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I 


n. 


1      I 


No. 


LiIBEAEY 

OF 

THE   EAST   INDIA  ASSOCIATION. 


Class 


Seoslf 


Presented  by 


ycdr^4 


<^ 


« 
/ 


._< 


THE 


CALCUTTA  REVIEW. 


VOL.  XVI. 


JULY— DECEMBER  1851. 


••  Ab  MM,  wk»  toA  tmiUd  Imriring,  M  will  eonfeu  Ot  atony  tiof  <^  pn^Utag  bg 
aMf,«*«,MteMi<niMaiA<M(f«e«fpto,ar«aM«  toaMMOf*  tmdttJMk  niwpotiliaiu 
Ut  at  world:  md,  wtr*  tktg  tut  ai  the  lUiit  md  ebtitn  tf  our  AM,  to  bmg,  at  m  tlUU 
waUom,  Oif  mat  ft  M'**  A>  poKik  and  Ir^iUm  tke  amouri  qf  trmUt,  <m»  for  that 
imput,  then  wtr*  not  nUtrlf  to  (*  tatt  MMy."— HitioM. 


•    •      .  * 


% 
«      * 


CALCUTTA : 

PBIRTED    FOB  THE   PBOPBIETOB,  BT  SANDEBS,  CONES  AND   CO. 
No.  1^  hOtti  BAZAB,  AND  SOU)  BT  ALL  THE  B00K>8ELLEBS. 

1851. 


:•.: 


•  » 


1^  VAwi.A/w 


^i.ifr..*^  CONTENTS 

■L  G  i  3B 


No^  XXXL— Vol,  XVL 


Abt.  L— the  ANGLO-INDIAN  COURTS  OF 

JUSTICE. 

Decifflons  of  the  Sadder  Dewani  Adawlut     Calcutta. 
Military  Orphan  Press.    1851        .... 

Abt.  IL— MORTALITY  OF  EUROPEAN  SOL- 
DIERS IN  INDIA. 


1.  IGUtarjr  Musm^,  by  CoL  J.  S.  Hodgson,  12tli  Regi- 

ment^ Bengal  Native  Infantry         •        •        .        .33 

2.  A  Treatise  on  the  public  health,  climate.  Hygiene,  and 

freyailing  diseases  of  Bengal  and  the  North-west 
Provinces,  by  Kenneth  Mackinnon,  M.  D.,  Suigeon 
and  Medical  Storekeeper.    Cawnpore.    1848    .        •    Sk 

3.  British  and  Foreign  Meoico  Chirui^cal  Review.    No. 

IX.  Article  on  Dr.  Mackinnon's  Treatise  of  Tropi- 
V  cal  Hygiene.    January.     1850        .        .        .        .    ib. 

^  ^  European  Soldiers  in  India."  Bengal  Hurkaru.  1850    ib. 

ev)        Abt.  nL— the  EAST  INDIA  COMPANY 
^  AND  ITS  CHARTER 

^he  TSmes  News-paper :  London.    1851  .77 

Abt,  IV.— INDO-BACTRIAN  NUMISMATICS 
AND  GREEK  CONNECTION  WITH 

THE  EAST. 

I.  Ariana  Antiqua.  A  descriptive  account  of  the  Anti- 
quities and  Coins  of  Affghanistan.  By  H.  H.  Wil- 
Bon^  M.  A.,  F.  R.  Sw,  &c  London.  Published 
under  the  authority  of  the  Hon'ble  the  Court  of 
Directors  of  the  E.  L  G.  1841  .  .  .  .119 
2.  Beitrag  2ur  Oeechichte  der  Oriechischen  Konige  in 
Baktrien^  Kabul^  und  Indien;  durch  Entzifferung 


U  CONTENTS. 

der  alt  EiibuliBchen  Legenden  auf  ibren  Munzen : 
yon  Christian  Lassen*  Bonn.  1838.  Translated 
for  the  Asiatic  Society.  Calcutta  .  .  .  .119 
3.  Note  on  the  Historical  Kesults  dedudble  from  recent 
discoyeries  in  Affghanistan.  Bj  H.  T.  Prinsep, 
Esq.    London.     1844 ib. 

Art.  v.— INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND  MOFUS- 
SIL  SANATORY  REFORM. 

1.  Transactions  of  the  Medical  and  Physical  Society  of 

Calcutta.     1825-43 156 

2.  Reports  of  the  Commission  for  enquiring  into  the  state 

of  large  and  populous  districts.    London.    1844     •    t6. 

3.  Report  of  the  General  Board  of  Health  on  the  epi- 

demic Cholera  of  1848-49,  with  appendices.  Lon- 
don.    1850     •         •        •        •        .        •        •        m    ibm. 

4.  Act  X.  of  1842.    An  Act  for  enabling  the  inhabitants 

of  any  place  of  public  resort  or  residence  under  the 
Presidency  of  Fort  William,  not  within  the  town  of 
Calcutta,  to  make  better  proyision  for  purposes  con- 
nected with  public  healtn  and  conyenience.  Cal- 
cutta Goyemment  Gbzette,  14th  October,  1842        .    ib. 

5.  Act  XXVT.  of  1850.    An  Act  to  enable  improye- 

ments  to  be  made  in  towns.  Calcutta  Goyemment 
Gazette,  21st  June,  1850        .        .        .        .        .    ib. 

6.  Report  on  Small  Pox  in  Calcutta,  and  Vaccination  in 

JBengaL     By  Duncan  Stewart,  M.  D.    Calcutta. 

7.  Report  of  the  Small  Pox  Commissioners  appointed  by 

ijoyemment,  with  an  Appendix.  Calcutta,  1st  July, 
1850 •    *• 

8.  Medical  Report  on  the   Mahamunri  in  Gurbwal  in 

1849-50.  By  Dr.  C.  Renny,  Superintending  Sur- 
geon.   Agra.     1851 .*    '^* 

9.  Suggestions  for  the  extension  and  perfection  of  Vacci- 

nation, simultaneously  with  the  systematic  study  of 
epidemic  and  endemic  diseases  in  India.  By  J.  R. 
Bedford,  Assistant  Surgeon.    Calcutta.    1851    '    •    t& 

Art.  VI.— RESULTS  OF  MISSIONARY  LA- 

BOUR  IN  INDIA- 

1.  Thirty-Eighth  Report  of  the  Calcutta  Auxiliary  Bible 

Society.    Calcutta.     1851 231 


CONTENTS.  iii 

2.  Thirtieth  Annual  Report  of  the   Madras  Auxiliary 

Bible  Society.    Maoras.     1851        ....    ib. 

Art.  Vlt— RICHARDSON'S  LITERARY  RE- 

CREATION& 

Liiterary  Recreations ;  or  Essays,  Criticisms,  and  Poems. 
By  David  Lester  Richardson :  Author  of  '^  Literary 
Leaves,"*  **  Literary  Chit-Chat,**  "  Critical  and  Bio- 
graphical Notices  of  the  British  Poets,"  &c.  Cal- 
cutta.    1851  289 

Art.  ATIIL— manual  OF  SURVEYING,  AND 
THE  REVENUE  SURVEY. 

A  'M'<^i»"«^l  of  Surveying  for  India,  detailing  the  mode  of 
operations  on  the  Revenue  Surveys  m  Bengal  and 
the  North-Westem  Provinces.  !rrepared  for  the 
use  of  the  Survey  Department,  and  published  by 
the  authority  of  the  Grovemment  of  India.  Com- 
piled by  Captains  F.  Smyth  and  H.  L.  Thuillier, 
Bei^ArtiUery.    Calcutta.    1851         .        .        .321 


BBBATA  IN  NO.  XXXL 

P<V«8Ii,ZUfea. 
In  IIm  Sod  oohmm^  3.196  nod  31,96,  md  BO  od  thnugtioat. 
In  the  3rd  ooltmn  J^  9.6S1  rMd  3SJ1. 
„  a.81B    ,    38.16. 

,  .  3.U3    „    31.33. 

Page  M^  Has  8M>r  aitt^  rand  din. 

Page  Ki  Bm  6j%r  (tatioD-tel^nph,  raod  staUoni,  tdetfr^tu. 
Figfl  T8i  Hue  S^J&r  recolMton.  nod  rtgnlitaHii. 


CONTENTS 


OT 


No.  XXXIL— Vol.  XVI. 


abt.  l— miss  martineau  on  the  war  in 

afghanistan. 

The  History  of  England  daring  the  thirty  years'  peace  : 
1816—1846.  By  Harriet  Martineau.  2  Vols.  Lon- 
don.    1860 339 

Aet.  IL— SPRENGER'S  LIFE  OF  MUHAM- 
MAD. 

• 

The  Life  of  Mahammad,  by  A.  Sprenger^  M.  D.    Part  I. 

Allahabad.     1851 357 

Abt.  III.— recent  WORKS  ON  SCINDE. 

1.  Dry  Leaves  from  Young  Egyjpt^  being  a  glance  at 

Sindhy  before  the  arrival  of  Sir  Charles  Napier.  By 
an  Ex-Political.     London.     1849    .        •        .        .383 

2.  Scinde,  or  the  Unhappy  YaUey  ;  by  Richard  F.  Bur- 

ton, Lieut.,  Bombay  Army,  author  of  "  Goa  and 
the  Blue  Mountains,''  &c.    2  vols.   London.    1851  .     ib. 

3.  Sindh,  and  the  Races  that  inhabit  the  Valley  of  the 

Indus,  by  Lieut.  R.  F.  Burton.     London.     1851     .     zb. 

4.  Grenend  Sir  Charles  Napier's  Administration  of  Scinde, 

including  his  Campaign  in  the  Hills,  by  Lieut  Ge- 
neral Sir  William  Napier,  K.  C.  B.  London. 
1851 ib. 

Art.  IV.— EASTERN  MONACHISM. 

Eastern  Monachism:  an  account  of  the  Origin,  Laws, 
Discipline,  Sacred  Writings,  Mysterious  Rites,  Re- 


U  CONTENTS. 

liglous  Ceremonies,  and  present  circumstances,  of 
the  order  of  Mendicants,  founded  by  Gotama  Budha 
(compiled  from  Singhalese  MSS.  and  other  original 
sources  of  information);  with  oomparative  notices  of 
the  Usages  and  Institutions  of  the  Western  Asce- 
tics, and  a  Review  of  the  Monastic  System  ;  by  B. 
Spence  Hardy.  London.  Partridge  and  Oakey, 
Paternoster  Row.     1850 412 


Art.  v.- the  MADRAS  AND  BENGAL  GO- 
VERNMENTS, AND  THEIR  RELATIVE 

POSITIONS. 

1.  Friend  of  India,  November  13,  1851    .         .        .        '.  446 

2.  Madras  Athenaeum,  1851 ib. 


Art.  VL— THE  BETHUNE  SOCIETY. 

1.  The  Bethune  Society,,  as  ascertained  from  the  publish- 

ed proceedings  of  its  first  meeting  ....  483 

2.  The  Sanitary  Improvement  of  Calcutta;  a  Discourse 

read  before  the  Bethune  Society,  at  its  second  meet- 
ing, on  Thursday  the  8th  of  January,  1852.  By 
S.  G.  Chuckerbutty,  M.  D ib. 


Art.  VIL— SANSCRIT  POETRY. 
The  Kavya  Sangraha,  edited  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Haeberlin  .  501 

Art.  VIIL— the  GREAT  TRIGONOMETRI- 
CAL SURVEY  OF  INDIA. 

Trigonometrical  Survey — India:  Return  to  an  order  of 
the  Hon'ble  the  House  of  Commons,  dated  12th  Fe- 
bruary, 1850,  for  returns  ''  of  full  and  detailed 
Reports  of  the  extent  and  nature  of  the  operations 
and  expenditure  connected  with  the  Grand  Trigo- 
nometrical Survey  of  India,  and  of  the  Grand  Tri- 
angulation  thereof,  for  the  Measurements  of  the 
Arcs  of  the  Meridian,  from  the  year  the  first  Base 
was  measured  to  the  ktest  date  f  &c.  &c.  1851.      •  514 


CONTENTfl.  lU 

Miscellaneous  Critical  Notices. 

1.  Hindu  Ordeals. — The  Mit^kshari  Darpan  .  •  .  i 
The  Shabda  Kalpa  Drama ;  by  Bajah  Badhakant  Deb  ib. 
The  Asiatic  Besearches^  vol  1st.  .  •  .  .  ib. 
Heniy's  Histoiy  of  England,  vol.  3rd.  .  .  .  ib. 
Ward  on  the  Hindus,  3  vols.     London         •         .         .  ib, 

2.  The  Life  and  Beli^on  of  Muhammad,  as  contained  in 

the  Shiah  traditions  of  the  Hyat  ul  Kultib,  trans- 
lated from  the  Persian  by  the  Bev.  J.  Merrick, 
Eleven  years  Missionary  to  the  Permans,  Member 
of  the  American  Oriental  Society.  Boston,  Phil- 
lips and  Co.  Calcutta,  Thacker  and  Co.  6  Bupees 
8  Annas.     8vo.  pp.  483 xi 

3.  The  Bible,  the  Koran,  and  the  Talmud ;  or  Biblical 

Legends  of  the  Musalmans,  compiled  from  Arabic 
sources,  and  compared  with  Jewish  Traditions ;  by 
Dr.  Q.  Weil.     London.     1846        ....   xiii 

4.  Lilrodnction  to  Sanskrit  Grammar,  compiled  in  Ben- 

gali, by  Ishwar  Chandra  Yidyasagar.  Bozario  and 
Ca    Lepage  and  Co. zv 

5.  Bijupdt  or  Simple  Lessons  ;  Part  L  ;  compiled  for  the 

use  of  the  Government  Sanskrit  College  of  Cal- 
cutta, by  Ishwar  Chandra  Yidyasagar,  Principal  of 
that  Institution.  Calcutta.  1851.  Bozario  and  Co. 
Lepage  and  Co. ib. 

6.  Bole  Ponjis.    Containing  the  Tale  of  the  Buccaneer; 

a  Bottle  of  Bed  I^ ;  the  Decline  and  Fall  of 
Ghosts ;  and  other  Ingredients.  By  Henry  Mere- 
dith Parker,  Bengal  Civil  Service.  2  vols.  Thacker 
and  Co.     London  and  Calcutta       .        .        •        •    xvi 


THE 


CALCUTTA  REVIEW. 


Art.  L — Decisions  of  tlie  Sudder  Dewam  Adawlut     Calcutta. 
Military  Orphan  Press.     1851. 

0 

We  propose  to  consider  the  present  state  of  the  Anglo-Indian 
Courts  of  Justice,  more  particularly  those  which  have  been 
established  under  the  presidency  of  Fort  William ;  and  to  en- 
quire into  the  reasonableness  of  that  charge  of  inefficiency, 
which  has  lately  been  brought  against  them. 

Since  the  publication  of  the  drafts  of  those  enactments,  which 
threaten  to  deprive  British  subjects  of  their  cherished  privi- 
leges, and  tc  place  them  upon  a  level  with  the  millions  of  their 
f(£ow-men  in  Indi^,  the  cry  against  the  Courts  of  Hindustan 
has  been  raised  with  more  vehemence  and  perseverance  than 
ever:  and  those  courts,  which  exercise  jurisdiction  over  a  hun- 
dred millions  of  civilized  beings,  have  been  represented  as 
E laces  characterised  by  incompetency  and  corruption.  K  this 
e  true,  as  we  believe  it  to  be  eminently  false,  it  is  indeed 
highly  expedient  that  the  Government  should  be  informed  of  it, 
before  the  expiration  of  the  charter,  in  order  that  the  Governor 
General,  who  cannot,  however,  be  supposed  to  know  much 
about  the  matter,  should  bring  the  evil  prominently  forward, 
and  thus  afford  Her  Majesty  an  opportunity  of  covering  the 
plsdns  of  the  Indus,  the  Ganges  and  the  Nerbudda,  with  Su- 
preme Courts,  with  Barristers  learned  in  the  law,  and  with 
Attorneys,  who  shall  **  wander  about  the  country  with  their 
*  blue  Imgs,  not  caring  six-pencefor  the  Huzzur.^ 

Whether  such  an  importation  would  supply  the  alleged 
desiderata  of  efficiency  and  purity,  may  reasonably  be  ques- 
tioned. We  think  that  it  would  not ;  and  that,  on  the  contrary, 
many  evils  would  thus  be  added  to  the  Mofussil  judicial  sys- 
tem, &om  which  it  is  now  comparatively  free. 

It  is  not  pretended  that  the  courts  of  India  require  no  im- 

!>rovement.  Every  thing  human  can  be  improved :  but,  imper- 
ect  as  these  courts  may  be,  their  defects  are  attributable  to 
the  political  and  social  condition  of  the  country ;  and  nearly  all 
of  them  belong,  in  an  equal  de^ee,  to  the  Queen's  Courts  of 
Calcutta,  Madras,  and  Bombay.  liCt  the  administration  of  justice 
be  improved  in  every  possible  way ;  but  let  us  not  be  run  away 

B 


2  THE   ANGLO-INDIAN   COURTS   OF   JUSTICE. 

with  by  the  supposition^  that  the  inhabitants  of  the  Northern 
Sircars^  or  of  Kohilkana^  would  be  benefited  by  the  introduc- 
tion of  English  law,  and  English  lawyers.  The  Supreme 
Court  is  held  in  abhorrence  by  the  people  of  more  distant  pro- 
vinces. The  word  "  Warrant,"  commonly  applied  by  them  to 
every  species  of  process  issuing  from  that  terrible  tribunal — 
dim,  vast,  and  distant — ^bears  to  their  minds  a  cabalistic  mean- 
ing :  it  falls  amongst  them  like  a  thxmderbolt,  and  they  under- 
stand it  about  as  much :  but  they  are  clearly  sensible  of  the 
deadly  effect  which  it  produces,  and  they  pray  to  Allah,  or  to 
Brahma,  to  save  them  from  the  judicial  lightning. 

