  was  staked  at  Sioux  City,  the  tribe  had  almost  annihilated  the 
once  formidable  Rees  and  Mandans,  reduced  the  Poncas  to  a  petty 
band,  and  extended  their  dominion  to  the  south  as  far  as  the  Platte, 
north  to  the  Saskatchawan.  Indian  tradition  says  that  the  Sioux 
are  not  an  old  tribe,  but  the  descendants  of  a  band  of  young  braves 
from  different  tribes  that  banded  themselves  together  to  form  a 
new  tribe,  and  started  from  somewhere  near  the  head  of  the  south 
Saskatchawan.  These  Romans  of  the  North  subdued  other  tribes 
and  incorporated  them  with  themselves,  taking  such  wives  as  they 
wanted  from  the  conquered.  The  name  used  by  the  tribe  in  speak- 
ing of  themselves,  Dacota— friends  or  allies— comes  from  this  as- 
sociation of  young  men,  rather  than  from  the  subsequent  proceed- 
ings had. 

The  human  bones  disinterred  in  excavating  for  the  foundations 
of  buildings  in  Sioux  City,  indicate  that  the  Omahas,  or  some 
other  of  the  older  tribes,  occupied  the  country  before  the  Sioux 
came,  for  the  Omahas  burjr  their  dead,  while  the  Sioux  expose  the 
bodies  of  their  deceased  friends  on  scaffolds.  Dr.  Yeomans,  one 
of  the  first  settlers  of  Sioux  City,  mentions  in  a  letter  recently 
written  to  a  resident,  that,  when  he  first  saw  the  townsite,  in  the 
fall  of  1855,  the  trees  on  the  east  slope  of  Prospect  Hill  were  orna- 
mented with  scaffolds,  on  which  were  the  bones  of  Indians.  The 
dead  had  been  wrapped  in  their  robes  and  blankets,  and  left  there 
to  decay. 

But  before  either  the  Omahas  or  the  Sioux  occupied  the  country 
about  Sioux  City,  it  was  the  home  of  another  ana  more  civilized 
people,  of  whom,  unfortunately,  but  little  can  now  be  known. 
Their  principal  city  was  on  the  Broken  Kettle  Creek,  about  seven 
miles  northwest  of  Sioux  City.  There  a  circular  elevation, 
several  acres  in  extent,  rises  to  the  height  of  from  six  to  ten  feet 
above  the  level  of  the  bottom  land.  But  few  explorations  of  this 
village  mound  have  been  made,  and  the  most  that  is  known  of  it 
comes  from  observations  taken  of  the  side  where  the  Broken  Ket- 
tle Creek  has  cut  into  the  mound.  The  soil  of  which  the  mound  is 
made  appears  to  be  different  from  that  of  either  the  neighboring 
bluffs,  or  of  the  bottom  land,  from  which  it  rises;  nor  is  there  any 
depression  near  the  mound  to  show  from  whence  came  the  mater- 
ials of  which  it  is  made.  In  places,  and  at  some  little  distance  be- 
low the  surface,  are  ashes  and  bones  of  some  animals,  as  if  the 
mound  had  been  built  higher  since  it  was  first  the  site  of  a  village. 
Some  human  bones  have  been  found,  but  scattered  and  broken,  as 
the  animal  bones  were,  and  this  gives  rise  to  the  horrid  theory  that 
the  villagers  feasted  on  elk,  man  and  buffalo  flesh  with  equal  en- 
joyment. The  few  parts  of  skeletons  found  on  the  higher  part  of 
this  and  neighboring  mounds  (for  there  are  several  mounds  in  the 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  213 

same  section)  are  supposed  to  be  the  result  of  Indian  interments 
made  long  subsequent  to  the  age  when  these  mounds  were  the  sites 
of  populous  towns.  The  peculiar  feature  of  the  mounds,  and  the 
one  from  which  the  creek  takes  its  name,  Broken  Kettle,  is  the 
numerous  remains  of  pottery  found.  These  vessels,  from  the 
fragments  found,  (for  no  complete  specimens  have  yet  been  dis- 
covered) appear  to  have  been  tor  all  kinds  of  domestic  use.  They 
were  made  of  clay  found  in  the  bluff  not  far  off,  and  appear  to 
have  been  moulded  by  hand,  not  turned  on  a  wheel,  before  being 
baked.  Some  of  them  display  considerable  rude  taste  in  ornamen- 
tation and  design,  and  much  patience  in  their  making.  A  mound 
somewhat  similar  to  those  on  the  Broken  Kettle,  is  reported  to 
have  been  found  on  the  Little  Sioux,  north  of  Correctionville,  but 
with  this  exception  the  Broken  Kettle  mounds  are  unique,  as  is 
their  pottery.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  these  interesting  remains 
have  not  been  more  fully  explored,  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  at 
an  early  day  some  one  actuated  by  a  pure  \o\e  of  knowledge  will 
investigate  these  relics  of   an  earlier  civilization. 

THE   INDIAN  WAR. 

In  1861,  the  beginning  of  the  war  of  the  Rebellion,  fired  the 
hearts  of  the  pioneer  patriots  of  Sioux  City  to  such  an  extent  that 
a  company  of  cavalry  was  formed  under  the  State  law,  with  Capt. 
Tripp  in  command.  This  organization  disbanded  during  the 
winter,  and  the  following  summer  a  company  was  enlisted  under 
the  name  of  the  Sioux  City  Cavalry,  under  which  name  it  was 
mustered  into  the  government  service,  with  A.  J.  Millard  as  Cap- 
tain. During  the  Indian  troubles  following  the  massacres  at  New 
Ulm  and  Spirit  Lake,  this  company  did  much  to  give  confidence 
and  courage  to  the  frontier.  It  was  the  presence  of  this  company 
that  checked  the  stampede  of  settlers  that  came  out  of  Dakota  in 
the  summer  of  1862,  and  when  Cordua  and  Roberts  were  killed 
by  straggling  Indians  in  Bacon's  Hollow,  three  miles  east  of  this 
city,  the  Sioux  City  Cavalry  followed  the  trail  of  the  murderers 
for  several  days,  but  without  overtaking  them.  About  the  same 
time  Sioux  Falls  was  burned,  and  several  murders  committed  by 
the  Sioux  in  Union  and  Clay  counties,  in  Dakota. 

In  the  winter  of  1862-3,  General  John  Cook  began  the  organ- 
ization of  a  campaign  against  the  Sioux,  with  Sioux  City  as  a  base 
of  operations.  The  Sioux  City  Cavalry,  as  a  company,  went  into 
the  Seventh  Iowa  Cavalry,  a  part  of  which  regiment,  and  all  of 
the  Sixth  Iowa  Cavalry,  composed  the  force  of  which  General 
Sully  took  command  in  the  spnng  of  1863,  when  he  relieved  Gen- 
eral Cook.  After  the  campaign  of  that  year,  the  expedition  re- 
turned to  spend  the  winter  of  1863-4  at  Sioux  City,  and  the  sum- 
mer following  went  out  on  the  campaign,  which  resulted  in  driving 
the  hostile  Sioux  beyond  the  Missouri. 


214  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 


SLOAN. 

This  prosperous  and  enterprising  little  place  is  ^toated  on  the 
Sioux  City  &  Pacific  Railway,  twenty-one  miles  below  Sioux  City, 
and  four  miles  from  the  Missouri  River.  It  possesses  no  corporate 
powers  in  itself,  but  is  a  part  of  Sloan  Township,  which  was 
formerly  a  portion  of  Lakeport  Township,  but  which,  in  January, 
1876,  was  organized  as  a  separate  townsnip,  the  first  officers  of 
which  were:  F.  0.  Hunting,  President;  G.  R.  Beall,  J.  R.  Coe, 
Trustees,  and  Ed.  Haakinson,  Clerk.  The  present  township  officers 
are:  W.  J.  Wray,  President;  P.  0.  Hunting,  George  W.  Lee, 
Trustees,  and  W.  G.  Williamson,  Clerk.  The  connection  of  town- 
ship affairs  with  those  of  the  village  has  been  so  close  that  it  is 
scarcely  possible  to  do  justice  to  one  without  giving  something  of 
the  other's  history. 

This  place,  although  older  than  many  other  towns  in  Western 
Iowa,  is  still  in  its  infancy,  and  though  for  several  years  it  seemed  to 
make  but  little  progress,  it  is  now  rapidly  building  up,  and  bids 
fair  to  become  an  important  point. 

The  date  of  the  first  permanent  settlement  in  this  section  is  not 
definitely  known,  but  it  is  believed  that  Rufus  Beall,  now  deceased, 
is  entitled  to  that  honor,  as  he  first  came  here  in  1856,  and 
although  he  did  not  make  his  home  in  Sloan  until  1865,  he  was  a 
very  large  landholder  in  the  vicinity  as  earlv  as  the  first  date  given, 
and  made  several  lengthy  stays.  George  ll.  Beall,  a  nephew  of 
Rufus  Beall,  is  at  present  the  oldest  settler  in  the  township,  he 
having  made  it  his  place  of  residence  as  early  as  1868.  Another 
settler,  who  came  the  same  year,  was  Andrew  Fee. 

Sloan  proper  was  platted  in  1870  by  John  I.  Blair,  at  that  time 
President  of  the  Sioux  City  &  Pacific  Railway  Company,  and  all 
deeds  were  made  in  his  name.  Blair  received  the  land  as  a  gift 
from  one  of  the  enterprising  citizens  of  this  place.  Previous  to 
the  platting  of  the  town,  there  was  a  store  on  the  site  which  had 
been  erected  in  1868  by  J.  B.  Johnston.  There  was  also  a  post- 
office,  which  was  known  as  Hamlin  Postoffice;  but  the  real  place 
commenced,  in  a  measure,  its  existence  with  the  platting  of  the 
town.  Among  the  settlers  who  came  about  or  just  before  this 
time,  were  John  TuUy,  now  dead,  R.  C.  Barnard,  Fred.  T.  Evans, 
Ed.  Haakinson,  and  others. 

The  population  of  the  village  is  variously  estimated  at  from  200 
to  225,  and  it  is  probable  that  the  latter  figure  is  not  too  great. 
The  nationalities  represented  are  various,  though  the  native  Ameri- 
can element  is  in  the  majority,  many  of  the  latter  being  from  the 
State  of  New  York.  On  the  outskirts  of  the  village  is  a  strong 
Scandinavian  representation.  Taken  in  combination,  the  people 
of  Sloan  are  as  good  citizens  as  could  be  wished  for,  and  they 
would  be  welcomed  with  open  arms  to  any  locality. 


HISTORY   OP   IOWA.  215 

A  movement  is  on  foot  to  secure  incorporation,  and  the  desired 
object  will  no  doubt  become  an  accomplished  fact  at  an  early  day. 
The  prevailing  sentiment  at  present,  however,  seems  to  be  that 
the  population  is  hardly,  as  yet,  up  to  the  required  standard,  but 
as  that  drawback  is  fast  being  remedied,  it  will  probably  not  prove 
an  obstacle  for  any  very  extended  period. 

Sloan  is  well  represented  in  the  various  lines  of  business  neces- 
sary to  a  properly  balanced  village,  and  all  show  signs  of  pros- 
perity. 

The  following  are  the  various  establishments:  Three  general 
merchandise  stores,  one  grocery  store  and  meat  shop,  a  butcher 
shop,  saloon,  drug  store,  hardware  store,  blacksmith  shop,  black- 
smith and  wagon  shop,  hotel,  restaurant,  barber  shop,  livery  and 
sale  stable,  furniture  store,  photograph  gallery,  lumber-yard,  stock 
and  grain  dealer.  In  addition  to  these,  the  learned  professions  are 
represented  by  one  clergyman,  as  elsewhere  noticed,  and  one 
physician.  The  bar  has  no  representative  here.  The  postoflBce  is 
a  money  order  oflSce.  The  railroad  shipments,  which  are  rapidly 
increasing,  will  average  two  car-loads  or  more  per  day  of  stock  and 
other  products  of  the  country. 

CHURCHES,  SCHOOLS   AND  SOCIETIES. 

M.  E,  Church  Society. — The  first  sermon  preached  in  Sloan, 
subsequent  to  missionary  work,  was  delivered  by  the  Kev.  Mr. 
Crane,  of  Dakota,  a  representative  pioneer  preacher,  who  held  ser- 
vices with  a  congregation  of  seventeen,  in  a  room  over  Beall  &  Ev- 
ans' store.  This  was  in  October,  1870,  and  from  that  date,  the 
Methodist  Society  of  Sloan  began  its  growth.  Subsequent  meet- 
ings were  held  in  the  school-house,  Mr.  Crane  acting  as  supply 
preacher,  and  continuing  in  that  capacity  for  several  years.  Mr. 
Crane  was  succeeded  in  his  ministrations  by  various  other  itiner- 
ant clergymen,  prominent  among  whom  were  Kevs.  Keister,  Bil- 
lings, Fawcett,  Drake  and  Cuthbert.  The  society  which  started 
with  two  members,  now  has  a  membership  of  forty,  and  has  a  reg- 
ular pastor.  Rev.  William  Thomas,  who  nas  continued  in  that  ca- 
pacity since  October,  1881.  The  Society  is  no  longer  in  need  of 
securing  public  buildings  for  the  holding  of  its  meetings,  but  bias 
an  excellent  church  edifice,  with  dimensions  of  35x50  feet,  which 
was  dedicated  in  June,  1881,  and  which  is  a  credit  to  the  community. 

Congregational  Church  Society. — The  Congregational  Church 
Society  Wiis  organized  in  the  Spring  of  1879,  by  the  Rev.  A.  M. 
Beeman,  now  of  Spencer,  who  relinquished  his  cnarge  in  Septem- 
ber, 1881,  since  which  time  the  church,  which  has  a  membership 
of  thirty-five,  has  depended  upon  supply  preachers.  The  society 
has  no  building  of  its  own,  as  yet,  but  a  subscription  has  been 
started  for  the  erection  of  one  next  season,  upon  the  completion 
of  which  a  resident  pastor  will  be  secured. 


216  HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 

Shofi  Lodge^  I.  0.  G.  T. — This  is  the  only  organization  in  the 
nature  of  a  secret  society  in  Sloan,  and  it,  though  the  charter  is 
still  retained,  does  not  hold  regular  meetings.  It  started  with  a 
small  membership  a  year  or  so  ago. 

The  organization  of  a  Masonic  Lodge  in  the  village  has  been 
contemplated,  but  as  yet  nothing  has  been  done  in  the  way  of 
work  to  that  end. 

Debating  Societies. — Sloan  has  also  a  debating  Society,  but  as 
yet  it  is  small  and  in  an  embryo  stage  of  life.  The  meetings  are 
held  in  the  school  house. 

Public  Schools, — The  public  schools  of  the  city  consist  of  a 
primary  and  a  higher  school,  the  latter  presided  oyer  by  F.  E. 
Ghapin,  and  the  former  by  Mrs.  F.  E.  Chapin.  The  number  of 
pupils  in  attendance  is  seventy.  The  school  building  was  erected 
in  1881,  and  is  a  two-story,  frame  structure,  with  dimensions  of 
28x40  feet.  Its  interior  arrangements  consist  of  two  large  class- 
rooms, and  a  smaller  recitation  room.  A  smaller  brick  building 
had  supplied  the  needs  of  the  place  for  several  years  prior  to  the 
erection  of  the  present  school  house.  The  School  Board  for  this 
year  consists  of  J.  B.  Crawford,  President;  F.  0.  Hunting  and 
W.  J.  Wray.  The  school  system  of  the  place  has  been  almost  co- 
existent with  itself,  and  reflects  great  credit  on  the  community. 

The  people  of  Sloan  are  confident  of  a  prosperous  future,  and 
deliberate  observation  by  an  unprejudiced  observer  would  seem  to 
confirm  the  belief.  The  country  around  is  a  grand  one,  and  it 
would  seem  that  nothing  stands  in  the  way  of  an  ultimately  large 
growth. 

OTHER  TOWNS  IK  WOODBURY  COUNTY. 

Stnithland, — One  of  the  early  settlements  in  the  county  was 
Smithland,  on  the  Little  Sioux  River,  about  thirty-five  miles  south- 
east of  Sioux  City.  At  this  place  in  January,  1857,  bagan,  bstween 
the  whites  and  Indians,  the  troubles  immediately  preceding  the 
Spirit  Lake  massacre.  The  Indians  made  some  threats  against  the 
whites,  which  caused  the  settlers  to  arrest  and  disarm  some  of  Ink- 
pa-du-tah's  band.  The  Indians  stole  other  arms,  and  passing  up 
the  valley  of  Little  Sioux  River  into  Cherokee  and  Clay  Counties, 
committed  further  depredations.  When  they  arrived  in  Dickinson 
County,  they  committed  the  outrages  which  form  so  painful  a 
chapter  in  tne  history  of  the  State. 

Cor rectlonv ills — Lies  in  a  bend  of  the  Little  Sioux  River,  near 
the  line  of  Ida  County.  It  was  settled  years  ago,  when  Sioux  City 
was  little  more  than  an  Indian  camping  ground,  and  per  force  of 
circumstances  still  remains  a  village,  though  its  situation  and  nat- 
ural resources  would  warrant  it  in  becoming  a  town.  A  pioneer 
by  the  name  of  Shook  came  into  what  is  now  Kedron  Township 
in  Section  1,  in  1853.  R.  Candreau,  C.  Bacon,  and  M.  Kellogg 
came  the  next  year.  Shook  sold  out  to  Bacon,  who  was  the  first 
permanent  settler. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  217 

Woodbury. — This  Tillage  was  formerly  called  Ser^ant^s  Bluff 
City.  The  railroad  station  here  is  still  called  Sergeant  s  Bluff.  It 
is  situated  on  the  Missouri  bottom,  six  miles  south  of  Sioux  City. 
It  was  located  in  1856,  by  Doctor  J.  D.  M.  Crockwell  and  Doctor 
Wright,  of  Independence,  Iowa.  In  1857-8  a  newspaper  was  pub- 
lish^ here,  of  wnich  mention  has  been  made.  In  1862  the  manu- 
facture of  pottery  was  commenced  at  Woodbury,  and  the  business  ' 
has  been  lively  and  remunerative  ever  since. 

Danbury,  balix,  and  Oto  are  other  minor  settlements  in  Wood- 
bury County. 


WOODBURY   COUNTY   BIOGRAPHIES. 


SIOUX  CITY. 


D.  D.  Adams,  of  the  firm  of  Devore  &  Adams,  auctioneers  and 
commission  merchants — who  established  business  at  Sioux  City  in 
1869 — was  bom  in  1848;  served  in  the  U.  S.  A.  one  and  one-hsJf 
years  under  Colonel  La  Grange,  in  Co.  B.,  1st  W.  C.  He  lost  a 
brother  at  Helena,  Ark.,  who  was  captain  of  the  company.  Previ- 
ous to  coming  to  this  place,  the  subject  of  this  sketch  was  engaged 
in  business  three  years  in  Wis.  • 

A.  Akin,  of  the  firm  of  Akin  &  Shulson,  dealers  in  staple  and 
fancy  groceries,  confectionery,  etc.,  l  hicago  House,  4th  St.,  Sioux 
City,  la.,  was  born  in  Otsego  county,  N.  Y.,  March  8th,  1810. 
In  1827,  he  moved  to  Penn.;  removed  to  Belvidere,  111.,  in  1844; 
thence  to  Elgin,  and  from  there  to  Chicago  in  1852,  where  he 
served  as  justice  of  the  peace  and  police  magistrate  for  seven  years, 
and  also  practiced  law.  He  received  a  commission  from  President 
Lincoln  to  recruit.  In  1864,  he  moved  to  Kansas,  where  he  was 
for  several  years  register  in  the  U.  S.  land  ofiice,  in  Augusta  and 
Wichita;  was  postmaster  for  several  years,  and  prosecuting  attor- 
ney for  Morris  county.  He  then  moved  back  to  Chicago,  and  re- 
mained two  years,  after  which  he  came  to  Sioux  City,  in  1878,  and 
located  permanently. 

Abel  Anderson,  dealer  in  groceries  and  provisions,  comer  of  4th 
and  Jackson  Sts.,  was  born  in  Sweden  in  1856;  came  to  America 
in  1874,  and  settled  in  Sioux  City.  He  is  now  one  of  the  leading 
grocers  of  the  city;  his  sales  average  825,000  per  year. 

C.  M.  Anderson,  photographer,  was  born  in  Sweden  in  1849, 
came  to  America  in  1852,  and  located  in  Chicago.  In  1871,  he 
moved  to  Rock  Island,  III.     While  there  he  took  charge  of  a  gal- 

15 


218  HISTORY  OF   IOWA. 

lery,  and  learned  the  art  of  photography.  He  came  to  Sioux  City 
in  1878;  married  Bertha  Jorgenson,  of  Manitowoc,  Wis.  They 
have  two  children — Emineretta  and  John  E. 

John  Anderson,  of  the  firm  of  Anderson  &  Olson,  dealers  in 
boots,  shoes,  rubbers,  etc.,  opposite  High  School  building,  was 
born  in  Sweden  in  18i3;  came  to  America  in  1869,  and  settled  in 
Sioux  City;  married  Anna  Anderson.  They  have  four  children — 
Mary,  Albert,  Carrie  and  Oscar. 

L.  B.  Atwood,  liveryman,  established  business  in  1866;  was 
born  in  Livermore,  Slaine;  came  west  and  settled  in  Sioux 
Falls,  Dakota,  in  1858;  and  the  same  year  came  to  Sioux  City, 
which  makes  him  one  of  the  pioneers  of  this  place.  He  has  been 
a  member  of  the  city  council,  and  held  other  minor  offices.  He  is 
one  of  Sioux  City's  representative  citizens. 

F.  W.  Anthon,  of  the  firm  of  Tiedeman  &  Anthon,  dealers  in 
staple  and  fancy  groceries,  cigars,  tobacco,  etc.,  established  busi- 
ness in  1875.  He  was  born  in  Germany  in  1836;  came  to  Ameri- 
ca in  1857,  and  settled  in  Davenport,  la.;  removed  to  Sioux  City 
in  1870,  and  was  for  three  years  in  charge  of  the  Chicago  Hotel. 

Frank  X.  Babue,  of  the  firm  of  Payette  &  Babue — shop  oppo- 
site High  School  building — was  born  in  Montreal,  Canada  in  184:2; 
came  to  the  U.  S.  in  1854,  and  settled  in  N.  Y.  He  moved  to 
Mass.;  thence  to  Connecticut;  thence  to  Vermont,  and  in  1875,  he 
came  to  Sioux  City.  He  jnarried  Medrise  Delier,  of  Canada. 
They  hav^  five  sons — Albert,  Frank,  Willie,  Alphonso  and  Ed- 
mund. 

John  Beck,  proprietor  of  the  Sioux  City  planing  mills.  This 
mill  was  established  Aug.  22nd,  1871.  In  triis  year  the  building 
was  enlarged,  and  machinery  added,  by  Mr.  B.  and  partner.  In 
1881,  Mr.  B.  became  sole  proprietor.  The  amount  of  business 
transacted  by  the  establishment,  is  about  $12,000  per  annum.  Mr. 
Beck  was  born  in  Somerset  county,  Penn.,  in  1833;  came  west  in 
1857,  and  settled  in  Sioux  City,  and  is  therefore  one  of  the  oldest 
settlers  of  Sioux  City.  He  was  engaged  in  contracting  and  build- 
ing for  eighteen  years;  has  served  as  city  alderman  two  years.  He 
married  Nancy  Culbertson,  and  has  four  children — Irene,  Mag- 
gie, Eva  and  William  E. 

M.  E.  Bedford,  oE  the  firm  of  Bedford  Brothers,  dentists,  be- 
gan the  practice  of  dentistry  in  Grand  Rapids,  Mich.,  in  1866;  in 
1872,  located  in  Worthington,  Minn.,  and  engf^ed  in  the  practice 
in  Sioux  City  in  1876,  with  his  brother,  L.  N.  Bedford,  who,  with 
his  assistant,  R.  F.  Merrick,  travels  in  Southern  Minn.,  Northern 
Iowa,  Southeastern  Dakota  and  Eastern  Neb.,  in  the  practice  of 
dentistry  in  all  its  branches. 


HISTORY  OF  TOWA.  219 

A.  D.  Bedford,  M.  D.,  was  bom  in  Pa.,  in  1848;  graduated  from 
Alleghany  College  in  1873;  studied  two  terms  at  Tubingen,  Ger- 
mauY;  in  1874  and  1875.  He  was  a  teacher  in  the  military  school 
at  Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y.,  during  the  year  1876:  and  in  1877,  gradu- 
ated from  the  JefiFerson  Medical  College,  Philadelphia.  Came  to 
Iowa,  and  practiced  medicine  in  Waterloo  two  years,  and  came  to 
Sioux  City  in  1879;  was  married  in  June,  1880,  to  R.  McNeil,  of 
Waterloo. 

Geo.  W.  Beggs,  M.  D.,  is  the  son  of  the  Rev.  S.  R.  Beggs,  the 
authi>r  of  '*Early  Methodism  in  the  West."  He  was  born  in  111., 
in  1837,  graduated  from  Evanston  College  in  the  literary  depart- 
ment, and  received  the  degree  of  A.  M.,  and  from  the  Rush  Med- 
ical College,  Chicago,  in  1862,  where  he  received  the  degree  of  D. 
D.  During  the  late  war,  he  was  surgeon  of  the  105th  111.  regir 
ment,  and  was  with  Gen.  Sherman  in  his  famous  march  to  the  sea. 
He  came  to  Sioux  City  in  1866,  and  was  married  in  1865  to  Lillian 
A.  Sims.     They  have  three  daughters — Lizzde,  Bertha  and  May. 

A.  L.  Bennetts,  proprietor  of  the  New  York  Fruit  Store — estab- 
lished business  in  1871) — was  born  in  N.  Y.,  in  1826;  came  west  to 
Wis.  in  1849^  and,  after  traveling  about,  finally  located  at  Fort 
Winnebago.  He  afterwards  moved  to  Minnesota;  from  there  to 
Saginaw,  Mich.;  thence  to  0.;  then  back  to  Mich.;  from  there  to 
Chicago,  and  then  to  this  city.  He  served  in  the  late  war  two 
years  under  Gen.  Burnside,  in  the  9th  army  corps.  He  has  held 
various  town  offices.  He  married  Grace  Brigham,  of  Wis.  They 
have  three  children. 

Hon.  J.  H.  Bolton,  clerk  of  the  circuit  and  district  courts  of 
Woodbury  county,  was  born  in  Cleveland,  0.,  in  Jan.,  1846;  grad- 
uated at  Harvard  college  in  1868.  In  1869,  he  came  to  Sioux  City, 
and  engaged  in  the  practice  of  law,  which  he  continued  until  1873, 
when  he  retired  from  business.  He  was  elected  to  the  17th  Gen- 
eral Assemblv,  and  in  1879,  was  elected  to  his  present  office.  He 
married  Sarah  Thornton — now  deceased — who  was  the  daughter  of 
James  Thornton,  the  present  consul  to  Aspinwall. 

James  E.  Booge,  of  the  firm  of  J.  E.  Booge  &  Co.,  pork  packers, 
was  born  in  PitUford,  Rutland  county,  Vt.;  came  to  oioux  City  in 
1858,  and  has  been  engaged  in  his  present  business  since  1869. 
This  firm  sell  their  hams  for  the  nortn  and  west;  mess  pork  to  the 
north,  and  the  government;  their  sides  for  the  local  trade  and  the 
south,  and  their  lard  to  Chicago.  Capital  required  in  operating 
the  business,  about  ^500 ,000.  During  the  year,  1881,  they  erected 
extensive  buildings  of  brick  and  stone,  five  stories  high,  at  a  cost 
of  $100,0(X).  The  works  cover  an  area  of  five  acres.  They  have 
every  modern  appliance,  fertilizing  works,  etc.,  and  employ  in  the 
busiest  season,  about  30<)  men,  and  run  both  winter  and  summer 
seasons,  with  a  capacity,  respectively,  of  1,500  daily  in  winter,  and 


220  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

500  in  summer.  J.  E.  Booge,  Es^.,  who  founded  the  establish- 
ment, is  resident  partner  and  entire  manager.  The  works  have 
ample  side-tracks  connecting  with  every  road  in  the  city. 

C.  Borman,  proprietor  of  Columbia  House,  on  the  comer  of 
Fourth  and  Water  streets,  established  business  in  1870.  He 
has  ^od  stabling  accommodations  connected  with  the  premises. 
Mr.  B.  was  bom  in  Germany  in  1826.  He  was  in  the  German 
military  service  six  years;  came  to  America  in  1854,  and  settled  in 
Alleghany  City,  l*a.  He  removed  to  Johnston,  Pa.;  thence  to 
Omaha;  thence  to  Sioux  City,  in  1868.  In  1879,  he  was  township 
trustee  for  this  town.  He  married  Federika  Keller.  They  have 
five  children — Lena,  Mina,  Elizabeth,  Charles  and  Oscar. 

John  Brennan,  attorney-at-law;  commercial  collections,  a  spec- 
ialty. 

Napoleon  Brouillette,  dealer  in  groceries  and  provisions,  was 
bom  in  Montreal,  Canada,  Aug.  15tn,  1852;  came  to  the  U.  S.  in 
1869,  and  settled  in  Sioux  City.  He  entered  the  employ  of  H.  D. 
Booge  &  Co.,  where  he  remained  three  years;  was  tnen  employed 
in  the  store  of  Joe.  Marks  three  years;  then  was  with  Geo.  W. 
Felt,  and  after  that,  with  J.  B.  Barringer  two  and  one-half  years. 
He  married  Jennie  Irwin,  of  this  place.  They  have  three  children 
•^Maud,  Henry  and  William. 

R.  A.  Broadbent,  proprietor  of  livery  stable,  on  Douglas  street, 
between  4th  and  5th  streets;  established  business  in  1869.  He 
was  bom  in  111.,  in  1844.  He  moved  to  Fayette  county,  Iowa,  and 
came  to  Sioux  City  in  1868.  He  served  in  the  late  war  two  years 
in  Co.  F,  9th  1. 1.,  under  Captain  Guinn. 

N.  C.  Brunk,  proprietor  of  grocery  store  and  restaurant,  was 
born  in  Virginia  in  1852;  served  as  postmaster  in  Va.  four  years. 
In  Oct.,  1881,  came  west,  and  settled  in  Sioux  City.  He  was  sta- 
tion agent  for  the  B.  &  0.  R.  R.,  for  some  time.  He  married  Car- 
rie Hite,  of  Middletown,  Va.. 

E.  H.  Bucknam,  of  the  firm  of  J.  P.  Dennis  &  Co.,  was  born  in 
Washington  Co.,  Maine,  in  1843;  moved  to  Toledo,  0.,  in  1866; 
thence  to  Chicago,  where  he  remained  until  1868,  when  he  came 
to  this  place,  and  entered  the  above  firm. 

•Phil.  Carlin,  County  Recorder,  is  a  native  of  111.;  came  to  Iowa 
in  1860,  and  settled  in  Clinton  Co.;  removed  to  Woodbury  Co.,  in 
1871,  and  located  at  Union;  was  elected  to  his  present  office  in 
1880,  and  removed  to  Sioux  City  the  same  year. 

H.  B.  Clingan,  of  the  firm  of  H.  B.  &  C.  E.  Clingan,  physi- 
cians and  surgeons,  was  born  in  0.,  in  1822;  is  a  graduate  of  the 
Cleveland  Medical  College.   He  practiced  in  0.,  from  1848  to  1855; 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  221 

then  moyed  to  Benton  Co.,  Iowa,  and  practiced  there  until  1877, 
when  he  came  to  Sioux  City  and  opened  his  present  office  with 
his  son  C.  E.  Clingan. 

Willis  G.  Clark,  attorney  at  law  and  justice  of  the  peace,  was 
born  in  Penobscot  Co.,  Maine,  in  1858.  He  came  to  Minn.,  with 
bis  parents  in  1857,  and  settled  in  Dakota  Co.  He  is  a  graduate 
of  Browns  University,  of  Providence,  R.  I.  He  came  to  Sioux 
City  in  1878,  and  was  elected  justice  of  the  peace  in  1880.  Mr. 
C.  nas  been  actively  engaged  in  local  politics,  and  is  a  rising  young 
attorney. 

M.  A.  Comeau,  carpenter  and  joiner, — shop  opposite  High 
School  building — was  born  in  the  Province  of  Quebec,  Canada; 
came  to  the  U.  S.,  and  settled  in  Mass.,  in  1803.  He  removed  to 
this  place  in  1879,  and  engaged  in  his  present  business.  He  mar- 
ried Mary  Gelines,  of  Canada.  They  nave  four  children — Malvi- 
nas,  Edwin,  Emma  and  Charles, 

T.  H.  Conniff,  Jr.,  attorney  at  law  and  jnstice  of  the  peace,  is 
a  son  of  T.  H.  Conniff,  of  Houston,  Minn.,  who  has  represented 
that  state  in  the  legislature,  and  was  district  attorney  for 
several  years.  The  subject  of  this  sketch  settled  in  Sioux  City  in 
1869,  is  a  graduate  of  the  State  University,  and  was  admitted  to 
the  bar  at  Des  Moines. 

W.  H.  Corrigan,  proprietor  of  sample  room.  No.  26  Pearl  St., 
was  born  in  Ozaukee  Co.,  Wis.,  in  1850;  come  to  this  place  in  1874, 
and  entered  the  employ  of  the  proprietor  of  the  Washington 
House.  He  married  Emma  Shiable,  of  Sioux  City.  They  have 
one  child — Willie. 

A.  H.  Crowell,  of  the  firm  of  Crowell  &  Martin,  commission 
merchants  and  wholesale  dealers  in  foreign  and  domestic  goods, 
green  and  dried  fruits,  confectionery,  etc.,  corner  of  3rd  and  Pearl 
streets,  was  born  in  Mass.  in  1838;  followed  sailing  eleven  years; 
has  visited  almost  every  foreign  clime,  and  is  a  man  of  wide  ex- 
perience. During  the  late  war  he  was  on  a  government  transport. 
He  located  in  Benton  Harbor,  Mich.,  where  ne  engaged  in  the  dry 
goods  business.  In  April,  1880,  he  came  to  this  place,  where  he 
embarked  in  his  present  business,  under  the  firm  name  of  Crowell 
&  Co.;  afterwards,  Geo.  N.  Martin  became  a  partner.  The  firm 
name  was  changed  to  its  present  name.  This  is  the  only  exclusive 
commission  house  in  the  citv. 

Warren  H.  Cottrell  was  bom  in  Renssellaer  Co.,  N.  Y.,  in  1852; 
removed  to  Waterloo,  la.;  graduated  from  the  State  University  at 
Iowa  City  in  the  class  of  '79,  and  came  to  Sioux  City,  Nov.  15th, 
1880.  He  is  now  a  member  of  one  of  the  leading  agricultural 
implement  firms  of  this  place. 


222  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

Jesse  M.  Cunningham,  the  leading  hatter  of  the  city,  was  bom 
in  N.  Y.  in  1858;  came  to  Sioux  City  in  1869,  and  engaged  in 
business  with  his  father,  until  in  April,  1881,  he  enteredhis  pres- 
ent business. 

C.  W.  Cutler,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Winneshiek  Co.,  la.,  in  1858; 
moved  with  his  parents  in  1871  to  Osage:  graduated  from  Cedar 
Valley  Seminary  in  1877,  and  from  Rush  Medical  College,  Chicago, 
in  1880;  practiced  medicine  in  Osage  one  year,  and  in  1881, 
located  in  Sioux  City.  Although  his  arrival  is  of  comparatively 
recent  date,  he  is  already  in  the  enjoyment  of  a  lucrative  practice. 

John  Davelaar,  of  the  firm  of  Davelaar  Brothers,  house,  sign 
and  ornamental  painters — shop  on  Douglas  street,  between  3rd 
and  4th  streets — established  in  1879.  He  was  bom  in  Holland  in 
1838,  came  to  America  in  1848,  and  settled  in  Pittsburg,  Pa.; 
moved  to  Wis.,  and  in  1875,  came  to  Sioux  City,  where  he  was  en- 
gaged ill  the  car  shops  several  years.  He  served  in  the  Union 
Army  four  and  one-half  years  in  the  Ist  Missouri  L.  A.,  was  order- 
ly sergeant,  and  has  been  county  commissioner  of  Armstrong 
county;  Dak.  Bart  Davelaar,  of  the  above  firm,  was  born  in 
Holland  in  1831;  came  to  America  in  1848,  and  settled  in  Pa.; 
removed  to  Wis.,  and  in  1873  came  to  this  place;  was  in  the  employ 
of  Dineen  Bros. 

George  Douglass,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Canada  in  1843;  graduated 
in  1868  from  the  Eclectic  Medical  College  of  Ohio;  came  to  Iowa 
in  1870,  and  settled  in  Iowa  county.  He  removed  to  Sioux  City 
in  1872,  where  he  is  now  in  the  practice  of  his  profession.  lie 
held  the  oflSce  of  county  physician  for  severalyears,  and  in  1871, 
he  married  Sarah  Tufts,  daughter  of  John  Tufts,  of  GrinnelU 
Iowa.    They  have  one  son — Bruce. 

A.  DePee,  proprietor  of  the  National  House,  comer  of  3d  and 
Nebraska  streets,  has  lately  remodeled  and  refurnished  this  hotel, 
and  made  it  one  of  the  best  $1.00  per  day  houses  in  the  city;  has 
no  bar  connected  with  the  house.  He  was  born  in  Ind.,  in  June, 
1836,  and  removed  in  1856  to  Wis.;  came  to  Iowa  in  April,  1869^ 
and  settled  on  a  homestead  in  Woodbury  county,  where  ne  farmed 
six  and  one-half  years.  He  served  in  the  U.  S.  A.  one  year,  in  Co. 
H,  46th  W.  V.  I.,  under  Captain  Hoskins  and  Colonel  Lovell. 

Hon.  S.  T.  Davis,  attorney  at  law  and  dealer  in  real  estate,  was 
born  in  Pa.  in  1828;  was  educated  at  Alleghanv  College,  at  Mead- 
ville,  Pa.;  came  to  Sioux  City  in  1856,  and  has  been  identified  with 
many  leading  enterprises  for  the  benefit  of  his  adopted  city.  He 
was  the  founder  of  the  Sioux  City  Journal,  and  with  others  organ- 
ized the  S.  C.  &  St.  P.  R.  R.,  and  has  taken  an  active  interest  in 
the  construction  of  other  roads  leading  into  the  city.  He  was  ap- 
pointed by  President  Lincoln  register  of  the  U.  S.  land  oflice,  which 
position  ne  held  eighteen  months.     He  was  elected  to  the  state 


HISTORY   OF  IOWA.  223 

senate. to  fill  a  vacjincy  made  by  the  resignation  of  Judge  Oliver. 
Mr.  D.  was  mayor  of  the  city  in  1871,  and  was  prosecuting  attor- 
ney for  several  years.  He  owns  large  landed  property  and  busi- 
ness property  in  the  city. 

M.  B.  Davis,  attorney  at  law,  was  bom  in  Grafton  county,  N. 
H.,  in  1837:  enlisted  in  the  late  war  in  1861  in  Co.  I,  1st  R.  I.  C; 
served  in  that  regiment  two  years,  and  then  enlisted  in  Co.  I,  1st 
N.  H.  C,  and  served  from  March,  1863,  to  August  1865;  enlisted 
as  a  private,  and  came  out  a  commissioned  officer.  He  was  taken 
prisoner  at  Paris,  Va.,  and  exchanged  at  the  end  of  four  weeks, 
and  again  taken  prisoner  at  Winchester,  Va.,  and  escaped  and 
reached  the  Union  army  at  Harper's  Ferry .^  He  was  agam  taken 
prisoner  by  Wade  Hampton's  troops,  and  taken  to  Richmond,  and 
removed  to  Castle  Thunder;  thence  to  Salisburv,  N.  C,  and  was 
paroled  in  the  spring  of  1865  at  Wilmington,  iT.  C.  He  was  en- 
gaged as  a  cavalry  scout  most  of  the  time  during  his  service.  He 
came  to  Fort  Madison,  la.,  in  1866,  where  he  practiced  law  until 
1875,  when  he  came  to  this  city  and  opened  an  office. 

M.  C.  Davis,  one  of  the  proprietors  of  city  mill  and  elevator,  was 
born  in  Pittsford,  Rutland  county,  Vt.,  in  1835.  He  has  been  en- 
gaged in  the  milling  business  since  1855;  came  to  Sioux  City  in 
1869  and  erected  the  elevator  in  1870.  The  elevator  has  a  capacity 
of  70,000  bushels;  the  mill  was  built  in  1871,  has  a  capacity  of 
125  barrels  of  flour  per  aay,  and  employs  15  men. 

George  Devore,  auctioneer,  was  born  in  Bedford  county.  Pa.,  in 
1834;  came  to  Sioux  City  in  1869,  prior  to  which  he  was  in  busi- 
ness in  111.  He  was  justice  of  the  peace  twelve  years,  and  has  held 
other  town  offices;  he  has  followed  his  present  business  since  1865. 

Deming  &  Hatch,  dentists,  are  former  residents  of  Vt.  They 
came  to  tnis  city  in  Nov.,  1880,  and  opened  their  present  office 
Their  practice  is  extensive  and  remunerative. 

J.  P.  Dennis,  of  the  firm  of  Dennis  &  Co.,  was  born  in  Somerset 
county,  Maine,  in  1832,  removed  to  N.  Y.  in  1851;  thence  to  Du- 
buque, la.,  in  1853,  and  to  this  city  in  1867.  He  served  his  coun- 
try in  the  late  war  from  1862  until  1803  in  Co.  G,  40th  1.  I. 

Thomas  Dorman,  baker  a^d  confectioner — No.  56,  Pearl  St. — 
was  bom  in  England  in  1841;  came  to  America  in  1863,  and  set- 
tled in  Chicago;  removed  to  Omaha,  Neb.,  1867.  During  the  late 
war  he  served  two  years  under  Gen.  M}ers.  He  married  Amelia 
Gibbons,  and  has  two  children — Aunie  and  Arthur. 

Christ.  Doss,  proprietor  of  the  Milwarkee  House — located  near 
depot — wjis  bom  in  Mccklingburg,  Germany,  in  1836;  came  to 
America  in  1854,  and  settled  in  0.,  where  he  learned  carpentry. 
Thence  he  removed  to  Dubuque,  la.;  came  to  this  city  in  1857, 
and  was  one  of  its  pioneers.  He  married  Mary  Sohl,  of  Germany. 
They  have  five  children — one  son  and  four  daughters. 


224  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

L.  H.  Drumm,  proprietor  of  the  Washington  meat  market,  which 
is  one  of  the  finest  markets  in  the  west,  with  all  of  the  appurten- 
ances that  would  do  credit  to  an  eastern  city — was  bom  in  Bayaria 
in  1839;  came  to  America  in  1861  and  settled  in  Cincinnati,  0.; 
removed  to  Lyons,  la.;  thence  to  New  Frankfort,  Mo.,  and  from 
there  came  to  Sioux  City.  He  married  Helena  Bitteghaffer,  and 
has  two  children — Nellie  H.  and  Eddie  L. 

J.  W.  Denton,  of  the  late  firm  of  Fliun  &  Denton,  of  the  Cen- 
tral meat  market,  was  born  in  Keokuk,  la.,  in  1856;  moved  to 
Neb.  in  1859,  and  in  1872  to  Council  Bluffs;  came  to  this  city  in 
1879. 

D.  Elliott,  dealer  in  crockery,  glass,  wood  and  willow  ware, 
house,  hotel  and  steamboat  furnishing  goods,  established  this  busi- 
ness in  1870;  his  establishment  was  destroyed  by  fire  Dec.  5th, 
1875;  reopened  Dec.  7th,  of  the  same  year.  The  building  has  two 
stories  ana  basement,  all  of  which  he  occupies,  carrying  one  of  the 
largest  stocks  of  goods  of  this  description  west  of  Chicago.  He 
was  born  in  Pa.;  has  been  in  la.  twenty  years;  was  formerly  in 
business  in  Iowa  City.  H.  E.  Sawyers,  head  salesman,  for  the  above 
firm,  has  been  connected  with  this  house  for  more  than  twelve 
years.  He  was  born  in  Davis  county,  la.,  in  1856;  came  to  this 
city  with  his  parents  in  1857,  where  he  has  made  his  home  ever 
since. 

Rev.  Fr.  Eisenbess,  j)astor  of  the  First  German  Lutheran  church, 
was  bom  in  Germany  in  1851;  came  to  America  in  1870,  and 
located  at  Fort  Wayne,  Ind.,  where  he  founded  Concordia  College. 
He  then  attended  St.  Louis  college  three  years.  He  removed  to 
Dixon  county.  Neb.,  by  special  call  of  the  newly  formed  congre- 
gation, to  do  missionary  work  for  this  denomination;  came  to  this 
city  in  1878,  and  founded  a  church  with  fourteen  members,  which 
was  incorporated  in  Jan.,  1879.  He  married  D.  Steinmeyer,  of  St. 
Louis,  and  has  two  children — Dorothy  and  Ludmilla. 

J.  D.  Farr,  of  the  firm  of  Smith  &  Farr,  wholesale  dealers  in 
butter  and  eggs,  was  born  in  Lewis  county,  N.  Y.,  in  1843; 
came  west  in  1§70;  started  in  business  with  a  small  capital,  and 
now  does  a  business  of  one-half  a  million  per  annum. 

S.  S.  Fessenden  is  the  proprietor  of  the  China  Hall.  This  busi- 
ness was  established  in  1803;  purchased  1871  by  J.  H.  Fessenden, 
and  by  its  present  owner  in  1877.  Mrs.  F.  is  a  native  of  Cincin- 
nati, 0.  J.  H.  Fessenden  is  a  native  of  Concord,  N.  H.,  and  is  at 
present  extensively  engaged  in  mining  in  Col. 

M.  L.  Flinn,  of  the  -*irm  of  Flinn  &  Lessenich,  proprietors  of  the 
Central  meat  market,  (business  was  established  in  1881),  was  bom 
in  Woodstock,  111.,  in  1852;  moved  to  Chicago,[where  he  lived  eight 
years,  and  came  to  this  city  in  1868.     He  was  chief  clerk  in  the 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  225 

St.  P.  R.  R.  shops  for  nine  years,  and  worked  three  years  on  the 
S.  C.  &  P.  R.  R.  He  married  Mary  M.  Wilkins,  and  has  three 
children — Grace  M.,  Frank  M.  and  an  infant. 

Wm.  S.  FoUis,  dealer  in  real  estate  and  insurance  agent,  does  a 
general  fire  and  marine  insurance  business. 

P.  FoUis,  proprietor  of  the  Sioux  City  House,  was  bom  in  Ire- 
land in  1817;  came  to  America  in  1843,  and  settled  in  Fall  River, 
M&«^.  He  removed  to  Dubuque,  la.,  Sept.  15th,  1845,  and  from 
thereto  this  city  in  1808.  He  has  served  as  school  director  and 
in  other  town  oflScial  capacities.  He  married  Margaret  Conway. 
They  have  four  children — William  S.,Mary,  Michael  E.  and  Ellen. 

J.  W.  Frazey,  of  the  firm  of  Frazey  &  Bedford,  physicians,  was 
bom  in  Pa.,  in  1833;  studied  medicine  at  Cleveland,  0.,  and  also  at 
Ann  Harbor,  Mich.,  and  graduated  from  Chicago  Medical  College; 
has  been  in  the  practice  of  his  profession  since  1853;  was  married 
to  Rebecca  Shertzer  in  1853,  and  Las  one  child — Ada,  now  the  wife 
of  Dr.  C.  E.  Clingan. 

J.  Franz  &  Co.,  brewers.  The  business  of  this  firm  is  conducted 
by  Mrs.  M.  Franz  and  Mrs.  Kate  Hensler,  the  widows  of  the 
former  proprietors,  both  of  whom  died  in  the  spring  of  1881.  The 
brewery  was  built  in  1868-,  is  150x40  ft.,  has  a  capacity  of  10,000 
brls.  per  year,  and  has  bottling  works  connected  with  it,  whose 
capacity  is  about  250,000  bottles  per  year.  The  foreman,  John 
Arensdorf ,  is  a  practical  brewer,  having  learned  the  business  at  Sedan 
France,  and  is  in  every  respect  well  fitted  for  the  position  whi  *h 
he  now  holds.  The  financial  affairs  are  under  the  charge  of  C.  F. 
Hoyt  and  J.  R.  White.  The  firm  employ  about  fifteen  men  about 
the  establishment. 

P.  F.  Gerard,  proprietor  of  the  sam|)le  room,  newly  fitted  up  and 
opened — Pearl  st.,  between  3rd  and  4th  sts. — was  bom  in  0.  in 
1845;  came  to  Iowa  in  1855,  and  settled  ten  miles  west  of  Marengo; 
removed  to  this  city  in  1870.  He  served  in  the  late  war  about  one 
vear  in  Co.  B,  9th  111.  C. 

G.  M.  Gilbert,  merchant  tailor,  was  born  in  Brattleboro,  Vt.,  in 
1844,  where  he  lived  until  1862,  when  he  enlisted  in  Co.  B,  16th 
V.  V.  His  term  of  enlistment  expired  a  few  days  before  the  battle 
of  Gettysburg,  but  his  regiment  took  an  active  part  in  the  engage- 
ment, and  but  few  returned.  He  came  to  111.  in  1864,  and  re- 
moved to  this  city  in  1870.  Mr.  Gilbert  established  his  business 
in  Sioux  City  in  1873,  and  as  the  fruits  of  his  proficiency  and 
ability  to  please  the  purchasing  public,  has  acquired  a  very  exten- 
sive patronage  of  the  most  desirable  kind,  embracing,  in  addition 
to  the  Iowa  trade,  portions  of  Dakota,  Nebraska,  Minnesota  and 
Missouri. 

S.  0.  Gibbs,  proprietor  of  American  House — Jennings  St.,  be- 
tween 3rd  and  4tn  Sts. — nas  newly  refitted  and  refurnished  his 


226  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

hotel  with  a  view  to  accommodating  the  traveling  public,  farmers 
and  boarders  at  reasonable  rates.  He  was  bom  in  Jl.  Y.  in  1825; 
removed  to  Wis.,  in  1809.  The  same  year  he  came  to  this  city, 
where  he  worked  at  carpentering,  and  next  opened  a  meat  market. 
He  served  in  the  U.  S.  A.,  at  Leavenworth,  Kan.,  was  treasurer  of 
Concord  township  four  vears.  In  1880  he  visited  Salt  Lake  City, 
Utah. 

P.  P.  Gibbs,  proprietor  of  the  St.  Elmo  Hotel,  between  5th  and 
6th  streets,  was  born  in  Pittsfield,  Vt.,  in  1821;  moved  thence  to 
Brandon,  where  he  served  eighteen  years  as  a  magistrate,  and  held 
many  municipal  and  other  offices  of  public  trust.  He  was  mar- 
ried in  1873  to  Adeliza  Sargent,  of  Pittsford,  Vt.,  and  has  one 
child — Irving.  In  June,  1881,  Mr.  Gibbs  located  in  Sioux  City, 
and  assumed  the  proprietorship  of  the  hotel  above  mentioned, 
which  he  has  ever  since  continued  to  conduct  to  the  satisfaction 
of  an  increasing  public  patronage. 

G.  W.  Goodwill  is  of  the  firm  of  Goodwin  &  Mousseau,  proprie- 
tors of  the  steam  bakery.  They  are  manufactures  of  crackers,  and 
jobbers  in  confectionery — capacity,  60  bbls.  per  day — and  the  in- 
ventors of  the  cracker  factory  machine-made  bread,  which  they 
find  a  ready  sale  for  throughout  this  western  country.  He  was 
bom  in  Pa.,  in  1833;  remo\ced  to  111.,  in  1853,  and  settled  at  Dix- 
on; then  removed  to  Vinton,  la.,  where  he  was  engaged  in  the 
bakery  business,  under  the  name  of  Goodwin  Bros.  He  served  in 
the  U.  S.  A.  three  years  in  Battery  F,  1st  111.  L.  A.,  under  Maj.  T. 
Cheney.  He  was  a  corporal  while  in  the  service;  came  to  this  city 
in  1877,  and  is  one  of  its  substantial  business  men. 

John  H.  Griffin,  proprietor  of  candy  factory — ^Fourth  street — 
established  business  in  1879.  He  was  born  in  Chicago,  111.,  in 
1857;  came  to  this  city  in  1873,  and  was  engagel  as  a  compositor 
in  The  Journal  office  five  years. 

B.  A.  Guyton,  M.  D.,  is  a  graduate  from  the  University  of 
Maryland  in  the  class  of  '69.  He  settled  in  Sioux  City  in  1870, 
and  engaged  in  the  practice  of  his  profession. 

John  Haner,  dealer  in  hardware — lower  Fourth  street — estab- 
lished business  in  1881.  He  came  to  Sioux  City  in  1861;  was  em- 
ployed as  clerk  in  the  Groninger  hardware  store.  He  enlisted  in 
this  city  in  the  14th  I.,  under  Col.  Pattee,  and  served  in  the  U.  S. 
A.  all  through  the  rebellion;  was  commissary  sergeant  most  of 
the  time,  also  clerk  injthe  commissary  department.  He  married 
Julia  Reinke,  and  has  five  children — Lena,  Tillie,  Willie,  Otto  and 
Emma. 

F.  S.  Hansen,  blacksmith,  established  business  in  1878;  was 
born  in  Germany  in  1849,  and  came  to  America  in  1869,  and  set- 
tled in  Sioux  City.    He  removed  to  Missouri  Valley;  thence  among 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA,  227 

the  Indians  at  Fort  Berthold;  thence  to  Plymouth  county,  la., 
and  back  to  this  city.  He  married  Minnie  F.  Krouse,  of  this 
place,  and  has  one  child — George. 

Capt.  James  Hayden,  proprietor  of  the  Central  House — cor.  of 
3rd  and  Jackson  sts. — has  nrwly  opened  and  furnished  the  house. 
He  was  bom  in  Dublin  in  1835;  lollowed  sailing  from  1846  to 
1875;  and  was  the  owner  of  several  vessels  during  that  time.  He 
served  in  the  navy  during  the  late  war,  and  was  quartermaster 
a  part  of  the  time. 

J.  M.  Heberling,  express  accent,  was  born  in  Pa.  in  1846;  came 
to  Jackson  county,  la.,  in  1856,  and  moved  to  Cedar  Rapids  in  1878, 
where  he  was  messenger  of  the  C,  N.  W.  R.  R.  between  Cedar 
Rapids  and  Council  Blufife.  He  came  to  this  city  in  Aug.,  1881. 
He  married  Lizzie  Todd,  of  Milwaukee,  Wis. 

L.  A.  Heckman,  dealer  in  groceries,  confectionery,  etc. — 4th  st. 
— was  bom  in  Cleveland,  0,  in  1857;  came  to  this  city  in  1877, 
and  was  in  the  employ  of  D.  H.  Talbot,  in  the  Land  Title  office 
until  1879,  when  he  engaged  in  his  present  business. 

H.  Hilgers,  dealer  in  staple  and  fancy  groceries,  provisions, 
flour,  etc. — 7th  st.,  west  side — was  born  in  Germany  in  1832, 
came  to  America  in  1852,  and  settled  in  Galena,  111.;  removed  to 
this  city  and  engaged  in  farming  for  thirteen  years,  when  his 
health  failing  him  for  that  pursuit,  he  engaged  in  his  present 
business.     He  has  served  as  school  director. 

F.  C.  Hills,  of  the  firm  of  Hills  &  McKercher,  successors  to 
Groninger,  dealers  in  hardware,  stoves,  tinware,  wagon  stock, 
barbed  wire,  etc.,  sole  agents  for  Adams  &  Westlake  s  non-ex- 
plosive coal  oil  stoves,  also  agents  for  rubber  paint,  galvanized  iron 
cornice  work  a  specialty — numbers  33  and  35,  Pearl  st. — was  born 
in  England  in  1843,  came  to  America  in  1849,  and  settled  in 
Oneida  countv,  N.  Y.;  removed  to  Iowa  in  1868,  in  the  interest  of 
the  S.  C.  P.  fl.  R.  Co.,  and  located  in  this  city  in  March  of  that 
year.  He  was  general  traffic  manager  for  the  above  road,  and  the 
first  railroad  agent  in  Sioux  City.  He  served  as  2nd  sergeant  in 
the  late  war  in  Co.  E,  117th  N.  Y.  I.,  under  Col.  Wm.  R.  Pease. 
Mr.  McKercher,  of  the  above  firm,  was  bom  in  Flint,  Mich.,  and 
was  for  some  times  traveling  salesman  for  a  Chicago  house.  He 
came  to  this  city  in  the  winter  of  1872—3. 

John  Hittle,  retail  grocer — cor.4th  andDousflassts — established 
business  in  1873.  He  was  born  in  Ohio  in  1835;  moved  to  Ind., 
and  in  1855  removed  to  Des  Moines,  la.  He  came  to  Sioux  City 
in  1856,  and  in  the  fall  of  that  year  went  to  Sioux  Falls,  where  he 
built  a  cabin  for  a  Dubuque  town  company,  returning  to  this  place 
before  winter.  He  was  a  fur  trader  for  some  years,  and  then  en- 
tered the  employ  of  H.  D.  Booge  &  Co.,  where  he  remained  for 
fifteen  years. 


228  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

John  Hopkins,  proprietor  of  sample  room — Pearl  street,  between 
6th  and  6th — was  born  in  1862;  came  to  Sioux  City  in  1867;  was 
in  the  employ  of  E.  J.  Ressegieu  for  some  time.  He  married 
Jennie  Pickett. 

C.  W.  Hopkins,  carriage  and  sign  painter  and  grainer — cor. 
Douglas  and  5th  sts.— was  born  in  Pa.,  m  1830;  moved  to  Wis.,  in 
1840,  and  in  1850  removed  to  Cal*.;  thence  to  Australia;  thence  to 
London,  Eng.;  thence  to  Canada;  thence  to  Wis.;  thence  to  Mis- 
souri Valley  Junction,  la.,  where  he  had  charge  of  the  R.  K.  paint 
shop  five  years,  moving  thence  to  this  city. 

C.  F.  Hoyt,  proprietor  of  Sioux  City  Vinegar  works,  was  born 
in  III.,  in  1842;  removed  to  Idaho  in  1864,  and  engaged  in  mining 
for  two  years;  located  in  this  city  in  1869  and  went  into  the  farm 
machinery  business;  established  his  present  business  in  1875. 

B.  S.  Holmes,  dealer  in  boots  and  shoes,  clothing  and  gent's  fur- 
nishing ffoods,  was  bom  in  Norway  in  1853;  came  to  America  in 
1870,  and  settled  in  Chicago;  came  to  this  city  in  1872  and  en- 
gaged in  the  mercantile  business;  engaged  in  the  boot  and  shoe 
business  in  1880,  and  the  1st  of  Sept.,  1881,  he  engaged  in  his 
present  business. 

J.  C.  C.  Hoskins  was  born  in  N.  H.  in  1820;  graduated  at  Dart- 
mouth college  in  the  class  of  '41;  was  engaged  in  teachins: 
shool  five  years,  and  afterward  followed  his  profession,  that 
of  civil  engineering.  He  was  employed  by  the  Cochituate 
Water  works,  and  afterward  by  the  B.  &  0.  R.  R.  Co.,  un- 
til the  spring  of  1857,  when  he  came  to  this  city.  In  1863, 
he  was  appomted  postmaster  of  Sioux  City,  and  served  in  that 
capacity  until  June  30th,  1878.  He  was  city  engineer  from  1858 
to  1871;  has  been  mayor  of  the  city,  and  was  justice  of  the  peace 
twelve  years;  has  served  on  the  school  board  several  terms.  He 
was  the  first  engineer  for  the  S.  C.  &  St.  P.  R.  R.,  and  made  pre- 
liminary surveys,  etc.  Mr.  Hoskins  was  a  director  of  the  Sioux 
City  Savings  bank,  which  was  subsequently  changed  to  the  Sioux 
National  bank,  of  which  he  continues  to  be  a  director. 

Hon.  E.  H.  Hubbard,  attorney  at  law,  was  born  in  Rush  county, 
Ind.,  in  1849;  graduated  from  Yale  College  in  the  class  of  187§, 
and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  Sioux  City,  in  1874.  He  has  rep- 
resented Woodbury  county  in  the  state  legislature. 

W.  B.  Humphrey,  proprietor  of  the  Central  book  store,  dealer  in 
books,  pictures,  frames,  paintings,  wall  paper,  notions,  periodicals, 
etc..  No.  66,4th  street;  came  into  possession  of  this  business  Nov. 
22d,  1881.  He  was  born  in  Maine  in  1855;  removed  to  Minneap- 
olis, Minn.,  in  1870;  thence  to  Sibley,  where  he  was  enga^d  in 
buying  grain.  From  Sibley  he  came  to  this  city.  He  was  m  the 
employ  of  the  S.  C.  &  St.  P.  R.  R.  company  ten  years,  part  of  that 
time  as  station  agent. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA«  229 

C.  P.  lbs,  proprietor  of  Eastern  meat  market,  established  busi- 
ness in  1871;  owns  the  buildings  that  he  occupies,  and  in  1874  fit- 
ted up  his  place  of  business  with  all  the  late  improvements  at  a 
cost  of  $1,50<).  He  was  born  in  Germany  in  1843;  came  to  Amer- 
ica in  1870,  and  located  in  this  city.  He  learned  his  trade  in  Ger- 
many, where  he  was  employed  for  a  number  of  years  in  a  market. 

S.  B.  Jackson,  ex-sheriff  of  Woodbury  county,  was  bom  in  Pa. 
in  1845;  removed  to  Linn  county,  la.,  in  1864;  thence  to  this  city 
and  engaged  in  the  real  estate  business.  He  was  elected  mayor  in 
1877,  and  served  three  terms;  was  elected  sheriff  in  1879;  his  term 
expiring  with  the  beginning  of  the  present  year;  Mr.  Jackson 
served  two  years  in  the  late  war  in  Co.  b,  17th  ra.  I. 

Hon.  Wm.  L.  Joy,  president  of  the  Sioux  national  bank  of  Sioux 
City,  and  member  of  the  law  firm  of  Joy  &  Wright,  was  bom  in 
Townshend,  Windham  county,  Vt.;  came  to  this  city  in  1855,  and 
engaged  in  the  practice  of  his  profession  with  N.  £.  Hudson;  he 
entered  the  present  partnership  in  1868.  Mr.  Joy  was  elected  to 
the  State  legislature  in  1864,  and  again  in  1866. 

James  Junk,  wholesale  dealer  in  liquors  and  cigars,  was  born  in 
N.  Y.  city;  removed  to  Iowa  City,  la.,  in  1861,  and  enlisted  in  Co. 
A,  41st  la.  I.,  was  transferred  to  the  7th  la.  C,  and  served  in  the 
U.  S.  A.  until  1866,  under  Gen.  Sully,  on  the  frontier.  He  estab- 
lished his  present  business  in  1868. 

M.  J.  Kearney,  dealer  in  groceries,  provisions,  etc. — established 
business  in  1877.  He  was  born  in  Ireland  in  1856;  came  to  Ameri- 
ca in  Oct.,  1875,  and  settled  in  New  Haven,  Conn.;  removed  to 
this  city  in  1876,  where  he  has  resided  ever  since,  except  one  vear 
spent  in  the  Black  Hills.  He  married  Mary  A.  Toohey,  of  Sioux 
City,  and  had  one  child — Alice,  now  deceased. 

E.  R.  Kirk,  postmaster,  was  born  in  Ottawa  county,  0.,  in  1834; 
came  to  Sioux  City  in  1856,  and  in  the  following  year  engaged  in 
the  mercantile  business,  which  business  he  continued  until  1873; 
then  held  the  office  of  deputy  county  treasurer;  was  appointed 
deputy  collector  of  internal  revenue  in  1876,  and  was  appointed 
postmaster  in  1878.  Mr.  Kirk  was  married  in  1859  to  Mary  P. 
Sawyers,  and  has  five  children — W.  A.,  E.  L.,  Charles,  Frank  and 
Mamie.  W.  A.  Kirk,  is  deputy  P.  M.,  and  E.  L.  Kirk  is  delivery 
clerk. 

Frank  Klepsch,  proprietor  of  the  Iowa  House,  (formerly  owner 
of  the  Milwaukee  House),  has  newly  furnished  and  opened  this 
hotel,  and  solicits  patronage.  He  was  born  in  Germany  in  1838; 
came  to  America  in  1867,  and  located  at  La  Crosse,  Wis.;  removed 
to  this  city  in  1869. 

B.  Kuhlman,proprietor  of  the  Madison  Hotel — between  Pearl  and 
Water  sts. — was  born  in  Germany  in  1829;  came  to  America  in 


230  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

1859,  settled  in  Chicago,  and  engaged  in  the  grocery  business.  In 
1876  he  removed  to  this  city,  and  took  charge  of  the  Merchants' 
Hotel.  He  married  Barbara  Masath,  of  Germany.  Mr.  K.  was  in 
the  military  service  in  his  native  country  during  three  years. 

Samuel  Krummann,  proprietor  of  a  fine  dairy  farm,  (situated  on 
Horse  Shoe  Lake,  one  and  one-half  miles  from  this  city,  and  con- 
tains 45  acres)  has  in  his  dairy  36  milch  cows,  and  owns  a  stock 
farm  of  240  acres,  situated  four  miles  northeast  of  this  city,  on 
which  he  has  37  head  of  fine  stock  cattle,  and  nine  head  of 
horses.  Mr.  K.  was  born  in  Switzerland  in  1830;  came  to  America 
in  1852,  aud  settled  in  Iowa  in  1856.  He  was  married  in  1858 
to  C.  Hacker,  of  Germany,  and  has  five  children — John,  Samuel, 
Louis,  Harry  and  Annie. 

J.  P.  Langdon  handles  goods  on  commission' and  buys  and  sells 
second-hand  goods;  clothing  a  specialty.  He  was  born  in  Green 
county.  Mo.*,  in  1847;  removed  to  Kansas  City  in  1871,  and  engaged 
in  the  wall  paper  business;  came  to  this  city  in  1876,  and  was  en- 
gaged in  pamtiDg  until  1880,  when  he  established  his  present  busi- 
ness.    He  married  Emily  Jane  Pierce,  of  Canada. 

Alex.  Larson,  dealer  in  dry  goods,  notions  and  fancy  goods,  es- 
tablished business  in  1881.  He  was  born  in  Sweden,  in  1847; 
came  to  America  in  1869,  and  settled  in  Henry  county.  III.;  re- 
moved to  Mount  Pleasant,  la.,  in  1871;  thence  came  to  this  city, 
and  engaged  in  his  present  business.  He  was  married  to  Huld 
Appelgren,  of  Sweden,  and  has  two  children — Gustave  G.,  and 
Fredrick  E.    Mr.  L.  is  now  a  naturalized  citizen  of  the  U.  S. 

Arthur  G.  Lascelles  was  born  near  Chester,  Chester  county, 
Eng.,  July  31st,  1855;  came  to  America  in  1880,  and  settled  in 
Sioux  City.  He  intends  soon  to  erect  a  brick  livery  barn  on  the 
comer  of  6th  and  Douglas  sts. — 50x150  ft.  in  dimensions. 

Charles  Lambert,  dealer  in  harness,  saddles,  whips,  etc. — corner 
of  4th  and  Nebraska  sis, — was  born  in  this  city  in  1858.  He 
learned  his  trade  with  L.  Humbert  of  this  city,  and  engaged  in  his 
present  business  in  1879. 

A.  C.  Larson,  proprietor  of  the  Oriental  Steam  laundry — cor.  of 
Pearl  and  3rd  sts., — was  born  in  Denmark  in  1857;  came  to 
America  in  1870,  and  settled  in  Iowa;  came  to  this  city  in  1880. 
He  married  LydiaOleson. 

William  Lereh,  proprietor  of  billiard  hall,  was  born  in  Germa- 
ny in  1841;  came  to  America  in  1864.  He  has  built  several  of  the 
business  blocks  in  this  citv,  and  engaged  in  his  present  business  in 

1870. 

John  Lessenich,  proprietor  of  the  Chicago  House,  erected  in  1881 
at  a  cost  of  $12,000,  and  newly  furnished  throughout — cor.  4th 
and  Jones  sts. — was  born  in   Prussia  in  1826;  came  to  America  in 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  231 

1854;  removed  to  Chicago;  from  there  ko  Sioux  City  in  1867,  and 
built  a  hotel  which  burned  in  Feb.,  1881.  He  has  served  as  alder- 
man, and  also  as  township  trustee. 

P.  L.  Lindholm,  dealer  in  furniture,  established  business  in  1881. 
He  was  born  in  Sweden,  in  1842;  came  to  America  in  1857,  and 
settled  in  Boone,  la.;  removed  to  this  city;  thence  to  Yankton, 
Dak.,  and  back  to  Sioux  City  in  April,  1881.  He  married  Ellen 
Erieson,  of  Sweden.  They  have  five  children — Annie,  Albert, 
Emil,  Henry  and  Frank. 

E.  \\ .  Loft,  of  the  firm  of  Corry  &  Loft,  architects,  was  bom  in 
Dubuque,  la.,  in  1855,  and  came  to  Sioux  City  in  1881. 

G.  W.  Lower,  former  proprietor  of  Depot  Hotel,  was  bom  in 
Onandaigua  county,  N.  i.,  in  1826;  removed  to  Walworth  county, 
Wis.,  in  1845;  thence  to  Cedar  Rapids,  la.,  and  to  this  city  in  1868. 

Wm.  Lubert,  tailor,  established  business  in  1850.  He  was'bom 
in  Mecklingburg,  Schmern,  Germany,  in  1815;  came  to  America 
in  1851,  and  settled  in  Cleveland,  0.  He  removed  to  Belief  on  taine; 
thence  to  III.;  thence  to  this  city.  He  married  Henrietta 
Coner,  and  has  four  children — Gustavus,-  Jennie,  Amelia  and 
Carrie. 

B.  Luce,  proprietor  of  a  fine  stock  farm  (situated  eight  miles 
northeast  or  Sioux  City,  in  Woodbury  county,  and  contains  240 
acres),  was  born  in  Franklin  county.  Me.,  in  1838;  came  to  this 
city  in  1856,  and  engaged  in  blacksmithing  until  moving  on  to  his 
farm.  He  married  Louisa  Meguier  in  1855,  and  has  six  children 
— Harry,  Fred,  George,  Jennie,  Willie  and  Bartlett  Louis. 

Walter  W.  Lynch  is  of  the  firm  of  W.  W.  Lynch  &  Co.,  up- 
holsterers and  repairers  of  all  kinds  of  furniture,  manufacturers  of 
the  self-adjusting  spring  bed,  and  agents  for  the  American  bird 
call,  for  which  articles  agents  are  wanted.  The  firm  are  also 
agents  for  a  number  of  periodicals.  Mr.  Lynch  was  born  in  N. 
Y.  in  1850;  came  west  and. engaged  in  railroading  until  he  came 
to  this  city  in  1881.     He  married  Mary  A.  Montgomery. 

H.  A.  Lyon,  dealer  in  breech  and  muzzle  loading  guns,  and  all 
kinds  of  sporting  goods  and  hunter's  supplies.  His  machine  shop 
is  equipped  with  all  kinds  of  machinery  for  repairing  guns,  and 
machinery  of  any  kind.  He  also  makes  a  specialty  of  safe 
work,  such  as  opening  safes  whose  locks  have  become  un- 
manageable. In  all,  he  has  one  of  the  finest  gun  establish- 
meues  in  the  nortljwest.  Mr.  L.  was  born  in  Mass.  in  1832;  re- 
moved to  Janesville,  Wis.,  in  1854,  and  came  to  Sioux  City  in  1868; 
is  now  engineer  for  the  fire  steamer  here. 

A.  Macready,  was  born  in  Scotland  in  1821;  was  raised  and  edu- 
cated in  Glasgow,  where  he  gi-aduated  in  1842;  came  to  America  in 
1846,  and  located  at  Patterson,  N.  J.,  where  he  took  the  manage* 


232  HISTOBY  OP  IOWA. 

ment  of  two  spinning  mills.  Afterwards  lie  was  connected  with 
the  banking  house  of  John  Thompson,  now  Thompson  Bros.  He 
was  then  sent  to  Kentucky  as  agent  of  the  Breckenridge  coal  and 
coal  oil  companies,  which  made  the  first  coal  oil  ever  made.  Mr. 
M.  sold  the  first  two  barrels  of  oil  ever  sold  in  America,  in  the 
autumn  of  1855.  In  1856,  became  to  this  city,  where  he  brought 
a  stock  of  goods,  which  he  disposed  of  at  Sergeant's  Bluffs,  where 
he  built  the  first  business  house  erected  in  Woodbury  county,  out- 
side of  Sioux  City.  He  was  appointed  by  President  Lincoln  agent 
of  the  Omaha  Agency;  was  the  first  postmaster  of  Dakota  City,  and 
was  appointed  receiver  in  the  land  office  at  that  place.  He  opened 
the  first  stage  route  from  Fort  Randall  to  Fort  Dodge.  In  1871, 
he  retired  from  business. 

D.  A.  Magee,  of  the  firm  of  Hattenbach  &  Mag^ee,  grocers  and 
wholesale  dealers  in  cigars  and  tobacco,  was  born  in  Pa.,  in  1849; 
removed  in  1855  to  Davenport,  la.,  and  from  there  to  Omaha  in 
1856,  and  engaged  in  milling.  He  came  to  this  city  in  1869,  and 
took  charge  of  the  city  mill  and  elevator  until  1877,  when  he  en- 
gaged in  his  present  business.  He  is  now  serving  his  third  term 
in  the  city  council  and  is  president  of  the  Sioux  City  water  works. 
He  married  Adelia  Hattenbach  in  1876,  and  has  one  child — Oli- 
ver G. 

John  Malmquist,  of  the  firm  of  M.  C.  Carlstrom,  &  Co.,  dealers  in 
foreign  and  American  marble — Douglas  st.,opposite  Journal  office — 
was  born  in  Sweden  1836;  came  to  America  in  1871,  and  settled 
in  Vt.;  removed  to  Mich.;  thence  to  Chicago,  where  he  remained 
four  years,  and  came  to  this  city  in  1880.  He  married  Julia  Brown. 
They  have  three  children — Harry,  Edwin  and  Nathaniel. 

Geo.  Maiurer,  manufacturer  of  cigars  and  dealer  in  pipes  and  all 
smoking  materials — 4th.  st. — was  born  in  Austria  in  1838;  come  to 
America  in  1865,  and  settled  in  Cincinnati,  0.;  in  the  spring  of 
1869  he  came  to  this  city,  where  in  1873  he  established  the  above 
business.  While  in  Austria  he  served  in  the  military  five  years 
and  three  months.  He  married  Philomena  Brunner,  and  has  six 
children — Theresa,  George,  Anna,  Flora,  Minna  and . 

Constant  R.  Marks,  of  the  firm  of  Marks  &  Blood,  attorneys  at 
law,  was  born  in  Durham,  Green  county,  N.  Y.,  in  1841;  graduated 
from  the  Albany  law  school,  and  in  1868  came  to  this  city  and 
opened  his  present  office;  in  1879  he  was  elected  to  the  twelfth 
general  assembly,  and  is  at  present  a  member  of  the  school  board. 
He  served  three  months  in  the  late  war  in  Co.  K,  8th  Mass.  V. 

T.  S.  &  J.  P.  Martin,  dealers  in  dry  goods  and  notions,  came  to 
this  city  from  Galena,  III.,  m  1867,  and  in  April,  1879,  established 
the  above  business,  and  have  one  of  the  best  stores  of  the  kind  in 
the  city.  T.  S.  Martin  was  in  the  wholesale  grocery  business  in 
the  Black  Hills  from  1877  to  1879. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA,  233 

F.  P.  Mattocks,  of  the  firm  of  Mattocks  &  Pape,  proprietors  of 
the  London  meat  market,  and  wholesale  dealers  in  fish,  was.  bom 
in  Pa.,  in  1852;  came  west  with  parents  and  settled  in  northeastern 
la.  in  1858.  He  came  to  this  city  in  1809  and  enga^d  in  farming; 
has  served  as  constable  in  Concord  township  one  term.  He  mar- 
ried Lillian  Gibbs,  and  has  two  children — Samuel  0.  and  Walter  F. 

L.  McCartj,  dealer  in  groceries,  provisions,  produce  and  live 
stock — corner  6th  and  Pearl  sts — established  business  in  1867. 
He  was  born  in  Ireland  in  1838;  came  to  America  in  1857,  and 
settled  in  Dubuque,  la.;  removed  to  Manchester,  where  he  re- 
mained four  years,  and  came  to  this  citj  in  1867.  In  The  Sioux 
City  Register,  of  1868,  Mr.  M's.  advertisement  appears,  there  then 
being  only  one  other  similar  advertisement  in  that  paper,  from 
this  place.  He  has  served  as  city  treasurer,  and  was  director  of  the 
Sioux  City  Savings  bank — now  National  bank — and  has  served  ten 
years  as  a  member  of  the  board  of  education.  He  married  Eliza 
Clinton,  of  Manchester,  in  1863.  They  have  ten  children — 
Thomas,  Mary,  Kate,  Emma,  Lizzie,  Alice,  Grace,  Lawrence, 
Loretta  and  itelen. 

Daniel  McDonald,  sheriff  of  Woodbury  county,  was  bom  in 
Livingston  county,  N.  Y.,  in  1844;  removed  to  Wis.  with  his 
parents  in  1849,  and  lived  there  until  August  15th,  1862,  when  he 
enlisted  in  Co.  B,  28th  Wis.  V.;  served  until  1865,  and  participated 
in  a  number  of  noted  battles,  among  them  being  Helena, 
Little  Rock,  Pine  Bluff  and  Spanish  Fort  battles.  He  came  to 
this  city  in  1867,  and  engaged  in  the  livery  business;  was  deputy 
sheriff  eight  years,  under  John  M.  McDonald,  and  was  elected 
to  his  present  ofiBce  in  Oct.,  1881. 