We  cannot  stop  to  contrast  this  picture  with  the  Supreme 
Courts,  such  as  they  were  intended  to  be,  when  first  established. 

Who,  without  the  aid  of  History,  would  believe  that  one  of 
the  chief  duties  of  the  royal  Judges,  who  were  first  sent  out  to 
India,  was  the  protection  of  the  natives  from  the  servants  of 
the  Company  ?  Who,  judging  from  what  they  now  see,  would 
believe  it?  Is  it  the  witness,  who  is  dragged  down  from  the 
sands  of  Bhattiana  to  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  because  an  English- 
man cannot  be  tried  out  of  Calcutta  ?  Is  it  the  victim  of  con- 
structive inhabitancy  ?  Or  is  it  the  native  gentleman,  who  is  hunt- 
ed from  place  to  place  by  a  "  warrant,"  till  at  length  the  inter- 
ference of  the  Company's  servants  saves  him  ?  No  ! — defects 
there  are :  but,  when  we  have  examined  them  a  little  more, 
we  shall  find  that  they  are  not  peculiar  to  the  Company's 
Courts. 

With  the  state  of  the  law  itself,  we  have  at  present  no  con- 
cern. It  will  be  admitted  that  the  whole  bench  of  English 
Judges  together  would  experience  the  greatest  difficulty  in 
administering  it ;  but  the  greater  the  difiSculty,  the  greater  is 
the  credit  due  to  those,  who  have  succeeded  in  a£ninister- 
ing  it  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  people.  The  voice  of  the 
public,  the  native  public  we  mean,  not  the  few  Europeans  of 
a  single  city — the  millions,  not  the  units  ; — the  voice  of  India 
would  support  the  assertion  that  such  success  has  been 
obtained ;  and,  if  perchance  a  complaint  should  be  heard, 
it  would  be  there,  where  the  Courts  have  been  influenced 
by  their  hereditary  conceptions  of  English  law,  where  their 
European  ideas  of  practice,  or  their  European  notions  of  evi- 
dence, have  led  them  to  extend  to  Asiatics  the  principles  of  a 
system,  which  is  wholly  inapplicable  to  their  condition.  The 
law,  however,  is  not  the  obiect  of  our  present  attention,  but 
the  state  of  the  courts :  and  in  pursuance  of  this  subject,  we 
shall  first  glance  at  the  complete  efficiency  of  the  agency  for 
the  decision  of  civil  suits,  which  we  conceive  to  be  a  most 


TUE   ANGLO-INDIAN   COURTS   OF   JUSTICE.  3 

important  pointy  and  shall  then  proceed  to  consider :  Ist,  the 
qualifications  of  the  presiding  officers  ;  2ndl79  the  alleged 
corruption  of  the  Amlah;  and  Srdly,  the  fitness  of  the 
Courts  for  the  trial  of  Europeans^  charged  with  the  commission 
of  criminal  ofiences. 

There  has  not  often  been  in  any  country  a  more  effective 
agency,  than  that  which  is  employed  by  the  British  Qovemment 
of  India,  for  the  prompt  decision  of  all  civil  disputes,  and  the 
immediate  trial  of  all  criminal  offenders.  The  civil  business 
of  the  country  is  entrusted  to  Mtinsiffs,  Sudder  Amins,  prin- 
cipal Sudder  Amins,  and  Zillah  Judges,  who  receive  and  dis- 
pose of  cases  according  to  their  several  grades ;  whilst,  at  the 
seat  of  each  Government,  is  fixed  the  Sudder  Dewani  Adaw- 
lut,  the  highest  court  of  civil  and  criminal  jurisdiction,  which, 
in  addition  to  its  judicial  duties,  exercises  a  visitatorial  authority 
over  all  the  subordinate  Courts.  In  these  Courts,  except  the 
last,  arrears  are  unknown.  The  local  jurisdictions  of  the 
Mfinsiffs  have  been  carefully  adjusted  with  reference  to  the 
expected  income  of  cases,  and  to  the  convenience  of  having 
these  rural  Courts  fixed  in  the  vicinity  of  Mofussil  treasuries 
(ttihsilis).  These  local  jurisdictions  are  altered,  whenever 
any  apparently  permanent  alteration  occurs  in  the  ordinary 
proportion  of  the  income  of  suits  at  the  several  Mdnsiffis. 
A  Court  of  this  ffrade  is  abolished  in  one  part  of  the  country^ 
and  re-established  in  another,  when  the  Sudder  Dewani  Adaw- 
lut  see  fit  to  make  the  arrangement ;  and,  as  the  total  number 
of  Miinsifis'  courts  throughout  the  countiy  is  at  present  suffi- 
cient for  transacting  the  sum  total  of  civil  business,  the  strength 
of  the  judicial  agency  is  easily  and  speedily  adjusted  to  the 
demands  of  each  part  of  the  country. 

The  Sudder  Amins'  courts  have  generally  very  light  files ; 
and  they  are  most  useful  in  relieving  the  Mdnsiflrs  files,  when- 
ever, from  temporary  causes,  an  accumulation  has  there  taken 
place. 

The  principal  Sudder  Amins'  Courts  can  hardly  be  con- 
sidered as  quite  distinct  from  the  Courts  of  the  Zillim  Judges, 
though  the  functions  of  each  are  quite  separate :  but  it  is  foreign 
to  our  purpose  to  enter  into  particulars  on  this  dry  part  of 
our  subject,  more  than  is  necessary  to  show  the  efficiency  of 
the  ju^cial  agency  employed.  The  courts  of  the  principal 
Sudder  Amins  are  very  seldom  overwhelmed  with  business ; 
and,  whenever  they  are,  an  additional  principal  Sudder  Amin 
is  appointed.  The  heaviest  work  of  a  Zdlah  Judge  is  the  hear- 
ing of  MixngifPs  appeals ;  and  this  class  of  cases  he  can  make 
over  to  the  principal  Sudder  Amins.     Thus,  if  the  Judge  is 


4  THE  ANGLO-INDIAN  COURTS   OF  JUSTICE. 

pressed,  he  relieves  his  files  by  transferring  suits ;  and,  if  the 
principal  Sudder  Amin  is  pressed,  an  additional  officer  is  ap- 
pointed. Here  then,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Mdnsiffs'  courts,  no 
arrears  can  accrue ;  and  the  principal  Sudder  Amins  are 
moved  to  any  part  of  the  country  where  their  services  may 
be  required,  just  as  the  MdnsifFs  are  moved  A  more  efficient 
agency,  so  far  as  strength  is  concerned,  can  hardly  be  conceived ; 
and  no  one  will  deny  to  this  underrated  judicial  system  the 
merit  of  affording  speedy  justice. 

We  do  not  enter  upon  the  integrity  of  the  native  Judges.  It 
is  a  subject  full  of  interest,  one  upon  which  the  most  conflict^ 
ing  opinions  are  entertained,  and  one  of  greater  importance, 
perhaps,  than  even  those  subjects  which  now  occupy  our  atten- 
tion. The  integrity  of  the  Mtinsiffs  and  Sudder  Amins  is  not 
what  is  alluded  to  by  those  who  complain  of  the  ^^  corruption" 
of  the  Anglo-Indian  Courts  :  the  corruption  complained  of  is 
in  the  accepting  and  demanding  of  gratmties  by  the  Amlah,  in 
consideration  of  which  they  are  supposed  to  exercise  an  influence 
over  the  Court,  though  no  one  seems  to  know  how.  When  the 
word  **  corruption"  is  used  in  these  pages,  it  is  to  be  under- 
stood in  this  sense. 

\8t — The  qualification  of  the  Judges  themselves  is  the  cheval  de 
bataiUe  of  those,  who  think  somewhat  worse  of  Mofussil  Courts 
than  we  do.  The  Government  ofiicers,  it  is  said,  have  had  no 
professional  education ;  therefore  are  they  unfit.  They  are  not 
independent ;  therefore  are  they  unfit.  They  are  under  tiie  in- 
fluence of  corrupt  officials ;  therefore  are  they  unfit  Now  to 
all  malcontents  we  will  be  very  liberal.  We  will  admit  a 
great  deal  more  than  they  can  prove;  which  is  exceedingly 
generous  on  our  part,  and  we  expect  them  to  be  gratefuL 

Be  it  granted  then,  that  the  civil  servants  of  Government, 
being  nominated  by  favour  from  amongst  the  educated  classes, 
cannot  possess  more  than  the  average  ability  of  that  class. 
The  Judges  of  the  Queen's  Courts  are  precisely  in  the  same 

f)redicament.  They  cannot  possess  more  than  the  average  ta- 
ent  of  the  educated  classes;  and  yet  no  outcry  is  raised  against 
them.  We  find  no  fault  with  Her  Majesty's  Judges;  but  when 
people  are  making  speeches  and  drawing  up  petitions,  in  order 
to  save  themselves  .m)m  the  much  abusea  Mofussil  Judges, 
men  are  apt  to  enquire,  "  what  makes  the  mighty  differ  ?  "  In 
support  01  the  extravagant  opinion,  that  the  £fference  is  not  so 
great  as  Town  Hall  oratory  would  lead  us  to  suppose,  we  will 
merely  refer  to  the  speech  delivered  some  little  time  ago  by 
Lord  Brougham,  in  the  House  of  Lords,  on  the  subject  of  Colo- 
nial Appeals.    We  will  not  be  as  ungracious  as  Ilis  Lordship 


THE  ANGLO-INDIAN   COURTS   OF   JUSTICE.  5 

was,  nor  quote  passages,  which  might  be  unpleasant  to  others, 
however  strongly  they  support  our  views.  Enough  will  be 
found  there,  by  those  who  look  for  it,  to  satisfy  any  man,  that, 
in  the  opinion  of  the  Ex-Chanoellor,  the  Colonial  Judges  do 
not  rise  in  natural  talent  above  the  average  of  educated  men. 

But,  it  is  urged,  they  receive  a  legal  education,  and  thus  be- 
come fkr  more  fitted  for  the  discharge  of  judicial  functions,  than 
men  who  have  not  enjoyed  that  advantage.  That  a  knowledge 
of  the  origin,  history,  and  principles  or  the  civil  law,  of  the 
canon  law,  and  of  the  common  and  statute  laws  of  England — 
an  acquaintance  with  the  systems  adopted  by  modem  nations — 
a  familiarity  with  the  natural  rights  of  persons  and  of  things, 
and  a  habit  of  discussing  and  solving  difficult  legal  questions, 
are  valuable  qualifications  in  a  Judge,  is  most  true.  But  these 
are  qualifications,  which  unprofessional  men  frequently  possess, 
and  the  acquirement  whereof,  to  a  certain  extent,  is  indispensa- 
ble to  eve^  one,  who  aspires  to  the  character  of  a  well-inform- 
ed man.  There  are  many  well-informed  men  amongst  the  civil 
servants  of  the  Government.  It  is  the  knowledge  of  the  tech- 
nical part  of  law,  and  particularly  of  English  law,  founded,  as 
it  is,  on  the  feudal  system  and  tne  authoritative  modifications 
thereof^  which  it  is  so  difficult  to  acquire.  Let  any  man  (not 
being  a  lawyer)  open  the  commonest  law  book  we  have;  let 
him  take  (perhaps  the  most  valuable,  as  well  as  the  commonest) 
Blackstone's  Commentaries^  and  read  a  few  pages  in  half  a 
dozen  places  in  the  two  first  volumes.  If  he  do  not  get  a  lively 
idea  of  the  sort  of  knowledge  given  by  a  professional  educa- 
tion, and  a  mortal  disgust  to  the  process  of  acquiring  the  same, 
we  will  never  pretend  to  direct  nis  studies  again.  But  if  he 
should  rise  from  the  perusal  (m  we  prophesy  he  will)  vexed,  con- 
fused, puzzled,*  and  wondenns  whetner  his  own  stupidity,  or 
the  unintelligibility  of  the  book,  is  the  cause  of  his  supervening 
headache^  then  we  expect  him  to  join  us  in  declaring,  that  the 

ETofessional  education  of  an  English  lawyer  is  not  indispensa- 
le  to  the  discharge  of  judicial  functions,  in  a  land  where  men 
are  not  yet  reconciled  to  the  difierence  between  law  and  justice, 
and  where  they  conduct  their  legal  proceedings  in  the  same 
lai^age,  as  thiat  which  thev  employ  for  ordinary  purposes. 

ui  one  point,  however,  there  is  certainly  a  very  great  inferi- 
ority on  the  part  of  the  Anglo-Indian  Courts.  They  have  no 
bar :  and  they  require  an  able  bar,  even  more  than  the  royal 
Courts.  Those  only,  who  have  had  practical  experience,  can 
apprcdate  the  value  of  able  Counsel,  well  up  in  their  cases — 

♦  **  The  puzzled  reader  thinks  himself  the  dune©."— P^^pc 


G  THE   ANGLO-INDIAN   COURTS   OF   JUSTICE. 

especially  its  value  to  the  Judge,  more  particularly  in  Courts 
where  the  proceedings  are  conducted  in  a  foreign  language,  and 
where  it  is  not  yet  well  understood  how  much  all  parties  are 
benefited  by  adherence  to  the  rules  of  pleading.  The  hours 
that  are  lost  in  Indian  Courts,  whilst  the  Judge  himself 
wades  through  voluminous  and  iU-written  documents,  in 
search  of  the  points  at  issue^  which  the  Yakils  are  unable 
or  unwilling  to  lay  before  him,  would  astonish  an  Eng- 
lish lawyer.  The  wear  and  tear  of  body  and  mind,  in  the 
months  of  May  or  June,  depend  very  much  upon  the  ability  of 
the  Pleader;  and  memory  or  imagination  may  suggest  to  many 
the  sensation  of  increased  weight,  when  a  fresh  case  has  been 
called  on,  and  the  announcement  made,  that  the  greatest  block- 
head at  the  bar  has  the  privilege  of  conducting  it.  Some  able 
men  there  certainly  are  at  the  Indian  bar ;  and  there  is  probably 
a  variety  of  talent  amongst  the  Barristers  of  the  Supreme 
Court  also ;  but  the  two  extremes  of  abilitv  and  inability  are 
far  more  widely  separated  in  the  Indian,  than  in  the  English, 
Courts.  The  ablest  Vakils  get  the  cases  that  pay  best,  not  the 
most  difficult  cases ; — and  the  Judge  has,  consequently,  the  least 
assistance  where  he  requires  the  most  It  has  often  been  ob- 
served that,  in  England,  an  able,  clear-headed  and  well-edu- 
cated man  would  be  competent  to  decide  any  cause  whatever, 
although  he  had  never  entered  a  Court,  or  opened  Coke  upon 
Lyttleton,  provided  that  the  cause  was  conducted  by  thorougnly 
competent  Counsel.  It  might  give  him  a  good  deal  of  trouble, 
and  occupy  five  or  six  days,  instead  of  one;  but  he  could  do  it 
at  last,  as  well  as  his  more  practised  and  more  learned  brethren. 
Nothing  of  this  kind  obtains  in  the  Anglo-Indian  Courts.  Here 
the  Judge  has  to  do  all  the  work  himself :  and  the  desultory 
conversations  which  are  thus  occasioned,  even  before  the  trial 
commences,  are  almost  inconsistent  with  European  ideas  of  the 
dignity  of  the  bench,  and  are  in  open  defiance  of  Lord  Brougham's 
precept,  that,  until  the  trial  is  concluded,  a  Judge  should  be  ^'seen, 
not  heard."*  Yet  more ;—  not  contented  with  failing  in  their  own 
part  of  the  duty,  these  incompetent  Vakils  often  interfere  with 
the  Judge's  performance  of  it  for  them;  and,  rather  than  confess 
their  ignorance  of  the  mere  fiicts  of  a  case,  they  ^ve  a  wrong 
answer,  and  thus  inevitably  mislead  the  court,  until  the  error  is 
discovered  at  a  subsequent  sta^e  of  the  proceedings. 

It  is  just  within  the  sphere  of  possibility,  that  Queen's,  as  well 
as  Company's,  Judges  may  have  nad  some  personal  experience  of 
the  nature  described ;  but  it  is  not  to  be  denied,  that  the  bar  in 

*  Sec  his  character  of  Sir  William  Grant. 


THE   ANGLO-INDIAN   COURTS   OF   JUSTICE.  7 

the  Queen's  Courts  is  immeasurably  superior  to  the  bar  in  the 
Company's  Courts^  and  the  advantage  to  the  Judge  is  propor- 
tionate. The  remedy  is  not  so  easily  found :  but  a  great  step 
has  been  taken  by  Act  I.  of  1846^  whioh  authorizes  every  Bar- 
rister of  the  Koyal  Courts  to  plead  in  the  Courts  of  Sudder 
Dewani  Adawlut. 

It  may  be  admitted  then^  that  Indian  Judges  are  ignorant 
of  the  technicalities  of  English  law^  and  that  they  have  very 
little  opportunity  of   learning  anything  from  the  pleaders. 
Nevertheless,  thev  are  by  no  means  deficient  in  legal  education 
of  that  sort,  whicn  is  of  real  importance ;  and,  if  they  learn  no- 
thing from  Pleaders,  they  have  learned  much  from  that  book 
which  is  open  to  alL     From  his  early  youth,  the  civil  servant, 
who  will  be  one  day  placed  on  the  bench,  is  incessantly  and 
laboriously  engaged  in  fitting  himself  for  his  future   duties. 
As  he  works  his  way  through  the  subordinate  grades  of  office, 
he  becomes   intimately  acquainted  with  the  affiiirs  of  men. 
He  learns  the  various  pecufiarities  of  commercial  transactions 
in  India ;  and,  far  more  difficult  task,  he  becomes  familiar  with 
the  complicated  rights  and  tenures  of  the  agricultural  commu- 
nity.  ]No  man  ought  to  be  a  Judge,  who  has  not  been  a  Col- 
lector.    The  kacheriy  in  which  the  assistant  decides  a  case  of 
assault,  or  listens  to  a  smnmary  suit  for  rent ;  the  tent,  that 
most  efficient  and  popular  of  all  Indian  Courts,  in  which  the 
settlement  officer  studies  and  adjusts  the  proprietary  rights  of 
acquiescent  millions ;  the  office,  in  which  the  Magistrate  and 
Collector  for  many  successive  years  manage  districts  as  large 
as  Yorkshire — ^these  are  the  schools,  in  which  the  Indian  Judges 
study  law.     There  is  no  other  school  in  which  it  is  taught ; 
noz  are  the  students  inattentive  to  their  studies.     Whatever 
may  be  said,  it  is  a  fact  that  ought  to  be  acknowledged,  that 
(taKing  them  as  a  whole)  a  more  zealous,  able,  and  hard-work- 
ing body  of  public  servants  is  nowhere  to  be  found.     Day  after 
day,  and  all  day  long,  are  these  men  to  be  seen  still  performing 
their  onerous  duties,  through  the  almost  insupportable,  dry, 
burning  heats  of  May,  and  the  more  dangerous  hot  damps  of 
August.     They  labour  not  in  vain.     They  learn  the  language, 
the   customs,  the  feelings,  the  character,  and  the  law  of  the 
people :  and  thus  they  become,  not  merely  fit  to  be  Judges  in 
the  land,  but  literally  the  only  class  of  men,  who  are  fit  to  be 
judges  in  the  land.    And  shall  these  men  be  pronounced  useless 
— shall  they  lose  that  best  reward  of  meritorious  exertions,  the 
praise  of  good  men,  because  they  cannot  explain  the  nature  of 
a  bill  of  discovery,  or  discourse  upon  the  statutes  of  Mortmain  ? 

Amongst  other  grounds  of  disqualificationalleged  against  Indian 


8  THE   ANGLO-INDIAN   COURTS   OF   JUSTICE. 

Judges^  it  has  often  been  asserted  that  they  are  not  independent. 
If  this  merely  implies  that  the  Judges  are  not  by  law  inde- 

Eendent,  and  therefore  that  evil  consequences  miglU  ensue,  we 
ave  little  to  say  upon  the  subject ;  but  if  the  Judges  are 
accused  of  not  being  practically  independent,  nay,  of  being 
even  ^^sycophantic  and  servile,"  whilst  in  the  same  breath, 
the  Government  itself  is  charged  with  making  them  so,  we  are 
persuaded  that  the  charge  is  wholly  incorrect  The  Judges  are 
Britons,  as  *^  free-bom,"  and  as  proud  of  their  national  character, 
as  any  Englishman  in  India.  They  have  not,  by  coming  to  In« 
dia,  lost  the  characteristics  of  English  gentlemen,  any  more  than 
the  merchants,  the  lawyers,  or  the  indigo  planters :  nor  would 
they  consent  to  hold  judicial  office  for  one  day,  if  the  Govern- 
ment attempted  to  dictate  to  them.  Those,  who  assert  that  the 
Judges  are  not  practically  independent,  are  not,  perhaps,  so  well 
informed  as  they  might  be  in  regard  to  the  constitution  of  the  civil 
service,  and  the  principles  upon  which  offices  are  distributed  and 
held.  A  Civilian  cannot,  indeed,  resign  his  appointment  at  once, 
and  retire  to  his  country  seat ;  but  he  can  quit  any  office,  or  avoid 
any  office,  if  he  think  that  he  is  not  permitted,  or  that  he  would 
not  be  permitted,  conscientiously  to  discharge  the  duties  thereof. 
Such  recusancy,  if  respectfully  conducted,  does  not  involve 
loss  of  the  service.  It  may  involve  stoppage  of  promotion ; 
but  we  feel  certain  that  there  is  not  a  single  European  Judge 
in  the  three  presidencies,  who  would  not  accept  an  inferior 
appointment,  rather  than  allow  the  Government  to  interfere 
with  him  in  the  exercise  of  his  purely  judicial  functions.  Even 
supposing  then  that  the  Government  could  be  so  absurd  as 
to  desire  to  interfere,  the  consequences  to  the  Judge,  of  resist- 
ing such  interference,  would  not  be  ruinous:  therewould.be 
no  sufficient  inducement  to  succumb  to  power :  the  necessity 
would  not  be  strong  enough:  and  experience  warrants  our 
concluding  that,  unoer  such  circumstances,  the  weakest  man 
will  behave  like  a  martyr.  As  to  the  grosser  parts  of  the 
charge,  we  defy  any  one  to  adduce  a  single  instance,  in  which 
the  behaviour  of  a  Judge  has  been  **  sycophantic"  or  "  servile," 
while  we  could,  at  a  moment's  notice,  quote  half  a  dozen,  which 
would  prove  the  very  reverse. 

The  Indian  Judges  are  practically  as  independent  as  the 
Judges  at  home  are«  Even  the  latter  are  not  altogether  irre- 
sponsible ;  and,  if  they  were  incompetent  or  corrupt,  the  fact 
would  very  soon  be  brought  before  the  Houses  of  Parliament. 
If  Mr.  Courtenav  Smith  was  pleased  to  reject  the  security  of 
Government,  and  thus  destroy  all  confidence  on  the  part  of  the 
people  towards  their  rulers,  we  cannot  consider  that  the  Go- 


THE  ANGLO-INDIAN   COURTS  OF  JUSTICE.  9 

rernment  interfered  with  the  independence  of  the  Judge,  when 
they  found  fault  with  his  eccentric  proceeding.*  Yet,  even  in 
this  instance,  the  judicial  order  would  haye  been  respected,  and 
other  means  taken  to  get  rid  of  it,  had  there  been  reason  to 
believe  that  the  order  had  been  seriously  and  conscientiously 
recorded.     Our  own  idea  is,  that  it  was  a  joke ! — ^rather  a  bad 

C*  ke,  it  must  be  confessed.  Every  one,  who  knew  the  Judge, 
ilieved  it  to  be  so ;  and  it  is  said  that,  when  some  members  of 
the  House  of  Commons  prepared  to  defend  the  independence  of 
the  bench,  Mr.  Courtenay  Smith  wisely  declined  their  assis- 
tance, being  apprehensive  of  '^  carrying  the  joke  too  fiur." 

If,  again,  Mr.  Lewin  did  that  which  tended  to  rouse  the  Hindu 
population  against  the  Government,  we  cannot  blame  that 
Government,  for  defending  itself  aminst  the  consequences  of 
Mr.  Lewin's  dangerous  language.  Yfe  do  not,  by  any  means, 
undertake  the  task  of  defending  the  proceedings  of  the 
Marquis  of  Tweeddale  on  that  occasion.  Jtidae  Lewin  was 
right  enouffh,  and  probably  might  have  defied  the  most  noble 
Governor,  nad  not  Mr.  Lewin  addressed  the  Hindus  indiscreetly. 
Judges  who  act  in  this  way,  would  hardly  find  themselves 
independent,  in  one  sense  of  the  word,  even  in  England ;  nor 
are  they  in  that  sense  independent  here.  Does  any  one  sup- 
pose that  the  Judges  themselves  would  not  remonstrate  and 
memorialize  incessantly,  if  they  felt  that  they  were  often 
treated  in  such  a  manner  as  to  make  them  sycophantic  and 
servile?  Are  the  personal  characters  of  the  gentlemen,  who 
now  occupy  the  Sudder  bench  at  the  several  presidencies,  no 
safeffuard  against  this  monstrous  tyranny  of  the  Government? 
Weliave  seen  what  Madras  Judges  will  do,  if  necessary :  and 
there  are  men  equally  independent,  and  equaUv  determined 
at  the  other  presidencies.  Are  such  men  as  Mr.  W  elby  Jackson 
and  "Mr.  John  Colvin  at  Calcutta,  Mr.  LeQeyt  at  Bombay, 
or  Mr.  Henry  Lushin^on  at  Agra,  servile  sycoi)hants  ?  No : — 
the  Government  and  the  Judges  understand  their  relative  posi- 
tion perfectly:  the  judges  are  practically  independent:  and, 
if  any  of  our  readers  snould  still  be  incredulous,  we  be^  to 
refer  them  to  die  record  offices  of  the  four  Courts  of  Sudder 
Dewani  Adawlut.  When  they  have  completed  the  perusal  of 
the  contents  of  those  Archives,  and  not  oefore, — we  shall  be 
happy  to  resume  with  them  the  subject  of  the  independence 
of  tne  Anglo*Indian  Judges. 

The  nert  objections  raised  against  the  Company's  Courts 

*  The  seonritj  was  tendered,  we  believe,  in  tlie  sliape  of  Company's  Paper  in  the 
OMial  course  of  a  ciTil  suit :  and  ita  rejection  eyidentiy  tended  to  destroy  all  mer- 
eantile  credit.— Ed. 


10  THE  ANGLO-INPIAK  COURTS   OF  JUSTICE. 

are^  that  the  Amlah  are  corrupt,  and  that  underhand  influ- 
ences are  in  constant  operation.  How  far  the  first  of  these 
accusations  is  true,  we  shall  presently  discuss ;  but  the  second  is 
too  vague  to  deserve  a  serious  answer.  As  in  the  matter  of  inde- 
pendence, so  on  this  subject,  we  say,  that  if  no  more  is  intend- 
ed than  ^at  parties,  concerned  in  suits,  use  every  endeavor 
to  bring  their  names  and  their  interests  to  the  favourable 
notice  of  the  Judge,  we  are  disposed  to  admit  it ;  and  further 
to  maintain,  that  the  attempt  is  made  in  Calcutta  and  in  Eng- 
land quite  to  the  same  extent,  though  the  Judges  and  tho 
Public  are  more  ignorant  of  what  is  going  on :  but,  if  it  is 
intended  to  say,  that  the  Anglo-Indian  Judges  are  influenced  in 
any  way,  we  must  take  leave  to  demur.  We  do  not  believe  it. 
The  source  of  this  idea,  tliat  the  Judges  are  influenced  by  con- 
siderations not  actually  pleaded,  lies  very  deep ;  and  we  shall 
return  to  the  subject  when  we  come  to  speak  of  the  nature  of 
evidence  in  this  country.  At  present  let  us  attend  to  our 
friends  the  Amlah,  and  enquire  to  what  extent  they  are  guilty 
of  that  corruption,  which  is  so  constantly  laid  to  their  charge. 

The  practice  of  accepting  voluntary  presents,  as  is  well 
known,  is  not  held  to  be  disgraceful  by  the  native  community. 
The  act,  if  committed  by  an  o£Scer  of  a  court,  is  criminal, 
both  according  to  English  law  and  according  to  Anglo-Indian 
practice.  All  the  native  officials  (we  do  not  include  any  grade 
of  native  Judges),  or  very  nearly  all,  take  these  presents,  or 
bribes,  whenever  they  can  get  them ;  and,  if  they  did  no  more 
than  this,  the  evil  would  not  be  intolerable.  The  stream  of 
voluntary  donation  does  not,  however,  flow  so  copiously  as  is 
desired ;  and  a  villainous  system  of  extortion  has  been  orga^- 
nized,  which  has  hitherto  baffled  the  energetic  efforts  of  the 
ablest  men  to  put  it  down.  The  amount  of  legal  knowledge 
possessed  by  a  Welsh  squire  or  a  Scotch  farmer,  may  be  a  fair 
measure  of  the  learning  possessed  on  the  same  subject  in  India 
by  a  Goruckpore  Zemindar,  or  a  Mafidar  of  Delhi.  Although 
the  Zemindar  and  Mafidar  think  otherwise,  all  are  in  the 
hands  of  others,  whenever  they  are  compelled  to  have  recourse 
to  the  Civil  Court.  The  first  class  who  profit  by  the  sad  neces- 
sity, are  the  agents,  or  Moktars,  of  the  unfortunate  litigants. 
These  men  are  sometimes  members  of  the  litigant's  family, 
sometimes  family  servants,  sometimes  employed  for  the  occasion, 
sometimes  professional,  and  sometimes  acting  in  conjunction 
with  the  professional  Moktars,  or  Attorneys,  who  do  not  leave 
the  vicinity  of  the  Court.  They  manage  the  case,  appoint  Coun- 
sel, and  fee  the  Amlah.  All  parties  unite  in  drawing  money 
from  that  mysterious  spot,  "  where  the  cause  of  action  arose ;" 


THE  ANGLO-INDIAN  COUETS  OP  JUSTICE.  11 

and  even  the  Pleaders^  bemg  now^  hj  Iaw>  allowed  to  get  as  much 
as  they  csxl,  are  accused  of  becoming  channels  of  communica- 
tion l>etween  the  Moktars  and  the  Amlah^  and  of  not  taking 
the  trouble  for  nothing.  The  circumstance  of  their  being  now 
authorized  to  take  any  amount  of  remuneration  peculiarly  fits 
them  for  this  office^  and  presents  a  formidable  obistacle  to  the 
progress  of  those^  who  endeayor  to  trace  to  their  ultimate  des- 
tination the  sums  which  are  forwarded  from  the  Mofussil. 
Agents,  Pleaders  and  Amiah  are  all  of  one  mind :  they  do  not 
thmk  that  they  are  acting  infamously :  they  are  in  very  little 
danger  of  being  discovered ;  and^  whatever  may  be  the  particular 
degree  of  ^uilt  of  any  one  individual^  it  is  universally  admitted^ 
that  the  vrhole  firm  together  have  reaped  as  rich  a  harvest,  as 
if  they  had  been  members  of  a  Calcutta  mercantile  establish* 
ment,  or  had  held  office  under  the  Supifeme  Court 

The  whole  of  this  combination,  however,  has  for  its  object 
solely  the  extracting  of  money  from  the  pockets  of  the  suitors. 
The  trial  itself  is  a  distinct  affiur ;  in  the  conduct  of  which, 
the  Pleaders,  however  exacting  they  may  have  been  previously} 
are  not  accused  of  sacrificing  tne  interests  of  their  chents.  We 
anticipate  the  comments,  that,  when  men  once  accept  unauthor- 
ized emoluments,  they  will  not  be  very  scrupulous  as  to  the 
nature  of  the  return ;  and  that,  if  the  Amlah  made  no  return, 
or  if  the  adversary's  Vakil  made  none  for  them,  the  supplies 
would  soon  be  stopped.  This  is  a  very  natural  and  a  very 
English  idea,  and  it  is,  no  doubt,  true  in  many  instances; 
but  it  foims  no  part  of  the  remarkaUe  system,  which  we  are 
attemptii^  to  describe.  The  characteristic  of  that  system  is, 
that  the  natives  do  not  consider  it  disgraceful ;  whereas  nothing 
would,  in  their  opinion,  be  more  disgraceful,  than  the  sale  of 
justice,  or  the  betrayal  of  his  client's  cause  by  a  YakiL  If  the 
Vakils  should  be  treacherous,  of  course  the  Court  is  helpless : 
but  under  no  other  circumstances  is  it  in  the  power  of  all  the 
conspirators  together  to  afiect  the  judgment  of  the  Court.  The 
system  flourishes  most,  where  the  cases  and  the  decrees  are  of 
the  highest  value :  and  the  Courts  of  Sudder  Dewani  Adaw- 
iut  must  therefore  consent  to  appropriate  these  remarks  chiefly 
to  th»n8elye&  We  maintain  then,  that  however  large  a  sum 
may  have  been  paid  by  the  litigants,  however  crafty  may  be 
the  agents,  however  willing  to  mislead  may  be  the  Amlah,  it 
is  not  in  the  power  of  them  all  put  together,  to  affect  the  deci- 
sion in  the  shghtest  degree,  unless  the  Vakfls  themselves  are 
either  treacherous,  or  grossly  incompetent.  The  contrary  has 
been  asserted ;  and,  if  it  would  not  lead  to  a  mass  of  uninterest- 
ing  detail,  we  could  illustrate  the  subject,  and,  as  we  think, 
strengthen  our  own  position,  by  enumerating  and  discussbg  the 


12  THE  ANGLO-INDIAN  COURTS  OF  JUSTICE. 

several  devices^  by  which  it  has  been  supposed  possible  that  the 
pleaders  might  influence  the  Court  Of  course  a  state  of  things 
may  be  imagined  in  which  our  assertion  would  be  incorrect ; 
but  these  are  extreme  cases,  and  do  not  bear  upon  the  general 
question.  It  is  not  many  years  since  we  heard  of  a  Judffe  in 
England  so  deaf,  that  he  could  not  hear  the  Counsel ;  ana  the 
somnolency  of  the  British  bench  is  matter  of  story. 