G.  R.  McDougall,  dealer  in  musical  instruments,  sewing  ma- 
chines, sheet  music,  music  books,  and  all  musical  supplies.  No.  71 
Douglas  street,  established  business  in  1872.  He  was  born  in  Ft. 
Edwards,  N.  Y.,  in  1824;  removed  to  this  citv  in  1856,  and  is  one 
of  the  pioneers.  He  engaged  in  building,  and  the  first  year  of  his 
residence,  he  with  others  erected  about  thirty  buildings.  He  next 
engaged  in  the  furniture  business.  He  has  served  as  treasurer  of 
this  place,  and  was  the  first  city  marshal  of  Sioux  City;  has  been 
an  alderman  and  school  treasurer  several  terms.  He  married  Mary 
Macready,  of  this  city,  and  has  one  child — Jennie  Bell. 

H.  J.  Merrill,  proprietor  of  the  Blue  Front  livery  barn,  (keeps 
first  class  turnouts),  was  born  in  Otsego  county.  If.  Y.,  in  1838; 
removed  to  DeKalb  county.  111.,  in  1861,  and  thence  to  Sioux  City. 
He  served  in  the  U.  S.  A.  as  sergeant  of  his  brigade  in  Co.  C,  105th 
111.,  under  Captain  Warner. 

Captain  A.  J.  Millard,  undertaker,  corner  9th  and  Douglas 
streets,  was  born  in  Saratoga  Springs,  N.  Y.;  came  west  in  1856, 
and  in  November  of  that  year  located  in  Sioux  City,  where  he  en- 

16 


234  HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 

,^ed  in  building  operations  under  the  firm  name  of  McDon^I  & 
iilard,  and  continued  in  the  business  twenty-two  years.  In  1861 
he  raised  a  company  of  one  hundred  men,  by  a  special  order  of  the 
war  department.  The  company  was  called  the  Sioux  City  cavalry, 
and  was  engaged  against  the  Indians.  He  served  with  that 
company  three  years,  six  months  of  the  time  in  an  official  capacity, 
by  appointment  of  Gen.  Sully.  In  1863,  he  accompanied  Gen.  S. 
on  an  expedition  as  body-c^uard. 

E.  Morley,  book-keeper  in  Sanborn  &  Folfett's  lumber  office,  was 
born  in  Chenango  county,  N.  Y.,  in  1835;  was  engaged  in  various 
pursuits  until  1867,  when  he  came  to  this  city  and  engaged  as 
book-keeper. 

S.  Mosher,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  N.  Y.  in  1835;  removed  to  Chi- 
cago, and  was  engaged  there  in  the  practice  of  his  profession.  He 
came  to  this  city  in  1871;  his  wife  is  also  a  practicing  physician. 
They  treat  all  diseases,  acute  and  chronic.  Mrs.  M.  treats  all  dis- 
eases peculiar  to  ladies  and  children.  Dr.  M.  gained  quite  a  noto- 
riety at  one  time  by  being  held  a  prisoner  by  the  bank  robbers, 
Frank  and  Jesse  James,  who  were  escaping  from  Minn.  Meeting 
the  Dr.,  who  was  on  his  way  into  the  country,  east  of  this  city,  to 
make  a  professional  visit,  and  thinking  he  was  a  detective,  they 
held  him  prisoner  for  several  hours,  and  then  taking  his  horse,  re- 
leased him. 

F.  Munchrath,  dealer  in  fancy  goods,  toys,  books,  stationery, 
etc.,  was  born  in  Prussia  in  1832;  came  to  America  in  1852,  and 
located  in  Chicago,  111.;  removed  to  Sioux  City  in  1858,  and  built 
the  first  brick  building  in  the  city.  He  engaged  in  his  present 
business  in  1873.  He  married  Gertrude  Krudwig,  and  has  seven 
children  living. 

Geo.  W.  Oberholtzer,  civil  engineer  and  county  surveyor,  was 
born  in  Chester  county.  Pa.,  in  1847;  graduated  at  the  rennavl- 
vauia  Polytechnic  college  in  1871;  came  to  this  city  in  1872.  The 
following  year  he  was  elected  to  his  present  office,  and  has  been 
re-elected  each  successive  year.  He  has  been  township  trustee  one 
term,  and  has,  in  his  line  of  business,  been  connected  with  the 
railroads  of  this  city. 

Andrew  G.  Oleson,  of  the  firm  of  Anderson  &  Oleson,  dealers  in 
boots,  shoe,  rubbers,  etc — opposite  High  School  building — was 
born  in  Sweden  in  18>54;  came  to  America  in  1873,  and  located  in 
Mass.;  removed  to  this  city,  and  was  engaged  in  the  boot  and  shoe 
store  of  F.  P.  Dean. 

Henry  Page,  carpenter  and  contractor,  was  bom  in  Lancaster 
county,  Pa.,  in  1820;  removed  to  northern  111.  in  1855,  and  came 
to  this  city  in  1870,  where  he  was  for  a  time  engaged  in  building 
for  Sharp  &  Beck. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  235 

J.  N.  Palmer,  book  keeper  at  City  Mill  and  elevator,  was  born 
in  Pittsford,  Rutland  county,  Vt.,  in  1833.  He  was  in  the  mer- 
cantile business,  until  became  to  this  city  in  1873,  and  engaged 
in  his  present  occupation. 

Rev.  Ira  N.  Pardee  was  bom  in  Kingston,  N.  Y.,  in  1840;  re- 
ceived his  education  at  Armenia  Seminary.  He  united  with  the 
church  in  1857;  his  first  pastoral  charge  was  at  Great  Barring- 
ton,  Mass.,  where  he  remained  the  full  term;  in  1861  he  was 
transferred  to  the  Wyoming  conference,  and  was  two  years  on  the 
Ararat  circuit;  in  1862  he  was  removed  to  the  Tallmanville,  Pa., 
circuit,  and  in  1864,  to  the  Newton,  Pa.,  circuit.  He  was  placed 
in  charge  of  the  Plymouth  church  in  Wyoming  Valley.  In  1869 
he  was  appointed  to  Great  Bend  station;  to  the  Oneonta  district 
in  N.  Y.,  in  1872,  and  in  1875  he  was  transferred  to  the  Neb.  con- 
ference and  stationed  in  Omaha.  In  1877  he  was  again  trans- 
ferred to  the  Northwestern  Iowa  conference,  and  stationed  Fort 
Dodge.  He  came  to  this  city  in  1880.  For  seven  yeai>  K  was 
prominent  in  Sunday  School  work  in  New  York,  and  for  thepast 
two  years  he  has  managed  the  conference,  held  annually  at  Clear 
Lake,  la. 

J.  K.  Prugh,  dealer  in  queensware,  glassware,  brackets,  chandel- 
iers, etc. — No.  57  Pearl  st. — established  business  in  April,  1881. 
Before  coming  to  this  place,  he  was  engaged  in  the  same  line  of 
business  at  Ottumwa,  la.  He  has  been  in  this  business  eighteen 
years. 

A.  P.  Provost,  manager  of  the  Singer  Sewing  Machine  Com- 
pany, is  a  native  of  N.  J.;  removed  to  111.,  in  1860,  and  engaged  in 
mtmufacturing  carriages.  He  enlisted  in  the  lat^  war  in  the  73rd 
111.,  V.  in  1864,  and  was  discharged  in  June,  1865.  He  returned 
to  his  former  occupation,  which  he  continued  until  he  took  charge 
of  this  company's  business  at  Council  Bluffs;  settled  in  this  city  in. 
Feb.,  1880. 

James  Puck,  proprietor  of  the  Davenport  House,  which  wa» 
erected  in  1881  at  a  cost  of  $5,000.  This  house  is  a  brick  structure, 
and  newly  furnished;  has  a  barn  in  connection — 4th.  st.,  between 
Virginia  and  Court  sts.  Mr.  Puck  was  born  in  Germany  in  1835; 
came  to  America  in  1853,  and  settled  in  Davenport,  la.  In  1869  he 
came  to  Sioux  City  and  engaged  in  farming;  tnen  became  one  of 
the  proprietors  or  the  Chicago  House,  where  he  remained  three 
years. 

S.  J.  Quincy  &  W.  D.  Buckl'^y,  attorneys  at  law,  were  born  in 
Otsego  county,  N.  Y.;  located  in  Sioux  City  in  1881.  S.  J.  Quin- 
cy was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  N.  Y.,  in  1879,  and  W.  D.  Bucklejr 
in  Des  Moines,  la.,  the  same  year.  They  do  a  general  law  busi- 
ness. 


236  HI8T0BT  OF  IOWA. 

A.  J.  Rederich,  dentist,  was  born  in  N.  Y.  City  in  1842;  re- 
moved to  111.,  in  1853,  and  came  to  this  city  in  1870;  graduated 
from  a  dental  surgery  college  in  Philadelphia  in  1869,  and  opened 
his  present  office  in  1870.  He  was  married  in  Galena,  111.,  to  Al- 
ice Collins.     They' have  three  children — Mary,  John,  and  Elmore. 

Wm.  T.  Reeve,  manufacturer  of  buggies,  wagons,  etc.,  also  re- 
pairer and  horseshoer,  established  business  in  1872.  He  was  born 
m  Stockholm,  St.  Lawrence  county,  N.  Y;,  in  1847;  removed  to 
Wis.,  in  1858;  thence  to  Minn.,  in  1871,  and  came  to  this  city  the 
following  year.  He  served  in  the  U.  S.  A.,  two  years  in  the  193rd 
N.  Y.  regiment,  under  Col.  Van  Patten.  He  was  fife-major.  In 
1871  he  married  Laura  J.  Damron,  of  Minn.  They  have  one 
child — Zenia  M. 

E.  J.  Ressegieu,  wholesale  dealer  in  liquors,  2d  street,  established 
business  in  1873.  He  was  born  in  N.  i .  in  1849;  removed  to  this 
city  in  1867.  He  has  just  completed  an  addition  to  his  place  of 
business,  18  by  36  feet,  which  gives  him  a  building  34  by  36  feet. 

John  Reinhart,  tailor  and  proprietor  of  cleaning  establishment, 
3d  street,  between  Pearl  and  Water  streets,  was  bom  in  Germany 
in  1839;  came  to  America  in  1856,  and  settled  in  Cincinnati,  0.; 
removed  to  Sioux  Ciiy  in  1870.  He  served  in  the  war  of  the  re- 
bellion three  years  in  the  28th  0.  I.  as  sergeant,  also  served  in  the 
regular  army  three  years  as  corporal. 

Wm.  Ring,  barber.  Pearl  street  under  Dorman's  bakery,  was 
bom  in  Germany  in  1831;  came  to  America  in  1851:  removed  to 
St.  Joe,  Mo.;  thence  to  Council  Bluffs,  and  to  Sioux  City  in  1867. 

L.  M.  Rogers,  dealer  in  flour  and  feed,  lower  4th  street,  was 
born  in  111.  in  1833;  removed  to  Hardin  county,  la.,  where  he  was 
engaged  in  teaching  school;  thence  to  Cerro  Gordo  county;  thence 
to  Winnebago  county.  In  1858  he  started  for  Pike's  Peak,  and 
that  same  year  came  to  Sioux  City.  He  was  engaged  in  the  rev- 
enue service  here  from  1808  to  1874.  He  has  been  deputy  mar- 
shal of  Woodbury  county,  and  acted  as  special  deputy  U.  S.  mar- 
shal under  Clark  and  Melendy.  He  served  in  the  U.  S.  A.  three 
years  and  four  months  under  Capt.  Millard,  of  this  city;  they  were 
an  independent  company,  but  were  afterwards  attached  to  tne  7th 
Iowa  cavalry. 

C.  C.  Rounsevell,  dealer  in  second-hand  goods,  was  born  in  1853; 
came  to  Sac  county,  la.,  in  the  spring  of  1869;  removed  to  Osceola 
county  in  1874;  thence  to  this  city  in  1881.  He  married  Adrienne 
Cook,  of  St.  Oilman,  la. 

Hon.  William  Remsen  Smith,  Mayor  of  Sioux  City,  was  born 
atBarnegat,  Ocean  county,  New  Jersey,  December  30th,  1828.  At 
sixteen,  he  went  to  New  York  Citv,  whence  he  removed  to  Macon, 
Mich.     Returning  to  New  York  City,  he  studied   medicine,  after 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  237 

which  he  a^ain  located  at  Macon,  where  he  practiced  three  years 
in  partnership  with  Dr.  Joseph  Howell.  In  1856  Dr.  Smith  re- 
moved to  Sioux  City.  Here  ne  practiced  medicine  for  eleven  years. 
In  the  spring  of  18G1,  he  was  a  first  lieutenant  of  the  Sioux  City 
cavalry.  About  this  time  he  was  appointed  government  surgeon, 
holding  that  position  until  1863.  In  March,  1863,  he  was  elected 
Mayor  of  Sioux  City.  For  several  years  after  the  rebellion  closed, 
he  acted  as  examining  surgeon  for  the  pension  bureau.  He  was 
appointed  receiver  of  the  U.  S.  land  oflSce  in  1865,  and  was  one 
of  the  incorporators  of  the  First  National  Bank  of  Sioux  City, 
and  of  the  oioux  City  &  St.  P.  and  S.  C.  and  Pembina  railroads. 
Dr.  Smith  has  held  a  number  of  minor  responsible  public  positions. 
He  was  one  of  the  honorary  commissioners  of  Iowa  to  the  Paris 
exposition  of  1878,  traveled  extensively  through  Europe,  and  while 
in  England  was  made  a  member  of  the  famous  Cobden  Club.  He 
is  now  a  correspondent  of  the  leading  agricultural  journals  of 
England.  He  was  elected  to  his  present  office  in  1881.  In  July, 
1859,  he  was  married  to  Rebecca  6sbome,  of  Macon,  Mich. 

L.  C.  Sanborn,  of  the  firm  of  Sanborn  &  Follett,  proprietors  of 
lumber  yard  and  sawmill,  (also  own  one-half  interest  in  city  mill 
and  elevator),  established  business  in  1850.  The  machinery  for 
the  saw  mill  was  shipped  on  the  first  boat  that  landed  at  Sioux 
City.  At  that  time  there  was  but  one  store  in  this  city.  Mr. 
Sanborn  was  born  in  Chester,  N.  H.,  April  28th,  1827.  In  Jan., 
1856,  he  came  west,  and  in  Feb.  of  the  same  year  he  located  at  this 
place.  He  voted  for  the  first  city  mayor,  and  was  a  member  of  the 
city  council  many  years;  also  has  served  as  a  member  of  the  school 
board  several  terfias. 

Wm.  Schudell,  gunsmith,  was  born  in  Switzerland  in  1851; 
came  to  America  in  1872,  and  settled  in  N.  Y.,  removed  to  this 
city  in  1874.  He  married  Phoebe  Hoffler,  of  Germany.  They  had 
one  child — William,  now  deceased. 

Rudolph  Seizor,  brewer,  was  bom  in  Germany  in  1828;  came  to 
America  in  1853,  and  settled  in  Omaha,  Neb.,  where  he  built  a 
brewery;  removed  to  this  city  in  1860,  and  built  the  first  brewery 
in  Woodbury  county.  He  was  married  in  1853  to  Theresa  Wasser, 
and  has  five  children — Charles,  Emma,  Otto,  Lewis  and  Fritz. 
Charles  is  foreman  of  the  works,  and  Lewis  is  book-keeper  and 
clerk. 

Daniel  Shannon,  proprietor  of  Shannon's  meat  market,  estab- 
lished business  in  1S79.  He  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  in 
1846;  removed  to  Oc^le  county.  111.,  in  1858;  thence  to  Nebraska 
City  in  1S73;  thence  to  Chicago,  111.,  in  1874;  and  came  to  this 
city  in  1875.  He  has  served  as  town  clerk  one  term.  He  married 
Helen  V.  Utiey,  of  Syracuse,  Neb. 


238  HISTOKr  OF  IOWA. 

Frank  L.  Sharp,  proprietor  of  Criterion  sample  room  and  billiard 
hall — corner  3d  and  Douglas  sts. — was  born  in  Ind.  in  1853;  re- 
moved to  Sioux  City  in  1850. 

Andrew*  Shulson  was  born  in  Norway  in  1855;  came  to  America 
in  1867,  and  settled  in  Canton,  Dak.,  and  engaged  in  farming, 
until  he  moved  to  Sioux  City,  where  he  entered  the  employ  of  the 
firm  of  E.  C.  Palmer  &  Co.,  and  remained  until  1881.  He  mar- 
ried Laura  Lawson,  of  Canton,  Dak. 

E.  W.  Skinner,  land,  loan,  and  insurance  aeent,  was  born  in 
Pa.;  removed  to  Wis.  in  1847,  and  located  at  Milwaukee;  thence 
to  Madison,  and  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  farm  machinery 
and  agricultural  implements;  also  published  the  Wisconsin  Farmer 
for  several  years.  He  came  to  Sioux  City  in  1872,  and  is  secretary 
of  the  boara  of  trade. 

Mr.  C.  D.  Shreeve,  dealer  in  groceries,  confectionery,  dry  goods, 
notions,  etc. — corner  of  4th  ana  Iowa  st«.  Mr.  C.  D.  Shreeve 
was  born  in  La  Forte  county,  Ind.,  in  1844;  removed  to  Des 
Moines,  la.,  in  1867;  thence  to  Sioux  City  in  1881,  and  is  superin- 
tendent of  the  city  gas  works.  He  served  in  the  late  war  three 
years  in  the  4th  Ind.  cavalry.  In  Aug.,  1881,  he  married  Marie  C. 
Kaybuck,  of  Washington  county,  Penn.  He  has  two  children  by 
a  former  marriage — Carl  C.  and  Ora  A. 

M.  L.  Sloan,  county  auditor  of  Woodbury  county,  was  born  in 
Harrison  county,  0.,  m  1848;  removed  to  la.  in  1866,  and  to  Sioux 
City  in  1870,  and  Was  employed  in  the  auditor's  oflBce  as  clerk.  In 
1877  was  elected  to  his  present  oflBce.  He  was  married  in  1875  to 
Ida  M.  Hill,  and  has  two  children — Isabella  P.  and  Alice  M. 

F.  M.  Smith,  of  the  firm  of  Smith  &  Farr,  butter  dealers,  was 
born  in  Otsego  county,  N.  Y.,  in  1835;  removed  to  Sioux  City  in 
1876,  and  engaged  in  his  present  business. 

Thomas  J.  Stone,  founder  and  cashier  of  the  First  National 
bank  of  Sioux  City,  was  born  in  Niagara  county,  N.  Y.,  in  1825; 
lived  for  several  years  on  a  farm  near  Mt.  Vernon,  0.,  and  removed 
to  Marion,  la.,  in  1851.  He  came  to  this  city  in  1855,  and  en- 
gaged in  banking  and  land  business.  He  founded  the  First  Na- 
tional bank  in  1871,  and  is  the  largest  stockholder  in  the  bank; 
was  elected  county  treasurer  in  1871,  and  held  the  oflSce  until  1878. 
Mr.  Stone's  son,  E.  H.,  is  a  graduate  of  Yale  College,  and  at  pres- 
ent assistant  cashier  in  the  bank.  He  also  has  a  daughter,  Alice  E. 

Wm.  Storey,  proprietor  of  the  North  Star  meat  market,  was 
born  in  England  in  1848;  came  to  America  in  1866,  and  settled 
in  Sioux  City,  where,  for  some  time  he  was  in  the  employ  of  J. 
Tucker  and  N.  L.  Witcher.  He  married  Eveline  Fenton.  They 
have  four  children — Jane  E.,  Emma  M.,  Eveline  M.,  and  James  E. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  239 

James  Storey,  proprietor  of  meat  market,  on  Pearl  street,  was 
born  in  England  in  1840;  came  to  America  in  1869,  and  settled  in 
Sioux  City.     He  is  largely  engaged  in  buying  stock. 

G.  N.  Swan,  secretary  and  treasurer  of  Sioux  City  plow  works, 
was  bom  in  Sweden  in  1856;  came  to  America  in  1870,  and  settled 
in  Lucas  county,  la.;  removed  to  this  city  in  1880,  and  became  a 
partner  in  his  present  business  in  the  spring  of  1881.  The  plow 
works  were  incorporated  in  May,  1880,  with  authorized  capital  of 
$100,000.  A  noteworthy  feature  of  this  establishment  is  tne  fact 
that  the  stockholders  are  all  skilled  mechanics,  and  all  work  in 
the  diflFerent  departments  of  the  establishment.  The  buildings  are 
of  brick  and  situated  within  a  few  feet  ot  the  main  track  of  the  I. 
C.  R.  R.,  and  have  switching  conveniences  to  the  S.  C.  &  P.,  and 
the  C,  St.  P.,  M.  &  0.  R.  R's.  They  are  now  making  a  full  line 
of  walking  plows,  and  will  commence  soon  to  include  every  variety 
of  plows  used  in  the  west,  also  cultivators,  harrows,  and  other 
agncultural  implements. 

Capt.  J.  H.  Swan,  attorney  at  law,  was  born  in  Canada  in  1833; 
moved  to  Ohio  at  an  early  a^e,  with  his  parents;  thence  to  St.  Paul, 
Minn.,  in  1851;  spent  some  time  among  the  Sioux  Indians  in  west- 
tern  Minn.;  removed  to  Le  Sueur  in  1854,  and  engaged  in  the 
study  of  the  law;  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1857,  and  practiced 
until  the  beginning  of  the  war  of  the  rebellion,  when  he  enlisted 
in  Co.  I,  3rd  Minn.  Vol.,  as  first  lieutenant.  He  was  promoted 
to  captain  and  served  until  1865,  and  then  went  to  Little  Rock, 
Ark.;  thence  back  to  Le  Sueur,  where  he  remained  until  1871,  when 
he  removed  to  Sioux  City,  and  has  been  engaged  as  attorney  for 
the  C,  M.,  St.  P,  &  0.  R.  R.  His  son,  C.  M.,  is  in  partnership  with 
him.     They  do  a  general  law  business. 

William  Z.  Swarts,  proprietor  of  the  Red  Front  auction  store, 
was  born  in  Carlisle,  Cumberland  county.  Pa.,  in  1840;  removed  to 
Wooster,  0.,  in  1844.  He  enlisted  in  Co.  I,  16th  0.  regiment, 
and  remained  in  the  array  until  Jan.  28th,  1866,  when  he  was  mus- 
tered out;  served  in  the  official  capacity  of  orderly  sergeant.  He 
moved  to  Iowa  City,  la.,  in  1866;  thence  to  Chicago  in  1871, 
where  he  was  engaged  in  auctioneering;  thence  to  Sioux  City  in 
1873. 

C.  R.  Tappan,  of  the  firm  of  Tappan  Bros.,  dealers  in  carriage 
and  buggy  norses,  (Teams  matched  and  horses  bought  and  sold. 
They  make  a  speciality  of  breaking  vicious  and  wicked  horses.  Any 
horse  that  they  can  not  manage  they  agree  to  send  bpck  to  the 
owner  and  pay  charges  both  ways.  They  also  stand  in  readiness 
to  drive  races,  and  train  horses  for  the  track.)  C.  R.  Tappan  was 
born  in  N.  Y.  in  1855;  removed  to  Neb.,  in  April,  1879:  thence  to 
Sioux  City  in  Oct..  1881.  B.  M.  Tappan  was  torn  in  Onandaigua 
county,  ]S[.  Y.,  in  1857;  in  Sept,,  1881,  he  came  to  this  city,  and 


240  HISTOET  OF  IOWA. 

engaged  in  his  present  business.      They  are  thorough  horsemen, 
and  have  had  long  experience  in  handling  horses. 

F.  C.  Thompson,  dealer  in  real  estate,  and  insurance  agent,  was 
bom  in  Whitby,  Upper  Canada;  removed  with  his  parents  to  Erie 
county,  N.  Y.;  thence  to  Ottumwa,  la.,  in  1867,  and  engaged  in 
the  real  estate  and  insurance  business  with  C.  C.  Blake;  thence  to 
Sioux  City  in  1869. 

N.  Tiedeman,  of  the  firm  of  Tiedeman  &  Anthon,  dealers  in 
staple  and  fancy  groceries,  cigars,  tobacco,  etc.,  was  bom  in  Prus-' 
sia  in  1842;  came  to  America  in  the  spring  of  1866,  located  in  Dav- 
enport, la.,  and  engaged  in  farming;  removed  to  Sioux  City  the 
same  year;  is  now  an  alderman  of  the  city. 

Hugh  Toohey,  of  the  firm  of  Dussing  &  Toohey,  proprietors  of 
restaurant,  corner  of  6th  and  Pearl  streets,  established  business  in 
1881.  He  was  born  in  Canada  in  1859;  came  to  Sioux  City  in 
1870,  and  was  engaged  for  a  time  as  clerk  in  St.  Elmo  hotel;  was 
also  employed  at  the  Hubbard  house. 

Joseph  Trudell,  manufacturer  of  carriages,  buggies,  etc.,  corner 
Pearl  and  2d  streets,  is  the  patentee  of  the  famous  Tmdell  bolster 
plate,  which  is  acknowledged  to  be  the  best  thing  of  the  kind  ever 
invented.  He  was  born  in  Montreal,  Canada,  in  1820;  removed  to 
St.  Lawrence  county,  N.  Y.,  in  1828;  thence  back  to  Canada^ 
where  he  married  Sophia  Maynard.  He  next  removed  to  Elgin, 
111.;  thence  to  Dubuque,  la.,  where  he  lived  twenty-five  years; 
thence  in  1873  to  Sioux  City.    He  has  five  sons  and  one  daughter. 

John  Tucker,  proprietor  of  the  Globe  meat  market,  Peirce  street, 
Hubbard  house. block,  established  business  in  1867.  In  1881  he 
refitted  his  place  of  business  at  a  cost  of  $2,000,  and  has  now  all 
the  modern  improvements,  his  establishment  being  a  credit  to  the 
city.  He  was  born  in  England  in  1838;  came  to  America  in  1858, 
and  settled  in  Va.     He  removed  to  Sioux  City  in  18G7. 

Geo.  W.  Wakefield,  attorney  at  law,  was  born  in  DeWitt  county, 
111.,  in  1839.  He  enlisted  in  Co.  F,  41st  111.  Vol.,  and  served  three 
years;  was  wounded  at  Jackson,  Miss.,  and  returned  to  111.  He 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  De  Witt  county  in  1807;  came  to  Sioux 
City  iu  1868,  and  was  elected  county  auditor  in  1809,  serving  three 
years,  after  which  he  resumed  the  practice  of  the  law. 

Rev.  D.  R.  Watson  was  born  in  Scotland  in  1841;  came  to 
America  in  1852;  received  his  early  education  at  White  Star  sem- 
inary, N.  Y.  He  graduated  in  the  nine  years'  course  at  Madison 
University  in  1868,  and  at  Rochester  Theological  Seminary  in  1871, 
with  the  title  .of  A.  M.  His  first  pastoral  charge  was  at  Lowville^ 
N.  Y.  He  next  went  to  Brandon,  Vt.,  where  he  spent  five  years, 
and  thon  to  Wyoming  Ter.,  where  he  remained  five  months.  He 
came  to  Sioux  City  in  1881.  In  1876  he  married  Carlie  E.  Cope- 
ley,  and  has  two  children — John  R.  and  Robinson  D. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  241 

W.  L.  Wilkins,  dealer  in  agricultural  implements,  came  to  Sioux 
City  in  1870,  and  soon  afterwards  engaged  in  business,  under  the 
firm  name  of  Davis  &  Wilkins;  next  as  Wilkins  Bros.;  subse- 
quently W.  L.  Wilkins  became  sole  proprietor.  He  has  one  of  the 
leading  establishments  of  the  kind  in  the  city.  He  handles  all 
first  class  machinery,  such  as  McCormick^s,  N.  C.  Thompson's  and 
J.  I.  Case's  various  machinery,  Harrison  and  Whitewater  wagons, 
Racine  wagon  and  carriage  company's  goods,  windmills,  barbed 
.  wire,  and  is  also  a  dealer  in  grain. 

A.  C.  Woodcock,  dealer  in  groceries,  produce,  flour,  etc..  No- 
116,  4th  street,  was  born  in  AVestmoreland  county.  Pa.;  removed 
to  West  Va.;  thence  to  0.;  thence  to  Keokuk,  la.,  where  he  wa 
employed  in  iron  moulding;  thence  to  this  city.  He  served  in  the 
U.B.  A.  from  Aug.  11th,  1862,  to  July,  1865,  in  Co.  D,  W.  Va. 
Cav.,  under  Gen.  Custer,  in  the  third  division  of  Sheridan's  corps; 
was  first  lieutenant,  and  acted  as  brig^ide  commissary.  He  was  at 
the  final  surrender  at  Appomattox.  The  night  before  the  surren- 
der, their  division  captured  thirty-six  pieces  of  artillery  at  Appo- 
mattox depot.  His  company  was  the  last  company  fired  upon  in 
the  war  of  the  rebellion.  He  married  Emma  Van  Kuren,  of  Me- 
dina, N.  y. 

SLOAN. 

R.  C.  Barnard,  station  agent  and  telegraph  operator,  was  born 
in  the  District  of  Columbia  in  1829;  removed  to  Neb.  in  1857.  He 
platted  the  townsite  of  Grand  Island;  removed  to  Omaha  in  1803, 
where  he  was  city  engineer  for  several  years;  in  1868  removed  to 
Council  BiuiFs,  and  engaged  in  the  dry  goods  business,  and  in  1870 
came  to  Sloan  and  engaged  in  the  mercantile  business  with  Beal  & 
Evans.     In  1873  he  took  charge  of  his  present  ofiBce. 

Joseph  Gravel,  farmer  and  stock  dealer,  was  born  in  Canada  in 
1843;  came  to  the  U.  S.  in  1850,  and  the  next  year  located  in  Sioux 
City,  where  he  was  engaged  in  mercantile  business  for  three  years; 
then  removed  to  Sergeant's  Bluffs,  and  in  1870  removed  to  a  farm 
near  Sloan,  and  was  the  original  owner  of  the  town  site  of  that 
place.  He  was  appointed  postmaster  in  1800,  and  held  the  oflSce 
two  years,  when  he  resigned.  He  is  now  engaged  in  stock  raising 
on  a  farm  of  about  one  thousand  acres. 

Edwin  Haakinson,  shipper  and  dealer  in  live  stock,  was  bom  in 
Norway  in  1844;  came  to  America  in  1801,  and  settled  in  Winne- 
bago county,  W^is.  In  1862  he  enlisted  in  Co.  C,  1st  Wis.  Heavy 
Art.;  served  three  years,  and  was  soon  after  the  battle  of  Lookout 
Mountain  taken  sick  with  the  small  pox,  and  taken  to  the  foot  of 
the  mt.,  and  left  to  die;  was  there  alone  six  days,  survived  and 
returned  to  the  company,  and  was  detailed  to  Gen.  Lester's  head- 
buarters  as  orderly,  for  six  months;  then  was  appointed  mail  car- 


242  HISTORY  OP  lOWJL 

rier  between  Knoxville  and  Greenville,  Tenn.  When  discharged 
he  returned  to  Wis.,  and  engaged  in  ship-building.  In  1869  he 
removed  to  Sloan,  and  engaged  in  mercantile  business  until  lc78, 
when  he  engaged  in  his  present  business.  He  owns  180  acres  of 
land  near  this  place,  and  about  $30,000  worth  of  business  property 
in  Sioux  City.  He  married  Carrie  Hansen,  in  1869,  and  has  three 
children — Emil  H.,  Carl,  and  Herbert  W.  Has  lost  one  child  by 
death. 

C.  A.  L.  Olscn,  dealer  in  general  merchandise,  was  born  in  Nor- 
way, Dec.  1st,  1838;  came  to  America  in  1860,  and  settled  in  Mil- 
waukee, Wis.;  was  employed  on  the  lakes  as  a  sailor,  seven  years; 
came  to  Iowa  in  1869,  and  settled  on  a  farm  nea^  Sloan,  and  en- 
gaged in  his  present  business  in  1881.  In  1867  he  married  Al- 
vildo  Resmusen,  and  has  seven  children. 

W.  M.  Parker,  proprieter  of  the  Parker  House,  was  born  in  Os- 
wego county,  N.  Y.;  in  1837  removed  to  Adams  county,  Wis.; 
thence  to  Montana  and  engaged  in  mining;  thence  in  1867  went 
to  Sioux  City;  thence  in  1869  to  Sergeant's  Bluffa  and  to  Sloan  in 
1880  and  engaged  in  hoteling.  He  married  Silpha  Ladd  in  1859, 
they  have  two  children. 

J.  H.  Scroggin,  of  the  firm  of  J.  H.  Scroggin  &  Son,  hardware 
dealers,  was  born  in  Tenn.  in  1824;  removed  during  childhood  to 
111.;  thence  to  Wis.  in  1850;  thence  to  Cass  county,  la.  in  1872 
and  the  next  year  to  Sloan  and  bought  a  farm  near  the  town  and 
engaged  in  farming  until  he  entered  his  present  business,  in  Mar. 
1881.  He  was  married  in  1848,  and  had  ten  children.  The  part- 
ner of  the  firm  W.  F.,  owns  a  farm  near  his  father's;  was  married 
in  1877  and  has  two  children. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  348 


MONONA  COUNTY. 


This  county  lies  on  the  Missouri  River,  and  is  in  the  fifth  tier 
from  the  northern  and  southern  boundaries  of  the  State.  It  is 
twenty-four  miles  north  and  south,  by  an  average  of  nearly  thirty 
miles  east  and  west,  in  extent,  and  comprises  sixteen  full  congres- 
sional townships,  and  some  four  or  five  that  are  fractional,  embrac- 
ing in  all  an  area  of  about  six  hundred  and  eighty  square  miles. 
The  Missouri  River,  which  is  the  western  boundary,  runs  in  a 
southeasterly  direction,  making  the  southern  boundary  line  some 
twelve  miles  shorter  than  the  northern. 

A  considerable  area  of  the  county  is  of  bottom,  or  valley  lands, 
upwards  of  one  hundred  and  sixty-five  thousand  acres  being  in- 
cluded in  the  great  Missouri  River  bottom,  through  the  western 
portion  of  the  county.  The  ascent  of  these  bottoms  to  the  north 
is  more  rapid  than  that  of  the  Missouri  River,  thus  leaving  a  small 
portion  of  these  valuable  lands  subject  to  overflows  in  high  water 
seasons,  and  rendering  them  sufiiciently  dry  and  well  drained  for 
ea.sy  and  successful  cultivation. 

The  eastern  portion  of  the  county  is  a  high  and  rolling  prairie, 
well  watered  and  drained  by  Willow  Creek,  Soldier  and  Maple  Riv- 
ers, and  their  affluents,  all  of  which  are  surrounded  by  wide,  beau- 
tiful and  exceedingly  fertile  valleys.  The  uplands  abut  abruptly 
on  the  bottoms  along  the  east  side  of  the  Little  Sioux,  presenting 
the  varied  and  peculiar  features  characteristic  of  the  bluflB  along 
the  Missouri  bottoms  throughout  their  extent  in  the  State.  These 
bluiFs  are  unusually  uniform  in  elevation,  the  highest  point  being 
not  less  than  three  hundred  feet  above  the  sea  level.  The  uplands 
in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  bluffs,  are  too  broken  and  uneven 
to  be  practically  adapted  to  agricultural  uses,  and  are  cut  up  with 
wooded  ravines,  white  the  valleys  of  the  smaller  streams,  a  few 
miles  inland,  are  bordered  by  gentle  acclivities  which  ascend  from 
the  sloping  bottoms  to  the  well  rounded  and  gentle  divides  which 
intervene  between  the  water  courses. 

Most  of  the  streams  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  county  are 
bordered  by  beautiful  bottom  lands,  varying  from  one-half  to  two 
miles  in   width,  while   the  streams  themselves   are   margined  by 

Erassy  banks,  with  beds  composed  of  mire  and  quicksand.  The 
ittle  Sioux  River,  with  several  other  streams,  affords  some  good 
water  powers  for  machinery,  on  which  several  mills  have  been 
established,  while  numerous  other  eligible  locations  still  remain- 
ing will  yet  be  properly  and  similarly  utilized.  Wells  of  excel- 
lent water  are  easily  obtained  in  the  valleys  at  depths  varying  from 
ten  to  twenty  feet,  while  in  the  uplands  it  is  often  found  neces- 
sary to  sink  through  the  bluffs  deposit  to  a  depth  of  over  one  hun- 


241  HISTORY   OP  IOWA.  • 

dred  feet  before  a  permanent  supply  of  water  can  be  reached. 
Springs  are  found  at  frequent  intervals  issuing  from  the  blu£&, 
and  with  the  brooklets  that  are  fed  by  them,  as  also  with  the 
larger  streams,  afford  plenty  of  water  for  stock,  which  find  excel- 
lent grazing  on  the  uplands,  while  on  the  low-lands  several  varie- 
ties of  native  grasses  furnish  very  nutritious  hay.  Several  lakes 
of  considerable  size  are  found  in  the  Missouri  Valley,  which  are 
clear  and  inhabited  with  a  variety  of  excellent  fish.  Some  of 
these  lakes  have  the  appearance  of  having  once  formed  a  portion 
of  the  channel  of  the  Missouri,  which  is  now,  however,  several 
miles  distant,  with  heavy  cottonwood  groves  intervening. 

The  soil  in  the  valleys  is  usually  a  deep  black  mold  or  fine  loam, 
it  is  from  six  to  fifteen  feet  in  depth,  and  produces  exceptionally 
large  crops  of  corn,  and  other  grains,  and  vegetables  indigenous  to 
the  western  slope.  In  the  Missouri  bottoms,  low,  sandy  ridges  are 
frequently  met  with,  which  are  the  remains  of  bars  formed  oy  the 
currents,  when  the  river  occupied  the  whole  width  of  the  valley 
from  bluff  to  bluff  on  either  side.  The  bottom  deposits  are  quite 
variable  in  the  character  of  their  component  parts,  though  the 
fine,  dark  loam  constitutes  by  far  the  greater  proportion  of  the 
surface  soil.  This  is  generally  underlaid  by  sand  and  gravel,  and 
sometimes  by  a  deposit  of  clay  containing  large  quantities  of  par- 
tially decayed  wood,  and  other  vegetable  matter,  which  are  frequent- 
ly mot  with  in  sinking  wells.  Most  of  the  upland  is  covered  with 
a  heavy  coating  of  dark  humus-charged  loam,  with  subsoil  of  the 
light  mulatto-colored  bluff  deposit.  No  sterile  Inad  is  found  in 
the  county,  for  even  that  which  is  broken  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
bluffs,  is  very  fertile,  and  produces  excellent  crops  of  wheat,  oats 
and  other  cereals,  and  in  its  native  state  produces  very  tine  pas- 
turage for  stock. 

The  largest  bodies  of  timber  are  the  extensive  groves  of  cotton- 
wood,  which  border  the  banks  of  the  Missouri,  while  more  or  less 
extensive  groves  of  this  and  other  kinds  of  timber  are  found  on 
the  Little  Sioux,  and  many  of  the  deep  ravines  running  further 
back  into  the  county  are  densely  shaded  with  luxuriant  forest 
growths.  Like  most  of  the  counties  on  the  Missouri  slope  in  Iowa, 
Monona  County  has  no  stone  or  coal,  while  the  bluff  deposit  fur- 
nishes an  abundance  of  material  for  the  manufacture  of  brick, 
which  must  be  depended  upon  for  the  future  supply  of  building 
material.  The  local  supply  of  fuel,  which  all  comes  from  the  for- 
ests, though  ample  for  tne  present  wants,  must  become  scarce  in 
time,  unless  the  future  demand  is  anticipated  by  the  cultivation  of 
artificial  groves. 

So  far  as  can  be  ascertained,  the  first  white  man  to  spend  the 
winter  in  Monona  County  was  Aaron  Cook,  who  with  some  asso- 
ciates, passed  the  winter  of  1851  here,  engaged  in  herding  cattle. 
The  first  permanent  settler  was  Isaac  Asliton,  who,  in  1852,  lo- 
cated about  two  miles  north  of  the  present  town  of  Onawa,  where, 


HISTORY   OF  IOWA.  245 

in  1855,  he  laid  oufc  the  town  of  Ashton.  Philip  Ashton,  who  was 
frozen  to  death  in  the  winter  of  1852,  was  the  first  white  person 
to  die  in  Monona  County.  Other  settlers  came  in  the  summer  of 
1853,  in  which  year  Josiah  Sumner  located  in  the  vicinity  of  On- 
awa,  and  Aaron  Cook  at  Cook's  Landing,  on  the  Missouri  River, 
seven  miles  southwest  of  Onawa.  Among  others  who  came  prior 
to  1855,  were  C.  E.  Whiting,  Robert  Lindley,  Timothy  Elliott,  J. 
E.  Morrison,  J.  B.  P.  Day,  and  B.  D.  Holbrook.  Several  of  the 
early  settlers  came  from  the  eastern  part  of  Iowa,  while  others 
were  from  Illinois  and  the  Eastern  States. 

Among  the  early  settlers  of  the  county  was  Charles  B.  Thomp- 
son, a  Mormon  leader,  who,  with  a  number  of  followers,  located 
on  the  Soldier  River,  in  what  is  now  called  Spring  Valley  Town- 
ship, about  fifteen  miles  southwest  of  the  present  town  of  Onawa. 

They  commenced  their  settlement  in  1854.  Thompson  called 
the  place  Preparation,  as  he  designed  here  to  prepare  nis  apostles 
for  the  ^^gooa  time  coming.'^  As  Thompson  was  an  important 
man  in  the  early  history  of  Monona  county,  some  account  of  him, 
and  of  the  enterprise  in  which  he  was  a  leader,  will  be  of  interest. 
He  had  been  a  follower  and  disciple  of  Joe  Smith  at  Nauvoo,  bat 
went  to  St.  Louis  in  1852,  and  organized  a  church.  In  the  sum- 
mer of  1853,  he  sent  some  of  his  followors  as  commissioners  to 
look  for  and  select  a  location  for  his  people  in  Iowa.  They  selected 
the  valley  of  the  Soldier  in  the  south  part  of  Monona  county,  all 
the  land  at  that  time  being  vacant. 

In  1854  he  brought  some  fifty  or  sixty  families,  and  pre-empted 
several  th6usand  acres  of  the  best  land  to  be  found  in  the  region. 
Some  of  the  land  he  subsequently  entered.  Thompson  regulated 
and  controlled  all  the  affairs  of  the  colony,  both  temporal  and  spir- 
itual, pretending  that  he  had  authority  to  do  so  under  the  direc- 
tion 01  a  spirit  which  he  called  Baneemy.  Among  other  assump- 
tions, he  pretended  that  he  was  the  veritable  Lphraim  of  the 
Scriptures,  and  directed  his  people  to  call  him  Father  Ephraim.  A 
strict  compliance  with  his  teacnings  divested  his  followers  of  aJl 
worldly  care,  and  prepared  them  for  the  further  essential  doctrine 
of  his  religion,  that  in  order  to  obtain  the  Kingdom,  they  must 
sacrifice  all  their  earthly  possessions.  They  accordingly  conveyed 
to  him  all  their  lands  and  other  property,  including  even  their 
wearing  apparel,  and  the  right  to  tneir  services. 

Under  tnis  arrangement,  '^Father  Ephraim"  and  Baneemyism 
progressed  swimmingly,  until  the  autumn  of  1855,  when  a  little 
rebellion  occurred  under  the  leadership  of  an  Elder  named  Hugh 
Lytle,  who,  with  some  twenty  of  them,  began  a  suit  in  the  courts 
for  the  recovery  of  their  property;  but  they  failed,  and  the  matter 
was  subsequently  compromised  by  the  Lytle  party  receiving  some 
of  their  property  and  withdrawing  from  the  society. 

The  remainder  adhered  to  Thompson  without  serious  difficulty 
until  the  autumn  of  1858.    During  the  summer  of  that  year,  most 


246  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

of  the  male  adults  of  the  society  were  absent  in  other  States, 
preaching  the  doctrines  of  Baneemyism  to  the  Gentiles.  Thomp- 
son, who  arrogated  to  himself  the  title  of  ''Chief  Steward  of  the 
Lord,"  took  advantt^  of  their  absence  to  convey  all  the  realty  to 
his  wife,  Catharine  Thompson,  and  to  one  Guy  C.  Barnum,  reserv- 
ing only  forty  acres  as  a  homestead  for  himself.  His  disciples, 
hearing  of  this  transaction,  returned  and  immediately  called  on 
^'Father  Ephraim^^  for  restitution.  Being  unable  to  obtain  a  sat- 
isfactory adjustment  of  the  matter,  they  notified  him  that  on  a 
stated  day  he  would  be  expected  to  meet  them  in  Preparation  to 
make  settlement. 

The  '' Chief  Steward  of  the  Lord,"  and  "Assistant  Steward  of 
the  Lord "  Barnum,  had  not  suflScient  courage  to  ''  face  the 
music,"  however,  and  postponed  their  visit  to  Preparation  until 
the  day  after  the  one  appointed,  doubtless  thinking  that  the 
angry  crowd  would  have  become  dispersed  by  that  time.  On  the 
way  they  were  met,  about  a  mile  from  the  village,  by  a  young  wo- 
man who  had  not  yet  lost  confidence  in  "Father  Ephraim'  and 
Baneemyism,  and  who  informed  them  that  the  people  were  still  con- 
gregated at  Preparation,  and  would  hang  him  on  sight;  which  in- 
formation had  the  effect  on  "Father  Ephraim"  it  was  well  calcu- 
lated to  have,  especially  as  at  about  that  moment  of  time,  men  on 
horseback  were  observed  coming  from  Preparation  at  full  speed, 
and  heading  in  a!l  earnestness  in  the  direction  of  the  Chief  Steward 
and  Assistant.  Springing  from  the  wagon  in  which  they  were  seated, 
and  unharnessing  their  norses,  the  two  Stewards  hurriedly  sprang 
upon  the  backs  of  the  animals,  and  the  chase,  which  ensued,  was 
of  an  exciting  and  highly  interesting  character.  After  a  lively 
race  of  fifteen  miles,  across  prairies  and  over  creeks  and  ravines, 
the  ''Father"  and  the  "Assistant  Father,"  arrived  safely  in 
Onawa,  where  they  were  given  protection  by  the  citizens. 

Thompson  went  from  Onawa  to  St.  Louis,  and  Barnum  remained 
in  Onawa  until  the  following  spring,  removing  thence  to  Nebraska, 
where  he,  in  course  of  time,  became  a  prominent  citizen.  Thomp- 
son subsequently  attempted  to  founa  another  similar  religious 
society,  but  was  unsuccessful,  and  next  turned  his  attention  to 
publishing  a  book  on  the  ''Origin  of  the  Black  and  Mixed  Races," 
which  book  he  pretended  to  translate  largely  from  the  Hebrew 
and  Greek  languages,  which,  it  is  said,  he  m  reality  knew  nothing 
about.  The  last  heard  of  him  by  his  former  followers  in  Monona, 
was  to  the  effect  that  he  was  in  Philadelphia  in  destitute  circum- 
stances. After  his  flight  from  Preparation,  his  family  was  sent 
to  him  at  Onawa,  his  followers  (?)  dividing  the  personal  property 
among  themselves,  each  taking  such  of  his  own  property  as  he 
could  identify.  An  action  in  chancery  was  immediately  begun  to 
set  aside  the  conveyances  of  real  estate,  which  litigation  lingered 
in  the  courts  for  eight  years,  or  until  December,  1866,  when  the 
conveyances  were  all  declared  to  be  fraudulent,  and  were  set  aside, 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  247 

the  Supreme  Court  of  Iowa  holding  that  Thompson  held  the 
property  only  as  a  trustee.  The  property  was  sold  under  an  order 
of  the  court,  and  the  proceeds  were  divided  among  the  original 
contributors  in  ratio  to  the  amount  contributed  by  each.  Of  the 
sixty  families  brought  to  Monona  by  Thompson — to  the  settle- 
ment at  Preparation — only  three  or  four  remain — to  such  an  in- 
glorious termination  was  baneenyism  destined  to  attain. 

The  proper  name  by  which  this  peculiar  sect  sought  to  be  known 
is  said  to  have  been  the  ''Congregation  of  Jehovah  s  Presbytery  of 
Zion,"  which  was  contracted  to  ''Con-je-pre-zion,"  and  hence  the 
members  came  to  be  known  as  the  "Conjeprezionites."  Prepara- 
tion was  also  familiarly  known  as  Baneemy  Town. 

Monona  county  was  organized  in  1854.  At  the  time  of  its  or- 
ganization, it  had  a  population  of  222;  its  population  in  1860  was 
832;  in  1865  the  population  was  1,056;  in  1870  it  had  reached  3,654, 
which  was  increased  to  5,967  in  1875,  and  to  9,055  in  1880. 
Thirty-two  votes  were  cast  for  Governor  in  the  county  in  1854; 
134  votes  were  cast  in  1857,  and  in  1859,  Samuel  J.  Kirkwood  and 
A.  C.  Dodge,  Gubernatorial  candidates,  each  received  105  votes  in 
the  county. 

Charles  B.  Thompson  was  appointed  the  first  County  Judge. 
This  was  before  the  location  of  tne  county  seat,  so  that  the  first 
county  business  was  transacted  at  Preparation.  In  the  autumn  of 
1854,  the  county  seat  was  located  by  tne  commissioners  appointed 
by  the  Legislature.  They  gave  the  place  selected  the  name  of 
Bloomfield,  but  there  being  another  town  of  that  name  in  the 
State,  it  was  changed  to  Ashton.  The  county  seat  remained  there 
until  the  spring  of  1858,  when  it  was  removed  to  Onawa  by  a 
vote  of  the  people.  The  following  were  the  first  county  oflScers: 
Charles  B.  Thompson,  County  Judge;  Guy  C.  Barnum,  Treasurer; 
Hugh  Lytle,  Clerk;  Homer  C.  Hoyt,  Sherifil 

Monona  county  then  embraced  what  is  now  the  west  range  of 
townships  of  Crawford  county,  but  the  change  was  made  in  accord- 
ance with  the  votes  of  both  counties  in  1865.  In  1860  a  vote  was 
taken  on  the  question  of  the  removal  of  the  county  seat  from 
Onawa  to  Belvidere,  and  another  vote  was  taken  in  1862,  on  the 
removal  to  Areola;  both  of  which  attempts,  however,  failed,  and 
the  location  of  the  Sioux  City  &  Pacific  Railroad  may  be  said  to 
have,  in  all  probability,  finally  settled  the  question. 

The  first  newspaper  was  published  by  "Father  Ephraim"  Thomp- 
son at  Preparation,  and  was  called  Zion  Harbinger  and  Weekly 
Messenger,  Thompson  also  published  a  monthly  periodical.  Dur- 
ing the  continuance  of  this  paper,  it  flourished  under  several  dif- 
ferent names,  such  as  the  Weekly  News  and  Messenger  and  the 
Democratic  Messenger.  This  paper  was  started  in  1854;  in  1855, 
Thompson  published  a  paper  called  the  Onauxi  Adventure,  In 
November,  1860,  a  paper  was  commenced  at  Onawa,  by  A.  Dim- 
mick  and  D.  W.  Butts,  called  the  Monona  Cordon.    The  next  par 


248  HISrORT  OF  iowa. 

per,  the  West  Iowa  Gazette^  was  started  by  Mr.  Butts  about  the  be- 
ginniug  of  1863,  and  was  succeeded  in  1865  by  the  Monona 
County  Gazette^  the  first  number  of  which  was  issued  December 
2d,  1865,  F.  M.  Howdendobler  and  C.  H.  Aldridge  being  the  pub* 
lishers.  The  People's  Press  made  its  first  appearance  in  Onawa 
in  1870. 

The  first  frame  house  erected  in  the  county  was  built  at  Prep- 
aration in  the  summer  of  1853,  of  materials  brought  from  Potta- 
wattamie county.  Thomas  Lewis  taught  the  first  school  in  the 
county  at  Preparation  in  the  same  year.  In  1854  the  first  lumber 
was  sawed  at  Preparation.  Amos  Chase,  at  the  same  settlement, 
was  the  pioneer  blacksmith.  John  S.  Blackburn  began  the  mak- 
ing of  that  very  palatable  article,  com  meal,  in  1857.  In  1857,  a 
frame  school  house  was  erected  at  Ash  ton. 

The  first  officers  of  Ashton  Township  were:  Lorenzo  D.  Driggs, 
J.  B.  Gard;  Justices  of  the  Peace;  Josiah  Sumner,  Isaac  Ashton, 
J.  B.  Gard,  Trustees;  Aaron  Cook,  Clerk;  Lorenzo  Driggs,  Asses- 
sor; J.  Sumner,  M.  Owens,  Constables. 

The  present  county  officers  of  Monona  county  are:  C.  H. 
Aldridge,  Clerk;  James  Walker,  SheriflF;  John  K.  McCasky, 
Auditor;  G.  H.  Bryant,  Treasurer;  M.  W.  Bacon,  Recorder;  J.  B. 
P.  Day,  Surveyor;  J.  G.  Iddings,  Superintendent  of  Schools;  G. 
M.  Scott,  E.  Wilber,  Fred.  McClausland,  Board  of  Supervisors. 

The  Sioux  City  &  Pacific  Railroad  traverses  the  county  from 
north  to  south,  ^ong  its  western  border.  A  branch  of  the  Chicago 
&  Northwestern  enters  Monona  County  at  the  northeast  corner, 
and  terminates  at  Mapleton  Station.  This  line  is,  it  is  presumed 
to  be  built  through  the  county,  touching  Onawa,  and  extended 
into  Nebraska,  crossing  the  Missouri  at  Decatur.  Another  line, 
running  from  a  point  m  the  western  part  of  Crawford  county, 
through  Monona  County,  and  passing  on  to  Sioux  City,  is  looked 
forward  to.  This  line  is  expected  to  be  built  by  the  W .  &  St.  P. 
company,  and  will  pass  about  ten  miles  east  of  the  county  seat. 

The  towns  of  Monona  County  are:  Whiting,  situated  in  the 
northwestern  part,  on  the  Sioux  City  &  Pacific;  Mapleton,  to  the 
northwest;  Soldier,  to  the  southeast,  and  Onawa  in  the  western 
part  of  the  county. 

ONAWA. 

The  prosperous  and  progressive  town  of  Onawa,  the  county  seat 
of  Monona  County,  is  located  near  the  middle  line  of  the  county, 
north  and  south,  and  about  eight  miles  east  of  the  Missouri  River, 
but  only  about  four  miles  from  the  nearest  point  on  the  river  to 
the  southwest.  The  Monona  Land  Company  laid  out  Onawa  in 
1857,  including  in  its  area  about  six  hundred  acres,  with  about  six 
bundled  additional  acres  of  out-lots.  The  principal  streets  run 
cast  and  west,  and  are  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  in  width,  the 


HISTOKY   OF  IOWA.  249 

other  streets  being  eighty  feet  wide,  witli  alleys  sixteen  feet  wide. 
Two  blocks  were  reserved  in  the  northern  part  of  the  town  for 
public  parks. 

S.  S.  Pearse  built  the  first  house  in  Onawa  July  2d,  1857;  the 
Onawa  House  w&s  raised  on  the  4th  of  the  same  month,  by  J.  E. 
Morrison.  Among  the  first  settlers  were  Judge  C.  E.  Whiting,  J. 
E.  Morrison,  Timothy  Elliott,  R.  G.  Fairchild  and  S.  S.  Pearse. 

Surrounded  by  an  excellent  farming  country,  with  plenty  of 
timber  within  two  or  three  miles,  Onawa  is  certain  to  develop  into 
a  point  of  considerable  importance.  Since  its  incorporation ,  and 
the  completion  of  the  railroad,  the  population  of  the  town  has 
steadily  increased.  Onawa  is  thirty-seven  miles  from  Sioux  City, 
about  sixty-five  miles  from  Council  Bluffs,  and  thirty-eight  miles 
from  Missouri  Valley  Junction. 

Up  to  1868,  Onawa  remained  a  sub-district  of  Franklin  township 
district.  A  petition  was  presented  in  that  year,  praying  for  a  spec- 
ial election  to  vote  upon  the  question  of  theorganizaticm  of  an  in- 
dependent school  district.  This  petition  was  granted,  and  the  or- 
ginization  was  eflFected  February  22d,  1868.  The  members  of  the 
oard,  for  the  first  year,  were:  Charles  Atkins,  President;  James 
Armstrong,  Vice-President;  F.  M.  Snow,  Secretary;  N.  A.  Whit- 
ing, Treasurer;  R.  G.  Fairchild,  L.  D.  Sittle  and  J.  E.  Selleck,  Di- 
rectors. The  first  school  taught  in  the  town  was  taught  by  A.  R. 
Wright,  now  of  Sioux  City,  in  a  little  log  school  house,  now  on 
Main  street,  about  the  year  1857.  There  was  a  brick  school  house — 
28x50  feet  in  dimensions,  and  one-story  high,  erected  subse- 
quently, which  was  successfully  utilized  until  tne  building  of  the 
S resent  edifice  in  1874.  The  present  public  school  building  is  a 
ne  brick  structure,  48x85  feet,  and  tnree-stories  high.  It  con- 
tains six  rooms.  The  building  cost  in  the  neighborhood  of  $20,- 
000.  The  present  school  oflScers  are:  Board  of  Education — J.  K. 
McCaskey,  President;  S.  B.  Martin,  Secretary;  C.  H.  Holbrook,. 
Treasurer;  N.  A.  Whiting,  B.  D.  Holbrook,  G.  E.  Warner,  J.  E. 
Selleck,  M.  Vincent,  members  of  the  Board.  The  corps  of  teach- 
ers as  composed  at  this  writing,  is  as  follows:  W.  H.  Dempster^ 
Principal;  Belle  M.  Gilcrest,  Assistant  Principal;  W.  J.  Maugh- 
lin,  Annie  C.  Gillette,  D.  E.  Smith,  Flora  J.  Maughlin,  Bessie 
Gray,  teachers.  Present  enrollment,  about  300.  The  school  build- 
ing is  a  model  of  architectural  beauty  and  finish,  the  rooms  are 
large,  heated  by  means  of  furnaces,  ventilated  in  accordance  with 
the  Ruttan  system,  and  furnished  with  single  and  combination 
desks. 

The  Court  House  at  Onawa  was  built  by  the  Monona  Land 
Company  in  1858,  and  donated  to  the  county.  The  building  cost 
about  $7,000. 

A  summarized  history  of  Monona  county's  newspapers  has  been 
given  hitherto.  Room — or  rather  want  of  room — only  suflices 
here  to  say  that  the  Monona  County  Gazette  was  taken  charge  of 

17 


250  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

in  1879  by  W.  A.  Green  alone,  who  ran  the  paper  until  1870, 
when  it  subsequently  passed  into  the  ownership  of  the  Gazette 
Publishing  Company,  with  Mr.  J.  D.  Ainsworth  as  the  editor.  In 
1875,  Ainsworth  became  sole  proprietor,  and  has  continued  to  hold 
the  fort  in  a  most  commendable  way.  The  Gazette  is  an  eight- 
column  folio,  and  has  a  circulation  in  excess  of  800  copies. 

The  first  railroad  was  completed  to  Onawa  in  November,  1867, 
The  town  gave  the  company  the  right  of  way,  and  lots,  and  cash 
to  Jthe  amount  of  $8,000,  besides  donating  twenty  acres  of  land 
for  depot  pounds.  Onawa  has  a  reasonable  prospect  for  a  rail- 
road from  mapleton  during  the  present  year. 

The  date  of  the  platting  of  Onawa  was  the  year  1857.  The 
following  persons  composed  the  Monona  Land  Cornpany:  T. 
Elliott,  J.  E.  Morrison,  J.  L.  Merritt,  C.  E.  Whiting,  R.  G.  Fair- 
child,  S.  S.  Pearse,  A.  B.  Gard,  W.  S.  Phillips,  A.  Dimmick; 
Judge  Whiting  being  the  President;  T.  Elliott,  Treasurer;  S.  S. 
Pearse,  Secretary. 

The  first  Mayor  of  Onawa  was  Dr.  R.  Stebbins.  Present 
municipal  officers:  H.  E.  Morrison,  Mayor;  T.  P.  Noble,  Record- 
er; J.  C.  Pike,  D.  B.  Kenyon,  John  Cleghorn,  J.  R.  Thurston, 
T.  C.  Walton,  Council. 

The  business  interests  of  Onawa  may  be  classified,  with  reason- 
able accuracy,  as  follows: 

General  stores,  four;  groceries,  three;  drugstores,  two;  millinery, 
three;  harness,  two;  hardware,  two;  meat  markets  two;  clothing, 
one;  Jewelry,  one;  agricultural  implements,  two;  flour  and  feed, 
one;  bank,  one;  barber  shop,  one;  hotels,  three;  blacksmith  shops, 
three;  furniture,  one;  boots  and  shoes,  two;  livery,  two;  lumber, 
one;  flouring  mill,  one;  fancy  goods,  one;  saloons,  two. 

CHURCHES   AND   SOCIETIES. 

Congregational  Church  Society, — The  Congregational  Society^ 
was  organized  June  27th,  1858,  by  Rev.  G.  G.  Rice,  of  Council 
Bluff's,  and  R«v.  Reuben  Gaylord,  of  Omaha.  The  first-named 
gentleman  was  the  society's  first  pastor,  and  he  was  succeeded  by 
the  Rev.  George  L.  Woodhull,  who  died  October  1st,  1870,  aged 
28  years.  Mr.  Woodhull's  successor  was  the  present  pastor,  Rev. 
Charles  N.Lyman,  who  assumed  the  charge  January  1,  1871.  The 
church  edifice  was  erected  in  1870,  and  was  dedicated  in  Decem- 
ber of  that  year.  The  cost  was  $6,000.  Prior  to  the  erection  of 
this  building,  the  society  held  its  services  in  the  Court  House.  The 
present  membership  of  the  society  is  fifty-five.  'A  Sabbath  School, 
with  an  average  attendance  of  seventy-five  pupils,  is  connected 
with  the  church.  The  superintendent  of  the  school  is  the  Rev. 
Charles  N.  Lyman. 

■■  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  Society, — The  Methodist  Episcopal 
Society  was  organized  October  9th,  1870,  by  Rev.   J.   F.  Walker, 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  251 

who  was  the  first  pastor.  The  successive  pastors  were:  Revs.  L. 
H.  Woodworth,  A.  L.  Mattison,  0.  S.  Bryan,  J.  B.  Starkey,  J. 
Warner,  H.  W.  Jones,  S.  W.  Owen,  C.  E.  Chase,  F.  A.  Burdick 
and  A.  J.  Beebe,  the  latter  being  the  present  pastor.  The  edifice 
now  in  use  was  built  in  1873,  at  a  cost  of  $2,000.  The  society  had 
previously  held  services  in  the  public  school  house.  The  present 
membership  is  forty-three.  The  society  has  a  parsonage,  which 
was  built  in  1873,  during  Rev.  Starkey  s  pastoral  term.  There  is 
also  a  Sabbath  School  with  about  seventy-five  pupils,  the  superin- 
tenaent  of  which  is  Miss  D.  £.  Smith.  The  present  Trustees  of 
the  society  are:  M.  W.  Bacon,  S.  W.  Grow,  X.  D.  Sittle,  W.  C. 
Marr  and  T.  C.  Walton. 

Roman  Catholic  Church  Sockty, — ^The  Catholic  Church  Society 
at  Onawa  may  be  considered  to  date  its  existence  from  the  build- 
ing of  its  church  edifice  in  the  latter  part  of  1872.  Mass  had  been 
celebrated  there  occasionally,  as  far  back  as  1866,  and  in  1867, 
when  Bishop  Hennessy  assumed  charge  of  the  western  part  of 
the  State,  which,  during  the  ^vernment  of  his  predecessor, 
Bishop  Smythe,  had  been  administered  by  the  late  Bisnop  O'Gor- 
man,  of  Omaha.  Mass  was  celebrated  prior  to  1866,  by  priests 
of  the  Diocese  of  Nebraska,  and  particularly  by  Father  Tracy, 
of  old  St.  John^s,  who  had  charge  from  the  Yellowstone  to  the 
Platte.     Rev.  B.  C.  Lenehan  is  the  present  pastor. 

Monona  Lodge  No.  380,  /.  0,  0.  F, — This  Lodge  was  organ- 
ized June  7th,  1878,  by  Grand  Master  A.  J.  Morrison.  The 
charter  members  were:  E.  W.  Holbrook,  H.  W.  Cady.  L.  H. 
Belknap,  John  Douglas,  C.  M.  Ross,  J.  S.  Baggs,  D.  L.  Utterback, 
James  Carmody,  R.  Horning  and  J.  K.  McCaskey.  The  first 
officers  were:  J.  K.  McCaskey,  N.  G.;  J.  Carmody,  V.  G.;  J. 
Douglas,  S.;  E.  W.  Holbrook,  T.  The  membership  of  the  Lodge 
is  twenty-eight.  Present  officers:  P.  T.  Noble,  N.  G.;  Geo.  W. 
Penn,  V.  G.;  L.  D.  Sittle,  S.;  W.  M.  Bacon,  T.  The  meetings 
of  the  Lodge  are  held  on  every  Saturday  night  of  jeach  week  m 
the  hall  of  the  society  over  the  bank. 

Vesper  Lodge  No,  223,  A.  F,  and  A.  M, — A  dispensation  was 
granted  to  this  Lodge  August  28th,  1867.  Thefirst  officers  were: 
P.  W.  Snow,  W.  Mi;  James  Butts,  S.  W.;  Truman  Pierce,  J.  W.; 
Charles  Atkins,  S.;  Fred  McCouslan,  T.;  W.  A.  Grow,  S.  D.;  M. 
A.  Treeland,  J.  D.;  John  Baggs,  Tyler.  A  charter  was  granted  the 
Lodge  June  3d,  1868.  The  charter  members  were  F.  W.  Snow, 
James  Butts,  Truman  Pierce  and  other  wortny  gentlemen.     The 

8 resent  officers  are:  James  Walker,  W.  M.;  H.  Douglas,  S.  W.; 
f.  E.  Warner,  J.  W.;  J.  D.  Ainsworth,  S.;  R.  Stebbins,  F.  S.;  B.  D. 
Holbrook,  S.D.;  D.  Handle,  J.  D.;  J.  D.  Giddings,  S.  S.;^0.  D. 
Bishop,  J.  S.;  F.  W.  Snow,  Tyler.  The  Lodge  meets  every 
Wednesday,  on  or  after  each  full  moon,  in  the  hall  over  the  bank. 
The  membership  of  this  society  is  thirty-eight,  and  it  is  in  a  flour- 
ishing condition. 


252  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

Monona  County  Agricultural  Association, — This  association  was 
organized  in  the  spring  of  1871,  as  a  stock  compan  jr.  The  first  of- 
ficial board  of  directors  was  composed  of  the  following-named  gen- 
tlemen: C.  E.  Whitiog,  Fred  McCausland,  J.E.  Morrison,  M.  A. 
Freeland,  W.  G.  Kennedy,  A.  Dimmick  and  E.  Peak.  The  first 
oflBcers  were:  C.  E.  Whiting,  President;  M.  A.  Freeland,  Vipe- 
President;  James  Walker,  Secretary;  B.  D.  Hoi  brook.  Treasurer. 
The  association  owns  thirty-five  acres  of  land  situated  about  one 
mile  north  of  Onawa,  whicn  land  is  enclosed  with  a  good,  substan- 
tial feuce.  Inside  the  enclosure  is  Floral  Hall,  an  excellent  build- 
ing, with  dimensions  of  20x40  feet,  as  well  as  an  additional  "L,"  of 
24x60  feet.  There  are  also  a  fine  Amphitheatre  and  good  stables 
and  cattle-sheds.  A  half-mile  race-track  is  another  improvement. 
All  these  are  in  good  condition.  The  present  board  of  directors  is 
composed  of  W.  T.  Boyd,  A.  Oliver,  J.  D.  Woodward,  J.  B.  P. 
Day,  R.  G.  Fairchild,  C.  E.  Whiting  and  G.  E.  Warner.     The 

? resent  oflBcers  are:  A.  Oliver,  President;  J.  B.  P.  Day,  Vice- 
president;  J.  D.  Ainsworth,  Secretary;  B.  D.  Holbrook,  Treasurer. 
The  society  is  in  a  very  prosperous  condition.  Its  last  annual 
fair,  the  ninth,  was  held  in  September,  1881. 

Monona  County  Old  Settlers*  Association. — This  association 
was  organized  in  August,  1879,  by  C.  £.  Whiting,  R.  Stebbins, 
T.  R.  Uarratt,  J.  E.  Morrison,  Judge  Oliver,  F.  H.  Day  and  others. 
The  first  oflBcers  were:  F.  H.  Day,  President;  C.  E.  Whiting,  C. 
M.  Scott,  W.  L.  Riug,  Vice-Presidents;  James  Walker,  Secretary, 
R.  Stebbens,  T.  R.  Carratt,  John  Heisler,  James  Robinson,  J.  D. 
Woodward,  Executive  Committee.  Present  OflBcers:  W.  L. 
Ring,  President;  F.  F.  Roe,  T.  Elliott,  G.  M.  Scott,  Vice-Presi- 
dents; James  Walker,  Secretary  and  Treasurer;  J.  B.  P.  Day.  C. 
E.  Whiting,  Judge  Oliver,  J.  Cleghom,  Executive  Committee. 
The  present  membership  of  the  association  is  about  275. 

MAPLETON. 

This  growing  town  was  platted  in  the  autumn  of  1877,  by  the 
railroad  company.  The  first  hotel  was  built  by  A.  P.  Kennedy  in 
1877.  The  Maple  River  branch  of  the  Chicago  &  Northwestern 
Railroad,  was  completed  from  Maple  River  Junction,  the  first 
train  arriving  in  October,  1877.  A  branch  of  the  C,  M.  &  St.  P. 
R.  R.  from  Sioux  City  to  Mapleton  is  now  graded,  and  will  ere 
long  be  placed  in  running  order. 

•  In  September,  1877,  J.  Garrison  built  the  first  store  in  Maple- 
ton.  It  was  10x12  feet  in  dimensions.  The  Messrs.  Scott  soon 
afterwards  built  the  store  they  now  occupy. 

The  first  settlers  in  the  village  were:  J.  Garrison,  W.  F.  Scott 
and  brothers,  W.  F.  McHenry  and  B.  Whiting,  who  settled  here 
in  the  autumn  of  1877.  The  town  was  incorporated  in  1878,  with 
J.  F.  Scott  as  Mayor.     The  population  is  about  600. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  253 

The  Mapleton  Bank  was  organized  October  3d,  1878,  with  B. 
Whiting,  President;  N.  H.  Bliss,  Cashier,  and  with  abundance  of 
capital.  It  is  a  flourishing  and  substantial  institution.  At  pres- 
ent, B.  Whiting  is  the  President,  C.  I.  Whiting,  Cashier. 

The  schools  of  Mapleton  are  graded,  and  in  excellent  condition. 
A  handsome  structure  was  erected  in  1880-81,  at  a  cost  of  $3,600. 
J.  A.  Wakefield  is  the  Principal.     About  100  pupils  are  enrolled. 

An  order  of  Odd  Fellowship  was  organized  Sent  11th,  1879,  with 
five  charter  members.  J.  Hutton  was  the  first  xs .  G.  The  Lodge 
now  has  twenty-five  members. 

A  Masonic  order  was  organized  in  July,  1880,  with  ten  charter 
members.  The  present  membership  is  fifteen.  J.  D.  Rice  was 
the  first  Master  of  this  Lodge. 

The  Presbyterian  Church  Society  was  organized  July  31st,' 1881, 
by  Rev.  A.  K.  Baird,  assisted  by  Rev.  J.  C.  Gilkersbn,  the  present 
pastor,  with  a  membership  of  seventeen.  The  church  oflScers  are 
one  Elder  and  three  Trustees. 

The  M.  E.  Church  Societv  of  Mapleton  was  organized  hj  Rev. 
Thomas  Cuthburt,  during  the  year  of  1880.  Thecnurch  edifice,  a 
neat  and  durable  brick  building  of  the  Gothic  style,  32x50  feet  in 
dimensions,  was  erected  during  the  same  year,  at  a  cost  of  $2,300, 
and  the  following  Trustees  were  appointed:  W.  E.  Roberts, 
President;  B.  Whiting,  Treasurer;  George  Adams,  Secretary;  A. 
W.  Cobland,  6.  A.  Smith,  Trustees.  TheSociety  is  small,  but  grow- 
ing, was  organized  with  a  membership  of  six,  and  now  numbers 
twenty.  During  the  year,  1881,  the  Society  built  a  parsonage  at  a 
cost  of  $800,  the  building  being  in  every  way  highly  creditable  to 
the  organization.  There  is,  in  this  connection  a  Sabbath  School, 
with  an  average  attendance  of  eighty.  W.  E.  Roberts  is  the 
Superintendent.     Rev.  H.  P.  Dudley  is  the  present  pastor. 

The  Baptist  Church  Society  was  organized  in  March,  1866,  by 
Rev.  George  Scott.  Its  membership  is  thirty-eight.  Rev.  W.  H. 
Dorward  is  the  present  pastor. 

The  Mapleton  cornet  band  was  organized  in  1880,  with  ten 
members.     A.  L  Lanterman  is  the  leader. 

Mapleton 's  business  and '  professional  establishments  are  repre- 
sented as  follows:  Four  general  stores,  one  newspaper — the 
Mapleton  Press — one  bank,  four  hotels,  two  livery  stables,  two 
hardware  stores,  three  saloons,  two  blacksmiths,  one  boot  and 
shoe  store,  one  grocery,  one  millinery  store,  one  harness  shop,  four 
physicians,  two  grain  dealers,  two  lumber  yards,  one  wagon  factory, 
one  furniture  store,  one  farm  machinery  establishment,  two  meat 
markets,  four  dealers  in  live  stock.  - 

An  article  with  the  captivating  caption, '^ Society  in  Mapleton," 
says:  * 'Mapleton  will  compare  favorably  with  older  towns  east 
or  west  as  regards  social  privileges.  Although  a  town  of  only 
eighteen  months'  growth,  we  here  find  many  'advantages  that 
would  be  prized  by  those-seeking  homes  in  the  West. 


254  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

*'Our  people  are  mostly  from  the  Eastern  States,  and  are  well 
informed,  public  spirited  and  up  with  the  times.  As  yet  we  are 
without  an  organized  church,  but  union  services  and  Sunday  school 
are  regularly  held  in  the  public  hall,  and  there  is  a  prospect  that 
either  a  Presbyterian  or  Congregational  society  will  soon  be 
formed.  The  Methodist  Episcopal  church  contemplate  building  a 
house  of  worship  the  coming  summer. 

"The  *Blue  Kibbon'  movement  has  reached  Mapleton,  and  up- 
ward of  200  have  signed  the  pledge.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  efiforts 
that  have  been  made  in  this  airection  will  not  be  in  vain. 

"A  literary  society  has  been  sustained  during  the  past  winter 
with  considerable  interest.  Lectures,  readings,  concerts  and  other 
entertainments  have  not  been  wanting  to  afford  amusement  for 
the  winter  evenings.  The  many  demands  for  money  incident  to 
carrying  on  the  enterprise  of  a  new  town  are  met  with  cheerful- 
ness and  a  readv  response  by  oiir  citizens  and  no  laudable  undertak- 
ing has  yet  failed  for  the  lack  of  means. 

"A  tax  has  been  levied  in  Maple  Township  and  partly  collected 
for  the  purpose  of  erecting  a  suDstantial  school  building,  that  will 
be  the  pride  of  our  city.  A  mayor,  six  alderman,  and  other  eflB- 
cient  officers  manage  municipal  affairs;  quiet  and  good  order  uni- 
versally prevail  in  our  midst. 

*Teople  looking  for  homes  in  Western  Iowa  should  visit  Maple- 
ton  before  deciding  on  a  permanent  location." 

The  following  is  taken  from  editorial  correspondence  to  the 
Carroll  (la.)  Herald  :  "  Western  Iowa  is  constantly  furnishing 
examples  of  the  sudden  rise  and  rapid  growth  of  new  towns.  The 
wild  prairie  of  yesterday  is  frequently  transformed  into  the  busy 
and  bustling  center  of  trade  to-day.  One  of  the  most  notable  of 
these  instances  is  found  in  the  history  of  Mapleton,  from  which 
place  I  write.  Theto^n  was  platted  in  the  fall  of  1877,  and  is 
consequently  less  than  a  year  and  a  half  old.  The  Maple  River 
branch  of  the  Northwestern  road  reached  here  about  the  middle 
of  October,  1877.  At  that  time  there  was  no  settlement  worth 
mentioning.  Now  the  town  numbers  five  hundred  inhabitants, 
and  is  mowing  steadily.  The  railroad,  which  leaves  the  main  line 
sixty  miles  southeast,  terminates  at  Mapleton.  By  virtue  of  this 
fact,  the  place  enjoys  exceptional  advantages  over  other  towns  on 
the  line.  It  is  located  near  the  beautiful  Maple  River  in  the  far- 
famed  Maple  Valley,  long  noted  as  comprising  within  its  limits 
the  finest  farming  land  in  the  west,  but  until  recently  not  accessi- 
ble by  railroad.  It  will  doubtless  remain  the  terminal  station  for 
years  to  come,  and  its  present  prosperity  cannot  but  increase  in 
the  future.  Although  Mapleton  is  young,  it  has  none  of  the 
characteristics  of  a  mushroom  town.  The  buildings  are  ex- 
tremely creditable  and  calculated  for  permanency.  Many  of 
the  residences  are  handsome  and  attractive.  The  location  of  the 
town  is  excellent.      It   lies   on   high,    but    nearly  level   ground, 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  255 

sloping  ju»t  enoiij(h  to  afford  good  drainage.  Tbe  residence  lots 
are  all  superior,  and  there  is  ample  room  for  a  large  city.  The 
land  surrounding  it  is  unexcellea  for  agricultural  purposes,  nearly 
every  acre  being  tillable.  The  Maple  Kiver  furnishes  numerous 
water  powers,  there  being  three  grist  mills  within  five  miles  of 
the  town." 