Then  wht/,  it  will  natunJly  be  asked,  do  the  suitors  continue 
to  pay  money,  when  experience  must  haye  shown  them  that 
they  pay  it  in  yain?  Experience  has  not  shown  them  that  they 
pay  it  in  vain.  They  know  that  they  pay,  and  one"  party  knows 
that  he  win&  This  would  of  itself  be  quite  sufiBcient  to  perpe- 
tuate their  folly,  even  if  nothing  else  contributed  to  deceive 
the  suitors.  The  hopes  of  gain,  however,  on  the  part  of  the 
receivers  and  payers,  are  sustained  by  more  plausible  arguments. 
In  a  very  numerous  class  of  cases,  the  Vakils  know  pretty 
well  how  the  decision  will  be ;  and  the  same  must  be  the  case  in 
England.  In  these  they  prophesy  with  confidence  and  success, 
and  the  state  of  the  law  m  regard  to  special  appeals,  which  are 
rejected  in  great  numbers,  facilitates  in  a  remarkable  degree 
tlus  lucrative  prediction.  The  unanimous  opinion  of  several 
lawyers  will  not  prevent  the  suit,  as  it  does  in  England.  The 
litigants  distrust  their  legal  advisers,  and  put  much  faith  in 
perjury  and  forgery;  so  that  they  frequently  persist  in  de- 
fending an  untenable  position,  and  enable  the  Yakil  of  the 
opposite  party  to  forestal  the  result  with  positive  certainty. 
On  such  money-bearing '  occasions,  the  agent  writes  to  the 
principal,  who  is  sure  to  win,  a  coaxing,  threatening  letter,  of 
which  some  amusing  specimens  have  mtel^  been  brought  to 
light — ^the  gist  of  uxe  matter  being,  that,  if  a  certain  sum  of 
money  be  sent,  the  Amiah  have  promised  to  give  their  aid, 
and  that  success  will  then  be  certain.  It  is  certain  all  along ; 
but  the  victim  knows  nothing  of  this.  He  is  engaged  with  his 
mbbi  or  his  kkurif  collections,  or  he  is  reading  the  Koran,  or 
he  is  encroaching  upon  his  neighbour's  land ;  and  the  whole 
knowledge,  which  he  possesses  of  the  progress  of  his  law-suit, 
is  derived  from  the  ^^  khutts"  (letters)  of  his  agent.  But  the 
agents  do  not  always  wait  for  such  favorable  opportunities. 
They  keep  constantly  urging  their  principals  to  send  rnore 
monej  for  ^^khurcha"  (law-expenses);  and  the  application  is 
invariably  accompanied  by  the  assurance,  that,  unless  the  money 
be  sent,  the  suit  will  be  lost.  They  are  believed.  If  the  money 
is  not  sent,  and  the  suit  is  lost,  the  misfortune  is  attributed  to 
the  want  of  *^  khurcha ;"  if  the  money  is  sent,  and  the  suit  is 
gained,  the  party  believes  that  he  has  purchased  the  decree. 
Dometimes  hoondees  are  sent,  the  payment  of  which  is  condi- 


THE  ANGLO-INDIAN  COURTS   OF  JUSTICE.  13 

tional  upon  the  succesBfiil  issue  of  the  suit:  sometimes  the 
money  is  to  be  paid  in  proportion  to  the  advantage  gained : 
irarious  are  the  forms  of  extortion^  but  one  general  feature 
belongs  to  alL  The  court  officials  combine  to  persuade  suitors 
that  money  is  required ;  and,  when  it  comes,  they  divide  it  in 
proportions,  which  depend  on  circumstances.  When  any  stir  is 
maae,  the  whole  blame  is  thrown  on  the  agents.  In  many  cases 
it  is  very  possible  that  these  may  be  the  omy  persons  in  fault ;  as 
also  it  is  very  possible  that  they  may  be  altogether  blameless. 

There  is  no  doubt,  as  to  the  fact,  that  money  flows  in  this 
way  towards  the  Sudder  Courts.  Thai  is  proved  by  the  admis- 
sions of  the  payers,  and  by  the  unexplained  remittances — ^the 
number  and  amount  of  which  may  be  ascertained  by  any  one, 
who  has  access  to  the  files  of  the  Courts  and  to  the  books  of 
the  bankers  ;  but  it  is  very  difficult  to  obtain  legal  proof  as  to 
the  actual  recipient.  The  following  circumstances  occurred 
within  our  own  knowledge ;  and  with  them,  we  shall  close  our 
observations  upon  the  futility  of  **  khurcha"  payments. 

A.  had  a  suit  in  the  Court  of  Sudder  iJewanf  Adawlut  at 
Agra,  in  which  he  was  the  respondent,  having  obtained  a  de- 
cree in  the  Zillah  Court.  A.  sent  his  relative  B.  to  Agra  as  his 
agent.  When  the  cause  was  about  to  be  called  on  for  decision, 
A.  received  a  letter  from  B.,  assuring  him  in  the  usual  manner, 
that,  if  A.  did  not  immediately  send  Rs.  2,000  for  **  khurcha," 
the  decree,  which  A.  had  obtained,  would  be  reversed.  A.  pro- 
cared  the  hoondee ;  but,  before  di^tching  it,  he  thought  of 
consulting  C.  Now  C.  was  one  of  the  ablest  men  in  India; 
and  though  a  native,  possessed  moral  courage  as  well  as  ability. 
He  folded  up  the  hoondee^BSudi  looked  into  the  case:  and,  having 
satisfied  himself,  he  assured  A  that  his  decree  could  not  be  re- 
versed, because  there  were  no  grounds,  whatever,  for  reversing 
it.  **  If  the  money  be  not  sent,"  exclaimed  A,  *'  I  shall  lose 
'  my  cause."  C.  remonstrated  in  vain ;  till,  at  last,  seeing  no 
hope  of  otherwise  saving  his  friend's  money,  he  unfolded  the 
hoondee  again,  and  tare  it  up.  In  due  course  arrived  the  news 
that  the  aecree  had  been  confirmed.  *^  This  is  well,"  observed 
C. ;  '^  but  had  it  turned  out  otherwise,  A.  would  have  believ- 
*  ei  that  I  had  coUuded  with  the  other  party,  and  would  have 
'  remained  my  enemy  for  life."* 

From  the  moment,  in  which  it  becomes  known  that  such  a 
system  of  corruption  does  actually  exist,  it  is  the  duty  of  every 
public  servant  to  exert  himself  to  the  utmost  for  the  purpose  of 
putting  an  end  to  it :  and  men  naturally  look  for  complaints 

*  C.  is  a  Syud  and  a  Tuhftildar :  and  if  any  one,  having  read  this  little  story, 
widies  to  make  him  a  Deputy  Collector,  it  will  not  be  difficnlt  to  find  Urn. 


14  THE  ANGLO-INDIAN  COURTS   OF  JUSTICE. 

and  prosecutionSj  for  dismissals  from  office^  and  for  sentences  of 
Criminal  Courts.  Few  appear :  and>  when  they  do»  it  is  gener* 
ally  found  that  the  complainants  are  acting  from  malicious^  or 
revengeful^  motives.  That  corruption  exists^  is  not  denied,  ex- 
cept by  individuals :  but  it  is  not  that  species  of  corruption, 
which  raises  indignation  in  the  mind.  The  agent,  the  pleader, 
and  the  ministerial  officer  unite  in  extracting  money :  but,  aa 
we  have  endeavoured  to  show  above,  it  by  no  means  follows 
that  they  therefore  betray  the  interests  of  their  employer,  or 
that  any  attempt  to  mislead  the  Court  is  made  by  the  Amlah. 
On  the  contrary,  the  harvest  having  been  reaped,  or  being 
ready  for  the  siclde,  they  proceed  to  the  business  of  the  trud 
itself,  as  soberly  as  if  they  were  all  honest  men.  The  plan  is  a 
safe  one.  ^hey  thus  secure  the  good  opinion  of  their  official 
superiors,  the  European  Judges ;  and,  as  for  the  myers  in  the 
provinces,  they  know  by  experience,  that  they  have  little  to 
fear  from  their  enquiries,  or  from  their  murmurs.  The  extor* 
tion  practised  is  legal  extortion — ^but  not  what  the  word  at  first 
conveys  to  the  mind.  Legal  extortion  is  the  receipt  of  any  bene- 
fit, to  which  the  receiver  is  not  entitled,  or  before  he  is  entitled 
to  it,  in  virtue  of  the  office  which  the  receiver  holds.  The 
natives  see  very  little  criminality  in  this.  The  consequence  is, 
that  offences  of  this  description  are  not  considered  disgraceful ; 
prosecutions  by  private  individuals  are  rare  ;*  and  the  character 
of  the  Courts  is  silently  and  seriously  injured.  The  bench  it* 
self  is  therefore  the  proper  quarter,  from  which  prosecutions 
should  issue ;  and  occasionally  its  interference  has  been  salutary. 
But  the  Judges  have  no  leisure  for  a  systematic  crusade  against 
the  enemy.  They  are  the  very  persons,  whom  all  try  most  anxi- 
ously to  deceive.  They  are  necessarily  impressed  with  a  favour* 
able  opinion  of  those,  who  invariably  behave  well  in  their  pre* 
sence ;  and  there  is  a  natural  aversion  to  the  mixing  up  of 
judicial  and  viditatonal  functions,  which  leads  many  men  to 
refuse  to  seek  for  charges  against  their  official  subordinates. 
Some  few  individuals  disbelieve  in  a  general  system  of  corrup* 
tion ;  and  some  men,  conscientious  and  weak,  are  willing  to 
enquire,  but  are  deterred  from  launching  into  that  sea  of  trou* 
ble  by  the  dangerous  rocks  and  shoals,  which  lie  directly  in 
their  course,  and  which  threaten,  not  only  fiulure  in  the  enter- 
prize,  but  actual  shipwreck  and  utter  ruin.  ^ 

Still  corruption  exists  :  mild  periiaps  in  its  nature,  and  diffi- 

*  So  rare  are  they,  that  ihey  may  be  said  to  be  unknown.  Nor  is  tfaia  to  be  won^ 
dered  at,  since  the  law  allows  of  an  action  for  defifunatlon  against  anv  one,  who  brings 
forward  charges  of  corruption,  which  are  not  proved.  The  principle  is  sound.  But 
those,  who  know  India,  wul  smile  at  the  idea  of  some  small  Zemindar  attackmg  the 
Amlah  and  Vakils  of  the  Sodder  Dewaui  Adawlut. 


TUB   ANGLO-INDIAN   COURTS   OF   JUSTICE.  15 

cult  to  reach :  yet  a  slur  upon  the  administration  of  justice,  and 
demanding  the  attention  of  those,  who  defend,  and  would  im- 
prove, it.  Such  attention  it  has  lately  received — at  least  in  one 
quarter — not  indeed  from  the  tmwilling  or  the  weak,  but  from 
vigorous  and  resolute  minds,  which  fear  the  storm  as  little  as 
the  calm : — and,  although  we  maintain  that,  with  all  their  de- 
fects, the  Company's  Courts  are  far  more  efficient  than  the 
**  free-born  Bntons"  will  allow  them  to  be,  we  feel  it  incumbent 
upon  us  not  to  pass  over  in  silence  the  praiseworthy  proceedings 
against  corruption,  which  have  lately  been  taken  in  the  N.  W . 
Provinces. 

The  Sudder  Court  at  Agra  has,  for  some  time,  emoyed  rather 
a  bad  character  in  respect  of  that  peculiar  species  of  corruption, 
which  we  have  been  discussing.  The  Judges  of  the  Court  have 
been  men  of  fiiir  ability,  large  experience,  and  unimpeachable 
character; but  they  were  overwhelmed  with  work;  and  amongst 
them  have  posablv  been  some,  who  deny  that  corruption  ever 
existed  at  all.  They  did  little  to  check  an  evil,  which  some  of 
them  believed  to  be  imaginary.  But,  whatever  the  deniers  may 
assert,  the  cry  in  some  parts  of  the  country  became  loud  and 
constant :  the  acceptance  of  presents  had  ^own  into  the  demand 
of  them,  and  the  demand  had  been  enforced  by  significant  threats: 
even  the  natives  began  to  complain,  and  to  prefer  their  com- 
plaints  to  the  local  authorities;  till  at  last  a  public  officer  rose  up 
to  defend  the  cause  of  the  people,  and  to  offer  his  services  in 
removing  the  stain  of  mimsteticd  corruption  from  the  highest  civil 
and  criminal  Tribunal  in  the  countrv.  This  daring  intruder  upon 
the  slumbers  of  die  Sudder  was  John  Cracroft  Wilson,  the  ma- 
gistrate of  Moradabad.  He  announced  to  that  Court,  that  their 
Amlah  were  corrupt :  and  he  offered  to  prove  it.  He  specified 
cases,  and  he  enumerated  proofs.  His  witnesses  were  bankers^ 
native  gentlemen,  and  the  Amlah  themselves.  He  offered  to  go 
to  Agra ;  and  he  did  go  to  Agnu  He  presented  himself  at  the 
door  of  the  Court's  consultation  chamber,  and  was  admitted : 
there  he  repeated  and  explained  all  that  he  had  written,  and 
strove  to  rouse  the  Court  to  cordial  co-operation. 

"  The  Bench  so  wise, 

**  lift  up  their  eyes, 

**  Half-wakened  by  the  din,  man  I" 

It  is.  foreign  to  our  purpose^  though  there  is  more  to  be  said 
upon  the  subject  thim  is  dreamed  ot  in  any  man's  philosophy, 
to  follow  Mr.  Wilson  through  his  dangerous  course.  Suffice 
it,  that,  although  vigorously  apd  effectively  supported  by  the 
Government,  the  rocxs  and  shoals,  above  hinted  at,  proved  to  be 
more  Mdden  and  more  treacherous,  than  could  have  been  sus- 


16  THE  ANGLO-INDIAN  COURTS   OF   JUSTICE. 

'  pected.  Their  existence  was  traditionally  known ;  but  none  of 
them  were  down  in  the  chart :  and  the  whole  skill  of  pilot  and 
seamen  was  required  to  conduct  the  good  ship  into  a  safe  port. 
Whether  that  port  has  yet  been  obtained^  we  do  not  exactly 
know ;  but  it  is  known  to  the  public^  that  numerous  cases  were 
committed  by  Mr.  Wilson  to  the  Sessions  Court,  and  that  con- 
victions were  obtained  in  every  one  of  them.  It  is  true  that 
some  of  the  sentences  were  subsequently  reversed  in  appeal ; 
but  the  Court  which  tries  the  case,  is  the  Sessions  Court ;  and 
the  convictions  of  that  Court  are  verv  little  impugned  by  the 
fact,  that  some  of  them  are  occasionally  reversed  by  the  Niza- 
mut  Adawlut.  The  appeal  to  the  Sudder  in  criminal  trials  is 
necessary ;  and  there  will  not  be  one  dissenting  voice  upon  this 
subject  amongst  practical  men.  Nevertheless,  in  nineteen  cases 
out  of  twenty,  the  right  of  appeal  is  abused:  and,  as  a  general 
rule,  subject  of  course  to  exceptions,  the  guilt  or  innocence  of 
the  prisoner  is  determined  in  the  minds  of  men  by  the  finding 
in  the  Sessions  Court.  In  the  Irish  state  trials,  every  body  knew 
that  the  prisoners  were  guilty,  although  the  craft  of  the  lawyers 
enabled  them  to  defy  the  majesty  of  the  law :  nor  is  it  matter 
of  surprise,  that  such  able,  wealthy,  and  influential  men  as  the 
Amlah  and  Vakils  of  the  S.  D.  A.,  should  have  exerted  them- 
selves with  effect  at  Agra,  though  they  were  unable  to  escape 
conviction  in  the  Sessions  Court  of  Moradabad.  In  that  Court 
success  had  been  complete :  and  since  we  have  mentioned  by 
name  the  gentleman,  who  has  been  the  agent  of  the  Government 
and  of  the  Sudder,  in  bringing  the  malpractices  of  the  officials 
to  light,  and  since  the  preparation  and  commitment  of  the  several 
cases  have  been  canvassea  in  no  very  charitable  spirit,  we  think 
that  the  fairest  way  to  all  parties  will  be  to  subjoin  the  record- 
ed opinion  of  the  J  udge  on  the  course  pursued  by  Mr.  Wilson : 
"  On  the  whole,  I  think  it  but  fair  to  the  magistrate  here  to 

*  record  my  opinion,  that  a  most  impudent  attempt  has  beea 

*  made  by  the  prisoners  to  exculpate  themselves  by  inculpating 
'  him,  who  had  been  instrumental  in  bringing  their  misdeeds  to 
'  light,  and  who,  whatever  petty  indiscretions  he  may  in  over 
'  zeal  have  committed,  has,  m  my  humble  opinion,  performed  a 

*  great  public  good,  and  merits  all  praise  for  his  energy  and 
'  ability." 