WHITING. 

Although  comparatively  young,  in  respect  to  many  other 
Westerti  Iowa  towns,  Whiting  has  made  rapid  strides  since  its 
first  settlement.  A  complete  representation  of  its  more  enter- 
prising business  establisnments  will  be  found  among  the  bio- 
graphical data  hereunto  appended. 


MONONA  COUNTY  BIOGRAPHIES 


ONAWA. 


James  Butts,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Genesee  county,  N.  Y.,  in 
1822;  remained  at  home  until  twenty-one  years  of  age;  then  began 
the  study  of  medicine.  He  moved  to  Wis.  in  1856,  and  engaged 
in  the  practice  of  medicine;  was  also  postmaster  while  in  that 
State.  He  removed  to  Kans.  in  1860,  traveled  extensively  through 
the  west,  settled  at  Onawa  in  1806,  and  has  practiced  medicine 
there  ever  since.  He  cpened  a  drug  store  in  1873,  and  after  four 
years,  sold  it.  He  has  been  twice  married;  the  first  time  in  1844, 
and  to  Lucy  L.  Crawford,  in  1880. 

I.  Cummings,  dealer  in  groceries  and  provisions,  was  born  in  N. 
Y.  in  1844;  removed  to  Fremont  county,  la.,  in  1855;  thence  to 
Chicago,  111.,  in  1871,  where  he  remained  five  years,  and  located  in 
Onawa,  la.,  in  1877.  In  1881,  engaged  in  the  present  business,  by 
buying  out  J.  R.  Thurston. 

John  Douglas,  jeweler  and  music  dealer,  was  born  in  Scotland 
in  1851;  came  to  America  in  1872,  and  settled  in  Neb.;  moved  to 
Onawa  in  1876,  and  engaged  in  his  present  business.  He  was 
married  in  1876,  and  has  two  children — Mary,  and  an  infant 
daughter. 

W.  J.  Eva,  harness  manufacturer,  was  born  in  Wis.  in  1847; 
removed  to  Worthington,  Nobles  county,  Minn.,  in  1872;  thence 
to  Onawa,  la.,  in  1876,  and  engaged  in  his  present  business  in 
1878.  He  was  married  in  1875  to  Lucy  Manning,  and  has  three 
children. 


256  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

B.  D.  &  Chas.  Holbrook,  proprietors  of  the  bank  at  Ooawa,  came 
from  Pa.  to  this  city  in  1857,  and  engaged  in  the  law,  loan  and  real 
estate  business,  until  1865,  when  they  opened  the  bank.  H.  E. 
Morrison  is  cashier  of  the  bank. 

A.  G.  Hurst,  farmer  and  stock  dealer,  was  born  in  Ind.  in  1832; 
removed  with  parents  in  1836  to  111.;  thence  to  Newton,  la.  In 
1855  came  to  Ashton,  near  Onawa.  He  enlisted  in  March,  1862, 
in  Co.  K.,  17th  la.,  andj  re-enlisted  as  a  veteran  in  the  same  com- 
pany. He  was  taken  prisoner  with  .the  rest  of  the  regiment  and 
confined  at  Andersonville  one  hundred  and  eighty-five  days;  was 
discharged  at  Davenport,  la.,  June  16th,  1865,  and  returned  to 
Monona  county,  and  engaged  in  farming  and  dealing  in  stock.  He 
was  married  in  1859,  to  Julia  Brink,  and  has  ten  children. 

W.  H.  Kelsev  was  bom  in  N.  Y.  in  1841.  He  enlisted  in  Co.  B, 
64th  N.  Y.  Vol.,  in  1861,  was  discharged  in  1862;  re-enlisted  in  the 
13th  N.  Y.  Heavy  Art.  as  a  veteran,  and  was  again  discharged  in 
1865.  He  was  one  of  five  brothers,  who  enlisted;  two  were  killed 
and  the  others  disabled  in  the  service.  He  came  to  Onawa  in  1865. 
He  was  marriedjin  1877. 

D.  B.  Kenvon,  miller  and  grain  dealer,  was  born  in  N.  Y.  in 
1845;  removed  to  Wis.  in  1856,  and  from  thereto  Onawa  in  1872, 
and  engaged  in  hispresent  business.  He  was  married  in  1869  to 
N.  F.  Preeland.     Tney  have  one  son  and  two  daughters. 

C.  G.  Perkins,  postmaster,  and  dealer  in  general  merchandise, 
was  born  in  Rockingham  county,  N.  Y.,in  1830;  removed  to  Wis. 
in  1855,  ani  engaged  in  farming.  He  enlisted  in  1862  in  Co. 
G,  19th  Wis.,  and  was  discharged  in  1865;  then  came  to  Onawa, 
and  engaged  in  farming  four  years.  He  was  then  elected  county 
recorder;  resigned  in  1872.  lie  was  a  member  of  the  14th  assem- 
bly in  1872-3;  engaged  in  his  present  business  in  1873,  He  was 
married  in  1853  to  R.  S.  Stearns,  and  has  three  children — C.  W., 
Mary  W.  and  Addie  M. 

P.  Sawyer,_proprietor  of  city,  blacksmith  shop,  was  born  in  Ox- 
ford county.  Me.,  in  1846.  He  enlisted  in  1862,  in  Co.  D,  28th 
Me.  Vol.;  was  discharged  in  1863,  and  went  to  Concord,  Mass.; 
thence  to  Onawa  in  1805.  He  was  married  in  1867,  to  M.  T.  Cun- 
ningham. They  have  four  children — Edwin  E.,  Altha  M.,  Earl, 
and  Margie. 

John  W.  Somers,  druggist,  was  born  in  N.  C.  in  1834;  removed 
to  Champaign  county,  111.,  in  1843  and  was  clerk  of  the  courts  for 
several  years.  He  enlisted  in  1802  in  the  76th  111.  Vol.  as  a  pri- 
vate; was  promoted  to  commissary  sergeant,  then  to  first  lieuten- 
ant, and  regimental  quarter-master;  left  the  army  in  1805,  and  re- 
turned to  111.  He  engaged  in  the  drug  business  in  1807  at  Urbana, 
and  in  1879  removed  to  Onawa,  and  again  engaged  in  the  drug 
business.  lie  was  married  in  1858  to  Sarah  J.  Fitzgerald.  They 
have  one  son  and  one  daughter. 


HISTOKY  OF  IOWA.  257 

Richard  Stebbins,  M.  D.,  and  drugpjist,  was  bom  in  Springfield, 
Mass.,  in  1824.  He  was  educated  for  a  physician;  removed  to 
Council  Bluffs  in  1857,  and  engaged  in  the  practice  of  medicine; 
remained  there  six  months;  removed  to  Onawa,  and  continued  the 
practice  of  his  profession,  and  engaged  in  the  drug  business  in 
1864.  He  was  married  in  1859  to  Mary  J.  Billings,  and  has  a  son 
and  a  daughter. 

J.  R.  Thurston,  proprietor  of  the  Onawa  House,  was  born  in 
Herkimer  county,  N.  i .,  in  1833;  removed  to  Cass  county,  la.,  in 
1856;  thence  to  Onawa  in  1860,  and  engaged  in  farming,  until 
1877,  when  he  engaged  in  the  mercantile  business,  which  he  sold 
in  1881,  and  engaged  in  his  present  businees.  He  was  married  in 
1855,  and  has  five  children. 

T.  C.  Walton^  proprietor  of  the  Walton  House,  was  born  in 
Somerset  county,  Me.,  in  1829;  removed  to  Wis.,  in  1854,  and  re- 
mained two  years  and  returned  to  Me.  In  1864  he  again  removed 
to  Wis.,  settling  in  St.  Croix  county,  and  engaged  in  the  drug 
business.  In  1869  he  came  to  Onawa,  la,,  and  in  1871  built  the 
hotel  he  now  occupies.  He  has  been  twice  married,  and  has  four 
children — Lona,  Icla,  Geo.  and  William. 

Maj.  George  E.  Warner,  dealer  in  general  merchandise,  was 
born  in  Sullivan  county,  N.  H.,  in  l&tS.  He  went  to  Boston, 
Mass.,  at  the  age  of  twelve  to  learn  the  dry  goods  business.  In 
1862  he  enlisted  in  the  6th  Mass.  battery,  and  at  the  end  of  six 
months,  entered  the  10th  U.  S.  colored  corps  as  first  lieutenant; 
was  promoted  to  Major,  and  discharged  in  that  rank  in  1867;  came 
to  Onawa,  la.,  and  engaged  in  his  present  business.  He  was  mar- 
ried in  1868  to  Mollie  E.  Morrison,  of  Onawa,  and  has  one  child, 
a  daughter. 

N.  A.  Whiting,  dealer  in  general  hardware,  was  born  in  N.  Y., 
in  1823;  lived  on  a  farm  until  eighteen  years  of  age;  then  learned 
carriage  making,  in  which  business  Jie  was  engaged  for  fifteen 
years  in  0.  and  Ala.  He  came  to  Onawa,  la.,  in  1857,  and  the 
following  year  engaged  in  his  present  business.  He  was  married 
in  1853,  and  has  three  children — Eva,  Charles  and  Estella.  Chas. 
is  engaged  in  the  banking  business  at  Mapleton,  la. 

W.  G.  Woods,  dealer  in  grain,  enlisted  in  1864  in  Co.  E,  48th 
Wis.,  and  was  discharged  in  1865.  He  was  married  in  1873,  to  Ma- 
tilda Barber,  and  has  one  son  and  one  daughter — Arthur  and  Zellie. 

MAPLETON. 

J.  Q.  Adams,  proprietor  of  the  Mapleton  dray  line,  was  bom  in 
Franklin  county.  Me.,  in  1837;  moved  to  Iowa  in  1854.  He 
moved  to  Onawa  in  1858,  and  engaged  in  farming.  He  engaged 
in  his  present  business  in  Mapleton,  Jan.  25th,  1881. 


258  EISTOBY  OF  IOWA. 

G.  H.  Butler,  of  the  firm  of  G.  H.  Butler  &  Co.,  furniture  deal- 
ers, was  born  in'Ind.;  moved  to  la.  in  1856,  and  engaged  in  mill- 
ing. He  moved  to  Monona  county,  la.,  in  1865,  and  engaged  in 
farming,  and  in  1878,  engaged  in  his  present  business. 

J.  R.  Cameron,  dealer  in  general  merchandise  and  grain,  is  a 
native  of  Ohio;  came  to  la.  in  1852,  and  engaged  in  the  land  busi- 
ness. He  came  to  Monona  county  in  1878,  and  engaged  in  the 
grain  and  land  business,  and,  in  1880,  added  the  mercantile  busi- 
ness.   He  was  agent  for  the  railroad  company  for  three  years. 

J.  R.  Chapman,  dealer  in  lumber,  coal  and  builders'  supplies,  is 
a  native  of  N.  Y.;  moved  to  Ohio  when  young,  and  to  Scott 
county,  la.,  in  1860.  He  came  to  Mapleton,  in  1877,  and  engaged 
in  his  present  business. 

J.  Garrison,  hardware  dealer,  was  born  in  111.;  moved  to  Iowa  in 
1873,  and  located  in  Calhoun  county,  and  engaged  in  farming.  He 
moved  to  Dunlap,  and  engaged  in  the  mercantile  business;  thence 
to  Mapleton,  in  the  autumn  of  1877,  and  built  the  first  store  in  the 
place,  and  entered  the  mercantile  business. 

Porter  Hamilton,  of  the  firm  of  Hamilton  Bros.,  dealers  in  farm 
machinery  and  lumber,  was  born  in  111.;  moved  to  Cedar  Rapids, 
la.,  in  1872;  thence  to  Mapleton  in  the  autumn  of  1877,  and  en- 
gas^edin  his  present  business.  During  1881,  his  sales  of  farm  ma- 
chinery amounted  to  $25,000. 

Samuel  Holliday,  proprietor  of  the  City  billiard  hall,  was  born 
in  Muscatine  county,  la.,  in  1842,  and  engaged  in  farming,  until 
entering  his  present  business  in  1880. 

T.  Martin,  proprietor  of  blacksmith  and  wagon  shop,  is  a  native 
of  111.;  moved  to  la.  in  1880,  and  engaged  in   his  present  business. 

M.  Morgan,  of  the  firm  of  Butler  &  Morgan,  grocers,  was  born 
in  Scott  county,  la.,  in  1846.  He  enlisted  in  May,  1864,  in  the 
44th  Ta.  regiment,  and  was  discharged  in  autumn  of  the  same 
year.  He  re-enlisted  in  Jan.,  1865,  in  the  20th,  la.,  Co.  G;  was 
transferred  to  the  29th  la.  regiment,  and  in  Sept.,  1865,  returned 
to  Iowa,  and  engaged  in  farming.  He  located  at  Mapleton  in 
1879,  and  entered  his  present  business  in  Jan.,  1881. 

J.  D.  Rice,  attorney  at  law;  is  a  native  of  N.  Y.;  moved  to 
Marshall,  la.,  in  1874;  thence  to  Mapleton  in  1878,  and  engaged 
in  the  practice  of  the  law.     He  is  a  member  of  the  school  board. 

W.  E.  Roberts,  agent  for  the  C.  &  N.  W.  R.  R.,  is  a  native  of 
England;  came  to  America  when  quite  young,  with  parents,  and 
settled  in  Wis.;  moved  to  Tama  county,  la.,  m  186S.  He  after- 
wards moved  to  Battle  Creek,  as  agent  for  the  railroad  company; 
thence  to  Mapleton  in  Nov.,  1880. 

W.  F.  Scott,  of  the  firm  of  Scott  Bros.,  dealers  in  general  mer- 
chandise, is  a  native  of  W.  Va.;  moved  to   Clinton  county,  la.,   in 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  259 

1864,  and  to  Denison  in  1871,  and  engaged  in  the  mercantile  busi- 
ness. He  came  to  Mapleton  in  1877,  erected  a  large  store  building, 
and  engaged  in  his  present  business.  He  was  appointed  postmaster 
in  Dec,  1881,  and  is  also  exi)ress  agent. 

B.  B.  Snyder,  proprietor  of  the  Stowell  House,  is  a  native  of 
Pa.;  came  to  Logan,  la.,  in  1876,  and  engaged  in  the  hotel  busi- 
ness. He  erected  one  of  the  first  hotels  m  Mapleton,  and  opened 
his  present  house  in  1881,  wliich  is  in  charge  oi  his  son,  James  S. 
Snyder. 

WHITING. 

Cassady  &  Whiting,  dealers  in  general  merchandise,  located  in 
Whiting  in  June,  1880.  Mr.  Cassady  is  a  native  of  0.;  moved  to 
la.  in  1867,  and  settled  near  this  place.  W.  C.  Whiting  is  a  native 
of  Monona  county,  and  has  always  resided  in  it. 

Koon  &  Dimmick,  dealers  in  general  hardware,  established  busi- 
ness in  Dec,  1881.  Mr.  Koon  came  to  Mills  county,  la.,  in  1868, 
from  111.;  thence  to  Monona  county  in  1873.  Mr.  Dimmick  is  a 
native  of  Pa.;  moved  to  Ashton,  la.,  in  1856;  thence  to  Whiting  in 
1881. 

D.  Rust,  M.  D.,  of  the*  firm  of  Rust  &  Morley,  druggists,  was 
bom  in  111.;  moved  to  Fremont  county,  la.,  in  1876.  He  estab- 
lished his  present  business  in  Whiting  m  1879,  and  in  1880  L.  A. 
Morley  became  a  partner.  They  do  a  general  drug  business,  and 
deal  in  paints,  oils,  etc. 

Lyman  Whittier,  the  pioneer  merchant  of  Whiting,  was  bom 
in  Essex  county,  Mass.;  came  to  la.  in  1870,  and  located  at  Mis- 
souri Valley  and  engaged  in  the  mercantile  business;  removed  to 
Whiting  in  1873,  and  built  the  first  store  and  started  his  present 
business.  He  enlisted  in  Oct.,  1862,  in  the  1st  battery  of  Mass. 
heavy  artillery,  and  served  until  June  1865.  Mr.  W.  traveled  ex- 
tensively through  Europe  during  the  year  1879.  He  was  appointed 
postmaster  of  Whiting  in  1873,  and  has  held  the  oflBce  ever  since. 

A.  G.  Wight,  dealer  in  general  merchandise,  was  bom  in  Ohio; 
moved  to  la.  in  1805,  and  settled  in  Monona  county  in  1867.  In 
1875  he  moved  to  Whiting  and  engaged  in  the  hotel  and  livery 
business  which  he  still  continues,  and  in  1876  engaged  in  the  mer- 
cantile business. 


260  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 


CHEROKEE  COUNTY. 


If  there  is  any  one  class  of  men  who  deserve  more  than  another 
to  have  their  names  perpetuated  in  history,  it  is,  perhaps,  the  hardy 
pioneers  who  left  their  homes  of  comfort  and  luxury  in  the  old 
Eastern  States,  and,  voluntarily  abandoning  all  the  comforts  of 
home  ani  civilized  life,  plunged  boldly  into  the  unknown  and  lim- 
itless prairies  that  spread  out  beyond  the  great  Father  of  Waters, 
to  explore  the  mysteries  of  this  mighty  re^on,  and  to  open  up  new 
fields  of  industry  for  themselves  and  their  posterity.  TTo  the  his- 
torian, no  more  delightful  task  presents  itself,  than  to  recount 
their  deeds  of  daring,  to  chronicle  their  persistent  self-sacrificing 
efforts,  to  recite  their  marvelous  achievements,  to  tell  of  the  in- 
domitable pluck,  energy  and  determination  that  characterized  their 
movements,  and  then  to  make  the  wonderful  transformation  all 
this  has  effected  in  one  of  the  ^andest  countries  the  sun  ever 
shown  down  upon.  To  the  individual  who  visits  this  section  to- 
day, these  recitals  seem  like  fairy  tales.  He  cannot  comprehend, 
as  he  sits  in  his  elegant  palace  coach,  and  is  whirled  from  one  city 
and  village  to  another,  almost  with  the  speed  of  the  wind,  or  skims 
along  the  iron  track  through  waving  fields  of  the  richest  grain, 
that  a  few  short  years  ago  this  section  was  tenanted  only  by  wild 
animals  and  the  equally  wild  and  savage  red-man;  and  his  wonder 
is  still  further  increased^  as  he  notes,  on  every  hand,  the  commo- 
dious and  even  elegant  farm  buildings,  and  sees  the  innumerable 
herds  of  fine  cattle  grazing  on  the  nutritious  grasses.  The  transi- 
tion has  indeed  been  wonderful,  but  probably  nowhere  more  marked 
than  in  Cherokee  County,  where,  a  trifle  over  thirty-six  years  a^o, 
no  sign  of  civilization  could  meet  the  eye  throughout  its  entire 
length  and  breadth.  But  a  country  of  such  surpassing  beauty  and 
unequalled  richness  could  not  always  be  given  over  to  painted  sav- 
ages, albeit  they  alone  had  enjoyed  its  fair  skies  and  beautiful  scen- 
ery for  so  many  years. 

Cherokee  County  was  formed  in  January,  1851,  at  which  time 
most  of  her  sister  counties  were  located  and  their  boundaries  de- 
fined. In  January,  1853,  it  was  attached  to  the  county  of  Wah- 
kan — now  Woodbury — for  revenue,  election  and  judicial  purposes. 
At  this  time,  however,  it  was  a  county  in  nothing  but  name;  for 
its  fertile  prairies,  beautiful  rivers  and  clear,  sparkling  brooks  had 
as  yet  failed  to  attract  the  attention  of  the  "vanguard  of  civiliza- 
tion." Finally,  in  the  Spring  of  1850,  Robert  Perry,  a  hardy  pio- 
neer from  the  eastern  part  of  the  State,  visited  this  section  and 
stopped  for  a  short  time  near  what  is  now  known  as  the  city  of 


HI8T0KY  OF  IOWA.  261 

Cherokee.  The  solitude  proved  altogether  too  unattractive,  and 
he  soon  took  his  departure  for  another  and  more  thickly  settled 
portion  of  the  State. 

In  the  early  part  of  the  same  year,  a  number  of  hard-working, 
intelligent  men  in  Milford,  in  the  old  commonwealth  of  Massachu- 
setts, became  fired  with  a  desire  to  visit  this  wonderful  Eldorado, 
about  which  they  had  heard  so  much,  and  if  possible,  to  secure  for 
themselves  homes  here.  Under  the  leadership  of  Dr.  Russell,  a 
prominent  citizen  of  Milford,  a  joint  stock  company,  known  as  the 
'^Milford  Emigration  Society,'^  was  formed,  consisting  of  fifty-five 
members,  twenty-four  of  whom  were  heads  of  families,  the  design 
being  to  find  homes  somewhere  in  Western  Iowa.  Just  prior  to 
the  formation  of  this  company,  Carlton  Corbett  and  Lemuel  Park- 
hurst,  both  stalwart,  daring  young  men,  had  been  sent  out  by  the 
citizens  of  Milford  to  explore  this  portion  of  the  country,  and  se- 
lect a  suitable  location  for  colonists.  Twenty  persons,  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Milford  Emigration  Society,  started  on  February 
lltn,  1856,  for  northwestern  Iowa,  intending  to  meet  Corbett  and 
Parkhurst  at  Sioux  City,  that  being  the  objective  point  of  the  col- 
ony at  that  time. 

On  arriving  at  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Sioux  River,  Messrs.  Cor- 
bett and  Parkhurst  discovered,  much  to  their  disappointment,  that 
others  were  in  advance  of  them.  Mr.  Parkhurst  remained  here, 
but  Mr.  Corbett  pushed  on  up  the  country  for  a  distance  of  fifty 
miles  above  Sioux  City.  Not  finding  what  he  considered  a  desir- 
able location,  he  again  turned  south  with  the  determination  of  ex- 
ploring Cherokee  County,  of  which  he  had  heard  very  favorable 
reports  from  Mr.  Perry,  who  was  then  located  at  Sioux  City.  A 
thorough  exploration  of  the  county  convinced  Mr.  Corbett  that  it 
was  altogether  the  finest  section  of  countrjr  he  had  yet  visited. 
Hastening  to  Correctionville,  he  met  the  Milford  colony,  and  had 
but  little  diflSculty  in  inducing  that  party  to  locate  here.  They 
proceeded  up  the  Little  Sioux  River,  until  they  reached  Cherokee 
County,  where  all  were  amazed  at  the  magnificent  panorama  na- 
ture had  spread  out,  seemingly  for  their  benefit.  The  weary  com- 
pany arrived  at  a  point  on  the  Sioux,  near  the  present  site  of  Cher- 
okee, on  a  beautiful  May  morning.  The  river  danced  and  sparkled 
in  the  sunlight,  as  it  dashed  along  its  pebbly  bed;  the  birds  sang 
sweetly  as  they  flitted  from  bough  to  Dougn,  through  the  thick 
growth  of  timber  that  then  skirted  the  high  river  banks  at  this 
point;  the  view  on  either  hand  was  the  most  enchanting  mortal 
eyes  ever  beheld,  and  to  the  weary  wanderers,  many  hundred  miles 
from  home,  and  over  one  hundred  miles  from  any  settlement,  it 
seemed  that  all  nature  was  bidding  them  "welcome'*  to  the  peerless 
county  of  Cherokee. 

On  every  side  were  moderately  high  bluffs,  beyond  which,  stretch* 
ing  away  for  miles  upon  miles,  was  the  rich  rolling  prairie-land,  of 
wmch  tney  had  so  long  been  in  search.    The  entire  company  coc 


262  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

sisted  of  twenty  persons,  some  of  whom  are  still  living  in  the  county. 
The  colonists,  among  whom  were  G.  W.  Lebourveau,  Carlton 
Corbett,  B.  W.  Sawtell,  Lysander  Sawtell,  Robert  Hammond,  Al- 
bert Simonds,  Asa  Slayton,  were  undaunted  by  the  fact  that  there 
was  no  friendly  roof  to  afford  them  shelter,  and  believing  that  a 
bright  and  prosperous  future  awaited  them  if  only  the  necessary 
pluck  and  muscle  were  exercised,  they  immediatelv  commenced  the 
construction  of  a  log  house,  17  hj  18  feet,  near  the  present  site  of 
Mill  Creek  Mill,  and. for  some  tmie  this  small  building,  the  first 
ever  erected  in  Cherokee  County,  afforded  shelter  and  a  home  to 
the  entire  colony.  The  two  teams  belonging  to  the  colony  were 
immediately  put  to  work,  and  150  acres  were  broken  for  a  crop,  of 
which  about  thirty  acres  were  planted  with  corn.  Thej  also  raised 
200  bushels  of  excellent  potatoes  and  a  large  quantity  of  small 
vegetables.  During  the  season  four  more  houses  were  built,  one 
by  G.  W.  Lebjurveau,  one  by  the  Sawtell  brothers,  one  by  L.  Park- 
hurst  and  one  by  WjUianLJElQlden,  the  two  latter  and  Albert 
Phipps  having  joined^he  settlersTater  in  the  season.  The  post- 
office  and  the  nearest  trading  point  were  sixty  miles  from  the  set- 
tlement, and  nearly  all  merchandise  had  to  be  hauled  from  Council 
Bluffs,  130  miles  distant. 

During  the  Summer,  a  village  was  planned;  320  acres  were  sur- 
veyed into  town  lots,  and  all  the  land  adjoining  the  village  plat 
was  made  into  twenty-acre  lots,  though  a  few  contained  as  many 
as  sixty.  The  lands  selected  were  principally  west  of  the  Little 
Sioux  Kiver,  and  south  of  Mill  Creek,  ana  located  near  the  center 
of  the  county.  An  unusually  severe  winter  followed,  the  snow  at 
one  time  lying  three  feet  deep  on  the  level  prairie,  and  the  colo- 
nists suffered  not  a  little. 

On  the  18th  day  of  June,  1856,  another  colony  from  Hardin 
county,  Iowa,  consisting  of  G.  W.  Banister,  John  Banister,  John 
Moore,  Charles  Moore,  Alfred  Moore,  Jacob  Miller,  T.  Lane,  Mar- 
vin Alison  and  Martin  Bums,  arrived  at  this  place,  and  immedi- 
ately started  a  settlement  seven  miles  below  the  Milford  colony. 
Enoch  Taylor  and  three  others  met  with  poor  success  in  attempt- 
ing to  start  another  settlement  in  the  northern  part  of  the  county. 
Cold  weather  was  now  coming  on,  and  Mr.  Corbett  and  L.  Sawtell 
made  a  trip  to  Council  Bluffs,  with  ox  teams,  to  procure  winter 
provisions  for  the  colony. 

Thus  far  the  Cherokee  colony  had  been  favored  with  uninter- 
rupted prosperity,  but  an  Indian  out-break  in  February,  1857, 
threatened  tor  a  time  to  overthrow  all  the  bright  hopes  of  the  set- 
tlers. In  this  month  a  party  of  Sioux  Indians  n&ssed  down  the 
river,  but  as  they  appeared  very  friendly  to  the  Cnerokee  settlers, 
no  uneasiness  was  felt.  At  Smithland,  the  whites  took  the  arms 
away  from  the  Indians,  which  so  enraged  the  latter  that  they 
started  back  up  the  stream,  vowing  vengeance  on  all  the  white's 
they  should  meet.     They  entered  every  house  on  their  way  back, 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  263 

appropriating  everything  in  the  way  of  fire-arms  they  could  lay 
their  hands  on.  With  the  arms  thus  obtained  they  arrived  at 
Cherokee,  and  scattered  the  settlers  and  captured  their  arms,  pro- 
visions and  other  articles.  Cattle  were  stolen,  provisions  seized, 
and  the  unfortunate  settlers  forced  to  cook  them  at  the  muzzle  of 
a  gun  in  the  hands  of  an  Indian  who  seemed  more  anxious  to  shoot 
than  otherwise.  The  savages  remained  three  days,  during  which 
there  existed  a  regular  reign  of  terror.  On  the  night  of  the  third 
day,  Messrs.  Lebourveau  and  Parkhurst  returned  from  a  trip  to 
Sac  City,  and  the  Indians,  thinking  they  had  come  from  Smith- 
land,  and  that  the  armed  citizens  of  that  place  would  follow,  left 
the  next  morning  in  great  haste.  Hurrying  to  Spirit  Lake,  they 
massacred  the  entire  colony,  men,  women  and  children. 

When  the  horrible  tale  of  the  Spirit  Lake  massacre  reached  the 
Cherokee  settlers,  they  became  thoroughly  alarmed,  and  by  the  ad- 
vice of  friends  in  other  settlements,  they  abandoned  their  settle- 
ment entirely  in  the  latter  part  of  February,  some  going  to  Ash- 
land, some  to  Smithland  and  others  to  Oiiawa. 

As  no  further  outbreak  took  place,  the  fears  of  the  settlers  grad- 
ually subsided,  and  in  the  following  May  most  of  the  settlers  re- 
turned and  put  in  their  crops. 

The  first  school  was  taught  during  the  summer  in  the  old  log 
house  called  the  Cherokee  House,  by  Mrs.  Parkhurst,  the  funds  for 
its  support  being  sent  from  Milf ord,  Massachusetts.  Among  those 
who  attended  that  school,  are  Clara,  George  and  Thomas  Brown; 
John,  Frank  and  Addie  Phipps,  all  of  whom  were  long  residents 
of  this  county.  Miss  Phipps  afterwards  taught  school  herself  in 
this  county,  and  was  considered  one  of  the  most  successful  teach- 
ers in  the  county. 

Up  to  this  time,  Cherokee  had  remained  attached  to  Woodbury 
County  for  judicial,  election  and  revenue  purposes.  Sergeant  s 
Bluffs  was  then  the  county  seat  of  Woodbury  County,  and  as  all 
business  for  Cherokee  County  had  to  be  transacted  at  that  place, 
and  as  the  distance  was  great,  the  inconvenience  became  so  serious, 
that,  in  August,  1857,  the  county  was  completely  organized,  and 
its  independent  political  life  fully  inaugurated  by  a  special  elec- 
tion. Twenty-three  votes  were  cast,  and  the  following  oflBcers 
elected:  County  Judge,  A.  P.  Thayer;  District  Clerk,  B.  W.  Saw- 
tell;  Prosecuting  Attorney,  C.  Corbett;  Recorder  and  Treasurer, 
G.  W.  Lebourveau;  County  Sheriff,  S.  W.  Haynes;  Coroner,  G. 
W.  Banister. 

Early  in  1858,  the  first  tax  was  levied,  amounting  to  twelve  and 
a  half  mills  on  the  dollar.  The  total  valuation  of  property  was 
$97,820.  The  first  county  warrant  ever  issued  in  Cherokee  County 
was  drawn  October  2d,  1858,  for  $4.30,  payable  to  D.  N.  Stoddard, 
on  account  of  services  as  chainman  on  ICoad  No.  1,  to  Plymouth 
County  line,  and  is  signed  by  A.  P.  Thayer,  County  Judge.     The 


264  HISTORY    OF  IOWA. 

first  bridge  over  the  Sioux  was  built  by  Mr.  Blair,  he  receiving  there- 
for Jl,600.  To  pay  this,  the  people  voted  a  seven-mill  tax,  four- 
teen votes  being  cast  for  the  tax  and  one  against  it. 

In  the  fall  of  1857,  a  number  of  the  colonists  left,  carrying  with 
them  dismal  stories  of  the  rigorous  winters  and  terrible  Indians, 
and  from  the  year  1858  to  the  year  1863,  there  was  but  little 
cheering  in  the  history  of  Cherokee  County. 

Isolated  from  all  the  privileges,  comforts  and  conveniences  of 
old  communities,  Cherokee  County  became  a  little  world  of  its 
own,  albeit  a  rather  gloomy  one.  A  land  grant,  made  in  1856. 
had  led  the  settlers  to  hope  for  an  early  completion  of  the  Du- 
buque &  Sioux  City  Railroad,  but  as  time  passed  on  without  other 
prospects  of  the  road  being  built,  the  hopes  of  the  settlers  were 
extinguished,  and  a  general  feeling  of  despondency  took  possession 
of  all. 

In  the  month  of  November,  1859,  occurred  the  first  marriage  in 
the  county,  that  of  Carlton  Corbett,  and  Miss  Rosabella  Cummings. 

For  three  succeeding  years  but  little  occurred  in  the  county 
worthy  of  record.  In  1860,  the  population  of  the  county  was  fifty- 
eight,  but  in  1863,  this  had  decreased  to  fifteen.  In  1862,  the  In- 
dian outbreaks  assumed  such  formidable  proportions  that  the  set- 
tlers were  once  more  compelled  to  flee  from  their  homes  and  seek 
safety  at  other  and  better  protected  places.  Mr.  Corbett  returned 
in  the  fall,  and  he  was  followed  by  0.  S.  Wight,  J.  A.  Brown,  and 
Robert  Perry,  all  of  whom  were  accompanied  by  their  families. 

During  the  civil  war,  Cherokee  County  furnished  more  soldiers 
in  proportion  to  her  population  than  any  other  county  in  the  Un- 
ion. Among  those  who  enlisted  from  this  county  were  6.  W. 
Lebourveau,  Silas  Parkhrrst,  Joel  Davenport,  and  Albert  Phipps. 
Eight  in  all  entered  the  army  for  the  Union,  leaving  but  five  men 
in  the  entire  county. 

In  1863,  a  court  house  was  built  at  the  cost  of  $1,900,  and  this 
building  is  yet  being  used  by  the  county.  In  1865,  the  first  saw 
mill  was  erected  on  the  site  now  occupied  by  the  Bliss  mill.  This 
year  the  population  of  the  county  was  but  sixty-four,  and  the  cen- 
sus of  1865  returned  nine  residents,  with  a  population  of  fifty-two, 
twenty-nine  males  and  twenty-three  females.  There  were  twenty- 
one  horses  and  ninety-eight  cattle,  and  only  eighteen  acres  of  spring 
wheat  were  sown,  twenty-three  acres  of  oats,  seven  of  barley,  and 
thirty-eight  of  potatoes. 

For  some  years,  prior  to  1866,  the  settlement  had  a  monthly 
mail,  which  was  carried  between  Cherokee  and  Sioux  City.  Dur- 
ing the  year  1860,  a  weekly  mail  was  established,  which  was  con- 
sidered a  wonderful  step  in  advance,  and  then  for  the  first  time  the 
settlers  began  to  realize  that  they  were  really  a  part  and  parcel  of 
the  civilized  world.  Early  in  this  year,  G.  W.  Lebourveau,  G.  W. 
Banister  and  Silas  Parkhurst,  three  of  the  original  settlers,  re- 
turned to  Cherokee  county.    The  developments  of  the  county  from 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  265 

this  time  until  the  year  1869,  was  very  slow,  and  but  little  worthy 
of  record  transpired.  In  1868,  the  population  numbered  227.  The 
general  election  was  held  in  the  fall  or  this  year,  at  which  sixty- 
four  votes  were  polled.  Hon.  Eli  Johnson,  of  Cherokee,  was 
elected  to  the  State  Legislature  by  a  handsome  majority.  Mr. 
Johnson  is  at  present  a  resident  of  Cherokee,  where  he  is  publish- 
ing a  paper,  the  Cherokee  Free  Press,  During  this  session  of  the 
Legislature,  the  preliminary  survey  for  the  Dubuque  and  Sioux 
City  Railroad  was  run  through  Cherokee  county,  and  the  line  es- 
tablished. The  work  of  building  the  road  was  immediately  com- 
menced, and  pushed  forward  with  all  possible  vigor.  In  the  Spring 
of  1869,  immigration  commenced  to  pour  into  the  county,  and  it 
seemed,  indeed,  that  an  era  of  prosperity  had  at  last  been  inaugu- 
rated. About  this  time  a  store  was  opened  in  the  old  village  by  a 
Mr.  Foskett.  He  was  soon  followed  by  Mr.  Van  Eps.  A  saw  mill 
was  also  erected  in  Pilot  Township  by  Mr.  Rodgers. 

During  the  year  work  on  the  railroad  progressed  with  great 
vigor,  and  in  May,  1870,  the  road  was  completed,  so  as  to  admit  of 
through  trains,  but  as  the  road  left  the  village  of  Cherokee  about 
a  mile  to  the  east,  an  effectual  stop  was  put  to  its  growth.  As 
soon  as  it  was  known  exactly  where  the  road  would  run,  it  was  de- 
cided to  establish  a  new  town  site,  and  in  March,  of  this  year, 
Carlton  Corbett  and  G.  W.  Lebourveau  laid  out  the  new  town  of 
Cherokee  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  site  selected  for  the  de- 

Eot.  The  citizens  of  the  old  town  immediately  removed  their 
uildings  to  the  new  site,  where  all  was  bustle,  life  and  activity. 
The  spring  was  one  of  remarkable  activity;  immigrants  flocked  in 
by  the  hundreds,  and  busy  industry  soon  converted  the  bleak  prai- 
rie into  a  thriving,  prosperous  village;  and,  by  December,  there 
were  at  least  ninety  new  buildings  in  the  town.  In  June,  of  this 
year,  there  were  in  the  county  1,244  cattle,  444  horses,  thirty-six 
mules,  thirty-nine  sheep,  and  seventy  swine.  The  entire  valua- 
tion of  all  personal  property  was  ^79,979.55. 

At  the  opening  of  the  year  1871,  the  prospects  for  Cherokee 
County  were  brighter  than  ever  before  in  her  history.  The  many 
struggles  of  fifteen  years  to  obtain  a  foot-hold  had  at  last  brought 
forth  their  legitimate  fruit,and  from  this  time  forward,  unparalleled 
prosperity  has  been  the  portion  of  Cherokee  County. 

New  villages  sprang  into  existence  as  if  by  magic,  and  the  rich' 
prairie  land  was  soon  dotted  over  with  well  tilled  farms  and  good 
farm  buildings.  In  1870  the  foundations  were  laid  for  the  first 
building  in  Hazard,  and  in  1871,  the  first  house  was  erected  in 
Marcus,  and  Aurelia  was  started  in  1877. 

We  have  thus  sketched  in  brief  the  more  important  points  in 
the  history  of  Cherokee  County ;  have  seen  it  transferred  from  a 
wild,  unbroken  prairie  into  one  of  the  richest  and  most  thickly 
settled  countries  in  all  the  great  Northwest;  have  noted  the  almost 
superhuman  exertion  necessary  to    accomplish    this  task;  have 

18 


366  HISTOKY  OF  IOWA. 

chronicled  the  repeated  failures,  the  renewed  efforts  and  the  final 
triumph.  It  is  now  proper  to  describe  this,  one  of  the  most  fertile 
and  picturesque  sections  in  all  the  great  State  of  Iowa. 

Cherokee  County  is  situated  in  the  third  tier  of  counties  south 
of  the  Minnesota  line,  and  the  second  west  of  the  Dakota  line, 
lyinp^  between  Plymouth  and  Buena  Vista  counties;  is  twenty- 
four  miles  s([uare,  and  contains  368,640  acres  of  rich  and  fertile 
land.  It  is  well  watered  by  innumerable  clear,  sparkling  brooks, 
springs  and  dashing  rivers,  the  largest  river,  the  Little  Sioux, 
passing  diagonally  through  the  county,  making  its  exit  near  the 
southwest  corner.  Every  township  in  the  county  has  a  stream 
running  through  it,  and  all  of  these  streams  abound  with  fine  fish. 
The  Maple  has  its  headwaters  on  the  northeastern  border  of  the 
county.  Along  the  banks  of  the  Little  Sioux  considerable  timber 
is  to  be  found.  The  general  surface  of  the  country  is  rolling; 
there  are  but  few  acres  of  the  land  too  broken  to  be  tilled, 
and  Cherokee  ranks  among  the  best  agriultural  counties  in  the 
State.  Its  numerous  valleys,  formed  by  clear,  running  streams, 
have  a  soil  especially  adapted  to  the  cultivation  of  cereals.  For 
stock  raising  it  is  superior  to  most  counties  in  the  northwest,  as 
its  numerous  running  streams  afford  an  abundance  of  pure  water, 
^and  the  nutritious  grasses,  which  grow  so  luxuriantly,  afford  an 
excellent  pasturage,  and  stock  can  be  kept  in  good  condition  the 
entire  year  with  but  little  trouble  or  expense.  The  climate  is 
very  similar  to  that  of  other  counties  in  Northwestern  Iowa — 
healthy  and  invigorating;  extremes  of  heat  and  cold  are  the  ex- 
ception, and  not  the  rule,  mild  weather  generally  characterizing 
the  entire  year.  The  air  is  dry  and  bracing,  and  lung  diseases  are 
almost  unknown.  The  soil  is  a  drift  deposit,  covered  with  a  deep, 
rich  vegetable  mould.  Along  the  streams,  it  is  alluvial,  and  every 
where  capable  of  producing  tne  most  luxuriant  vegetation.  Chero- 
kee County  has  1,085  acres  of  natural  timber,  and  1,275  of  artificial. 
The  inhabitants  embrace  all  nationalities,  though  the  original 
stock  from  Massachusetts  and  other  Eastern  states  is  largely  in  the 
ascendancy. 

In  1874,  the  population  was  estimated  at  5,000,  while  in  the  same 
year  80,000  acres  were  under  crop.  In  this  year  about  1,100  cars 
of  wheat  were  shipped  from  the  county,  while  the  total  assessa- 
ble value  of  the  property  of  the  county  footed  up  in  round  num- 
bers to  $1,600,000.  In  this  year  there  were  1,200  farms  in  the 
county  with  an  average  cultivation  of  sixty-six  acres,  located  in  all 
the  townships  in  the  county.  During  the  same  year  there  were 
sixty-four  schools  in  the  county,  the  total  value  of  the  school 
houses  being  $32,241 .  Though  statistics  are  unquestionably  rather 
dry  reading,  in  this  case,  at  least,  they  show  conclusively  the  rapid 
strides  Chetokee  County  is  making  towards  supremacy. 

If  the  figures  given  above  afford  occasion  for  congratulation, 
those  for  1^1  are  still  more  satisfactory.     The  taxable  real  estate 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  237 

of  this  county  this  year  amounts  in  round  numbers  to  $1,800,000; 
personal  property,  ^75,000,  based  as  near  as  possible  on  one-third 
their  actual  values.  The  bonded  indebtedness  of  the  county  is$48,- 
300. 

The  educational  interests,  the  criterion  of  a  county's  pros- 
perity, are  in  a  very  flattering  condition.  There  are  ninety-two 
frame  school  buildings  in  the  county,  valued  at  about  $50,000, 
while  the  value  of  the  school  apparatus  is  in  round  numbers  $3,- 
000.  One  hundred  and  sixty-nine  teachers  are  employed,  and  3,- 
200  children  are  enrolled,  the  averaged  attendance  being 2,110.  Of 
the  general  funds  on  hand,  the  last  report  has  the  following: 
School  house  fund,  $4,500;  contingent  fund,  $5,500;  teachers' 
fund,  nearly  $12,000. 

The  present  officials  of  the  county  are:  Hon.  H.  C.  Lewis,  Dis- 
trict Judge;  Hon.  J.  R.  Zuver,  of  Sioux  City,  Circuit  Judge;  R.L. 
Robie,  Auditor;  Eli  Eshleman,  Treasurer;  E.  Miller,  Recorder;  W. 
C.  Bundy,  Clerk  of  Courts;  R.  J.  Smythe,  SherifiF;  Miss  Ella  M. 
Slater,  Superintendent  of  Public  Schools,  and  J.  H.  Davenport, 
Surveyor. 

With  all  the  advantages  we  have  cited,  land  can  be  purchased  in 
this  county  at  from  $5  to  $15  per  acre,  according  to  location.  As 
a  general  rule,  the  farmers  of  the  county  are  devoting  unusual  at- 
tention to  stock  raising,  not  because  grain  cannot  be  grown  suc- 
cessfully, but  because  stock  pays  better. 

CHEROKEE. 

The  county  seat  of  Cherokee  county,  much  of  whose  history  ne- 
cessarily appears  in  the  above  detailed  county  history,  is  in  every 
respect  a  nandsome,  substantial  and  growing  city.  It  is  located 
nearly  midway  between  Fort  Dodge  and  Sioux  City,  in  the  midst 
of  a  prosperous  and  fertile  county.  As  a  writer  in  a  former  simi- 
lar work  expresses  it,  "Cherokee  has  a  surprisingly  beautiful  site, 
skirted  on  all  sides  by  gentle  bluffs,  that  swell  just  enough  to 
shield  it  from  the  blasts  of  winter,  yet  not  to  impair  the  beauty  of 
the  landscape.  Through  the  vale  and  to  the  south  of  the  village 
the  Sioux  River  winds  its  devious  way  in  search  of  the  great  Mis- 
souri, where  her  crystalline  waters  are  swallowed  up  in  the  current 
of  mud.  The  banks  of  the  Sioux  are  lined  with  timber,  the  first 
of  any  consequence  that  greets  the  eye  of  the  traveler  after  leaving 
Port  Dodge.  This  greatly  adds  to  the  picturesqueness  of  the 
scene,  and  preposseses  the  traveler  in  its  favor. 

Cherokee  was  located  in  August,  1870,  a  small  number  of  build- 
ings having  been  erected  prior  to  that  date,  however,  but  of  a 
character  wnich  admitted  of  their  being  moved  to  the  future  coun- 
ty seat.  The  facts  as  to  the  settlement  upon  the  permanent  loca- 
tion of  the  town  appear  elsewhere.  The  residence  of  E.  Cowles 
is  stated  to  be  the  nrst  building  moved  from  the  '^old  town,^^  in 


26S  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

March,  1870,  and  was  the  first  dwelling  in  the  new  village;  but 
the  farm  residence  of  G..  W.  Lebourveau,  adjoining  the  village, 
was  erected  prior  to  that  date.  The  growth  of  Cherokee  has  been 
rapid  and  healthy,  and  to-day  it  is  deservedly  ranked  among  the 
most  substantially  prosperous  of  Iowa's  many  prosperous  villages. 
The  following  as  to  the  natural  features  of  Cheroicee  and  vicinity 
will  prove  of  interest: 

'^Cherokee  county  lies  wholly  in  one  large  valley,  the  highest 

Soint  on  its  eastern  border  being  908  feet,  and  on  its  western  bor- 
er 877  feet;  the  city  of  Cherokee  being  the  center  of  the  depres- 
sion is  only  565  feet.  Through  the  center  of  this  valley  from 
northeast  to  southwest  flows  the  Little  Sioux.  This  peculiarity, 
nowhere  else  found  in  the  west,  gives  the  surface  of  the  country  a 
slightly  rolling  appearance,  and  with  gentle  slopes  to  the  river  bed 
underlying  the  prairie  proper  about  100  feet.  The  valleys  formed 
by  the  river  being  particularly  rich,  are  very  desirable.  The  soil 
is  very  loose  and  mellow,  and  never  'bakes,'  and  is  much  easier 
cultivated  than  the  soil  of  the  eastern  states.  It  is  what  is  parti- 
cularly known  as  the  'bluflf  deposit,'  varying  in  depth  from  two  to 
three  feet.  Being  slightly  tmctured  with  sand,  it  matures  crops 
rapidly.  Read  what  eminent  geologists  say  of  it.  Prof.  Owen,  m 
his  Geological  Survey,  says:  Ut  is  a  silicious  marl  closely  resemb- 
ling the  4oess'  deposit  in  the  valley  of  the  Rhine,  famous  the 
world  over  for  its  richness.'  As  far  as  known  this  deposit  covers 
an  area  of  nearly  two  hundred  miles  drained  by  the  Missouri. 
Prof.  White,  in  his  Geological  Survey  of  the  State,  says:  'The 
fortunate  admixture  of  soil  materials  gives  a  warmth  and  mellow- 
ness to  the  soil,  which  is  so  favorable  to  the  growth  of  crops  that 
thev  are  usually  matured  as  early  as  they  are  upon  more  clayey 
soils  of  the  southern  part  of  the  state,  although  tne  latter  are  more 
than  20<)  miles  to  the  southward.'  Impassable  roads  are  never 
known.  A  few  hours  of  sunshine  after  the  most  severe  storm, 
make  a  road  dry  and  passable  for  loads.  The  drainage  is  so  good 
that  'muddy'  roads  are  impossible.  The  county  has  a  most  peitect 
water  system.  Through  the  center  of  the  county  flows  the  Little 
Sioux;  on  the  west  Rock  Creek  and  Willow  Creek;  on  the  north 
Mill  Creek  and  Gray  Creek,  and  on  the  east  the  Maple,  while  on 
the  south  is  Silver  Creek.  All  of  these  having  more  or  less  tribu- 
taries, give  bountiful  supplies  of  water  for  stock-raising  and  other 
purposes.  In  fact  there  is  hardly  a  section  of  land  but  what  there 
exists  upon  it  flowing  streams  or  living  springs.  Pure,  healthy 
water  is  obtained  everywhere  at  a  depth  or  fifteen  to  thirty  feet. ' 
Not  the  least  of  the  attractions  which  Cherokee  affords,  is  her 
famous 

MAGNETIC  SPRING, 

one  of  the  most  remarkable  curiosities  in  nature,  the  essential  par- 
ticulars concerning  which  are  as  follows: 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  269 

This  spring  was  discovered  in  1879,  while  prospecting  for  coal; 
when  the  depth  of  200  feet  was  reached,  a  stream  of  crystalline 
water  two  inches  in  diameter  flowed  to  the  surface  with  a  force 
that  projected  it  several  feet  above  the  level  of  the  ground. 

The  stream  was  so  great  that  the  prospector  had  to  abandon  his 
work.  Unaware  that  he  had  tapped  a  spring  superior  in  curative 
properties  to  any  other  in  America,  he  felt  disappointed  and  dis- 
pirited. Several  weeks  afterwards,  in  fastening  an  iron  rod  a 
quarter  of  an  inch  thick  and  ten  feet  long  to  a  cord,  with  the  in- 
tention of  sinking  the  rod  to  the  bottom  in  order  to  raise  the  sedi- 
ment which  had  accumulated  in  the  tube,  to  his  astonishment  the 
rod  fastened  itself  to  the  iron  piping,  and  so  far  from  sinking  it  re- 
quired considerable  strength  to  detach  it  and  bring  it  up. 

This  accidental  discovery  paved  the  way  for  future  experiments, 
which  resulted  in  demonstrating  that  the  water  of  this  spring  was 
heavily  charged  with  magnetism,  so  much  so  that  by  immersing  a 
steel  instrument  in  the  waters  it  shortly  becomes  a  perfect  magnet, 
capable  of  suspending  needles,  nails,  watch  keys  and  iron  sub- 
stances of  greater  weight. 

The  sceptical  at  first  said  the  magnetism  was  in  the  iron  tubing, 
and  that  it  had  been  charged  artificially,  but  as  the  pipes  were 
those  purchased  to  conduct  water  by  a  hydraulic  ram  and  re-pur- 
chased from  a  neighbor  who  knew  nothing  about  the  sprint,  the 
doubters  had  to  give  that  theory  up.  It  was  next  charged  that 
any  iron  tube  sunk  in  the  earth  to  a  great  depth  becomes  charged 
with  magnetism;  that  the  magnetism  was  not  in  the  water.  Tnis 
was  disproven  by  scientific  tests,  viz:  taking  the  water  from  the 
spring  and  immersing  in  it  steel  bars,  tested  by  a  galvanometer 
and  pronounced  free  from  electricity;  after  a  short  interval  of  time 
these  were  found  charged  with  magnetism,  capable  of  suspending 
other  bodies  of  iron.  The  mechanical  action  of  the  water 
upon  the  iron,  is  too  obvious  to  be  denied,  and  so  manifest 
that  the  most  illiterate  can  readily  see  it.  It  requires  no  theoretic 
demonstration  to  convince  the  observer  that  it  must  have  an 
effect  upon  living  tissue  which  is  well  known  to  be  an  electrical 
conductor. 

Invalids  began  drinking  the  water,  and  the  results  were  at  once 
of  a  highly  favorable  character.  Dyspeptics  were  greatly  benefited 
by  their  use,  they  afforded  relief  to  every  form  of  constipation,  and 
their  aerated  qualities  proved  an  antidote  to  acidity  and  distention 
of  the  stomacn.  A  demand  for  bathing  facilities  was  made  on  the 
proprietors,  and  the  fame  of  these  wonderful  healing  waters  spread 
to  every  State  of  the  Union.  Letters  of  inquiry  poured  in,  and 
the  water  became  a  standard  article  of  export  to  hundreds  of  towns 
and  cities. 

Thus  far  the  well  had,  by  its  inherent  virtues,  forced  itself  on 
the  public,  and  the  public  in  return,  by  their  urgent  demands,  in 
a  manner  compelled  the  proprietors  to   fit  up  a  bathing  establish- 


370  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

ment,  which  they  have  added  to  from  time  to  time,  until  it  now 
has  a  sufficient  capacity  to  meet  all  ordinary  demands,  while  the 
surroundings  have  been  improved  and  beautified  so  as  to  make  it  a 
really  interesting  spot. 

Like  most  other  institutions,  it  had  to  encounter  opposition. 
This  mainly  sprang  from  the  jealousy  of  the  profession,  since  the 
many  remarkable  cures,  and  general  improvement  of  chronic 
sufferers,  wholly  due  to  a  continued  use  of  these  waters,  seemed  a 
rebuke  to  the  ordinary  methods  of  treatment,  but  opposition  was 
silenced  by  the  voices  of  the  many  who  drank  healtn  from  this 
magnetic  fountain.  Physicians  found  the  waters  had  intrinsic, 
health-giving  qualities,  and  soon  learned  to  recognize  them  among 
the  potent  agencies  in  the  cure  of  a  long  train  of  diseases. 

For  a  considerable  time  the  proprietors  were  reluctant  to  make  a 
heavy  outlay  for  the  benefit  oi  invalids  and  health-seekers,  as  such 
a  course  was  entirely  foreign  to  their  original  purpose — ^that  of 
finding  coal — but  the  representations  of  the  public  were  so  con- 
tinued and  earnest,  that  all  objections  on  this  score  were  waived, 
and  the  large  investments  made  have  been  warmly  seconded  by  an 
appreciative  public,  whose  liberal  patronage  is  the  safest  guarantee 
tnat  the  outlay  has  been  wisely  made. 

The  Bathing  House  is  a  commodious  and  well  finished  structure, 
one  storv  and  a  half  high,  with  waiting  rooms  and  ladies'  parlor. 
The  batn  rooms  are  neat  and  comfortable,  and  the  baths  are  con- 
structed on  the  most  recent  and  approved  plan,  and  heated  by  steam. 
The  ladies'  rooms  are  reserved  exclusively  for  their  use,  and  are  in 
charge  of  polite  and  attentive  female  waiters.  The  ladies'  and 
gentlemen  s  bathing  departments  are  separated  by  a  suite  of  rooms 
insuring  the  most  perfect  guarantee  that  nothing  need  offend  the 
instincts  of  the  most  delicate. 

The  flow  of  water  from  the  Spring  is  so  great  that  an  artificial 
lake  of  over  six  acres  in  extent  has  been  made,  the  waters  of 
which  average  four  feet  deep,  and  are  almost  transparent  as  the 
air  above  them.  One  side  of  this  lake  washes  the  southern  porch 
of  the  bath  house,  and  flocks    of  wild    ducks   have,  for  the  past 

J  ear,  been  continually  about  the  lake  in   their  season;   they  have 
ecome  so  tame  that  persons  may  approach  them   within    a  few 
feet. 

The  p-ounds  surrounding  the  Spring  comprise  sixty  acres,  have 
been  laid  out  by  a  skilled  arborist  and  gardner,  with  a  view  to  pro- 
ducing the  best  aesthetic  effect,  and  have  been  planted  with  native 
and  ornamental  trees  and  shrubbery,  the  lake  being  skirted  by 
choice  varieties.  Time  alone  is  required  to  make  this  park  one  of 
the  handsomest  and  most  interesting  in  the  western  states. 

Another,  and  not  the  least  interesting  feature  of  this  charming 
spot,  is  a  one-half  mile  race  course,  sixty  feet  wide,  and  as  level  as 
a  lake,  one  side  bounded  by  the  river  bank,  the  other  j^  the  lake. 
A  better  race-course  or  a  prettier  is   not  easily    f  oun^    The  pro- 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  271 

prietors  have  spared  no  expense  to  improve  and  beautify  the 
grounds,  which  have  already  earned  the  reputation  of  being  the 
most  inviting  known  at  any  western  watering  place.  In  addition 
to  the  new  park,  the  proprietors  have  purchased  an  island  in  the 
Sioux  river  of  about  one  hundred  acres  in  extent,  heavily  wooded 
with  timber  of  large  and  small  growth.  A  little  work  could  make 
this  as  romantic  a  retreat  as  river  and  forest  can  afford. 

The  waters  of  the  Spring  are  so  pure  and  free  from  inorganic 
matter  that  they  keep  perfectly  sweet  and  pure  for  two  or  three 
weeks  after  being  drawn.  Those  who  have  had  them  shipped  for 
hundreds  of  miles  have  been  astonished  to  find  that  even  after 
being  kept  for  a  month,  no  sign  of  putrefaction  was  discernible, 
and  that  to  the  taste  they  were  as  pleasant  as  when  drawn.  This 
quality  is  of  incalculable  advantage  for  shipping  purposes.  Those 
who,  from  weakness,  or  any  other  cause,  are  unable  to  come  to  the 
Spring,  can  have  the  water  shipped  to  them  at  reasonable  rates, 
with  the  assurance  that  it  will  remain  sweet  and  pure  for  a 
lon^  time. 

The  boarding  facilities  at  Cherokee  are  quite  eoual  to  those  of 
any  other  city  of  sixteen  hundred  inhabitants.  There  are  four 
good  hotels,  and  several  good  boarding  houses  in  the  city.  Fruits 
and  every  delicacy  in  its  season  may  be  had  here  abundantly.  No 
one  need  have  any  hesitancy  in  comings  to  Cherokee  on  the  ground 
of  insufficient  accommodation.  *  The  city  has  two  excellent  livery 
stables,  with  horses  and  vehicles  in  abundance,  so  that  with  driv- 
ing, shooting  and  fishing  the  most  pleasing  and  invigorating 
recreation  may  be  had  at  all  times  and  seasons.  In  fact  the  city 
of  Cherokee  is  sufficiently  metropolitan  to  afford  an  ample  variety 
of  sports,  ?omforts  and  recreations. 

There  are  in  ('herokee  Congregational,  Presbyterian,  Catholic, 
Methodist,  Baptist,  Advent,  Episcopalian  and  Universalist  church 
organizations.  The  first  six  have  houses  of  worship.  The  church 
property  of  the  county  is  in  valuation  perhaps  not  less  than  $20,- 
000.  The  officers  of  the  Congregational  church  are:  Pastor,  J. 
B.  Chase;  Deacons,  J.  W.  Coombs,  J.  P.  Dickey,  H.  C.  Kellogg; 
Clerk,  W.  C.  Bundy;  Treasurer,  J.  P.  Dickey;  Trustees,  J.  A.  Ris- 
ley,  F.  E.  Whitmore,  Richard  Opie;  Ushers,  Richard  Opie,  E.  F. 
Coombs;  Sexton,  Fred  Boddy. 

The  Presbyterian  church  society  was  organized  in  1870.  Rev. 
Alexander  M.  Darley  was  the  first  pastor.  The  Union  Sabbath 
School  of  Cherokee  has  a  flourishing  membership  of  more  than 
sixty  members.     The  Children  of  Zion  church  organization  was 

Serfected  in  the  summer  of  1880  by  Bishop  D.  D.  Patterson,  of 
rrand  Rapids,  and  hold  regular  services,  with  a  flourishing  Sun- 
day School.  The  Baptist  society  dates  its  organization  from  the 
autumn  of  1870.  Services  were  first  held  in  the  old  brick  school 
house.  Rev.  A.  W.  Hilton  was  the  first  pastor.  The  church 
building  was  erected  in    1873,  and  is  30x40  feet  in  dimensions. 


272 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 


Among  the  pastors  at  different  times  have  been  Revs.  E.  N. 
Jencks,  W.  H.  Irwin,  J.  P.  Cuffman,  John  Edminister,  George  H. 
Brown.  An  addition,  14x22,  was  made  to  the  church  edifice  in 
1881.  The  first  sermon  preached  in  Cherokee  was  delivered  by 
Rev.  Alexander  Darley,  of  the  Presbyterian  denomination,  in  the 
store  of  H.  A.  Fife,  in  1870. 

On  the  14th  day  of  November  in  the  same  year,  the  first  mar- 
riage license  in  the  county  was  granted  to  C.  Corbett  and  Rosabella 
Cummings.  A  school  was  taught  during  the  summer  in  the  old 
school  house,  by  Mrs.  Parkhurst,  the  funds  to  defray  the  necessary 
expenses  being  sent  from  Massachusetts. 

For  a  young  city,  having  by  the  recent  census  only  1,522  popu- 
lation; Cherokee  has  a  large  local  trade,  and  does  an  extensive 
shipping  business  in  grain  and  stock.  Its  magnitude  may  be  in- 
ferred from  the  following: 


BUSINESS   SUMMARY. 


Abstracts 3 

Agrl.  Implements 4 

Attorneys  (firms) 7 

Bakeiles 3 

Banks 8 

Barbers 2 

Blacksmiths 6 

Books  and  stationery 3 

Boots  and  shoes  (excl.) 8 

Boot  and  shoemakers 4 

Brickyards 1 

Carriatres 2 

Clothinir,  etc.,  (excl.) 2 

Contractors  and  builders 4 

Creameries 1 

Coal  and  wood 5 

Dentists 1 

Drugs 3 

Dry  goods 1 

Elevators 4 

Feed  miils 1 

Flouring  mills 1 

Furniture 1 

General  merchandise 6 

Grain 4 


Groceries 6 

Hardware 8 

Harness  makers 2 

Hotels 4 

Insurance  agencies 15 

Jewelers 2 

Livery  stables 3 

Lumber 4 

Manuf .  carrg's,  wgn's,  etc 1 

Manuf.  of  sash,  doors,  blinds,  etc. . .  1 

Meat  markets 2 

Merchant  tailors 1 

Music 1 

Milliners 2 

News  depots 2 

Newspapers 8 

Photographers 1 

Physicians 6 

Printers  (job) 2 

Prod  uce 1 

Real  estate  and  loans 7 

Kestaurants 3 

Sewing  machines 3 

Stock 6 


Cherokee  Lodge  No.  322,  I.  0.  G.  T.,  was  organized  November 
17th,  1879,  with  seventeen  charter  members.  Its  first  officers  were: 
W.  E.  Hitchcock,  W.  C;  A.  C.  Hobart,  W.  V.  C;  Rev.  R.  C.  Glass, 
Chaplain;  H.  H.  Henry,  Secretary;  W.  H.  Hall,  F.  S.;  J.  Boles, 
Treasurer;  David  Lynn,  M.;  W.  Stebbins,  L  G.;  E.  N.  Corbett,  0. 
G.;C.  P.  Hobart,  P.  W.C.  T. 

The  Masonic  Lodge  of  Cherokee  was  instituted  in  1871.  Cher- 
okee Lodge  No.  188,  I,  0.  0.  F.,  was  organized  in  February,  1870, 
with  five  charter  members.  Its  present  membership  is  forty-four. 
Its  first  officers  were:  C.  E.  Schofield,  N.  G.;  G.  W.  McCoun,  V. 
G.;  J.  C.  Hubbard,  Secretary;  Z.  P.  Herrick,  Treasurer.  The  fol- 
lowing are  the  present  officers:  Thomas  McCulla,  N.  G.;  R.  H. 
Gross,  V.  G.;  D.  W.  Benway,  Secretary;  R.  J.  Smyth,  Treasurer. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA,  273 

The  Advent  Church  Society  was  organized  in  1873,  in  Afton 
Township,  with  a  membership  of  ten,  and  was  moved  to  the  town 
in  the  following  year:  In  the  summer  of  1875,  a  very  successful 
series  of  revival  meetings  was  held,  and  the  membersnip  steadily 
increased,  until  the  Society  numbers  nearly  fifty.  A  church  was 
provided  in  the  autumn  or  1875,  and  Elder  J.  Kidley  was  secured 
as  regular  pastor. 

T.  S.  Steele  &  Son,  bankers,  of  Cherokee,  organized  their  busi- 
ness in  1874,  starting  in  a  small  wooden  building.  Their  present 
building  was  erected  in  1879,  is  24x40  feet,  and  two  stories  high. 
T.  H.  Steele  is  cashier,  and  is  ably  assisted  by  D.  T.  Steele. 

Scribner,  Burroughs  &  (?o.'s  bank  was  organized  in  1871,  under 
the  firm  name  of  Fulton  &  Scribner.  Mr.  Burroughs  became  in- 
terested June  12th,  1872,  the  business  having  been  started  in  a 
small  and  unpretentious  building.  The  present  building  was 
erected  in  1875.  The  bank's  surplus  capital  is  now  ?100,0(X),  its 
business  having  increased  proportionately  to  its  capital.  Mr. 
Burroughs  came  to  Cherokee  from  Adrian,  Mich.,  locating  per- 
manently m  Cherokee,  after  having  successively  lived  at  Salt 
L^ke  and  other  sections  of  the  western  country.  Mr.  Scribner  is 
a  native  of  Plattsburg,  N.  Y.,  and  came  to  Cherokee  in  1871. 
Mr.  B.  has  a  stock  farm  of  660  acres  adjoining  town,  and  kee|>8 
an  average  of  about  seven  hundred  cattle  on  his  lands. 

In  1874,  Mr.  Satterlee  began  the  sinking  of  a  coal  shaft,  and  in 
the  Spring:  of  1879,  on  Mr.  burrough's  land,  a  depth  of  one  hun- 
dred feet  was  reached,  when,  on  penetrating  aroclcy  stratum,  fiow- 
ing  water,  strongly  impregnated  with  sulphur,  was  reached.  At  a 
further  depth  of  fifty  feet,  another  stratum  containing  magnesia 
was  found,  and  at  two  hundred  feet  the  magnetic  water,  which  is 
fully  described  above  was  discovered.  It  is  impossible  to  over- 
state the  importance  of  this  discovery  to  Cherokee. 

March  22d,  1879,  Kellogg  &  Herrick  organized  the  Cherokee 
Butter  and  Cheese  manufacturing  Company.  The  building  is 
24x50  feet  in  dimensions,  with  an  addition  twenty  feet  square. 
The  firm  buys  cream  from  about  1,000  cows.  This  industry  bids 
fair  to  become  a  very  important  one. 

The  Cherokee  T/me^  was  established  October  21st,  1870,  and  is 
consequently  now  in  its  twelfth  year.  It  is  in  every  sense  a  highly 
creditable  publication.  Robert  Buchanan  is  the  editor  and  pro- 
prietor. 

The  Iowa  Free  Press,  like  the  Times^  is  an  eight-column  folio, 
Robert  Johnson  and  Will  P.  Groldie,  editors  and  proprietors;  both 
papers  are  well  sustained,  of  good  typographical  appearance,  and 
newsy. 

The  population  of  Cherokee  may  be  set  down  as  very  nearly,  if 
not  quite,  two  thousand.  Its  educational  advantages  are  excep- 
tionally good.     The  public  schools  are  on  an  unusually  good  foot- 


274  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

ing,  and  a  college  is  in  contemplation,  the  opportunities  for  such 
an  institution  in  Cherokee  being  apparent. 

The  future  prospects  of  Cherokee  as  to  railroads  are  good.  Al- 
ready two  different  companies  are  surveying  through  the  southern 
part  of  the  county,  and  strong  talk  of  a  road  running  northeast 
and  southwest,  following  the  Little  Sioux  river,  connecting  Umaha 
with  St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis  by  a  more  direct  route,  and  giving 
the  vast  lumber  regions  a  new  and  more  direct  outlet  to  the  South- 
west; also  a  new  railroad  is  projected  through  Cherokee  from  Des 
Moines  to  the  wheat  fields  of  Dakota.  These  roads  secured  will 
make  Cherokee  a  town  of  10,000  inhabitants,  and  an  excellent 
manufacturing  point. 

MARCUS. 

The  town  of  Marcus  is  a  substantial  place,  whose  personal  inter- 
ests will  be  found  to  be  well  representea  in  the  biographies  here- 
unto attached.  The  first  building  was  erected  in  1871.  I.  M. 
Jackson  and  A.  H.  Dwight  were  the  first  settlers.  The  first  school 
was  begun  in  1873,  and  the  first  sermon  in  Marcus  was  preached 
in  1875,  by  Rev.  W.  F.  Rose,  Congregational  minister.  The 
church  societies  are  well  represented  by  the  Catholic,  Lutheran  and 
Methodist  denominations. 

The  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  which  has  a  flourishing 
lodge  in  Marcus,  had  for  its  charter  members  L  Cask,  S.  W.  Wea- 
ver, W.  H.  Skinner,  M.  I.  Ames  and  R.  W.  Heath.  Its  active 
members  are  eleven.  The  lodge  meets  at  S.  W.  Weaver's.  A 
Masonic  lodge  is  also  one  of  tne  prominent  features  in  this  con- 
nection. 

The  Good  Templars'  Society  has  fifty-nine  members,  and  holds 
its  meetings  in  the  school  house.  C.  P.  Kilburn  is  W.  C;  Mrs.  J. 
H.  Sheldon,  W.  V.  C;  T.  W.  P.  Clough,  P.  W.C;  J.  H.  Sheldon, 
S.;  Miss  N.  Cleglow,  F.  S. 

The  Presbyterian  Church  Society  was  organized  during  the  past 
season,  by  Rev.  George  Knox,  of  Cherokee. 

The  population  of  Marcus  is  about  450,  and  is  composed  of  a 
sturdy  mixture  of  nationalities,  German,  English,  Swedish,  Scotch, 
etc. 

The  depot  was  built  in  the  winter  of  1869-70,  and  is  30x79  feet 
in  dimensions.  A  grist  mill  with  three  run  of  stone,  two  elevators, 
warehouses  and  two  hotels  are  among  the  important  acquisitions 
to  the  town.  The  first  white  man  to  settle  in  the  -township  is 
stated  to  have  been  H.  Bowman,  a  native  of  Vermont.  Mrs.  Bow- 
man is  still  living  in  Marcus.  The  first  female  settler  was  Mrs. 
W.  E.  Rose,  who  came  in  1871.  The  first  house  was  erected  on 
section  36,  by  Mr.  Bowman,  in  1869,  the  first  soil  in  the  township 
being  broken  that  year. 

In  1874,  the  first  regular  election  occurred,  the  depot  building 
being  used  as  a  voting  place.   Fourteen  votes  were  cast,  that  being 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  275 

the  entire  vote  of  the  township.  The  first  officers  elected  were  as 
follows:  R.  Wilmot,  J.  M.  Sheldon,  E.  Prunty,  Trustees;  W.  E. 
hose,  Clerk;  I.  Bowman,  Supervisor;  A.  H.  Dwight,  Elion  Prunty, 
Justices  of  the  Peace;  E.  Gcaron,  Constable;  I.  M.  Jackson,  As- 
sessor. The  first  assessment  was  made  in  1875,  the  number  of 
families  being  fourteen;  population  forty-four;  number  of  houses, 
nineteen;  cattle,  fifty;  hogs,  thirty-nine;  acres  improved,  620.  The 
first  person  to  locate  in  business  in  Marcus  was  I.  M.  Jackson. 
C.  Parkin  built  bis  grain  house  in  1873.  A  store  was  opened  by 
J.  Hvndman  in  September,  1873.  R.  Wilmot  opened  the  first 
hotel  in  July,  1874.  The  school  house  was  built  in  the  same  year. 
The  first  car  of  stock  was  received  by  J.  Clarkson  in  February, 
1877. 

Clarkson  &  Metcalf  have  a  warehouse  with  a  capacity  of  15,000 
bushels;  L.  Gund,  of  a  capacity  of  10,000  bushels. 

The  village  of  Marcus  has  doubled  in  population  in  the  past 
year.  The  receipts  at  the  depot  for  the  twelve  months  just  prior 
to  this  writing  were  Jv36,40<).  Five  hundred  and  fifty-six  cans 
were  sent  out  from  the  town  during  the  same  time. 

A  public  hall  22x50  feet,  with  ceiling  twelve  feet  high,  adds 
greatly  to  the  convenience  and  advancement  of  the  community. 
There  is  also  a  half-mile  circular  track  in  excellent  condition.  The 
population  of  the  county  is  closely  estimated  at  10,000. 

Among  the  noteworthy  farms  of  this  section  is  that  of  Theo. 
Grofi',  about  a  mile  northeast  of  Marcus.  Mr.  Groff  came  to  this 
part  of  the  country  about  four  years  ago. 

The  first  school  in  Marcus  was  taught  in  1873-4,  Miss  Nina  Shel- 
don being  the  teacher.     Nine  pupils  were  enrolled. 

The  first  birth  was  that  of  Elsie  Bowman  in  April,  1874;  the 
first  death,  a  brother  of  John  Bird,  Sr.,  in  1875;  the  first  marriage, 
George  Paactier  and. Miss  Nina  Sheldon,  in  1878;  the  first  grain 
brought  to  market,  by  I.  Gorner  in  September,  1873;  the  first  car 
of  grain  shipped,  was  in  September,  1873,  by  C.  Parkin. 

There  are  more  than  one  nundred  pupils  enrolled  in  the  public 
schools  of  Marcus.  There  are  three  lumber  yards  in  the  town, 
each  one  of  which  is  doing  a  thriving  business.  H.  D.  Dwight  is 
the  postmaster,  and  the  office  is  very  satisfactorily  and  systemati- 
cally con  ducted.  The  business  of  the  office  has  doubled  within 
the  last  year. 


376  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 


CHEROKEE  COUNTY  BIOGRAPHIES. 


CHEROKEE. 


James  Archer,  dealer  in  lumber,  grain  and  coal,  established 
business  July  12th,  1869;  was  born  in  Scotland  in  1828;  came  to 
America  in  1842,  and  located  in  Rockford,  111.;  from  there  he  re- 
moved to  Fayette  county,  Iowa;  thence  to  Waverly,  Iowa,  where 
he  was  engaged  in  the  lumber  business  three  years.  In  1869,  he 
removed  to  Cherokee;  and  engaged  in  business  as  above.  He  has 
been  a  member  of  the  town  council,  and  has  served  several  terms 
on  the  school  board. 

S.  B.  Allen,  proprietor  City  Hotel,  was  bom  in  Washington 
county,  New  York,  in  1832;  came  west  in  1868,  and  located  in 
Buchanan  county,  Iowa,  where  he  remained  until  the  spring  of 
1881,  when  he  removed  to  Cherokee  and  engaged  in  business  as 
above. 

C.  Allison,  senior  member  of  the  firm  of  Allison  Brothers,  dealers 
in  dry  goods,  notions,  boots  and  shoes,  was  born  in  Wisconsin  in 
1846;  received  his  education  at  Madison,  Wisconsin.  He  went  to 
Nevada;  where  he  was  foreman  of  the  Opher  mine  for  several 
years;  thence  came  back  to  Eldora,  la.,  and  in  1873  he  came  to 
Cherokee  and  established  his  present  business. 

H.  Allison,  junior  member  of  the  above  firm,  was  bom  in  W  is. 
in  1857.  In  1869  he  went  to  California,  where  he  remained  until 
he  came  to  Cherokee.  These  gentlemen  intend  to  erect  a  brick 
building,  30x100  feet,  the  coming  spring. 

N.  T.  Burroughs,  of  the  firm  of  Scribner,  Burroughs  &  Co., 
bankers,  was  born  in  Michigan  in  1840;  moved  to  la.  in  1869,  and 
engaged  in  the  real  estate  business.  In  1872  he  entered  business 
as  above;  is  also  extensively  engaged  in  the  raising  of  fine  stock. 
Married  Addie  H.  Phipps  in  1873. 

Thomas  S.  Brown,  blacksmith,  was  born  in  Massachusetts  in 
1852;  when  he  was  four  years  of  age  he  came  to  Cherokee,  where 
he  has  since  resided. 

E.  S.  Block,  dealer  in  clothing,  hats,  caps,  and  gent's  furnishing 
goods,  trunks,  valises,  etc.,  etc.,  was  born  in  Bohemia  in  1848; 
came  to  America,  and  engaged  in  the  clothing  business  in  New 
York  City;  from  there  he  went  to  Arkansas;  thence  to  Nebraska 
City,  and  after  traveling  throughout  the  west,  he,  in  1876,  located 
in  Cherokee,  and  engaged  in  business  as  above. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA,  277 

D.  W.  Benway,  dealer  in  furniture  of  all  kinds^  established  busi- 
ness in  June,  1881.  He  was  born  in  Massachusetts  in  1849;  from 
there  he  removed  to  Wisconsin;  thence  to  Independence,  Iowa. 
In  1877  he  came  to  Cherokee,  and  for  a  time  was  proprietor  of  the 
City  Hotel.     In  June,  1881,  he  engaged  in  business  as  above. 

Charles  Blaesser,  barber,  also  dealer  in  tobacco  and  cigars,  was 
bom  in  Germany  in  1845;  came  to  America  in  1866,  and  located  at 
Milwaukee,  Wis.  In  1874  kfe  removed  to  Cherokee  and  engaged 
in  business  as  above.  He  married  Regina  Schmidt,  of  Wis.  They 
have  two  children — Walter  A.  and  Charles  H. 

Carlton  Corbett,  of  the  firm  of  Corbett  &  Whitmore,  dealers  in 
real  estate,  was  born  in  Massachusetts,  August  12th,  1831.  In 
January,  1856,  he  came  west  and  located  in  Cherokee;  has  held 
the  oflSce  of  county  recorder  and  treasurer,  and  is  one  of  the  pio- 
neers of  Cherokee  county. 

John  Collins,  of  the  firm  of  Collins  &  Minor,  was  bom  in  Ken- 
tucky in  1852;  came  to  Clayton  county,  Iowa,  when  quite  young, 
where  he  lived  until  1875,  when  he  came  to  Cherokee,  and  for  a 
time  was  engaged  in  farming.  He  married  Fannie  P.  Pearson. 
They  have  three  daughters. 