Here  the  learned  Judge  gives  us  a  glance  at  one  of  those 
rocks  we  spoke  of:  but  we  must  leave  details,  albeit  interestii^ 
in  their  nature.  All  we  desire  to  show  is,  that  if,  as  allege^ 
the  Amlah  are  corrupt,  there  are  energy,  determination,  moral 
courage,  and  ability  on  the  part  of  the  Government,  and  some  of 
its  officers,  wherewith  to  root  out  the  evil.      The  Morada- 


THE  ANGLO-INDIAN  COURTS  OF  JUSTICE.  17 

bad  trials  have  attracted  much  attention  in  the  North-western 
Provinces,  and  have  been  the  means  of  bringing  the  Agra  court 
more  pnuninentlj  forward,  than  the  courts  of  the  other  Presi- 
dendes.  There  is,  however,  nothii^  peculiar  in  the  condition 
ci  the  Agra  court,  except  the  peculiarity  of  having  discovered 
and  checked  the  evil.  The  blame  attaches  to  the  people^  not  to 
the  court.  It  is  their  national  character  and  idiocratical  esti- 
mate of  this  particular  vice,  which  enable  ministerial  corruption, 
of  the  nature  described,  to  creep  into  our  Courts  of  law.  Cal- 
cutta, Madras,  and  Bombay,  King's  Courts  and  Company's  Courts 
of  all  grades,  are  similarly  circumstanced ;  and,  whenever  in 
Benea^  or  in  the  Deccan,  in  the  Camatic,  or  in  Tank  Square^ 
another  J.  C.  Wilson  shaJl  appear,  the  knaves  of  those  loca- 
lities will  receive  the  same  reward,  as  that  which  has  lately 
been  conferred  upon  their  brethren  in  the  North  Western 
ProvuicesL 

To  these  Anglo-Indian  Courts  the  few  Englishmen  of  Cal-^ 
ctttta  object  to  become  amenable.  The  Courts,  they  say, 
are  not  good  enough  for  them.  In  discussing  this  part  of 
our  subject,  it  will  oe  impossible  to  avoid  some  comparison  be- 
tween the  Queen's  and  Company's  Courts  in  India.  The  ques- 
tion indeed  almost  resolves  itself  into  one  of  the  respective 
merits  of  the  two  Courts.^  We  freely  admit  that  the  Judges 
of  England  are  far  superior  to  the  Judges  of  the  Mofussil 
Courts.  No  comparison  is  attempted  between  them ;  and  we 
are  most  willing  to  grant,  that  men,  equally  able  with  the  ablest 
of  England,  may  have  sat,  and  possibly  are  now  sitting  upon  the 
bench  of  the  Boyal  Courts  in  this  country.  With  this  we  have 
nothing  to  da  Our  concern  is  with  the  average  ability  pos- 
sessed by  these  learned  men  :  and  this,  we  have  already  endea- 
voured to  show,  cannot,  in  the  existing  state  of  things,  begreater 
than  the  aoeroffe  abUity  of  the  educated  classes.  We  had 
much  rather  be  tried,  in  EmUmd,  by  one  of  the  Judges  of  the 
land,  than  anywhere  by  a  dom^ny's  Judge,  or  by  a  Judge  of 
the  Supreme  Courts ;  but  that  is  idL  If  we  were  accused  im- 
justly  of  having  committed  a  murder  at  Delhi,  we  might  hesi- 
tate between  the  learned  and  the  talented  Judge  of  England, 
and  the  experienced  Judge  of  India.  We  shoidd  not  hesitate 
at  all  between  the  Indian  Judge,  and  the  Judge  of  the  Royal 
Courta  We  should  infinitely  prefer  the  former.  This  is  in 
reality  the  point  at  issue,  since  all  that  the  discontented 
can  Iiope  for  is,  to  remain  amenable  to  the  Supreme  Court,  as 
it  18 :  and  this  Court,  as  it  is,  cannot  ascertain  tne  truth  so  well 
as  the  Mofussil  Courts  of  the  Company.  We  pass  over  the 
inalienable,  indefeasible,  and  indestructible  rights  of  free-bom 


18  THE  ANGLO-INDIAN  COURTS  OP  JUSTICE. 

Britons^  as  we  conceive  that  amusing  subject  of  Town  Hall 
oratonr  to  have  no  more  to  do  with  the  matter,  than  the  game- 
laws  have  with  the  prohibition  of  S&tis ;  and  we  proceed  to 
the  more  important  considerations  of  language,  evidence,  coun-^ 
sel,  and  juries, — all  of  which  most  materially  affect  the  effici- 
ency of  Courts,  civil  or  criminal. 

In  the  first  place  then,  the  Judges  of  the  Supreme  Courts 
do  not  understand  the  lan^age,  in  which  the  evidence  of  the 
witnesses  is  delivered.  The  evil  of  such  a  state  of  things  is  pal- 
pable ;  and  it  would  be  waste  of  time  to  enumerate  objections, 
which  must  suggest  themselves  to  every  body.  Every  word, 
uttered  by  the  prisoner,  or  by  a  witness,  has  to  be  interpreted 
to  the  Judge,  who  thus  becomes  very  little  better  than  a  Judge 
of  appeal,  poring  over  written  depositions:  nay,  he  is  not  so 
good; — for  the  Boyal  Judge  does  not  understand  the  words 
used  by  a  witness,  until  they  have  been  translated  into  English, 
whereas,  the  Company's  Appeal  Judge  has  before  him,  in  writing 
at  least,  the  very  words  used  by  the  deponent.  If  a  European 
British  subject  be  accused  of  committing  a  crime  at  Meerut  or 
Lahore,  he  and  the  witnesses  are  sent  to  Calcutta.  They  miffht 
as  well  be  sent  to  England  I  Men,  accustomed  to  the  weighing 
of  evidence,  well  know  how  difficult  it  sometimes  is  to  fix  a 
witness's  meaning,  although  he  stands  before  them,  speaks  their 
own  language,  and  has  the  same  ideas,  the  same  feelings,  the 
same  turn  of  mind,  the  same  religion,  and  the  same  customs 
with  themselves.  How  must  that  difficulty  be  increased,  when 
the  examiner  and  the  examined  have  nothing  in  common  I  The 
deposition  loses  a  great  deal  by  translation,  and  much  more  by 
the  Judge's  want  of  familiarity  with  the  habits  and  prejudices, 
and  above  all,  the  superstitions  of  the  deponent ;  till,  by  the  time 
the  result  rests  on  the  minds  of  the  Judge  and  the  Jury,  it  bears 
very  little  resemblance  to  that  result,  which  the  witness  intend- 
ed to  place  there.  There  is  something  almost  shocking  in  the 
picture  of  a  Supreme  Court  criminal  trial  The  Judge,  in 
crimson  and  white,  not  understanding  one  word  uttered  by  the 
prisoner,  or  the  witnesses ;  the  green  table  below,  crowded  with 
olack  gowns,  all  equally  well  informed  in  the  particulars  un- 
der consideration ;  a  Jury,  who  may  know  a  little  more  of 
the  lai^uage,  but  are  still  more  unable  to  weigh  with  deli- 
cacy the  evidence  of  a  Moiussil  witness;  an  interpreter,  me- 
chanically performing  his  daily  task,  and  utterly  unmindful  of 
all  those  niceties  of  diction,  tone,  and  manner,  which  enable  a 
more  acute  observer  to  distinguish  truth  from  falsehood ;  and 
lastly,  when  the  accused  is  a  native,  a  prisoner  totally  unable 
to  comprehend  what  it  is  all  about,  wondering,  staring,  helpless^ 


THE  ANGLO-INDIAN  COUBTS  OF   JUSTICE.  19 

and  resigned — ^until  the  interpreter,  or  some  one  else,  informs 
him,  that  tixe  trial  is  over^  and  that  he  is  presently  to  be  hang- 
ed!* 

How  those,  who  advocate  the  general  introduction  of  the 
English  language,  propose  to  overcome  these  difficulties,  let 
them  show.  It  is  not  denied  that  many  important  advantages 
would  flow  from  the  use  of  English,  the  language  of  the  Judges : 
but  if  it  be  not  also  the  language  of  the  pnsoner  and  of  the  wit- 
nesses, we  see  not  how  those  scenes  are  to  be  avoided,  which 
can  be  fitly  described  only  by  two  words  of  very  opposite 
meaning — scenes  which  are  at  once  dreadful  and  ludicrous.  The 
Persian  was  never  in  use  in  the  Indian  Courts,  as  English  is  in 
use  in  the  Supreme  Courts.  Persian  was  not  the  language  of 
the  Court ;  it  was  only  the  language  of  the  record.  The  wit- 
nesses were  examined  in  Hindustani :  the  Judge  spoke  Hin- 
dustani :  nobody  translated  to  him  the  words  of  the  witnesses, 
except,  indeed,  as  bystanders  in  England  sometimes  translate  the 
worcb  of  a  Yorkshire  or  Somersetshire  ploughman.t  The  Nazir 
and  other  ministerial  officers,  present  at  the  trial,all  spoke  Hin- 
dnstam.  There  was  none  of  that  undefined  alarm,  which  must 
overwhelpa  a  prisoner  in  the  Supreme  Court  Yet,  even  this 
state  of  things  was  pronounced  objectionable;  and  a  language, 
utterly  unfit  for  the  purpose,  without  the  aid  of  Persian  or  Am- 
ino^ became  the  language  of  the  record,  as  well  as  the  language 
of  the  Court,  simply  because  it  was  the  language  of  the  peo- 
ple»  May  it  not  then  be  taken  as  granted,  that  any  European 
British  subject,  in  his  right  senses,  and  charged  with  an  omnce 
which  he  has  not  committed,  would  prefer  being  tried  by  a 
Judge,  who  understands  the  language  of  the  witnesses?  This 
advantoge  would  be  given  to  him  by  the  act,  which  has  not  yet 
passed  ini»  law. 

But  the  chief  superiority  of  the  Indian  Courts  over  the 
Queen's  Courts  consists  in  their  greater  power  of  appreciating 
evidence.    If  there  were  nothing  else  to  be  said  in  their  &vour>. 

*  At  the  risk  of  tellmg  an  old  jitory,  and  for  the  benefit  of  those,  who  mav  not  have 
heard  it,  we  venture  to  put  into  an  unpretending  note,  a  little  dialogue  said  to  have 
taken  place  in  one  of  Her  Majesty's  Supreme  Courts. 

/ntarprcier.— «  Prisoner  at  the  Bar,  how.  will  yon  be  tded?*' 

Primer, — **Ap  ma  bap  J* 

Jadge. — ^^What  dbes  he  say?^ 

Jwteijweisr.— '^My  Lord-^e  sm  hell  be  tried  by  **  God  and  hU  eountry:' 

^Apma  bap"  literally  means  '"you  are  my  mother  and  &ther."  It  is  an  idiomatio 
phrase,  implymg  "  jtist  as  you  please ;" — "  whatever  you  think  fit,"  by  which  the  stupid 
orlnddferent  rq^y  to  any  thingj  wliich  they  do  not,  or  care  not  to  understand. 


t  We  ourselves,  many  years  ago,  heard  a  respectable  old  lady  inform  Mr.  Justice 
Bagrlqr  thai  die  **  liad  had  a  swimmer  for  luncheon."  It  turned  out  that  she  had  not 
eaten  either  I/oander,  Lord  Eyron,  or  Pesce  Cola:->but  we  quite  forget  what  she  had 


20  THE  ANGLO-INDIAN  COURTS   OF  JUSTICE. 

this  one  great  merit  would  place  them  immeasurably  aboye 
any  other  Courts  of  any  other  form  or  constitution.  The 
Judges  of  the  Supreme  Courts  are  able  men^  learned  in  the 
law.  They  are  fully  competent  to  the  duties  of  tiheir  office.  They 
are  as  conscientious  and  unprejudiced  as  Judges  can  be^  and  no 
*'  free-bom  Briton"  needs  fear  to  see  any  one  of  them  seated  on 
the  bench^if  he  should  have  the  misfortune  to  be  unjustly  accused 
of  crime — at  Exeter,  or  at  Hertford :  but,  if  he  is  to  be  tried  in 
India,  it  would  be  far  safer  for  him  to  prefer  his  plea  of  "  Not 
Guilty"  to  a  Company's  Judge.  If  the  crime  is  supposed  to 
have  been  perpetratedf  in  one  of  the  few  cities,  in  whicn  Euro- 
pean British  subjects  bear  some  proportion,  however  small,  to 
the  mass  of  the  people,  the  Queen's  Court,  with  its  Europe 
ideas,  is  so  &r  more  fitted  to  perform  what  is  required  of  it ; 
but,  if  the  crime  is  supposed  to  have  been  committed  in  Sylhet 
or  in  Aurungabad,  where  the  proportion  above  mentioned  is 
infinitesimally  small,  then,  we  repeat  it,  the  innocent  man 
would  have  a  better  chance  of  escape  from  conspiracy  and  false- 
hood, if  a  Company's  Judge  tried  him,  than  if  he  were  arraigned 
before  Sir  Lawrence  Peel,  with  Mr.  Theodore  Dickens  for 
his  Counsel. 

Talent  cannot  supplv  the  want  of  experience  in  a  Judge — 
especially  in  a  Crimmal  Judge— especially  in  India :  but  ex- 
perience will  verv  often  supply  the  want  of  talent  all  the  world 
over.  Now,  notning^  but  verv  long  experience  can  enable  any 
man  to  smpreciate  Indian  evidence :  and  such  experience  the 
Queen's  Judges  do  not  possess.  Doubtless,  they  have  heard 
native  witnesses  examined  in  great  numbers ;  they  have  some 
intercourse  with  natives:  they  have  daily  opportunities  of 
learning  something  from  the  conversation  of  others :  thus  they 
are  far  more  competent  to  the  task  than  Lord  Brougham  or 
Lord  Campbell  would  be :  but,  as  the  Queen's  Judges  in  India 
would  be  found,  for  this  all-important  purpose,  superior  to  the 
Judges  at  home,  so,  and  for  the  same  reason,  are  the  Company's 
Judges  superior  to  all  others.  The  sort  of  experience  demanded 
is  that  which  is  acquired  in  those  schools,  where,  as  above 
described,  the  Company's  servants  study  law: — ^the  kacheri 
of  the  Assistant  Magistrate,  the  tent  and  the  mangoe  tope  of 
the  settlement  officer.  The  latter  is  the  only  Court  in  India,  in 
which  the  truth  is  ordinarily  spoken :  and  the  future  Judge,  as 
be  contemplates  the  phenomenon,  learns  to  discriminate  and 
acquires  a  power  of  detecting  felsehood,  which  it  is  almost  im- 
possible to  analyse. 

The  extreme  difficulty  of  acquiring  any  skill  in  this  occult 
science,  and  the  extreme  danger  of  exercising  it,  led  our  ances- 


THE  ANGLO-INDIAN  COUBTS  OF  JUSTICE.  21 

tors  to  the  adoption  of  the  grand  principle,  that  "  all  evidence 
must  be  assumed  to  be  true : — a  principle  than  which  none  can 
be  more  unsound,  or  more  certain  to  mislead,  in  India.  So  far 
from  holding  all  evidence  to  be  true,  until  it  is  shown  to  be 
fidse,  the  very  first  thing,  which  an  Indian  Judge  does,  is  to 
enquire  how  fitr  circumstances  support  the  direct  evidence.  No 
one  knows  better  than  he  does  the  value  of  the  aphorism  "  cir- 
cumstances cannot  lie ;"  and  no  one  knows  so  well  as  he  does, 
that  men  can  and  do  lie.  In  ahnost  all  cases,  Civil  or  Criminal, 
the  Indian  Judge  has  to  determine,  not  whether  any  alleged  fact 
or  set  of  &cts  has  been  proved,  but  which  of  two  coidiicting 
proved  hctSy  or  set  of  iacts,  is  the  true  one.  So  very  easy  is  it 
for  a  prisoner  to  obtain  proof  of  any  thin^  he  chooses  to  assert 
in  detence,  that  a  very  able  and  conscientious  Magistrate,  not  a 
boy  Magistrate,  but  one  of  twenty  years  standing,  on  one  occa- 
sion, gravely  placed  on  record,  his  surprise  that  "  in  India 
09^  amount  of  proof  should  have  been  held  sufficient  to 
establish  an  aUbi.  The  extent,  to  which  perjury  and  forgery 
are  practised  in  India,  surpasses  any  thing  that  a  European  mind 
can  conceive.  The  annual  reports  of  the  district  Judges  inces- 
santly acknowledge  and  lament  this  melancholv  truth,  and  sug- 
gest various  rem^es.  The  state  of  the  law  is  unsatisfactorv ; 
and  fresh  enactments  have  repeatedly  been  urged  upon  the  lesis^ 
latnre.  Act  L  of  1848  was  an  attempt  to  aid  the  executive 
in  the  prosecution  of  forgery :  it  has  failed ;  and  an  act  to 
amend  it  is  now  before  the  Legislative  Council.  The  crime  of 
perjury  too,  though  so  very  common,  is  not  by  any  means  easily 
dealt  willu  The  peculiar  modes  of  thought  and  expression, 
whidi  distinguish  me  Asiatic  from  the  European,  are  so  difficult 
to  understand  thoroughly,  that  it  has  been  tnought  unadvisable 
to  give  any  functionary,  below  the  rank  of  a  Judge,  the  power 
of  punisfaing  perjury.  It  is  scarcely  necessary  to  explain  that 
Mflgbtrates  and  their  assistants  possess  judicial  powers  to  a  cer- 
tain extent  The  prevalence  or  perjury,  and  the  difficulty^  of 
proourinff  convictions  in  the  Sessions  Court,  have  frequently 
SQ^ested  the  propriety  of  investing  Magistrates  with  autho- 
rity to  punish  **  prevancation,''  as  a  contempt.  It  is,  however, 
so  certain,  that  natives  can  always  be  made  to  contradict  them- 
selves— ^that  zealous ,  yoimg  officers  often  do  unintentionally 
make  them  contradict  themselves — and  that  these  contradictions 
are  not  always  **  deliberate  and  malicious," — so  certain  is  all  this, 
that,  independently  of  the  obvious  objection  to  placing  such 
arbitrary  authoritv  in  inexperienced  hands,  it  has  been  judged 
safer  to  keep  the  law  as  it  now  stands. 