W.  B.  Chick,  dealer  in  groceries,  fruits  and  provisions,  estab- 
lished business  in  1872;  was  born  in  Maine  in  1848;  came  to  Mich- 
igan in  1868,  and  two  years  later  he  came  to  Cherokee.  He  enlist- 
ed in  the  first  Maine  light  artillery,  and  served  two  years  and  three 
months.  He  has  been  three  terms  county  auditor  of  Cherokee 
county. 

J.  H.  Davenport,  county  surveyor  of  Cherokee  county,  was  bom 
in  New  York  in  1838;  came  to  Michigan  in  1856,  thence  to  this 
state,  and  in  1860  located  at  Cherokee.  He  was  elected  to  his  pre- 
sent oflSce  in  1866,  and  has  held  the  office  almost  continuously 
since;  has  also  been  superintendent  of  schools  of  this  county  and 
served  three  years  in  tne  U.  S.  army  in  the  Indian  department. 

Eli  Eshleman,  county  treasurer  of  Cherokee  county,  was  bom 
in  Pa.  in  1829;  came  west  in  1856,  and  settled  in  Ills.,  where  he 
lived  seventeen  years;  in  1872  he  came  to  Cherokee  and  engaged 
in  farming;  was  elected  to  his  present  position  in  1879  and  re- 
elected in  the  autumn  of  1881.  He  married  Amanda  Fry,  of  Lan- 
caster county.  Pa.  They  have  ten  children — five  sons  and  five 
daughters. 

0.  C.  Ford,  wholesale  and  retail  grocer,  and  dealer  in  queens- 
ware,  established  business  in  1876;  was  born  in  New  York  in  1841; 
came  to  Wisconsin  in  1849,  and  in  1871  removed  to  Cherokee;  for 
a  time  engaged  in  the  insurance  business,  and  was  then  employed 
as  clerk  in  a  hardware  store,  which  he  continued  until  he  engaged 
in  his  present  business. 


278  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

J.  S.  Green,  dealer  in  grain,  groceries,  queensware,  fruits,  etc., 
established  business  in  1879.  Was  bom  in  bt.  Louis,  Mo.,  in  1847, 
for  fourteen  years  he  traveled  for  Chicago  and  St.  Louis  wholesale 
houses.  In  1879  he  settled  at  Cherokee  and  engaged  in  business 
as  above. 

Robert  Gick,  dealer  in  stoves,  hardware  and  farming  tools  of  all 
kinds,  established  business  in  1880.  Was  born  on  the  Isle  of  Man, 
in  1846;  came  to  America  in  1870,  and  settled  in  Warren,  county, 
111. ;  thence  to  Jasper  county,  Iowa,  and  in  1872  removed  to  Cherokee, 
where  he  has  since  resided. 

W.  S.  Heymer,  of  the  firm  of  Heymer  Brothers,  liverymen,  was 
bom  in  Essex  county.  New  York,  in  1847.  He  came  west  in  1878, 
and  settled  in  Cherokee,  and  entered  the  employ  of  F.  D.  Yaw,  in 
the  livery  business.  He  married  Julia  Canfield  of  this  State. 
They  have  one  son — Frank. 

Thomas  Heymer,  of  the  firm  of  Heymer  Bros.,  was  born  in  N. 
Y.  in  1846;  his  first  location  was  in  Dubuque  county,  la.;  thence 
to  Jackson  county;  thence  to  Cherokee.  He  served  three  years  in 
the  army  in  Co.  1,  Iowa  volunteers. 

George  W.  Hodgins,  liveryman,  established  business  in  1870. 
Was  born  in  Vermont  in  1826,  his  first  location  in  Iowa  was  in 
Hardin  county,'  thence  to  Marshalltown;  thence  to  Bedford,  and 
in  1870  he  came  to  Cherokee  and  engaged  in  business  as  above. 
His  son,  Eugene  D.  Hodgins,  was  born  in  Missouri  in  1850,  and  is 
now  a  partner  in  the  above  business. 

Edwin  Hughes,  harness  maker,  established  business  October, 
1881.  Was  born  in  Wales  in  1852;  came  to  America  in  1870,  and 
his  first  location  was  at  Portland,  Maine.  From  there  he  went  to 
New  York;  thence  to  Ohio,  and  after  making  a  trip  to  the  Black 
Hills,  returned  to  Cherokee  and  engaged  in  business  as  above.  He 
married  Sarah  Mills,  a  native  of  England.  They  have  one  son 
and  two  daughters. 

Robert  Hall,  of  the  firm  of  Robert  Hall  &  Son,  dealers  in  farm 
machinery  and  grain,  was  born  in  N.  Y.  in  1822;  came  to  Ills,  in 
1857,  and  in  1871  he  removed  to  Cherokee  and  engaged  in  busi- 
ness as  above. 

Jas.  Henderson,  dealer  in  real  estate,  established  business  in  1871; 
was  born  in  Scotland  in  1818,  came  to  America  in  1848  and  settled  in 
Clayton  county,  Iowa,  and  was  engaged  in  farming.  In  1868  he 
removed  to  Cherokee.  He  has  been  twice  elected  to  the  position 
of  county  treasurer;  has  also  been  a  member  of  the  city  council. 

C.  E.  P.  Hobart,  of  the  firm  of  Hobart  &  Snyder,  dealers  in  grain 
and  coal,  was  born  in  Vermont  in  1819;  from  Vermont  he  went  to 
Oshkosh,  Wis.;  and  in  1870  he  came  to  Cherokee  and  engaged  in 
the  lumber  business.  The  following  year  he  engaged  in  ousiness 
as  above. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  279 

William  Jones,  merchant  tailor  and  dealer  in  readj-made  cloth- 
ing and  ^ents^  furnishing  goods,  was  born  in  Wales  in  18^;  came 
to  America  in  March,  1870,  and  located  in  Cherokee  and  engaged 
in  business  as  above.  Mr.  Jones  makes  a  specialty  of  making  suits 
to  order;  he  employs  none  but  experienced  workmen,  and  he  has  a 
reputation  second  to  none  in  western  Iowa, 

George  A.  Johnson,  dealer  in  general  merchandise,  established 
business  in  March,  1874;  was  born  in  Canada  in  1842;  he  came  to 
Michigan  in  1864.  In  1867  he  returned  to  Canada,  and  in  1871 
he  came  to  Cherokee,  la.,  and  was  employed  as  clerk  until  1874, 
when  he  engaged  in  business  as  abore.  He  married  Eliza  Head, 
of  Canada.     They  have  four  children. 

H.  Kennedy,  of  the  firm  of  H.  Kennedy  &  Co.,  dealers  in  gen- 
eral merchandise,  established  business  in  1875;  also  have  a  branch 
store  in  Peterson,  Clay  county.  He  was  born  in  Ohio  in  1860; 
came  to  Iowa  with  his  parents  in  1856.  He  next  moved  to  Chero- 
kee and  engaged  in  business  as  above. 

A.  B.  Knox,  of  the  firm  of  Knox  &  Nicholson,  proprietors  of 
the  N,  Y.  store,  established  in  1872,  was  born  in  Pa.  in  1856;  came 
to  Cherokee,  la.,  in  1879,  and  engaged  in  business.  He  married 
Lizzie  Ooheen,  a  native  of  Pa. 

George  W.  Lebourveau  was  born  in  New  Hampshire  in  1828. 
In  1857  he  came  to  Cherokee,  and  is  one  of  the  pioneers  of  this 
county;  was  the  first  treasurer  and  first  recorder  of  this  county, 
was  also  the  first  mayor  of  Cherokee,  which  position  he  held  two 
terms.  He  is  one  of  the  original  town  proprietors.  He  enlisted 
in  Co.  I,  7th  la.  cavalry,  and  served  three  and  a  half  years. 

David  Lynn,  of  the  firm  of  Lynn  &  Bryant,  proprietors  of  meat 
market,  established  business  in  1881.  He  was  bom  in  Ohio  in 
1844;  came  to  Jasper  county,  Iowa,  in  1859;  thence  to  Winne- 
shiek county;  thence  to  Jackson  county.  Ills.;  thence  to  Cherokee. 
He  served  m  Co.  A,  2nd  regiment,  U.  S.  A.,  three  years;  married 
Annie  E.  Underbill.     They  have  one  daughter — Mary  F. 

E.  R.  Little,  jeweler  (repairing  a  specialty),  established  business 
in  1880.  He  was  born  in  Ohio,  November  4th,  1868,  and  received 
his  education  in  Ohio,  where  he  also  learned  the  jewelry  business. 
He  moved  to  Grand  Rapids,  Mich.,  in  1879,  and  the  following 
year  removed  to  Cherokee  and  engaged  in  business  as  above. 

George  L.  Moore,  manufacturer  and  dealer  in  harness  and  saddles, 
established  business  in  1881;  was  bom  in  Aurora,  111.,  in  1857. 
He  came  to  Cherokee  in  1872,  and  engaged  in  the  same  business. 

Arthur  Molyneux,  of  the  firm  of  Molyneux  Bros.,  law  and 
collecting  agents,  was  born  in  Sullivan  county,  Penn.,  in  1856; 
graduated  at  Iowa  City  law  school  in  the  class  of  '81,  and  soon 
after  located  in  Cherokee,  and  engaged  in  business  as  above. 


2S0  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

R.  D.  Minor,  of  the  firm  of  Collins  &  Minor,  was  born  in 
Waukesha  county.  Wis.,  in  1853;  came  to  Cherokee  in  1871,  and 
engaged  in  farming  until  he  engaged  in  his  present  business. 

E.  Miller,  county  recorder,  was  born  in  Pa.  in  1850;  removed  to 
Cedar  county,  la.,  in  1852,  and  to  Cherokee  in  1872,  and  engaged 
in  farming;  was  elected  to  his  present  oflSce  in  November,  1880; 
has  served  as  town  clerk,  also  assessor.  He  married  Belle  Stone, 
of  Ohio.     They  have  two  children — Oretas  and  Orville. 

Thomas  McCulla,  attorney  at  law,  was  bom  in  Hamilton, 
Canada,  in  1856;  came  to  the  United  States  when  quite  young, 
and  located  in  N.Y.;  afterwards  moved  to  Muscatine,  la.,  and 
there  attended  school;  then  entered  the  Baptist  Institute  at  Wilton, 
after  which  he  entered  the  university  at  Iowa  City,  graduating 
from  the  law  department  in  the  class  of  ^79;  came  to  Cherokee 
and  opened  office;  makes  a  specialty  of  collections. 

Chas.  Nicholson,  of  the  firm  of  Knox  &  Nicholson,  was  born  in 
Sweden  in  1855;  came  to  America  in  1871;  settled  in  Mich.;  then 
moved  to  Hampton,  la.;  thence  to  Cherokee,  and  became  a  part- 
ner in  the  above  business,  which  was  established  in  1872,  and  is 
one  of  the  largest  mercantile  houses  in  the  city. 

L.  W.  Newell,  dealer  in  boots  and  shoes,  was  bom  in  111.  in 
1855,  and  when  seven  years  of  age  moved  to  Muscatine,  la.  He 
traveled  for  a  Cincinnati  house  for  two  and  one-half  years,  and  in 
June,  1881,  moved  to  Cherokee,  and  established  his  present  busi- 
ness in  Aug.  of  same  year. 

H.  A.  Olmsted,  stat'on  agent  for  the  I.  C.  R'y.  company,  was 
bom  in  Ma^s.  in  1848.  He  was  appointed  to  his  present  office  in 
1871.  He  married  Cornelia  Jones,  of  Neb.  Tney  have  three 
children. 

£.  L.  Olmsted,  was  born  in  Mass.  in  1851;  came  to  Delaware 
county,  la.,  in  1858.  He  was  for  five  years  in  the  employ  of  the 
C,  &  N.  W.  R.  R.  Co.,  as  station  agent  and  operator. 

0.  R.  Olmstead  &  Son,  are  dealers  in  boots,  shoes,  overshoes, 
gaiters,  etc.  R.  S.  Olmstead,  was  bornin  Wayne  county.  Pa.,  in 
1854,  and  the  same  year  moved  with  his  parents  to  Wis.  He  en- 
tered the  employ  of  J.  P.  Dickey  &  Co.,  in  1876.  He  married 
Frances  Brown,  of  Woodman,  Wis. 

Dr.  W.  H.  Palmer,  dentist,  was  born  in  N.  Y.  in  1855;  was  en- 
gaged in  dentistry  in  Syracuse,  N.  Y.,  and  in  1881  moved  to 
Cherokee,  la.,  and  opened  office  the  same  year.  He  married  Fran- 
ces Campbell,  of  N.  Y.,  in  1880. 

T.  Patton,  of  the  firm  of  Robertson  &  Patton,  dealers  in  lumberi 
grain,  sash,  doors,  blinds,  etc.,  was  born  in  Ireland  in  1844;  came 
to  America  in  1864,  and  settled  in  Dubuque  county,  la.;  thence 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  281 

to  Delaware  county,  and  in  the  autumn  of  1870  came  to  Cherokee, 
and  was  one  of  the  first  settlers;  was  for  some  time  in  the  employ 
of  the  railroad  company;  established  his  present  business  in  1870. 

Joseph  Reed,  proprietor  of  the  bakery  and  restaurant,  was  bom 
in  Pa.  in  1829;  removed  to  111.  in  1864;  thence  to  la.  in  1875;  lo- 
cated at  Cherokee  in  1881.  He  married  Mary  Tallman,  a  native  of 
Pa.     They  have  three  sons  and  two  daughters. 

J.  G.  Reigel,  blacksmith,  repairer  and  manufacturer,  was  bom 
in  Germany  in  1849;  came  to  America  in  1854,  and  located  in  But- 
ler county.  Pa.;  removed  to  Hardin  county,  la.;  thence  to  Mis- 
souri, and  in  1876  came  to  Cherokee,  la.,  and  established  his  pres- 
ent business.  He  married  Ellen  L.  Kenyon,  and  has  one  child — 
EffieM. 

James  Robertson,  of  the  firm  of  Robertson  &  Patton,  was  bom 
in  Scotland  in  18»33;  came  to  America  in  1856.  and  settled  in  Can- 
ada; removed  to  Cedar  county,  la.,  in  18^)8;  thence  in  the  follow- 
ing year  to  Cherokee,  and  en^i:aged  in  buying  grain.  His  present 
business  was  established  in  1870.  He  married  Catherine  Comrie,  a 
native  of  Scotland,  and  has  two  sons  and  three  daughters. 

R.  L.  Robie,  county  auditor,  was  born  in  Vt.  in  1850;  removed 
to  Tama  county,  la.,  in  1868;  thence  to  Cherokee,  and  engaged  in 
farming.  He  taught  the  ^ammar  department  of  the  public  schools 
here  one  term;  was  appointed  county  superintendent  of  schools, 
and  served  during  1876,  and  was  then  appointed  deputy  clerk 
and  treasurer.  He  was  elected  to  his  present  office  in  1881. 
He  married  Ella  L.  Fairfield,  of  Fond  du  Lac,  Wis. 

A.  B.  Ross,  dealer  in  staple  and  fancy  groceries,  tobacco,  cigars, 
crockery,  glassware,  queensware,  etc.,  was  born  in  Nova  Scotia  in 
1843.  He  came  to  Cherokee,  la.,  in  1870,  and  engaged  in  the 
above  business  in  1874. 

S.  F.  Russell,  manager  of  the  Fountain  House,  was  bom  in  Ve- 
nango county,  Pa.,  in  1839;  removed  to  Story  county,  la.,  in  1867, 
and  two  years  later  came  to  Cherokee  and  engaged  in  farming.  In 
1878  he  took  charge  of  a  hotel  at  Meriden,  where  he  continued 
two  years;  then  engaged  in  his  present  position.  He  served  in 
the  army  four  and  one-half  years  in  Co.  A,  10th  111.  Cav.;  was 
promoted  step  by  step  until  he  reached  first  lieutenancy;  received 
his  discharge  at  San  Antonio,  Tex. 

W.  A.  Sanford,  cashier  of  Scribner,  Burroughs  &  Co/s  bank, 
born  in  Norwich,  N.  Y.,  in  1854;  removed  with  parents  in  1860  to 
Decorah,  la.;  thence  to  Cherokee  in  1875,  and  engaged  in  business 
as  above. 

Dr.  Sherman,  of  the  firm  of  Butler  &  Sherman,  physicians  and 
surgeons,  was  born  in  Pa.  in  1846;  moved  west  in  1862;  graduated 
from  the  Keokuk  medical  college  in  the  class  of  ^73,  and  began  the 

19 


382  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

practice  of  medicine  in  Cherokee  the  same  year.  He  is  also  sur- 
geon for  the  111.  C.  Ry.  He  married  Nellie  Terry,  and  has  one 
child — Annie. 

E.  B.  Smith,  of  the  firm  of  E.  B.  Smith  &  Co.,  furniture  dealers 
and  undertakers,  was  born  in  Canada  in  1851;  came  to  the  U.  S. 
in  1871,  and  located  in  Cherokee,  la.;  was  engaged  in  various  oc- 
cupations for  a  time;  then  engaged  in  the  above  business,  which 
was  established  in  1870.  He  married  Ida  Brown,  of  Syracuse,  N. 
Y.,  and  has  two  children — Homer  and  Frank. 

A.  H.  Smith,  jeweler  and  dealer  in  fine  watches  and  jewelry, 
(business  established  in  1872),  was  born  in  Canada  in  1849;  re- 
moved to  111.  in  1859,  and  located  in  DeKalb  county;  thence  moved 
to  Calhoun  county,  la.,  and  in  June,  1869,  moved  to  Marcus,  and 
the  following  year  to  Cherokee.  He  engaged  in  business  in  part- 
nership with  G.  S.  Brown,  and  afterwards  became  sole  proprietor. 

R.  M.  Smith,  of  the  firm  of  H.  Assman  &  Co.,  dealers  in  staple 
and  fancy  groceries,  was  born  in  Pa.  in  1838;  removed  to  Sioux 
City,  la.,  in  1868;  thence  to  Cherokee  in  1872,  and  engaged  in 
farming  until  engaging  in  above  business,  which  was  established 
in  1876.  He  served  in  the  army  in  the  78th  Pa.  Inft.;  was  pro- 
moted to  captain,  major  and  the  lieutenant  colonel;  received  his 
discharge  at  Nashville,  Tenn.  He  married  Maggie  Stephens,  of 
Pa.,  and  has  four  children — Leota,  Leona,  Roy  and  Meda. 

M.  Wakefield,  attorney  at  law,  will  practice  in  all  courts  in  the 
state.  He  was  born  in  111.  in  1842;  moved  to  Sioux  City,  la.,  in 
1870,  and  the  following  year  located  in  Cherokee;  received  his  edu- 
cation at  the  111.  State  Normal  University,  from  which  he  gradu- 
ated in  1865;  read  law  at  Bloomington,  111.,  and  was  admitted  to 
practice  by  the  supreme  court,  Jan.  18th,  1869.  He  is  mayor  of 
Cherokee,  and  has  held  minor  offices  in  the  city. 

Walbridge  &  Moore,  attorneys  at  law,  land,  loan  and  real|estate 
office.  They  have  fifty  thousand  acres  of  wild  land  for  sale,  rang- 
ing in  price  from  three  to  ten  dollars  per  acre;  also  improved  farms 
for  sale.     Business  was  establiehed  in  1879. 

Z.  A.  Wellman,  postmaster,  was  born  in  N.  Y.  in  1826;  studied 
law  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1849;  came  to  Delaware  county, 
la.,  and  engaged  in  the  practice  of  his  profession,  which  he  con- 
tinued for  twenty  years.  During  President  Fillmore's  adminis- 
tration, he  was  appointed  postmaster,  but  his  health  failing  him, 
he  engaged  in  farming,  and  in  1870  removed  to  Cherokee  from 
Benton  county,  and  engaged  in  the  drug  business.  In  1872  he 
was  appointed  postmaster  of  this  city,  and  has  held  the  office  ever 
since. 

L.  M.  White,  of  the  firm  of  White  Bros.,  proprietors  of  restau- 
rant and  bakery,  and  dealers  in  staple  and  fancy  groceries,  was  bom 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  283 

in  Bloomsburgh,  Columbia  county,  Pa.,  in  1859;  received  his  eJu- 
cation  at  the  State  Normal  School,  at  Bloomsburgh;  removed  to 
Cherokee  in  ISSl,  and  established  the  above  busineas  in  June  of 
the  same  year. 

J.  C.  Wilson,  photographer,  (copying  and  enlarging  a  specialty), 
was  born  in  Ottawa,  Canada,  in  1848;  moved  to  Of^ensourg,  N. 
Y.,  in  1862,  and  came  to  Cherokee,  la.,  in  1870,  being  one  of  its 
earliest  settlers;  has  served  as  a  member  of  the  city  council  two 
years.  He  married  Carrie  L.  Bates,  of  Durand,  111.,  and  has  one 
child — Bessie  M. 

Ed.  Williams,  dealer  in  all  kinds  of  grain,  took  charge  of  this 
business  in  1879;  was  bom  in  0.,in  1847;  moved  to  Cedar  Falls, 
la.,  in  1854,  and  engaged  in  buying  grain  near  that  place.  He 
married  Carrie  Maxwell,  of  la. 

F.  D.  Yaw,  liveryman,  was  born  in  N.  Y.  in  1836;  removed  to 
Delaware  county,  la.,  in  1861,  and  to  Cherokee  in  1870,  and  estab- 
lished his  present  business;  has  a  large  barn  and  can  furnish  good 
rigs  at  reasonable  rates;  also  buys  and  sells  horses  on  commission. 

Geo.  W.  Young,  of  the  firm  of  Geo.  W.  Young  &  Co.,  proprie- 
tors of  the  Washington  House,  was  bom  in  N.  H.,  and  was  for- 
merly connected  with  the  Gulf  City  House,  at  Mobile,  Ala.  He 
perfectly  understands  the  hotel  business,  keeps  a  house  that  is  first- 
class  in  every  particular,  and  will  spare  no  pains  to  make  it  pleas- 
ant and  comfortable  for  the  traveling  public.  'Bus  to  and  from 
trains.  The  house  is  going  to  be  remodeled  soon,  another  story 
added,  and  also  an  addition  30x50  feet,  and  all  modern  improve- 
ments, bath  rooms,  etc. 

MARCUS.. 

Joseph  Beck,  dealer  in  general  hardware,  established  business 
in  1877.  He  was  bom  in  Germany  in  1838;  came  to  America  in 
1864,  and  engaged  in  wagon  making  and  the  hardware  business  ia 
Jackson  county,  la.,  in  1872;  removed  to  Marcus  in  1877.  He  at 
present  is  town  trustee  of  that  place.  He  married  Margaret  Smith 
of  Germany,  in  1867.  They  nave  five  children — Joseph,  Kate^ 
Bennie,  Laura  and  George. 

C.  F.  Collier,  of  the  firm  of  C.  F.  Collier  &  Son,  dealers  in  dry 
goods,  groceries,  clothing  and  furniture,  (business  established  in 
1876),  was  born  in  Mass.  in  1830;  moved  to  Vt.  in  1839;  thence  to 
Illinois  in  1853;  thence  to  Dubuque,  la.,  in  1862,  and  engaged  in 
railroading.  He  married  Lydia  Dow  in  1854,  and  has  two  children 
— Fred  F.  and  Luther  D.  F.  F.  C.  was  bcm  in  III.,  in  1856;  moved 
to  Marcus  in  1876,  and  engaged  in  the  above  business.  He  was 
elected  city  marsh d  in  1880. 

John  Ernster,  of  the  firm  of  Eraeter  &  Oleson,  dealers  in  boots, 
hoes,  clocks,  jewelry  and  sewing  machines,  was  born  in  Germany 


284  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

in  1851;  came  to  America  in  1861.  He  engaged  in  the  boot  and 
shoe  business  in  Marcus  in  1875,  and  in  his  present  business  and 
partnership  in  1881. 

J.  H.  Grey,  of  the  firm  of  J.  H.  Grey  &  Co.,  real  estate,  loan  and 
insurance  o&ce,  dealers  in  lands  in  Cterokee,  Plymouth,  O'Brien 
and  Sioux  counties.  Business  was  established  in  May,  1881.  He 
was  born  in  Darlington,  Wis.,  in  1853;  was  engaged  for  a  time  in 
the  real  estate  business  in  Neb.;  removed  to  Iowa  in  1881. 

Louis  Gund,  president  of  the  Marcus  Bank,  established  business 
in  1881,  with  a  cash  capital  of  $15,000.  He  is  also  proprietor  of  a 
large  grain  elevator  in  Marcus.  He  was  born  in  Germany  in  1843; 
came  to  America  in  1847  and  settled  in  111.;  moved  to  la.  in  1867 
and  for  a  time  was  engaged  in  the  hotel  business;  then  engaged  in 
the  agricultural  business  at  Blairtown,  and  came  to  this  city  in 
1876.  He  married  Margaret  Schall,  of  la.,  in  1869,  and  has  three 
children — Minnie  C,  Cora,  and  Wm.  Louis. 

P.  J.  Hiltgen,  cashier  of  the  Marcus  Bank,  was  born  in  Germany 
in  1849;  came  to  America  in  1861  and  settled  in  Minn.:  moved  to 
la.  in  1877,  and  engaged  in  the  mercarftile  business;  was  elected 
town  clerk  in  1878  and  justice  of  the  peace  in  1879.  He  married 
Therisa  Barud  of  N.  Y.,  in  1874,  and  has  one  child — Lucy.    • 

John  Hyndman,  dealer  in  dry  goods,  groceries,  notions,  boots, 
shoes  and  coal,  is  the  pioneer  merchant  of  Marcus;  established 
business  in  1873.  He  was  born  in  Ireland  in  1838;  came  to  Amer- 
ica and  settled  in  Canada  in  1853;  be^an  teaching  school  the  same 
vear,  and  continued  in  that  occupation  for  more  than  ten  years. 
He  came  to  Iowa,  and  was  elected  secretary  of  the  school  board  of 
Marcus,  which  office  he  held  for  two  years. 

J.  Jungers,  proprietor  of  the  Marcus  Hotel,  was  born  in  Belgium 
in  1832;  came  to  America  in  1853,  and  settled  in  Marcus  in  1856, 
and  engaged  in  the  hotel  business.  He  married  Annie  Pool,  of 
Belgium.  They  have  nine  children — John,  Lucy,  Josephus,  Bar- 
bara, Mary,  Kate,  Frank,  Lena  and  Jenaie. 

John  Metcalf,  of  the  firm  of  Clarkson  &  Metcalf,  land  agents 
and  dealers  in  grain  and  live  stock,  established  business  in  1875; 
was  formerly  engag'»d  in  the  live  stock  business  in  Eldora;  then 
in  the  millinery  and  live  stock  business  in  Alden;  then  came  to 
Marcus.  Mr.  Clarkson  is  from  Aurelia,  where  he  was  engaged  in 
the  mercantile  business. 

C.  B.  Oldfield,  of  the  firm  of  J.  H.  Gray  &  Co.,  real  estate  deal- 
ers, was  born  in  Worcestershire,  Eng.,  in  1859;  came  to  America 
in  1881,  and  located  at  Marcus. 

Ole  Oleson,  of  the  firm  of  Ernester  &  Oleson,  dealers  in  boots, 
shoes,  clocks,  jewelry  and  sewing  machines,  established  business  in 
1881.  He  was  bom  in  Norway  in  1856;  came  to  America  in  1877, 
and  settled  in  Iowa  county,  Wis.;  came  to  Iowa  in  1880. 


HISTORY   OF  IOWA.  285 


HARRISON  COUNTY. 


This  county  is  one  of  the  most  populous,  popular,  and,  at  the 
same  time,  conservative  counties  of  Iowa.  It  is  rich,  without 
being  aggressive;  secure,  without  being  assertive;  in  other  words, 
a  fine  body  of  land,  owned  by  a  fine  class  of  people,  Harrison 
county  has  a  right  to  be  proud  of  herself. 

Lying  on  the  Missouri  River,  in  the  fourth  tier  from  the  south- 
ern boundary,  Harrison  is  one  of  the  western  border  counties  of 
the  state;  is  twenty-four  miles  north  and  south  by  an  average  of 
about  twenty-seven  east  and  west,  and  contains  a  superficial  area 
of  nearly  six  hundred  and  sixty  square  miles. 

Like  most  of  the  counties  in  Iowa  bordering  the  Missouri  River, 
Harrison  county  presents  a  greater  variety  of  surface  configuration 
than  is  found  in  the  inland  counties  to  the  eastward.  A  number 
of  streams,  that  are  more  or  less  fully  described  in  the  histories  of 
adjoining  counties,  gain  the  Missouri  bottoms  within  the  limits  of 
this  county,  issuing  from  the  uplands  through  the  bluffs,  causing 
them  to  assume  those  strikingly  picturesque  and  peculiar  shapes 
characteristic  of  the  scenery  of  the  valley  of  the  middle  Missouri. 
Nearly  every  portion  of  the  county  is  well  watered  and  dniined  by 
clear,  sparkling  streams  and  brooklets,  which  flow  diagonally  across 
its  territory  in  a  general  southwest  direction.  The  principal  of 
these  water-courses  are  the  Boyer,  Soldier  and  Little  Sioux  Rivers, 
and  Wilson,  Pigeon  and  Mosquito  Creeks,  several  of  which  are  of 
considerable  size,  and  afford  along  their  course  in  this  county  a 
number  of  excellent  mill  sites,  only  a  portion  of  which  have  been 
improved.  The  valley  of  the  Boyer  is  a  beautiful  tract  of  alluvial 
land,  from  one-half  to  two  miles  in  width,  bounded  on  either  hand 
by  gently  ascending  slopes  until  it  nears  the  Missouri  bottoms, 
where  the  surroundings  become  more  abrupt  and  bold.  The  course 
of  the  Little  Sioux  in  this  county  is  mostly  through  the  bottoms, 
though  where  it  merges  from  the  uplands  it  is  marked  by  bluffs  of 
peculiar  interest,  whose  tons  are  conical  peaks,  flanked  by  sharp- 
crested,  spur-like  ridges.  One  of  the  most  beautiful  valleys  of 
this  slope  is  that  of  Uie  Soldier  River,  which  is  bordered  by  blufls 
which  are  unrivaled  in  the  variety  and  picturesque  beauty  of  their 
scenery.  The  bottoms  slope  gently  from  the  foot  of  the  blufis  to- 
ward the  river,  and  form  well-defined  terraces,  which  afford  beau- 
tiful rural  situations.  The  valleys  of  Pigeon  and  Mosquito  Creeks, 
in  the  southeast,  are  margined  by  high  sloping  upland,  and  their 
beds  occupied  by  tracts  of  rich  alluvial  lands,  which  are  unsur- 
passed for  beauty  and  fertility.  The  current  of  the  Missouri 
River,  which  bounds  this  county  on  the  west,  is  very  rapid,  with  a 
deep,  constantly  changing  channel,  often  cutting  oft*  whole  sections 


286  HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 

of  land  in  one  season.  These  bottoms  are  vast  level  nlains,  vary- 
ing in  width  from  four  to  ten  miles,  and  are  bordered  on  the  east 
bv  beautiful  rounded  bluffs,  rising  from  one  to  thi'ee  hundred  feet 
above  the  river  level.  They  are  traversed  by  low  benches  or  un- 
dulations, which,  running  more  or  less  parallel  to  the  river,  are  in- 
tervened by  low  grounds  that  afford  natural  drainage  channels, 
that  receive  and  confine  within  bounds  much  of  the  surplus  waters 
of  the  Missouri  in  seasons  of  freshets,  which  would  otherwise  flood 
extensive  tracts  of  the  best  land  for  agricultural  purposes  in  the 
West.  A  belt  of  cottonwood  timber  extends  through  the  county 
up  and  down  the  river,  from  one-half  to  six  miles  in  width,  inter- 
spersed with  elm,  mulberry,  walnut,  willow,  ash,  etc.  The  cotton- 
wood  grows  very  large  and  tall.  In  passing  over  the  bottoms 
through  the  timber,  a  person  will  observe  a  streak  of  very  heavy 
cottonwood  timber,  and  then  of  tall  willow  trees  from  a  foot  to 
three  and  four  feet  each  in  circumference.  The  willow  follows 
the  old  bed  of  the  river,  and  as  soon  as  the  channel  changes  and 
leaves  the  bed  dry  it  springs  up  rapidly,  and  when  the  bed  of  the 
river  is  raised  to  a  certain  height,then  cottonwood  crowds  in,  and  a 
dense  forest  is  soon  made.  The  soil  in  the  bottom  is  very  rich  and 
deep,  producing  every  kind  of  grain  and  vegetables  in  the  greatest 
abundance.  Corn  grows  very  large.  The  grass  is  said  to  be  so 
rich  and  luxuriant  that  cattle  will  keep  fat  on  it  even  in  winter 
without  cutting  or  curing.  Many  farmers  in  mild  winters  have 
let  their  cattle  range  in  the  bottoms  without  any  feed,  pasturing 
them  on  the  grass  and  keeping  them  in  good  order.  Water  un- 
derlies the  soil  of  the  bottoms  at  the  depth  of  fourteen  feet,  and 
wherever  you  find  water  there  you  find  quicksand.  It  is  supposed 
that  the  whole  bottom,  from  tne  bluffs  of  the  Nebraska  side  to  the 
bluffs  in  Iowa,  has  been  one  vast  lake,  and  the  Missouri  River 
running  through  it  has  filled  it  up  and  formed  the  bottom  lands. 
There  is  every  indication  of  it.  Every  few  rods  along  the  bottoms 
you  will  see  evidence  of  where  once  has  flowed  the  channel  of  the 
river.  The  settlers  on  the  bottoms  say  they  are  getting  drier  every 
year,  and  less  subject  to  inundation.  The  agent  who  located 
swamp  lands  in  1857  relates  that  he  rode  for  miles  through  water 
where  there  is  now  fine,  high  and  dry  farming  lands.  The  low 
places  along  the  bottoms  are  fast  filling  up,  and  where  once  were 
ponds  and  marshes  is  now  dry  land  with  good  farms  upon  them. 
The  Missouri  bottoms  will  be  at  no  distant  day  covered  with  the 
finest  farms  in  the  Union. 

There  are  quite  a  chain  of  lakelets  commencing  near  the  mouth 
of  the  Little  oioux  River  and  continuing  along  the  bottoms.  Some 
of  them  are  near  the  bluffs,  others  out  in  the  bottoms  and  near  the 
river,  while  all  have  at  one  day  been  in  the  channel  of  the  river  or 
are  the  old  bed  of  the  Missouri.  Many  of  these  little  lakes  have 
fish  in  them;  and  are  beautiful  and  nice  little  sheets  of  water.  The 
channels  of  the  streams  in  the  bottoms  are,  or  have  been,  chang- 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  287 

ing.  The  mouth  o£  the  Soldier  River  is  one  mile  from  where  it 
was  twelve  years  ago,  and  the  Missouri  also,  at  this  point,  is  over  a 
mile  from  where  it  was  in  1855.  The  land  in  the  old  channel  is 
as  high  as  that  of  the  surrounding  country;  no  more  subject  to  in- 
undations, and  is  covered  with  a  heavy  growth  of  cottonwood.  The 
lakelets,  it  is  said,  are  fast  filling  up,  and  perhaps  when  the  country 
becomes  settled  and  cultivated  will  entirely  dissapear.  Persons 
digging  wells  frequently  find  logs,  driftwood,  bart,  etc.,  several 
feet  below  the  surface.  A  farmer  digging  a  well  recently,  near 
what  is  known  as  Soldier's  Lake,  fo.und  a  large  pocket  knife  four- 
teen feet  below  the  surface. 

The  soil  in  the  uplands  consist  of  the  light  colored  deposits  of 
the  bluff  formation,  which  does  not  differ  materially  from  that  in 
the  bottoms,  except  that  the  silicious  material  of  which  it  is  largely 
composed  is  more  finely  comminuted,  and  has  a  less  amount  of 
vegetable  matter  or  humus.  As  the  soil  of  the  uplands  and  bot- 
toms was  derived  from  the  same  source,  it  only  differs  in  degree, 
that  in  the  former  reaching  a  depth  of  sixty  or  one  hundred  feet 
below  the  surface.  It  is  said  that  dirt  taken  out  of  wells  sixty  feet 
deep  seems  to  produce  as  well  as  that  on  the  surface.  The  soil  is 
easily  cultivated,  and  produces  all  the  grains  and  vegetables  common 
to  this  latitude  in  great  abundance.  It  does  not  cave;  wells  do  not 
have  to  be  walled,  except  for  a  few  feet  down  from  the  top  and  at 
the  waters'  edge.  The  soil  never  bakes,  but  can  be  plowed  with- 
out injury  in  wet  weather.  It  stands  both .  wet  and  dry  weather 
remarkably.  A  failure  of  crops  has  never  been  known.  The  soil 
in  the  bottoms  is  more  of  a  clay  nature,  and  in  wet  weather  is  very 
sticky. 

Harrison  contains  more  timber  than  any  other  county  on  the 
Missouri  slope,  yet  it  is  limited  in  extent,  its  distribution  being 
governed  by  circumstances  favorable  to  its  preservation,  and  is 
consequently  found  in  the  deep  shaded  ravines  that  crowd  up  into 
the  bluffs,  and  along  the  small  streams  which  are  confined  to  nar- 
row valleys  hemmed  in  by  steep  bluff  ascents.  But,  as  observation 
has  repeatedly  shown  in  all  parts  of  the  state,  forests  are  not  neces- 
sarily confined  to  the  valleys  and  moister  localities,  and  thrive 
as  well  in  one  location  as  another,  when  the  devastation  of  the 
prairie  fires  are  checked  for  a  period  of  suflBcient  duration  to  allow 
the  young  trees  a  few  years  of  unretarded  growth.  Hundreds  of 
acres  of  prairie  have  been  overgrown  with  thrifty  groves  of  vig- 
orous young  timber  within  the  memory  of  early  settlers,  whicn 
period  extends  back  scarce  a  score  of  years.  These  tracts  of  young 
torests  add  a  pleasing  feature  to  the  landscape  in  these  beautiful 
undulating  divides,  as  that  near  Magnolia,  and  Harris'  grove  south 
of  Logan,  attests.  Fine  groves  are  met  with  in  the  valleys  of  the 
Soldier  and  Little  Sioux  Rivers,  while  the  banks  of  the  Missouri 
throughout  its  course  in  this  county  are  lined  with  a  belt  of  fine 
forest  growth. 


288  HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 

Numerous  orchards  have  been  set  out  in  the  county,  and  apples, 
pears,  quinces  and  grapes  grow  in  abundance,  and  of  excellent 
quality.  Some  peaches  have  been  raised,  while  in  the  bottom 
lands  tlie  finest  quality  of  wild  grapes  are  found  in  great  profusion. 
In  1867  over  five  hundred  barrels  of  wine  were  made  from  these 
grapes  and  shipped  to  Chicago,  besides  large  quantities  which  was 
used  at  home. 

Limestone  is  found,  the  best  and  most  extensive  quarries  being 
found  near  Logan,  from  which  a  considerable  amount  is  annually 
shipped  to  Council  Bluffs  and  other  points.  There  are  also  two 
or  three  other  quarries  which  have  been  worked  to  some  extent  in 
other  parts  of  the  county. 

As  a  stock-raising  and  producing  county,  Harrison  has  had  quite 
a  reputation,  the  native  grasses  being  very  nutritious  and  affording 
excellent  pasturage  at  nearly  all  seasons  of  the  year.  Fat  cattle 
from  this  countv  have  for  years  been  famous  in  Chicago  markets 
and  command  the  highest  prices. 

Daniel  Brown  was  the  first  white  man  who  settled  in  the  county, 
locating  where  the  village  of  Calhoun  now  is,  April  3,  1848.  His 
nearest  neighbor  was  twelve  miles  distant,  his  nearest  mill  twenty- 
two  miles,  and  nearest  post  office  Council  Bluffs,  twenty-five  miles. 
He  had  to  go  to  St.  Joseph,  Missouri,  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles 
for  provisions  that  season,  and  while  he  was  gone  the  Indians  came 
and  robbed  his  familv  of  provisions  and  all  the  necessary  articles 
of  comfort.  When  ne  returned  he  found  his  family  destitute  of 
food  and  clothing.  Soon  after  his  return  the  Indians  stole  all  his 
horses,  and  all  those  of  the  other  settlers  in  the  county.  He  and 
his  son  followed  them  for  several  miles,  trying  to  recapture  them, 
but  were  unsuccessful.  They  fired  a  number  of  shots  at  the  Indi- 
ans. The  Indians  frequently  killed  his  cattle  and  annoyed  him  a 
great  deal  during  the  first  few  years  of  his  residence  in  the  county. 
The  following:  were  also  among  the  first  settlers,  Silas  Condit,  two 
brothers  by  the  name  of  Chase,  Charles  Lepenta,  James  Hardy, 
Dr.  Robert  McGovern,  Andrew  Allen  and  Jacob  Patee. 

The  county  was  organized  in  1853,  when  Stephen  King 
elected  County  Jud^e;  P.  G.  Cooper,  District  Court  Clerk;  Ches- 
ter Hamilton,  Sheriff;  William  Cooper,  Treasurer  and  Recorder; 
George  White,  Surveyor;  and  Jacob  Huffman,  Coroner.  The  first 
county  court  was  held  August  5,  1853,  by  Stephen  King,  Judge. 
First  road  petition  presented  was  for  the  establishment  of  a  road, 
commencing  at  the  south  line  of  the  county,  running  thence  to 
the  residence  of  Daniel  Brown,  and  thence  to  Magnolia.  The  first 
mortgage  on  record  was  made  by  Samuel  Jack  to  James  Jack,  ac- 
knowledged by  Frank  Street,  County  Judge  of  Pottawattamie 
County.  First  deed  on  record  was  made  by  Ezra  and  Catharine 
Vincent,  to  Walter  Barrenger,  conveying  the  northeast  of  the 
southeast  of  section  8.  township  79,  range  48.  The  first  wedding 
was  celebrated  June  9,  1853,  Stephen  King,  County  Judge,  uniting 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA.  289 

in  the  holy  bonds  of  wedlock,  John  Jones  and  Miss  Elizabeth 
Outhouse.  The  second  occurred  on  the  16th  of  the  following 
August,  when  the  same  judge  united  Samuel  McGaven  and  Miss 
Mary  M.  Harden.  The  total  number  of  marriages  since  the  or- 
ganization up  to  January  1,  1868,  was  four  hundred  and  ninety. 

The  first  district  court  was  held  by  Honorable  S.  H.  Riddle  in 
May,  1855,  at  which  time  the  first  cause  on  the  docket  was  Wil- 
liam Kennedy  vs.  D.  Pate,  while  the  total  number  were  four  civil 
and  one  criminal.  The  first  grand  jury  were:  Creed  Saunders, 
James  Garnett,  John  Conger,  Chester  Staley,  H.  Locklin,  T.  Mea- 
dus,  P.  R.  Sharp,  Thomas  Sellers,  S.  A.  Seaman,  Solomon  Barnett, 
John  Deal,  I.  H.  Holton,  D.  £.  Brainard,  Silas  Rue  and  Solomon 
Garnett.  D.  E.  Brainard  was  appointed  foreman.  John  JeflFary 
was  the  first  person  naturalized,  and  Thomas  Thompson  the  sec- 
ond. The  number  of  cases  since  the  organization  of  the  county 
up  to  November  25, 1867,  were,  civil,  749,  and  ninety-one  criminal. 

In  the  Fall  of  1853  a  party  of  Indians  camped  on  Willow  Creek. 
The  settlers  were  afraid  that  they  would  commit  some  depreda- 
tions, organized  a  company  and  went  to  drive  them  ofiF.  Among 
the  number  was  a  gentleman  from  Virginia,  who  had  been  a 
captain  in  the  Virginia  militia,  and  had  brought  his  broad  sword 
and  regimentals  with  him,  and  was  ^'decked  out"  in  full  dress, 
and  took  command.  He  boasted  of  "  his  bravery  and  would  show 
the  bloody  red  skins  a  trick  or  two."  The  company  set  out  on 
horseback,  marching  in  gallant  style,  led  by  their  brave  and  daring 
ofiBcer — in  his  own  imagination.  The  bloody  spvages  were  to  be 
exterminated,  a  brilliant  victory  to  be  obtained,  and  the  troopers 
were  to  return  home  covered  all  over  with  glory.  While  march- 
ing along  to  the  scene  of  conflict,  they  discovered  the  Indian  en- 
campment about  a  mile  ahead  across  Willow  Creek.  They  halted, 
commenced  firing,  and  continued  it  for  some  time.  The  Indians 
hearing  it,  some  naif  a  dozen  warriors  got  on  their  ponies  and 
rode  towards  the  troopers  to  see  what  was  the  matter.  The  latter 
seeing  the  warriors  approaching,  suddenly  imagined  that  they 
would  be  surrounded,  overpowered,  slaughtered,  and  scalped,  broke 
for  their  homes  as  fast  as  tneir  horses  could  carry  them.  Manv  of 
the  troopers  were  so  badly  scared  that  they  did  not  know  their 
own  houses,  but  went  on  past  them.  The  warriors  seeing  the 
fleeing  troopers,  raised  a  big  laugh,  and  rode  back  to  their  en- 
campment in  safety. 

For  several  years  the  Indians  annoyed  the  settlers  a  great  deal 
by  stealing  or  begging.  Companies  were  frequently  organized  to 
drive  them  ofl*,  and  some  times  there  would  be  some  shooting,  but 
no  one  was  ever  hurt.  Mr.  Brown  states  that  in  1853  there  was 
a  large  party  of  Indians  encamped  on  the  Boyer;  he  with  twenty- 
six  others  went  out  to  drive  them  off.  They  came  near  the  en- 
campment and  formed  in  battle  line.  The  chief  and  a  half-breed 
got  on  their  ponies  and  rode  out  to  them.      The  chief  proposed  to 


290  HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 

make  a  treaty  with  the  whites,  and  it  was  made  with  the  condi- 
tion that  the  Indians  should  leave  the  county.  There  were  120 
warriors  with  their  women  and  children.  The  Indians  left  the 
county. 

In  the  Fall  of  1853  quite  a  laree  party  of  Ottoe  Indians  were 
encamped  within  eight  miles  of  Magnolia.  One  evening  the 
settlers  informed  them  that  thej  had  better  leave  or  the  oioux 
would  attack  them  before  morning.  In  the  night  *a  firing  was 
heard  by  the  settlers.  They  went  upon  a  high  bluff  to  see  what 
was  the  matter,  and  sure  enough  the  Sioux  were  pouring  a  heavy 
fire  into  the  encampment  of  the  Ottoes.  The  latter  were  scream- 
ing and  yelling  witn  all  vengeance,  and  fled  into  the  Missouri 
bottoms.  The  next  day  the  settlers  attacked  them  and  drove 
them  across  the  Missouri  River.  They  swam  the  river  on  their 
ponies.  Harrison  County  seemed  to  have  been  a  hunting  ground 
for  the  Indians,  as  no  tribe  resided  in  the  county. 

On  Willow  Creek,  about  six  miles  from  Magnolia,  there  are  old 
ruins  of  some  kind  of  a  house  that  has  the  appearance  of  having 
been  built  out  of  burnt  brick. 

MONDAMIN. 

Mondamin,  one  of  the  heavy  shipping  points  of  the  Lower  Mis- 
souri Valley,  is  situated  thirty-eight  miles  north  of  Council  Bluffs 
on  the  Sioux  City  &  Pacific  Kailway.  The  oldest  settlers  on  the 
town-site  is  Capt.  John  Noyes,  who  with  Clarke  Ruffcorn,  his  son- 
in-law,  came  here  from  the  east  and  settled  in  the  township  in  the 
fall  of  1856.  The  township  at  that  time  was  a  fraction  of  Raglan 
township.  It  was  subsequently  named  Morgan,  which  name  it 
still  bears.  Although  Capt.  Noyes  is  the  oldest  settler  in  Monda- 
min, he  preceded  Mr.  E.  J.  Hagerman,  the  present  postmaster, 
but  a  few  weeks.  The  former  gentleman  arrived  by  boat,  while 
Mr.  Hagerman  came  by  team.  Both  started  from  the  same  place 
together  and,  but  the  difference  in  the  time  required  for  the  jour- 
ney intervened  between  their  arrivals.  Previous  to  the  arrival  of 
Messrs.  Noyes  and  Ruffcorn,  there  were  but  four  settlers  in  the 
township.  Mr.  David  W.  Fletcher,  although  there  was  no  thought 
of  a  town  being  located  in  the  vicinity  at  that  time,  had  just  pre- 
vious to  the  advent  of  the  gentleman  named  established  a  general 
merchandise  store,  and  shortly  after  the  arrival  of  Mr.  Hagerman, 
the  two  formed  a  partnership.  With  one  exception,  no  other  busi- 
ness house  was  erected  in  the  place  prior  to  its  platting,  in  the 
winter  of  1867-8,  when  the  railway  was  first  laid  through  the  town. 
The  exception  noted  was  a  general  store  erected  by  Capt.  John 
Noyes,  some  months  after. 

I'he  postoffice  was  established  in  Mondamin  in  the  summer  of 
the  year  1868,  and  the  D.  W.  Fletcher  before-mentioned  was 
commissioned  as  postmaster.     Mr.  Fletcher  held  the  position  less 


HISTORY  OP  IOWA.  291 

than  a  year,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  the  present  postmaster,  Mr. 
Haeerman.  As  the  salary  attached  to  the  office  amounted  to  but 
twelve  dollars  per  year  there  was  not  a  great  deal  of  wrangling 
over  the  appointment.  The  office  at  present,  though  having  con- 
siderable business,  is  not  a  money-order  office. 

The  town  was  platted  in  the  winter  of  1867-8  by  John  I.  Blair 
and  others  of  the  Iowa  Land  Company.  At  first,  when  the  rail- 
road was  built,  no  town  was  plaited,  the  calculation  being  to  lo- 
cate the  town  some  distance  north  of  the  present  site.  Measures 
to  this  end  were  actually  taken,  on  account  of  the  unwillingness 
of  settlers  to  part  with  the  required  land.  Some  of  the  settlers, 
however,  reconsidered  matters,  and  the  town  was  eventually  lo- 
cated where  it  now  stands.  The  site  comprises  160  acres,  though 
it  is  not  all  platted.  Eighty  acres  of  this  land  was  sold  to  the 
owners  of  the  town-site  by  Capt.  Noyes,  and  the  remainder  by 
Messrs.  Fletcher  and  George  Morgareidge,  in  the  fall  and  winter 
of  1868.  Previous  to  the  building  of  the  railroad,  no  thought  of 
a  town  in  this  particular  locality  was  had. 

The  oldest  building  now  on  the  town-site  is  the  residence  of  Dr. 
T.  H.  Allison.     This  structure  was  erected  in  the  fall  of  1868. 

Although  the  vicinity  of  Mondamin  is  not,  strictly  speaking, 
a  wheat  country,  it  has  other  resources  of  magnitude,  and  its  trade 
in  corn  is  not  second  to  that  of  any  town  on  the  line  of  the  Sioux 
City  &  Pacific  railway,  north  of  Missouri  Valley  Junction.  This 
promises  to  continue,  as  a  twenty-five-year  resident  of  the  county 
gave  the  assurance  that  in  the  time  specified,  there  had  never  been 
a  failure,  and  but  few  small  crops.  Mondamin  has  cribbing  capac- 
ity for  100,000  bushels  of  this  grain,  and  the  number  of  bushels 
handled  by  dealers  during  the  year  closed  was  200,000.  The  com- 
ing year  promises  an  increase. 

In  addition  to  corn,  cattle,  hogs,  wood  and  other  country  pro- 
ducts, are  exported  in  large  quantities.  One  dealer  of  Monaamin 
paid  nearly  fifty  thousand  dollars  last  year  for  hogs  alone. 

Mondamin  having  reach  about  two  hundred  population,  her  en- 
terprising citizens  took  measures  at  the  October,  1881,  term  of  the 
Circuit  Court  to  tile  articles  of  incorporation,  with  a  view  of 
securing  a  village  charter.  In  sequence  thereto,  an  election  to 
secure  ratification  by  the  citizens  was  had,  and  a  mayor,  clerk  and 
five  trustees  were  elected.  Subsequently  it  was  discovered  that  in 
accordance  with  the  revised  statutes,  a  sixth  trustee  would  be  neces- 
sary to  give  legality  to  the  incorporation,  and  another  election  was 
held.  The  second  election  resulted  in  the  re-election  of  the  officers 
first  chosen,  and  F.M.  Dupray  as  an  additional  trustee.  The  full 
board  was:  E.  J.  Hagerman,  Mayor;  A.  Spooner,  Clerk;  Byron 
Strode,  Thomas  Reasran,  Z.  T.  Noyes,  E.  Jones,  P.  C.  Spooner,  S^.  M. 
Dupray,  trustees.  The  first  meeting  of  the  board  was  held  Novem- 
ber 26th,  1881. 


292  HISTORY   OF  IOWA. 

One  of  the  most  potential  influences  in  the  incorporation  of  the 
place,  was  The  Mondamin  Independent^  a  neat  little  six-column 
lolio  newspaper  published  weekly,  the  first  number  of  which  was 
issued  August  13th,  1881,  by  W.  H.  Wonder,  who,  a  year  before, 
had  established  in  Mondamin  The  Musical  Banner^  a  four-page 
musical  journal.  Besides  conducting  these  journals,  the  publisher 
practices  his  profession  of  teaching  and  publishing  music,  organ- 
izing musical  conventions,  etc.  The  results  of  the  incorporation 
are  beginning  to  make  themselves  apparent  in  the  shape  of  new 
sidewalks,  etc. 

The  general  business  of  Mondamin,  classified,  is  as  follows: 
Three  dry  goods  and  grocery  stores,  two  grocery  and  notion  stores, 
one  drug  store,  jewelry  store,  hotel,  restaurant,  two  hardware  and 
tin-shops,  furniture  store,  blacksmith  shop,  wagon  shop,  two 
livery  stables,  shoe  shop,  stock  shipper,  three  grain  dealers,  meat 
market,  billiard  hall  and  saloon,  agricultural  implement  dealer, 
lumber  yard,  harness  shop,  carpenter  shop,  dealer  in  music  books 
and  sheet  music.  There  is  also  a  notary  public  and  insurance 
agent.     The  bar  has  one  representative  here,  and   medicine  three. 

CHURCHES,   SCHOOLS    AND  SOCIETIES. 

Mondamin  Congregational  Church  Society, — This  society  was 
organized  with  about  thirty  members,  in  the  early  part  of  1876, 
by  Rev.  C.  N.  Lyman,  of  Onawa.  Mr.  Lyman  still  ministers  to 
tne  spiritual  wants  of  the  congregation,  and  holds  services  in  the 
school  house  once  in  two  weeks.  Although  somewhat  at  a  dis- 
advantage for  the  present  regarding  a  place  of  meeting,  arrange' 
ments  have  been  made  for  the  erection  of  a  suitable  house  of  wor- 
ship the  coming  spring,  and  over  $700  have  already  been  sub- 
scribed for  the  purpose.  The  society,  owing  to  the  departure 
from  the  vicinity  of  a  number  of  its  original  members,  is  now  not 
quite  as  large  as  it  was  at  the  outset,  and  at  present  has  but  about 
twenty-five  members.  The  society  has  also  a  Sabbath  school  in 
connection  therewith,  of  which  P.  C.  Spooner  is  superintendent. 
The  average  attendance  is  about  forty-five,  and  services  are  held 
everv  Sunday  morning  in  the  school  house. 

Methodist, — Although  there  is  no  organized  Methodist  society, 
of  any  branch,  in  Mondamin,  there  are  a  number  of  adherents 
to  the  doctrines  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  and  for  their 
benefit  services  are  held  in  the  school  house  once  in  two  weeks  by 
Rev.  H.  J.  Smith,  of  Little  Sioux. 

Other  Religious  Sects. — Although  there  are  numerous  representa- 
tives of  other  religious  sects  in  this  vicinity,  particularly  Univer- 
salists,  there  is  no  other  organized  society  beyond  the  one  men- 
tioned. The  sect  particularized  has  occasionally  been  preached  to 
by  various  itinerant  brethren  of  their  belief. 

Mondamin  Public  Schools, — Although  the  town  is  incorporated, 
Mondamin,  as  yet,  has  not  been  made  an  independent  school  dis- 


HISTORY  OF  TOWA.  293 

trict,  but  the  limits  within  the  lurisdietion  of  the  town  school  is 
known  as  Sub-District  No.  1  of  Morgan  Township.  It  is  believed, 
however,  by  those  in  a  position  to  know,  that  the  sub-district  has 
8u£Bcient  population  to  warrant  its  admission  as  an  independent 
district,  and  that  this  consummation  will  soon  be  attained.  There 
are  100  pupils  in  the  sub-district.  The  sub-district  erected  a  one- 
room  building,  30x40  feet  in  dimensions,  in  the  fall  of  1871.  when 
the  sub-district  was  first  organized,  but  the  increased  attendance 
has  necessitated  the  renting  of  another  room.  This  diflBculty, 
however,  is  soon  to  be  met  by  a  larger  public  edifice.  The  first 
sub-director  was  E.  M.  Harvey.  The  present  one  is  E.  J.  Hager- 
man. 

Mondamin  Lodge  No,  392,  /.  0.  0.  F, — This  lodge  was  organ- 
ized May  22d,  18  <  9,  with  charter  members  as  follows:  F.  M.  Du- 
pray,  N.  G.;  E.  Jones,  V.  G.;  J.  A.  Yost,  S.;  A.  VV.  Garrison,  P. 
S.;  F.  W.  Brooks,  C.  M.  Gilmore,  Byron  Strode,  Thomas  Byers, 
B.  J.  Faylor,  members.  Six  other  members  were  also  initiated  the 
same  evening,  and  of  these  several  were  immediately  placed  in 
oflBcers'  vacant  chairs.  The  lodge  was  organized  by  D.  G.  M. 
J.  C  Miliman,  of  Logan.  The  lodge  at  present  contains  thirty- 
four  members,  with  the  following  officers:  B.  J.  Faylor,  N.  Gr.; 
Benjamin  Morrow,  V.  G.;  J.  A.  Yost,  S.;  R.  B.  Hall,  T.;  F.  M. 
Dupray,  W.;  B.  Strode,  C;  T.  Morrow,  R.  S.  N.  G.;  T.  C.  F. 
Brenneman,  L.  S.  N.  G.;  C.  Gilmore,  0.  G.;  William  Griffith,  I. 
G.;  A.  Forrester,  R.  S.  V.  G.;  E.  Jones,  L.  S.  V.  G.;  Anton  Uhrig, 
R.  S.  S.:  Z.  T.  Noyes,  L.  S.  S.  The  lodge  which  is  in  a  flourish- 
ing condition ;  meets  in  Noyes'  hall  every  Saturday  evening. 

Mondamin  Li/ceum, — This  society  has  just  been  organized  with 
thirty  members,  and  its  history  is  yet  to  be  made.  The  object  is 
intellectual  and  social  development.  B.  Strode  is  the  President, 
and  the  Society  holds  its  meetings  in  the  schoolhouse  on  Friday 
night  of  each  week. 

Mondamin  Chorus  Choir. — Thi^  society  consists  of  about  fifteen 
members,  and  it  is  non-sectarian  in  character.  The  object  is  musi- 
cal cultivation .     The  choir  meets  every  week  in  the  schoolhouse. 

RIVER  SIOUX. 

This  thriving  place  is  located  on  the  Sioux  City  &  Pacific  Rail- 
way, at  or  very  near  the  junction  of  the  Missouri  and  Little  Sioux 
Rivers,  on  the  south  side  of  the  latter  stream.  It  contains  a  pop- 
ulation of  225.  The  town,  although  unincorporated  and  small,  is 
delightfully  situated  in  the  midst  of  heavy  timber,  of  various  kinds, 
and  is  one  of  the  most  progressive  business  places  in  the  county. 
The  town  owes  its  origin  to  the  advent  of  the  Sioux  City  &  Pacific 
Railroad,  the  authorities  of  which  platted  it  in  October,  1868. 
The  original  town  site  was  a  few  hundred  yards  north  of  the  pres- 
ent one,  on  the  north  side  of  the  Little  Sioux  River.  This  loca- 
tion, however,  was  found  to  be  too  low  for  a  town  site,  as  it  was 


294  HISTORY  OP  IOWA. 

subject  to  inundation,  and  the  town  was  accordingly  removed  to 
its  present  location.  This  transfer  was  made  in  the  summer  of 
1876.  The  iiew  location  showed  the  wisdom  of  those  who  chose 
it,  as  it  is  the  highest  point  of  land  on  the  railway  south  of  Ser- 
geant's Bluffs.  On  the  original  town  site  there  were  but  three 
settlers,  Reuben  Newton,  depot  agent,  S.  Chase,  who  lived  there 
prior  to  the  advent  of  the  railroad,  and  E.  J.  Davis. 

The  land  to  which  the  town  site  was  finally  transferred  was 
owned  by  Henry  Herring,  E.  J.  Davis  and  James  Crabb  and  the 
undivided  half  of  eighty  acres,  was  by  them  given  to  the  railway 
company  with  the  understanding  that  the  town  should  be  removed 
thereto. 

As  before  stated,  the  business  of  Little  Sioux,  in  proportion  to 

f>opulation  and  number  of  establishments,  is  quite  large.  The  f ol- 
owing  are  the  various  kinds  of  business,  ennumerated :  Two  gen- 
eral merchandise  stores,  drug  and  grocery  store,  drug  store,  hard- 
ware store,  three  saloons,  hotel,  lumber  yard,  two  saw-mills,  black- 
smith and  wagon  shop,  grain  and  stock  dealer,  butcher  shop. 

The  professions  are  represented  in  River  Sioux  by  two  physi- 
cians, two  lawyers  and  one  civil  engineer. 

As  River  Sioux  is  situated  in  the  midst  of  a  productive  country, 
which  is  rapi'lly  increasing  in  population,  the  shipments  of  various 
kinds  of  produce  are  necessarily  quite  large,  ana  they  are  rapidly 
increasing  in  amount  and  value.  At  present  they  will  aggregate 
from  two  to  three  car  loads  per  day.  The  business  of  the  station 
is  ably  handled  by  the  agent,  R.  Newton,  who  is  at  present  the 
oldest  settler  on  tne  town  site,  he  having  removed  thereto  with  the 
transfer  of  the  town  site.  Although  River  Sioux  cannot  properly 
be  described  as  a  port  of  call  for  Missouri  River  steamers,  vessels 
of  this  description  have  in  previous  years  come  up  the  Sioux  as  far 
as  the  town,  and  it  is  thought  that  a  systematic  course  of  dredging 
and  widening  of  the  channel  would  make  it  possible  for  this  de- 
scription of  craft  to  come  up  at  all  stages  of  water.  In  justice  to 
dissenting  opinion,  however,  it  must  be  stated  that  there  are  those 
who  regard  such  a  scheme  as  chimerical  to  the  highest  degree. 

CHURCHES,  SCHOOLS   AND   SOCIETIES. 

Methodist  Episcopal  Church  Society, — This  society  has  no  church 
building,  but  is  composed  of  about  thirty  members.  The  congregar 
tion  meets  in  the  town  hall.  The  society  has  been  in  existence 
only  since  the  organization  of  the  Little  Sioux  Circuit  in  1876,  and 
has  no  resident  pastor,  and  it  is  now  one  of  the  appointments 
of  the  Little  Sioux  Circuit,  of  which  Rev.  H.  J.  Smitn,  of  Lit- 
tle Sioux,  is  the  minister.  The  erection  of  a  church  at  no  distant 
future  is  being  discussed.  Outside  of  the  members  of  the  society, 
there  is  a  good  attendance  of  non-members,  and  there  is  more  than 
a  probability  that  the  society  will  soon  see  a  church  of  its  own.   Be- 


HT8T0RT  OP  IOWA.  295 

sides  this  society,  there  is  no  other  organized  religious  body  in  River 
Sioux,  although  occasional  services  have  been  hejd  in  the  place  by 
the  clergymen  of  other  denominations. 

Odd  Fellows, — There  is  a  lodge  of  Odd  Fellows  at  River  Sioux. 
The  lodge  contains  twenty-three  members,  and  was  organist  in 
January,  1879.  The  following  is  the  list  of  elective  officers  first 
installed:  N.  G.,  J.  Simmons;  V.  G.,  J.  Bowie;  S.,  C.  A.  Demun; 
T.,  S.  Demmon.  The  present  elective  officers  are:  John  Whiting, 
N.  G.;  Henry  Herring,  V.G.;  James  Harmon,  S.;  John  Henry,  W. 

Good  Templars. — Although  there  is  no  temperance  organization 
in  River  Sioux,  an  effort  is  making  looking  towards  the  organiza- 
tion of  a  subordinate  lodge  of  the  Independent  Order  of  Good 
Templars. 

Public  Schools. — The  school  district,  of  which  Sub-District  No- 
6  (River  Sioux)  is  a  part,  is  Little  Sioux  Township  District,  which 
was  organized  in  April,  1857.  Sub-District  No.  6  was  organized 
September  21, 1874,  and  Charles  McEvers  was  elected  the  following 
spring  as  subndirector.  The  present  officers  of  the  school  town- 
ship are:  Samuel  Ellis,  President;  Samuel  Dewell,  Secretary; 
Charles  Smith,  Gilbert  Smith,  S.  A.  Page,  Samuel  Taylor  and 
George  W.  Rock.  Sub-District  No.  6,  has  at  present  a  neat  little 
school-house  26x40  feet  in  dimensions,  but  as  there  are  ninety 
children  of  school  age  in  the  Sub-District,  the  space  is  inadequate 
to  its  wants,  and  tne  coming  season  a  larger  structure  will  be 
erected  at  a  cost  of  $3,000.  The  school  is  under  the  supervision 
of  E.  A.  Baldwin,  of  Little  Sioux,  and  is  in  a  flourishing  condition. 
Although  containing  but  one  room,  two  departments  have  been 
maintained  until  recently,  but  lack  of  space  necessitated  the  dis- 
continuance of  one  department.  This  state  of  affairs  is  to  be 
remedied  hereafter.  Upon  the  completion  of  the  new  school- 
house,  the  District  will  be  made  Independent. 

WOODBINE. 

The  first  permanent  settler  in  the  vicinity  of  Woodbine  was 
Richard  Musgrave,  who  arrived  in  1852,  from  Council  Bluffs.  Mr. 
Musgrave  settled  in  the  Twelve-mile  Grove,  two  miles  south  of 
town,  where  he  still  resides,  engaged  in  farming.  Mr.  Musgrave 
was  one  of  a  number  of  monogamous  Mormons  who  came  to  west- 
ern Iowa  and  located  at  the  time  of  the  migration  of  the  original 
church  from  Illinois  and  Missouri. 

L.  D.  Butler  was  the  second  permanent  settler  in  the  vicinity. 
He  has  never  resided  in  the  town  proper,  but  has  been  in  business 
there  most  of  the  time  since  his  arrival.  Mr.  Butler  came  to 
Council  Bluffs  i^  1849.  At  that  time,  this  portion  of  Harrison 
County  was  a  wilderness,  inhabited  only  by  wild  deer,  elk,  wolves, 
etc.  The  only  settlements  that  had  been  made  anywhere  near 
were  by  the  Mormons  aforesaid,  of  whom  Mr.  Butler  was  one  at 


296  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

the  time.  In  a  stray  excursion  northward,  Mr.  Butler  was  struck 
by  the  beauty  anji  fertility  of  the  land  in  the  neighborhood  of 
what  is  now  Woodbine,  and  in  1853  he  came  here  and  located  near 
the  town-site,  occupying  one  of  a  number  of  abandoned  Mormon 
dwellings  until  he  could  erect  a  suitable  building.  The  building 
he  put  up  was  situated  about  one  and  one-half  miles  east  of  the 
present  town.  He  then  commenced  farming.  Mr.  Butler  built  a 
grist  and  saw-mill  at  the  point  mentioned  in  the  year  1855.  This 
was  the  first  mill  erected  in  Harrison  County. 

Among  other  old  settlers  are  Jacob  Harshbarger,  David  Selleck, 
Dr.  Cole,  Henry  Hushaw,  G.  W.  Pugsley,  John  Jeffries,  Matthew 
Hall  and  others  whose  names  could  not  be  reaaily  obtained.  These 
came  between  the  years  1853-5. 

The  town  was  platted  in  the  fall  of  1866,  by  the  Blair  Town  Lot 
and  Land  Company.  This  was  the  year  of  tne  completion  of  the 
Chicago  and  Northwestern  Railway  to  this  point.  The  Land 
Company  purchased  1,200  acres  of  land  for  the  use  of  the  town, 
though  but  a  comparatwely  small  portion  of  it  has  been  platted. 
The  parties  selling  this  tract  to  the  Land  Company  were  Matthew 
Winters,  David  E.  Barnum,  Hiram  Wisener,  W.  F.  Clark,  G.  M. 
Brown,  I.  McAtee,  John  Johnson  and  M.  Kiger. 

The  town  was  incorporated  in  the  latter  part  of  1877,  and  the 
first  meeting  of  the  town  council  was  held  on  December  7th,  1877. 
The  following  was  the  composition  of  the  first  council:  A.  W. 
Curtiss,  Mayor;  C.  C.  Matter,  Recorder;  Joseph  Clizbe,  J.  W. 
Vinacke,  G.  H.  Kibler,  C.  W.  Jeflries,  C.  D.  Stevens,  Trustees. 
The  present  oflBcers  are:  J.  V.  Mallery,  Mayor;  Frank  Folts,  Re- 
corder; Frank  A.  Butler,  T.  L,  Canneld,  J.  C.  McLain,  H.  B. 
Eling,  S.  L.  Winter,  0.  D.  Smith  Trustees. 

The  money-order  postoflBce  at  Woodbine  is  a  legitimate  successor 
of  an  office  established  in  1858,  eight  years  before  the  town  was 
platted.  The  original  office  was  located  at  the  grist-mill  of  Mr. 
Butler,  previously  mentioned,  some  distance  from  the  town-site. 
The  intention  of  the  settlers  was  to  name  the  office  Harrison  City 
Postoffice;  but  the  department  at  Washington  did  not  care  to  is- 
sue papers  with  that  name  as  there  were  already  several  Harrisons 
in  Iowa,  and  it  was  tnought  an  additional  one  would  lead  to  confu- 
sion. The  name  Woodbine  was  finally  suggested  by  Mrs.  Butler, 
and  it  was  accepted.  The  name  was  taken  from  the  cottage  in 
which  Mrs.  Butler  resided,  as  a  girl,  in  England.  The  first  post- 
master was  Mr.  Butler,  who  held  the  office  for  about  ten  years  and 
for  some  time  after  its  removal  to  its  present  site.  The  present 
postmaster  is  Lysander  Crane,  who  has  been  in  office  about  a  year. 
The  postoffice  name  was  applied  to  the  town  by  the  platters  of  the 
same. 

The  first  building  erected  on  the  town-site  was  Gallagher  &  Bros. 
saloon,  which  was  built  just  before  the  railroad  was  ^aded  to  this 
point.  The  first  residence  was  put  up  in  1866,  by  William  A.  Jones. 


HISTORY  OF  IOWA, 


297 


«  

The  next  building  erected  was  in  1806  by  J.  P.  Moore.  The  house, 
the  Woodbine  House,  is  still  standing,  with  additions,  and  was  the 
first  hotel  in  the  place.  Among  other  buildings  erected  about 
this  time,  were  the  residence  and  the  hardware  store  of  A.  Cad- 
well,  Sleight  &  Williams'  agricultural  implement  warehouse,  CD. 
Stevens'  grocery  store,  L.  D.  Battler's  general  merchandise  store, 
{the  first  in  the  place),  McAtee's  grocery  store,  Dr.  Cole's  drug 
store  and  several  other  smaller  concerns. 

Woodbine  Lodge,  No.  405,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  was  instituted  in  April, 
1880.  Charter  members:  F.  J.  Porter,  S.  L.  Winter,  W.  J. 
Callender,  A.  P.  Lathrop,  W.  C.  Sampson,  George  Musgrave,  and 
others.  First  officers:  F.  J.  Porter,  N.  G.;  S.  Ji.  Winter,  V.  G.; 
W.  J.  Callender,  Secretary;  W.  C.  Sampson,  Treasurer.  Present 
officers:  A.  P.  Lithrop,  N.  G.;  George  Musgrave,  V.  G.;  H.  B. 
Kling,  R.  S.;  J.  V.  Mallory,  P.  S.;  S.  L.  Winters,  Treasurer.  The 
Lodge  has  about  forty  members.  Meetings  are  held  in  Odd  Fel- 
lows' Hall  Wednesday  evenings  of  each  week.  The  Lodge  is  in 
excellent  working  condition,  and  its  membership  is  of  as  equally 
excellent  a  standard. 

The  Masonic  fraternity  is  as  well  represented  by  men  of  stand- 
ing and  thorough-going  qualities.  Charter  Oak  Lodge,  No.  401, 
A.  F.  &  A.  M.,  was  instituted  in  1880.  Its  charter  members  were: 
R.  Yeisley,  H.  C.  Harshbarger,  F.  J.  Porter,  J.  R.  Burkholder,  C. 
D.  Stevens,  W.  H.  DeCou,  Lysander  Crane,  P.  A.  DeCou,  R. 
Jacobson,  L.  D.  Butler,  L  A.  DeCou^  J.  S.  Hall,  G.  Smith  Stanton. 
First  officers:  Reuben  Yeisley,  W.  M.;  H.  C.  Harshbarger,  S. 
W.;  F.  J.  Porter,  J.  W.;  G.  Smith  Stanton,  Secretary.  C.  D. 
Stevens,  Treasurer.  Present  Officers:  Reuben  Yeisley,  W.  M.; 
P.  J.  Porter,  S.  W.;  H.  H.  Rathbun,  J.  W.;  H.  C.  Harshbarger, 
Secretary;  C.  D.  Stevens,  Treasurer;  J.  R.  Burkholder,  S.  D.;  C. 
W.  Mendenhall,  J.  D.;  N.  E.  Cowles,  Tyler.  The  membership  is 
twenty-five.  Meetings  are  held  Saturday  evenings  on  or  before  the 
foil  moon. 

Woodbine  has  a  circulating  library  of  about  800  volumes.  This 
librwy  is  owned  and  conducted  by  Geo.  Musgrave,  proprietor  of 
the  Twiner^  at  his  office. 

There  are  three  church  building,  the  Presbyterian,  Methodist, 
Episcopal  and  Baptist.  The  religious  interests  of  Woodbine  are 
zealously  cared  for. 

There  is  every  advantage  offered  in  an  educational  way.  The 
school  building  is  a  handsome  and  roomv  structure  of  four  depart- 
ments. C.  C.  Matter  is  the  principal;  Miss  Hester  Hillas  teaches 
the  Intermediate  Department;  Miss  Etta  Boies,  the  Second  Prim- 
ary; Miss  Harriet  Elkins,  the  First  Primary.  One  hundred  and 
fifty  pupils  are  enrolled.  The  building  was  built  in  1880,  is  of 
brick,  two  stories  in  hight,  and  cost  about  $5,000. 


298  HISTORY  OF  IOWA. 

MODALE. 

The  location  of  this  place  is  on  the  Sioux  City  &  Pacific  Rail- 
way, sixty-five  miles  south  of  Sioux  City,  and  a  li:tle  less  than 
thirty-two  miles  north  of  Council  Blufis.  Modale  contains  about 
200  inhabitants,  most  of  whom  are  native  Americans.  The  village 
is  not  incorporated. 

Modale  was  laid  off  by  Benjamin  Martin  in  1872,  under  the 
the  name  of  Martinsville,  which  is  still  the  legal  name  of  the 
place,  in  all  deeds  of  town  property  it  being  thus  designated.  The 
name  Modale,  however,  is  the  older  name,  and  seems  to  be  prefer- 
red by  the  citizens.  The  name  had  a  somewhat  singular  origin. 
In  the  year  1858,  the  few  settlers  then  living  in  the  vicinity  were 
desirous  of  securing  a  postoffice,  and  a  petition  was  drawn  up  and 
sent  to  Washington  asking  that  one  be  established.  T.  A.  Den- 
nis, who  forwarded  the  document,  also  sent  recommendations  as 
to  name  and  location.  The  name  suggested  was  ''Missouri  Dale;" 
but  the  writing  being  somewhat  illegible  and  the  word  "Missouii" 
being  abbreviated  to  ''Mo.,"  the  postoffice  authorities  could  make 
nothing  of  it  but  "Modale"  and  with  that  name  the  papers  were 
filled  out.  This  postoffice  was  located  two  miles  and  a  half  north- 
west of  the  present  town.  The  postmaster  was  Stephen  Hester. 
The  office  was  shifted  according  to  population  several  times  before 
it  reached  its  present  location.  The  last  move  was  in  1873.  C.  J. 
Cutler,  the  present  postmaster,  the  .oldest  living  settler  on  the 
town-site  was  the  first  postmaster.  The  name  Modale  was  further 
fixed  by  the  building  of  an  addition  called  "Modale  addition"  after 
the  town  was  platted,  and  by  the  railway  company^s  giving  the 
station  the  name  of  Modale. 

At  the  time  of  the  building  of  the  railway  through  here,  in  the 
fall  of  1868,  the  intention  of  the  company  was  to  make  no  regular 
station,  but  simply  a  station.  This  idea  was  carried  out,  and  it 
was  a  number  or  years  after  before  any  but  flagged  trains  stopped 
at  Modale.  But  in  course  of  time,  as  population  and  products  in- 
creased, a  station  was  found  necessary  and  one  was  made,  the  en- 
terprise of  Mr.  Martin  and  others  providing  the  town  site.  The 
original  plat,  as  laid  out  by  Mr.  M!artin,  contained  but  ten  acres, 
but  a  year  afterward  thirty  acres  more  were  platted  by  that  gen- 
tleman. About  the  same  time  Alonzo  Beebe  platted  the  Modale 
addition  of  six  acres,  which  made  the  total  number  of  acres  in 
the  town  site  forty-six.     No  mor