In  illustration  of  these  remarks,  we  will  mention  a  case  which 


22  THE  ANGLO-INDIAN   COURTS  OF  JUSTICE. 

lately  occurred.  A.  B.  and  C.  were  own  brothers,  and  ac- 
cording to  B.  and  C.^  they  were  all  three  joint  sharers  in  a 
landed  estate^  inherited  from  their  ancestors.  A.  admitted 
the  relationship,  but  denied  that  B.  and  C.  had  ever  been  in 
possession :  that  is  to  say,  he  pleaded  the  statute  of  limita- 
tion. B.  and  C.  brought  witnesses  to  prove  that  they  had 
been  in  possession  of  their  shares  within  the  period  prescrib- 
ed by  law.  This  is  a  very  common  form  of  action  in  some 
parts  of  the  country — ^the  point  at  issue  being  simply,  whether 
B.  and  C.  had  been  in  possession  at  a  particular  time.  D.,  one 
of  the  witnesses  produced  by  B.  and  'C,  deposed  distinctly 
to  the  fact  of  their  possession :  whereupon  a  Moktar  forthwith 
denoimced  the  witness  as  perjured ;  and  from  the  record  was  pre- 
sently produced  a  previous  deposition,  in  which  D.  had,  with 
equal  distinctness,  declared  upon  oath,  that  A.  was  the  proprietor 
of  the  disputed  property,  and  that  he.  A.,  had  held  ^'  sole  posses- 
sion" at  the  time  referred  to.  This  looked  very  like  perjury, 
and  so  it  was  actually  considered  by  some  authorities:  nor 
did  the  short  space  of  time,  which  had  elapsed  between  the 
first  and  second  depositions,  admit  of  any  probability  that  the 
memory  of  the  witness  had  failed  him.  D.  charged  with  the 
perjury,  admitted  the  contradiction,  but  yehemently  protested 
that  he  had  never  intended  to  depose  fitlsely.  The  case  here 
reminds  us  of  the  trial  of  Kit  Nubbles,  in  the  Old  Curiosity 
Shop,  where  Mr.  Richard  Swiveller  is  made  to  give  evidence^ 
which  injures,  instead  of  benefitting,  the  prisoner,  because  he 
could  not  explain,  or  because  the  Court  would  not  let  him 
explain,  what  he  meant  to  say.  Our  witness  D.  could  no  more- 
set  things  to  rights  than  Mr.  Richard  Swiveller.  The  Sampson 
Brass  of  the  occasion  triumphantly  pointed  to  the  contradic* 
tion ;  and  D.  was  convicted.  Yet  D.  was  not  guilty.  A  more 
careful  examination  of  the  papers,  and  a  more  intimate  know- 
ledge of  D.'s  position  in  li^,  showed  that,  on  the  former  occa- 
sion, he  had  spoken  as  a  Puttidar,  on  the  latter  as  a  Proprietor, 
The  Lumberdar,  or  manager  of  a  putti,  is  frequently  spoken 
of  by  the  Agricultural  population  as  the  party  in  possession ; 
nor  are  the  rights  of  the  co-parceners  at  all  compromised 
thereby.  In  the  village  in  question,  there  were  several  put- 
tis.  When  D.  said  that  A.  was  ^^  sole  possessor^  of  his  putti, 
he  meant  that  the  proprietors  of  the  other  puttis  had  nothing 
to  do  with  AJq  putti ; — ^in  other  words,  that  the  puttis  of  the 
village  were  separate : — and,  when  he  subsequently  said  that 
A.  was  ^^  not  sole  possessor"  of  his  putti,  he  meant  that  they 
were  other  sharers  (sharik)  besides  A.,  and  that  A.  was  only  the 
Lumberdar.     The  case  appears  clear  enough  here :  but,  had  the 


THE   ANGLO-INDIAN   COURTS   OF   JUSTICE.  23 

officer^  before  whom  it  first  came^  been  acqaainted  with  the 
nature  of  a  Bhyachara  community^  D.  would  not  have  been 
found  guilty  of  perjury.  We  will  venture  to  assert  that  this 
functionary  never  made  a  settlement  under  Reg.  7,  of  1822. 
D.  was  eventually  released. 

This  single  instance^  however^  which  has  been  adduced  to 
show  the  sort  of  law,  which  an  Indian  Judge  ought  to  have 
studied,  cannot  save  the  people  at  large  from  the  heavy  charge 
of  habitual  falsehood.  We  wish  it  could.  To  prevent  mistakes, 
we  shall  quote  another  case,  remarkable  on  account  of  the 
number  of  false-swearers,  and  the  certainty  that  peijury  had 
been  committed  by  them  alL  Similar  cases  are  occurring 
every  day. 

Some  years  ago,  A.,  a  wealthy  Taltikdar  of  the  Ganges 
Doab,  was  accused  of  murdering  B.,  by  deliberately  firing  a 
loaded  gun  at  him,  whilst  an  afiuy  was  going  on  in  the  village. 
A.  pleaded  an  '^  alibL"  The  numbers  may  not  be  exactly  correct, 
but  the  record  is  extant,  and  that  will  show  that  twenty-five  or 
thirty  witnesses  swore  on  the  trial,  that  they  had  seen  A.  deli- 
berately take  aim  at  B.  and  shoot  him,  whilst  forty  or  fifty 
more,  amongst  whom,  alas  I  were  &ever2lrespect€Lble  men,  swore, 
that  at  that  time  A  was  twenty  miles  oj£  Both  parties  swore 
falsely.  The  truth  was  perfectly  well  known  at  the  time  to 
the  whole  district,  in  Court  and  out  of  Court,  including  the 
Judge  and  the  Jury.  A.  did  not  fire  a  gun  at  B.  or  at  anybody 
else ;  and  A.  was  not  twenty  miles  o£  He  was  at  the  village 
m  his  own  house,  which  he  never  left,  lest  he  should  be  accused, 
as  be  was :  but  whether  from  his  retreat  he  encouraged  or  check- 
ed the  afiray,  is  known  only  to  his  own  party.  What  is  to  be 
done  with  a  people  in  such  a  state  as  this  ?  To  us  it  seems 
wonderful,  that  any  social  system  at  all  should  exist,  whilst 
such  wholesale  perjury  pollutes  the  land.  What  is  the  use  of 
laws,  and  tribunals,  and  councils?  Of  what  avail  are  the  pain- 
ful meditations  of  honest  statesmen?  What  matters  it,  whether 
Persian  or  English  be  the  language  of  the  Courts,  whether 
Queen's  Judges  or  Company's  Judges  occupy  the  bench  ? — 
nay  more,  of  what  value  are  even  the  integrity  and  experience 
of  the  Judges,  when  all,  all  can  be  neutralized,  nullified,  an- 
nihilated, by  llus  most  pestilent  vice  ?  Here  is  the  real  defect — 
here  is  the  real  sin  of  Oriental  Judicature.  Moral  education 
is  the  only  remedy:  not  that  education,  which  teaches  Bengalis 
to  read  Milton,  nor  even  that  which  will  teach  the  natives  to 
read  Putwaris'  papers  and  check  an  Amin's  account,  but 
that  which  shall  teach  them  the  abstract  beauty  of  truth,  the 
usefulness  of  truth,  the  absolute  necessity  of  truth,  to  the  well 


24  THE   ANGLO-INDIAN   COUBTS  OF  JUSTICE. 

being  of  every  civilized  society* — ^we  should  have  said  to  the 
existence  of  civilized  society^  did  not  the  contrary  stare  us  in 
the  face.  The  fault  is  the  fault  of  the  nation,  not  of  the  Courts ; 
and  those  are  most  competent  to  deal  with  it,  who  are  best  ac- 
quainted with  the  national  peculiarities. 

The  consequence  of  this  fearful  abounding  of  perjury  and 
forgerv  is  startling.  The  common  principles  of  evidence,  hjEiving 
been  round  inappucable  to  the  state  of  society,  have  been  to  a 
great  extent  set  aside ;  and  recourse  has  been  had  to  other,  and, 
as  it  would  be  thought  in  England,  more  objectionable  means 
of  ascertaining  the  truth.  Direct  and  indirect  proof  have 
changed  places.  An  item  of  circumstantial  evidence  is  of  more 
value  than  an  eye-witness.  Probability  goes  bevond  proof. 
Certain  classes  commit  perjury  and  forgery  more  than  others, 
and  more  freely  upon  some,  than  upon  other,  subjects.  A 
Brahmin,  if  in  easy  circumstances,  mav  lie  less  than  a 
Chumar ;  and  the  member  of  a  Puttidan  community,  if  left 
to  himself,  will  be  less  likely  to  foi^e  than  a  Kayat.  He 
is,  indeed,  less  able  to  do  so.  The  higher  castes  have 
shame,  whether  they  have  morality  or  not:  but  the  lower 
classes  have  no  fear  of  being  found  out ;  and,  if  they  should  be, 
the  discovery  brings  with  it  no  disagreeable  social  consequences. 
A  Bajput,  who  nas  some  respect  for  truth,  will,  nevertheless, 
lie  about  land :  and,  in  the  matter  of  an  affinay  between  two 
villages,  all  that  the  Judge  and  Jury  need  know  is  to  which 
village  the  witness  belongs.     The  rest  is  a  matter  of  course. 

In  all  this  there  is  nothing  new.  The  numerous  eastern 
anecdotes,  which  relate  the  mscovery  of  truth  by  some  clever 
trick  on  the  part  of  the  Kazi,  indicate  most  clearly  the  want 
of  veracity  on  the  part  of  tiie  people,  and  the  necessitv  in 
which  the  Judge  found  himself  placed  of  aj^lying  to  something 
more  trustworthy  than  ordinary  evidence.  Hence  too,  the 
predilection  for  confessions,  which  police  officers,  in  defiance 
of  all  orders  to  the  contrary,  still  glory  in  obtaining,  as  the  only 
proof  which  will  fully  satisfy  the  Court.  The  impossibility 
of  trusting  common  evidence,  drives  the  Courts,  as  well  as  the 
Kazls,  to  seek  for  some  other  guide :  and,  if  the  substitute  be 
not  good,  it  is  at  any  rate  better  than  that  for  which  it  has 
been  substituted,      tn    Civil  suits  the    M6nsi£b  decide    as 

*  A  moral  system  will  never  bear  with  any  force  upon  the  mind  of  the  masses 
without  a  religions  sanction :  and  nothing  but  a  true  religion  will  make  a  people 
tmthftd  and  upright.  The  time  is  coming,  when  Government  will  be  driven  l>y 
necessitv,  either,  to  give  India  religions  education,  or  give  over  education  into  the 
hands  or  those,  who  can  make  it  religious.  The  plea  in  England  for  a  mere  secular 
education  is,  that  the  parents  may  teach  the  children  religion  at  home.  Will  that 
plea  avail  here?--ED. 


THE  ANGLO*INDIAN  COUBTS  OF  JUSTICE.  25 

much  as  poesible  in  defiance  of  the  tnisl,  knowing  well  that 
troth  is  seldom  there ;  and  any  one  may  ascertain  this  for  him- 
self^ who  will  take  the  trouble^  ^rst  to  win  the  confidence  of 
these  native  Judges^  and  then  to  question  them.  They  cannot 
do  this  to  any  great  extent^  in  consequence  of  our  system  of 
appeaL  A  decree  must  not  be  opposed  to  the  evidence ;  and 
MtinsifiBs  frequently  give  decidons,  opposed  to  their  own  con- 
▼ictions,  because  they  know  that  any  other  decision  must 
necessarily  be  reversed  in  appeaL  In  short,  Eazis,  Mtinsiffs 
and  Judges,  look  beyond  the  record,  when  they  are  called  upon 
to  determine  a  disputed  fact;  Information,  obtained  out  of 
C!ourt,  will  thus  have  an  influence,  which  it  would  not  otherwise 
possess :  the  public  voice  will  have  some  weight,  however  little : 
and  here  we  get  a  glimmering  of  the  real  character  of  that 
*^  undue  influence,"  about  which  so  much  has  been  said,  and  so  lit- 
tle understood.  It  is  not  undue  influence,  but  veiy  due  influence 
indeed ;  and,  if  our  view  of  the  matter  be  correct,  it  is  infinitely^ 
more  dne^  than  the  orthodox  influence  of  notorious  fiEilsehood. 

It  wotdd  be  very  satisfactory  here  to  examine  how  far  the 
abolition  of  oaths,  in  the  Indian  Courts,  has  contributed  to  the 
prevalence  of  peijury  and  to  the  success  of  forgery;  but  it  is 
scarcely  within  the  sphere  of  our  present  enquiry.  It  is  a  fact 
that,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  well-meaning  enthusiasts, 
the  Judges  have  unanimously  condemned  Act  5  of  1840,  which 
sabstituted  a  declaration  for  an  oath.  Sudder  Courts  have 
forwarded  these  remonstrances  to  Gk)vemment,  and  have 
strongly  advocated  the  repeal  of  the  law.  Let  the  Govern- 
ment say,  why  the  remonstrance  has  been  in  vain.  The  harm 
done  by  that  enactment  is  the  same,  whether  Anglo-Indian 
Courts  or  Boyal  Courts  are  established  throughout  the  country ; 
and  the  subject  is  therefore  distinct  from  the  comparative 
fitness  of  the  Company's  Courts;  nor  have  we  time  now  to 
enter  upon  the  discussion.  Our  object  has  been  to  give  some 
insight  into  that  state  of  society,  which  has  made  circum- 
stantial evidence  preferable  to  direct  evidence  in  a  ^veat  ma- 
jority of  cases*: — and,  to  retxim  to  the  point  at  issue,  we 
again  ask,  whether  a  Jud^e,  who  has  been  studying  this  state  of 
society  for  twenty  or  thirty  years,  is  not  more  likely  to  come 
to  the  right  decision,  than  a  judge  of  the  Supreme  Court,  aided 
cnr  impeded  by  his  OEdcutta  Jury. 

*  In  trials  for  Murder,  the  natiyes  of  upper  India  lie  less  :  nay,  they  fi^qnently 
speak  the  truth.  Many  men  thus  will  swear  away  a  man's  liberty,  who  hesitate 
to  iwear  away  his  life.  The  Peijnry,  which  is  of  coarse  the  same  in  both  cases,  does 
not  enter  into  the  qaestion.  In  lower  Bengal,  we  regret  to  say,  that,  when  passions  are 
enoe  nused,  Landlord  and  Tenant  stick  at  no  peijury,  whether  it  aflfect  nune,  iands, 
orfifieitaelt 

£ 


26  THE  ANGLO-INBIAN  COURTS  OP  JUSTICE. 

The  inferiority  of  the  Bar  is  an  admitted  defect  in  the 
Anglo-Indian  Courts :  but  abready  the  barristers  of  the  Su- 
preme Courts  are  authorized  to  plead  in  the  Sudder  Courts ; 
and  nothing  would  be  easier  thaii  to  authorize  them  to  plead 
in  the  district  Courts  also.  The  obstacle  to  the  improvement 
of  the  native  bar  is  want  of  money :  for  the  fees  in  tne  highest 
courts  will  not  support  more  than  a  few  men  of  first-rate  ability. 
British  subjects^  however,  European  or  native,  would  not  be 
worse  off  in  this  respect  than  their  brethren  of  Calcutta  or  Ma- 
dras, since  it  is  said  that  even  there  lawyers  do  not  plead  gratis. 
In  Calcutta,  they  certwily  do  not,  as  many  persons  know: 
and  this  want  of  means  is,  in  fact,  the  real  difficulty,  so  far 
as  criminal  trials  are  concerned,  even  as  the  law  now  stands. 
If  any  Barrister  or  Attorney  chose  to  present  himself  in 
any  Criminal  Court  of  the  country,  as  Moktar,  or  Counsel 
for  the  prisoner,  and  showed  a  disposition  to  conduct  himself 
^oberly  and  discreetly,  willing  to  give  to  the  Court  the  assis- 
tance of  his  learning  or  sagacity,  and  confining  himself  to  the 
duties,  which  properly  belong  to  him — ^if  such  a  person  should 
present  himself  as  Counsel  for  a  prisoner,  he  would  be  cor- 
dially welcomed,  and  attentively  heard.  But  if  he  went  there, 
presuming  on  his  European  birth  and  professional  privilege ; 
if  he  arrogated  to  himself  an  authority  to  which  he  had  no 
claim ;  if  he  could  not  refindn  from  diowing  how  little  he 
cared  for  the  Huzz6r  ;  or  if  he  insulted  the  Judge  on  the 
bench — ^then,  indeed,  he  might  meet  with  a  very  different 
reception.  He  would  possibly  enough  be  fined  for  the  first 
offence,  and  turned  out  of  Court  for  the  second. 

We  cannot  close  our  remarks  on  the  condition  of  the  Anglo- 
Indian  Courts,  without  noticing  the  Juries.  The  state  of  the 
jury  law  is  one  of  the  objections  raised  against  the  Courts :  and 
it  is  urged  that  a  Jury,  whose  verdict  is  not  final,  cannot  be 
regarded  as  a  Jury  at  aU.  Such  a  court,  it  is  said,  is  not  one  in 
which  an  Englismnan  ought  to  be  tried.  These  otgectors  do 
not  go  on  to  say  what  alterations  they  would  like.  They  do  not 
propose  to  ^lace  native  Juries  upon  the  same  footing  with 
English  Junes ;  nor  do  they  do  anything,  except  find  fault. 
These  men  cannot  be  aware  of  the  difficulties  by  which  the 
subject  is  surrounded,  or  of  the  pains  and  attention  which  have 
alreadv  been  bestowed  upon  it  The  introduction  of  trial  by 
Jury  mto  India  is  one  of  the  most  delicate  operations,  which 
the  Government  can  be  called  upon  to  perform:  and  in  the 
introduction  of  those  measures,  which  must  precede  the  full 
establishment  of  the  system,  it  is  impossible  that  the  interests 
of  a  few  persons  should  be  allowed  to  interfere  with  that  which 


THE  ANGLO-INDIAN  COUBTS  OF  JUSTICE.  27 

18  oonfiidered  good  for  the  millions.    It  seems  that  no  great 
inconTenience  would  be  felt  from  the  insertion  of  a  clause  in 
favour  of  European  British  subjects,  by  which  they  would  not 
be  liable  to  be  tried  by  a  native  Jury ;  although  the  institution 
of  Juries,  vnth  the  powers  and  duties  of  English  Juries  and  no 
other  powers  and  duties,  would  do  away  with  the  whole  benefit 
now  derived  from  them  in  India.    As  Juries  are  now  constituted, 
we  are  disposed  to  agree  with  those  who  deny  that  they  are 
Juries  at  fdl ;  and  we  think  that  the  objections  raised  are  mainly 
attributable  to  the  mistaken  notion  that  they  resemble  British 
Juries.    They  are  widely  different ;  and  it  has  been  questioned 
whether  they  are  not  of  more  use,  than  those  which  they  are 
supposed  to  resemble.     The  peculiarities  of  India — ^the  various 
tnbes  and  classes  into  which  its  population  is  divided,  each 
having  customs,  opinions,  habits,  and  religious  prejudices  of 
its  own — are  so  numerous  and  so  different  from  each  other, 
and  all  are  so  different  from  what   we  see    in    European 
society,  that  a  life  of  labour  has  been  found  insufficient  to 
render  the  Company's  Judges  thoroughly  familiar  with  them. 
Therefore  the  Courts  were  authorized  by  Reg.  6,  of  1832, 
to  avail  themselves  of  the  assistance  of  respectable  natives. 
If  the  experience  and  local  knowledge  of  the  Indian  Judges 
give  them  any  advantage  over  the  Boyal  Judges,  that  advan- 
tage is  greatly  increased  by  a  law,  whicn  enables  them  to  call  the 
natives  themselves  to  aid  in  the  investigations.     The  present 
Jurors  resemble  assistant  Judges :  they  detect  falsehood  with 
far  greater  certainty  than  any  Judge  can ;  they  frequently 
suggest  very  pertinent  questions;  and  the  Judge  has  the 
opportunity  of  looking  upon  the  case,  as  the  natives  look  upon 
i^  without  being  compelled  to  adopt  their  views.     This  sort 
of  assistance  could  not  be  so  well  afforded  by  the  English 
dealers  of  Meerut  or  Cawnpore,  or  bv  the  clerks  in  the  public 
offices.     It  could  not  be  afforded  by  tnem  at  all ;  and  it  would 
be  a  grievous  mistake  to  substitute  a  band  fide  jury  of  these 
persons,  for  the  respectable  natives,  who  now  aimt  the  Judge. 
The  hypothesis  is,  tlmt  an  Englishman  is  accused  of  an  offence 
which  he  has  not  committed :  that  he  is  to  be  tried  by  an 
En^ishman  sitting  as  judge ;  and  that  the  witnesses  brought 
against  him  are  natives,     under  these  circumstances,  we  are 
convinced,  that  the  advice  and  suggestions  of  a  few  intelligent 
native  gentlemen  would  be  far  more  conducive  to  justice,  than 
the  verdict  of  twelve  English  shop-keepers.    Do  not  call  them 
Juries ;  and  every  one  win  admit  their  usefulness: — and  all  men, 
of  all  breeds  and  countries,  will  allow  some  merit  in  a  judicial 
system,  which  aims  at  uniting  the  integrity  and  information 


28  THE  ANGLO-INDIAN  COUBTS  OF  JUSTICE. 

of  the  European  Judge  to  the  acuteuess  and  local  knowledge 
of  the  native  community. 

Whether  it  would  be  safe  to  allow  Juries  to  find  the  facts, 
as  they  do  in  England,  is  a  distinct  question.  We  follow 
many  abler  men  in  thinking  that  the  natives  can  find  the 
facts  of  a  case  better  than  the  Court  can  ;  but  it  is  doubt- 
fill,  whether  they  could  be  safely  trusted  with  the  power. 
They  do  not  as  yet  thoroughly  understand  the  duties  of  a 
Jury,  properly  so  called.  They  ^ve  way  to  kind  feelings, 
and  have  no  idea  that  they  are  doing  wrong.  They  favour  a 
Brahmin.  They  take  it  for  granted  that  a  €Kijur  is  a  cattle 
stealer,  and  tlutt  a  Mewatti  is  a  dacoit.  And,  however 
correct  these  preconceptions  may  ordinarily  be,  they  are  alto- 
gether opposed  to  the  simple  finding  of  facts.  The  present 
system  enables  the  Judge  to  avail  himself  of  their  ability  to 
find  facts,  imwarped  by  their  prejudices  or  pre-possessions ; 
and,  though  we  do  not  go  so  far  as  to  say  that  improvement  is 
not  required,  we  feel  sure  that  no  better  system  could,  hy  vMTt 
ieffislaiiony  be  at  the  present  time  introduced  into  India. 

Taking  then  a  general  view  of  the  whole  subject,  the  Anglo- 
Indian  Courts  appear  to  be  as  good  as  can  reasonably  be  ex- 
pected, and  not  wholly  unfit  for  the  trial  of  Europeans  charg- 
ed with  criminal  offences.     They  are  located  cdl   over  the 
coimtnr,  so  that  the  offender  would  be  promptly  tried  where 
the  offence  was    committed  :  the  language  of  the  prisoner, 
(supposing  him  to  be  a  European)  is  kuown  to  the  Judge,  as 
well  as  the  language  of  the  witnesses ;  the  qualifications  of  the 
Judge,  far  the  purposes  of  a  criminal  trial,  are  not  inferior  to 
the  qualifications  of  those,  who,  in  the  existing  state  of  the 
law,  sit  in  judgment  upon  European  British   subjects ;   their 
practical  inaependence  is  equal :  their  experience  is  far  greater, 
and  of  a  kind  infinitely  more  valuable ;  the  corruption,  so  much 
talked  of,  is  the  fault  of  the  people,  not  of  the  Courts,  and 
it  pervades  all  the  tribunals  of  India  alike :  there  is  nothing 
to  prevent  any  prisoner  employing  English  counsel,  if  he  can 
pay  for  it :  whilst  the  greater  power  of  appreciating  evidence, 
and  the  assistance  of  natives,  give  to  the  Anglo-Indian  Courts 
a  positive  superiority  over  all  the  other  Courts  of  Hindustan. 

The  very  small  number  of  those,  who  object  to  becom- 
ing amenable  to  the  Anglo-Indian  Courts,  is  rendered  still 
more  glaring  by  the  fact  that,  a  numerous  class  of  European 
British  subjects  have  not  offered  one  syllable  in  remonstrance. 
The  Civil  and  Military  servants  of  the  Government — there  are 
some  thousands  of  them — ^see  no  objection  to  the  proposed  enact- 
ments.     Do  the  inhabitants  of  Calcutta  imagine  that  these 


THE  ANGLO-INDIAN  COUETS  OF  JUSTICE.  29 

daflses  are  silent  only,  because  they  are  connected  with  the  Go- 
venunent  ?  If  so,  they  ^ve  us  a  firesh  instance  of  that  igno- 
rance of  India,  with  which  they  are  so  commonly  charged.  The 
rules  of  military  discipline  womd  not  interfere  with  a  matter  of 
this  nature :  still  less  are  the  civilians  tongue-tied ;  and  is  it  to 
be  supposed  that  they  have  to  a  man,  resigned  all  their  '^  inali- 
enable, Src"  rights,  though  they  would  run  no  risk  in  asserting 
them  ?  The  reason  is  as  clear  as  spring  water.  These  classes 
are  well  informed  as  to  the  real  state  of  the  Anglo-Indian 
Courts. 

The  Sudder  Courts,  moreover,  are  always  consulted  pre- 
vious to  the  passing  of  a  new  law.  We  will  not  under- 
take to  say  that  much  attention  is  paid  to  their  advice: 
but  the  opportunity  of  placing  their  sentiments  upon  record 
is  invariably  afforded  them:  and  we  wish  it  were  in  our 
power  to  produce  the  correspondence  on  the  present  occasion. 
The  Judges  of  the  four  Sudder  Courts  may  be  allowed  to  be 
better  acquainted,  than  any  body  eke  with  the  tribunals,  in 
which  they  themselves  have  so  long  presided.  They  might  be 
airaigned  before  these  very  Courts;  and,  in  giving  their  opinion 
on  the  proposed  enactment,  they  must  have  felt  that  they  were 
almost'  representatives  of  the  civil  service.  It  would  be  most 
interesting,  if  we  could  learn  what  these  men  said :  for,  if  they 
all  remonstrated  against  being  made  amenable  to  the  Mofussil 
Courts,  it  would  so  very  far  to  shake  our  confidence  in  the 
opinion  which  we  have  formed :  and,  if  they  did  not,  we  should 
attach  even  less  importance  than  we  now  do  to  the  grumbling 
of  Calcutta. 

And  are  the  subjects  of  other  European  nations  to  be  held 
as  nothing  ?  They  have  been  long  subject  to  the  Anglo-Indian 
Courts :  and  no  inconvenieoitie  has  been  felt  If  the  Courts  are 
not  fit  for  Englishmen,  neither  are  they  fit  for  Frenchmen,  or 
Grennans,  or  Americans ;  and  common  sense  and  common  hu- 
manity demand  that  these  classes  also  should  be  provided  with 
Courts.  Their  case  is  much  harder  than  the  case  of  English- 
men. He  has  at  least  a  Judge  of  his  own  nation,  sitting  on  the 
bench,  and  speaking  the  same  language  with  himself;  whilst  the 
unfortunate  Frenchman  has  no  one  to  sympathize  with  him : 
Judge,  Jury,  and  witnesses  are  all  foreigners  to  him ;  and,  if  he 
had  the  Code  Napoleon  in  his  pocket,  there  is  very  great  pro- 
bability that  the  Court  would  be  unable  to  read  it. 

It  has  been  said  that  the  Criminal  law,  administered  in  the 
Anglo-Indian  Courts,  authorizes  severe  sentencea  If  the  ex- 
treme limit  of  the  powers  of  the  Court  be  referred  to,  this  is 
to  a  certain  extent  true ;  but  it  is  by  no  means  true  that 


30  THE  ANGLO-INDIAN   COURTS   OF  JUSTICE. 

fieyere  sentences  are  ordinarily  passed.  There  is  a  wide  discre- 
tion left  with  the  Magistrates  and  the  Judges ;  and  it  is  yery 
doubtM  whether  this  be  a  good  or  an  eyiL  Where  the  minds 
of  the  Judges  are  unwarned  by  religious  or  political  prejudices, 
it  isy  perhaps,  better  for  the  people  that  this  discretion  should  be 
left  with  them ;  though  it  is  not  clear  that  the  adyantage  thus 
gained  in  peaceful  times  will  coimterbalance  the  disadvantage 
which  would  be,  or  at  least  might  be,  and  certainly  has  been, 
felt  in  times  of  national  disturbance.  There  is  no  fear  of  this 
kind  in  India,  as  the  Goyemment  is  now  constituted.  The 
fimctionaries  of  this  country  are,  from  education  and  experi- 
ence, necessarily  liberal  in  all  their  sentiments.  They  haye  so 
little  in  common  with  the  mass  of  the  people,  that  there  is 
nothing  to  bias  their  judgment,  or  to  work  upon  their  feelings. 
The  tendency  therefore  will  always  be  to  the  side  of  leniency, 
such  being  the  natural  impulse  which  humanity  would  commu- 
nicate ;  and  in  effect,  the  full  punishment  warranted  by  law  is 
scarcely  eyer  inflicted.  Our  concern,  be  it  remembered,  is  not 
with  the  law,  but  with  the  Courts.  It  is  remarkable  that,  in 
one  of  the  few  instances  in  which  the  Legislature  has  interfered 
with  the  discretion  ordinarily  entrusted  to  the  Sessions  Court, 
they  haye,  by  the  consent  of  all  parties,  committed  an  error. 
The  minimum  punishment  of  peijury  is  three  years  imprison- 
ment ;  the  Sessions  Judge  cannot  award  less :  yet  so  peculiar 
are  the  cases  of  perjury  in  this  country,  and  so  frequently  is 
a  wretched  and  ignorant  chumar  made  the  tool  and  the  victim 
of  his  more  wealthy  master,  that  the  sentences  for  three  years 
are  incessantly  referred  to  the  Nizamut  Adawlut  for  mitiga- 
tion— a  recommendation,  which  is  invariably  complied  with. 

The  system  of  Criminal  Appeals  too  seems  to  have  been 
constructed  with  special  reference  to  the  mitigation  of  sen- 
tencea  An  appeal  lies  from  the  Assistant  to  the  Magistrate : 
from  the  Magistrate  to  the  Sessions  Judge  :  from  the  Sessions 
Judge  to  the  Nizamut  Adawlut  These  authorities  may  acquit 
the  appellant,  or  may  mitigate  the  sentence  passed  upon  him ; 
but  not  even  the  Nizamut  Adawlut  can  ^^  enhance  the  pun- 
ishment, or  pass  sentence  on  a  party  acquitted  by  the  Court 
below." 

There  is  also  another  light,  in  which  the  lenient  character  of 
the  Indian  criminal  administration  may  be  contemplated  with 
satisfaction.  The  regulation  law,  the  Muhammadan  law,  and  the 
law  of  England,  as  well  as  the  laws  of  most  civilised  nations, 
condemn  the  murderer  to  suffer  death :  but  all  Codes  are  not 
equally  precise  in  explaining  what  constitutes  *^  wilful  murder.'' 
There  are  fine-drawn  distinctions  and  verbose  principles  enough 


THB  ANGLO-INDIAN  COURTS  OF  JUSTICE.  31 

to  be  found  in  the  Muhammadan  law ;  but  the  Anglo-Indian 
Courts  are  neyertheleas  constantly  obliged  to  apply  for  assia- 
taoce  to  the  better  digested  and  more  intelligible  principles  of 
English  law,  though  they  are  not  necessarily  guided  thereby. 
They  draw  from  English  law  their  answer  to  tne  question.  What 
constitutes  wilful  murder?  and  agreeably  thereto,  the  intent 
to  UU  is  held  to  be  a  necessary,  element  in  the  crime :  but  here 
they  stop ;  and  when  the  common  law  goes  on  to  define  '^  im- 
plied intent"  and  to  subject  it  to  the  same  penalty  with  '^  ex- 
press intent,"  then  they  interpose  their  discretionary  authority, 
and  jud^e  for  themselyes.  The  '^  express"  intent  to  kill  is  m 
Anglo-£idian  practice  generally  followed  by  a  capital  sentence ; 
but  there  are  many  cases  in  which  the  Judges  of  Westminster 
would  hold  the  intent  to  be  ^'  implied,"  and  in  which  the  Indian 
Judges  would  reject  that  inference.  An  instance  will  perhaps 
illustrate  our  meaning. 

Many  years  ago,  in  Scotland,  two  friends  agreed  to  watch  a 
graye  and  protect  it  frcnn  expected  yiolation.  They  sat  up  at 
night  armed  with  guns.  Hearing  a  noise  in  the  burial  ground, 
they  proceeded  in  different  directions,  to  ascertain  the  cause. 
Presently,  one  of  the  two  came  upon  a  man  close  by  the  graye ; 
misled  by  the  darkness  of  the  nignt,  and  influenced  by  his  pre- 
conceptions, he  fired  upon  him.  The  stranger  fell  dead.  It 
was  his  own  friend  I  The  unfortunate  suryiyor  was  tried  iot 
"  wilful  murder."  In  conformity  with  the  law,  as  laid  down  by 
Lord  Mackenzie,  he  was  found  guilty,  and  was  by  that  Judge 
left  for  executunu  In  Indian  Courts,  the  prisoner's  life,  in  such 
a  case,  would  not  be  in  danger.  Considerations,  obyious  enough 
to  minds  untainted  by  legal  subtleties,  but  to  which  Lord 
Mackenzie  could  pay  no  attention,  would  be  allowed  to  haye 
w^ht  with  a  judge  of  Meerut  or  of  Patna ;  and  the  highest 
dime,  of  which  the  accused  could  be  conyicted,  would  be 
**  a^rayated  culpable  homicide."  Let  eyery  man  determine 
for  mmself  by  wnich  law  he  would  rather  be  tried.  In  our 
estimation,  '^  Ap  ma  bap"  is  a  more  lenient  Judge  than  '^  God 
and  my  coimtry." 

We  consider  it  of  yery  little  consequence  at  present,  whether 
the  Black  Acts  become  law^  or  not.  xhe  only  one  of  the  four, 
which  could  not  be  dispensed  with,  without  endangering  the 
peace  of  the  country  and  bringing  the  authorities  into  uni- 
yereal  contempt,  has  been  passed :  and  we  see  no  good  ground 
for  objecting  to  the  other  three,  unless  it  be  that  some  time 
hence  they  will  giye  the  Goyernment  officers  a  great  deal  of 
trouble.  These  enactments,  or  other  similar  to  them,  must  be 
passed  sooner  or  later ;  for  it  is  absurd  to  suppose  that  a  sepa- 


32  THE  ANGLO-INDIAN   COUBTS  OF  JUSTICE* 

rate  system  can  be  permanently  maintained  merely  to  gratify 
a  few  individuals.  These  persons  complain  of  the  courts  of 
the  country^  but  their  complaints  are  too  vague  and  in- 
discriminate:  and  we  hope  that  we  have  succeeded  in 
placing  the  subject  before  the  public  in  a  light  different 
from  that  in  which  it  has  been  usually  contemplated.  That 
men^  selectecP  for  their  talents^  would  be  abler  Judges  than 
men  of  average  ability,  no  one  will  be  disposed  to  denyj 
but  men  of  such  extraordinary  powers  will  not  come  to  India 
at  alL  There  is  some  chance  of  our  getting  a  fair  proportion 
of  first-rate  men,  under  the  present  system :  but  we  should  have 
no  chance  at  all,  if  we  waited  till  one  man  had  discovered  that 
he  could  obtain  a  seat  on  the  judicial  bench  of  England, 
another  that  he  could  make  £10,000  a  year  at  the  Bar,  or  a 
third  that  he  could  lead  the  House  of  Conmions.  It  is  equally 
true  that  men,  who  had  studied  law,  in  the  enlarged  sense  of 
the  term,  for  several  years  after  they  had  arrived  at  manhood, 
would  be  abler  Judges,  than  men  who  had  learned  all  their  law 
at  Haileybury  College ;  but,  independently  of  the  enormous 
increase  in  the  expence  of  education,  we  cannot  spare  to 
our  future  judges  the  unreturning  years  of  their  youth; 
they  cannot  be  excused  the  painful  drudgery  of  the  assis- 
tant's kacheriy  or  the  invaluable  training  of  the  settlement 
officer's  encampment  The  law,  which  he  learns  there,  is 
of  more  importance  to  him  than  the  law,  which  he  would 
learn  at  home :  and  therefore,  until  some  plan  can  be  devised, 
which  shall  give  to  the  civil  servants  of  government  the 
learning  of  England  as  well  as  the  experience  of  India,  it 
will  be  well  to  abstain  from  unjustly  depreciating  those,  who 
are  doing  their  duty  in  the  station  in  which  it  has  pleased 
God  to  place  them.  European  British  subjects  cannot  be  more 
anxious  to  improve  the  Judges,  than  the  Judges  are  to  improve 
themselves,  and  their  Courts  :  and,  if  inst^id  of  roaring  at 
Jupiter,  they  would  put  their  shoulders  to  the  wheel  of 
the  Anglo-Indian  waggon,  they  would  soon  improve  the  tribu- 
nals, and  establish  a  system  of  judicature,  as  efficient  as  is  con- 
sistent with  the  pecidiar  circumstances  of  British  India,  and 
the  general  imperfections  of  human  nature. 

*  The  weakest  point  of  the  present  system  is,  that  men  are  not  **  selected  for  their 
talents"  from  among  those,  who  have  come  to  India.  If  the  Judges  of  Zillah  Conrta 
were  selected,  as  the  Judges  of  the  Sudder  Courts  are,  there  would  be  much  less 
^ound  for  the  complaints  made  (and  often  justly)  against  Anglo-Indian  administ 
tion  of  justice. — En. 


MORTALITY  OF  EUBOPEAN  SOLDIEBS  IN  INDIA.  33 


Art.  II. — 1.  Military  Musinffs,  by  CoL  J.  S.  Hodgson,  I2th 
Regiment,  Bengal  Native  Infantry. 

2.  A  Treatise  on  the  pttblic  health,  climate.  Hygiene,  and  prevailing 
diseases  of  Bengal  and  the  North-west  Provinces,  by  Kenneth 
Mackinnon,  M.  D.,  Surgeon  and  Medical  Storekeeper,  Cawn- 
pore.  1848. 

3.  British  and  Foreign  Medico  Chirurgical  Review.  No.  IX. 
Article  on  Dr.  MachinnmCs  Treatise  of  Tropical  Hygiene. 
January.     1850. 

4.  ^*  European  Soldiers  in  India.^    Bengal  Hurkaru.    1650. 

A  SINGLE  fact  published  in  the  Quarterly  Review,  and 
afterwards  in  a  little  half-crown  pamphlet^  some  few  years 
ago,  b^  that  popular  writer.  Sir  Francis  Head,  attracted  more 
attention  to  the  subject  of  railways,  than  all  the  scientific 
Tolumes  that  had  previously  issued  from  the  press.  Thou- 
Bands  had  been  in  the  habit  of  travelling  by  ^'  Rail ;"  but 
few  were  aware,  that  on  every  Monday  morning  throu^hovt  the 
year,  on  one  particular  railway,  a  new  engine  ana  tender^ 
costing  £  1,250,  were  put  upon  the  line.  The  fact  was  an  asto- 
nishing one,  and  set  men's  minds  thinking,  and  calculating,  if 
this  occurred  on  only  one  railway  in  the  United  Kingdom^ 
what  must  be  the  enormous  expense,  and  still  more  enormous 
incomings,  of  these  imdertakings,  to  enable  them  to  return  a 
profit? 

Would  it  be  thought  less  startling,  or  of  less  interest  with 
reference  to  the  subject  before  us,  viz.,  the  mortality  of  Euro- 
pean troop,  in  this  country,  to  be  told,  that  ^^  the  British  soldier^ 

*  who  now  serves  one  year  in  Bengal,  encounters  as  much  risk 

*  of  life,  as  in  three  such  battles  as  Waterloo  ?  "  It  is,  as  if  every 
private  at  present  serving  in  H.  M.'s  regiments  at  Calcutta^ 
I)inapore,  and  Allahabad,  were  called  upon  three  times  a  year 
to  expose  himself  to  the  dangers  of  such  a  conflict,  in  which  one 
in  forty  of  the  combatants  fell ;  and  this,  too,  not  for  one  year^ 
but  for  several  Carry  out  the  calculation  still  further,  by  ad- 
ding the  number  of  men  invalided,  and  the  number  of  those 
who  die  on  thttr  way  home,  or  soon  after  reaching  England  ; 
then  multiplv  the  whole  by  the  number  of  years  that  European 
troops  have  been  serving  in  India,  and  reckon  what  has  been 
the  amount  of  mortality  in  the  three  presidencies  during  the 
last  century  t 

How  often  bos  it  been  our  lot,  at  some  of  our  large  military 


34 


MORTALITY  OF  EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA. 


stations,  to  hear  at  early  dawn,  the  dull  sound  of  the  muffled 
drum,  and  the  long  drawn  notes  of  the  trumpet,  followed  by 
the  rattling  discharge  of  musketry,  announcing  that  another  of 
our  countrymen  had  been  committed  to  the  silent  graye ;  and  yet 
how  seldom  is  the  enquiry  made  as  to  the  aggregate  of  deaths 
occurring  in  our  European  regiments,  or  the  conviction  brought 
home  to  us,  that  there  is  a  fearful  amount  of  unnecessary  waste 
of  human  life  occurring  yearly  amongst  their  ranks,  immensely 
exceeding  the  slaughter  of  the  bloodiest  battles  recorded  in 
history. 

The  most  valuable  and  accurate  work,  that  has  ever  been 
published  on  Medico-Military  Statistics,  is  TulloKs  ParUamenr 
tary  Returns :  and  it  is  much  to  be  regretted  that,  out  of  the 
voluminous  documents  at  present  lying  in  the  offices  of  H.  M. 
Inspector-General  and  the  Hon^le  Company's  Medical  Boards 
at  Calcutta,  Bombay,  and  Madras,  a  similar  abstract  has  not 
been  prepared  by  order  of  Government  Still  there  have  been  la- 
bourers in  the  cause,  who  from  time  to  time  have  given  to  the 
Eublic  the  benefit  of  their  observations  and  researches,  and 
ave  made  earnest  appeals  to  '*  the  legislative  branch  "  of  the 
Government,  for  correction  of  the  evils  that  exist ;  and  amongst 
this  class  are  the  authors,  whose  names  we  have  prefixed  to  this 
article. 

Before  going  into  the  subject  of  Tropical  Hygiene,  which 
forms  the  bulk  of  Dr.  Mackinnon's  Treatise,  we  would  collate 
from  the  different  sources  open  to  us,  a  few  of  the  most  impor- 
tant statistical  facts,  the  correctness  of  which  may  be  vouched 
for  by  the  authority  under  which  they  were  published. 
They  will  shew  in  a  clear  and  tabular  form,  what  the  mortality 
of  European  soldiers,  serving  in  India,  amounts  to,  and  what  are 
the  proportional  rates  of  deaths  at  different  stations  in  different 
years:— 

TABLE    I. 

Shewing  the  annual  mortality  from  eicknest  in  every  100  men,  both  Euro- 
pean and  Native^  of  the  three  armies  of  Bengal,  Bombay  and  Madrae,  for 
the  laet  20  yean. 


In  every  100 


Europeans 

Natives    .. 


Bengal 


7.88 


1.79 


Bombay. 


Madras. 


6.078 


1.291 


8.846 


2.095 


MOBTALITY  OF  EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA. 


35 


This  table  is  taken  from  a  valuable  paper  by  Col.  Sykes^ 
on  the  **  Vital  statistics  of  the  Indian  army,'^  and  (it  must 
be  remembered)  does  not  include  casualties  in  the  fields  or 
whHe  on  service,  nor  yet  the  mortality  from  cholera  in  Scinde. 
The  most  striking  fact  here  shewn  is,  that  the  loss  of  life 
amongst  our  European  soldiery  in  Bengal,  is  double  of  what  it  is 
in  Madras :  or  in  other  words,  that  whereas  74  out  of  every 
1,000  die  annually  in  Bengal,  only  38  in  the  same  number 
would  be  the  loss  in  the  sister  presidency.  The  causes,  by 
whidi  this  difference  may  be  accounted  for,  we  shall  notice  here- 
after. 

The  next  table  is  extracted  from  Dr.  Martin's  work  on  tro- 
pical climates,  and  exhibits  the  relative  salubrity  of  several 
miKtary  stations  in  the  Bengal  presidency  :— 

TABLE  a. 


SlATIONS. 


Berbampore . 
Dinapore  .... 
Fort  William 
Ghinsurah.... 
Cawnpore .... 
Gbazeepore  . 

Kumal  

Meerut 

Agra 


Ratio  of  admis 
sions  per  1,000 
of  strength. 


2.196 
2.808 
1.883 
1930 
1.599 
1.438 
988 
1.109 
1860 


Ratio  of  Deaths 
per  1,000  of 
strength. 


82.748 

64.261 

62  781 

62  954 

47.889 

86.922 

2  681 

2  816 

2  433 


To  make  this  table  thoroughly  understood^  it  must  be  ex-^ 
plained  that  the  column  of  admissions  shews  the  numbers  of 
cases  sent  into  hospital  Thus,  it  will  be  observed,  on  taking  the 
mean  of  these  nine  stations,  that  there  are  nearly  two  attacks 
of  disease  annually  for  every  European  soldier  in  Ben^L  These 
comparative  results  of  locality  ana  climate  were  obtained  from 
documents,  furnished  by  the  Inspector-General  and  the  Me« 
dical  Board,  and  extending  over  a  period  of  ten  to  twelve 
years. 

^  Let  us,  in  the  next  place,  ascertain  what  is  the  average  dura- 
tion of  life  amongst  the  same  class  of  men,  serving  in  England 
and  other  temperate  climates. 

♦  «*  statistical  Society's  Joarnal."— VW.  X,  page  124. 


_       r 


36         MORTALITY  OF  EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA. 


TABLE  8. 


Stations. 


Period  of  Obser- 
yation. 


Temperate, 
Great  Britain  ... 

Canada 

Malta 

Gibraltar 

TropioaL 

Madras 

Bengal 

Windwaid^  Lee- 
ward Islands 
Jamaica 


\ 


10 
7 
8 

7 


7 
19 
19 


a 

o 


1819 
1816 
1824 
1816 

1827 
1826 

1810 

1810 


To 


Mean 
Annual 
Strength. 


Annual  ra- 
tio of  mor- 
tality per 
1,000. 


1828 
1832 
1831 
1822 

1830 
1832 

1828 

1828 


46,460 
2,975 
2,226 
8,267 

11,820 
8,700 

5,768 

2.628 


15 
11 
15 
20 

48 
57 

113 

155 


Increase  of 

mortality  per 

1,000  beyond 

that  of  Great 

Britain. 


83 
42 

98 

140 


From  tlus  statement,  which  is  only  one  out  of  many  similar 
calculations  of  much  interest^  published  by  Dr.  A.  S.  Thomp- 
fion^  in  hb  Prize  Thesis  ^^  On  the  influence  of  climate,"  we  ob- 
serve that  the  ratio  of  mortality  is  in  every  case  greater  amongst 
British  troops  in  tropical,  than  in  temperate,  climates ;  and  that 
in  India,  it  is  nearly  four  times,  in  the  Windward  and  Leeward 
Islands  more  than  seven  times,  and  in  Jamaica  ten  times  greater 
than  what  occurs  in  Great  Britain. 

Our  next  point  is  to  ascertain  whether  all  Europeans  suffer 
to  the  same  degree ;  or  whether  this  great  mortality  is  confined 
to  the  ranks  of  European  soldiers.  Dr.  Hutchinson,  the  late 
Secretary  to  the  Medical  Board  at  Calcutta,  in  the  appendix 
to  his  work  on  Indian  Jails,  says,    '^  The  mortality  among 

*  officers  of  the  British  army,  serving  in  tropical  climates,  is 
'  not  so  high  as  that  of  the  soldiers.  Thus,  taking  the  mean 
'  of  all  the  tropical  stations,  where  British  troops  were  em- 
'  ployed,  the  annual  ratio  of  mortality  per  1,000,  among  the 
'  officers,  is  about  twenty-nine,  whereas,  among  the  soldiers,  it 

*  is  seventy-eight  The  comparatively  low  rate  of  mortality 
'  among  the  officers  serving  in  tropical  climates,  compared 

*  with  that  of  the  private  soldiers,  shews  how  the  influence  of  a 
'  tropical  climate  may  have  its  deleterious  effects  ameliorated 
'  by  care ;  and,  although  we  cannot  attribute  the  increased 
'  mortality,  which  occurs  amon^  natives  of  Great  Britain,  en- 
'  tirely  to  their  habits  and  conaition,  it  is  to  be  expected  that 

*  the  mortality  might  be  materially  diminished  by  careful  at- 
'  tention  to  the  diet,  clothing  and  accommodation." 


MORTALITY  OF  EUBOPEAN  SOLDIEBS  IN  INDIA.  37 

To  this  all  writers  agree.  Gibbon,  after  stating  that  ^^  the 
'  Roman  soldiers,  £rom  their  excellent  discipline,  maintained 
'  health  and  vigour  in  all  climates,"  (Asia  and  Africa  being  in- 
cluded), adds,  '^  that  man  is  the  only  animal,  which  can  live  and 
multiplj  in  every  country  from  the  Equator  to  the  Poles." 
Niebuhir,  also,  who  saw  all  the  companions  of  his  travels  perish 
around  him,  remarks,  in  his  account  of  Arabia,  that,  ^^  their 
'  diseases  arose  from  their  European  mode  of  life,  such  as  eat- 
'  ing  too  much  animal  food,  and  exposing  themselves  to  the 
^  night  air."  Colonel  Sykes,  whose  valuable  paper  on  the 
statistics  of  the  Indian  Army  we  have  before  quoted,  says  em- 
phatically, *'  The  climate  of  India  is  less  to  blame  than  individuals  : 

*  for  in  case  foreigners  find  the  people  in  a  country  healthy^  they 
'  should,  to  a  certain  extenty  coitform  to  the  habits  of  the  natives 

*  also/*  But  a  writer  of  the  present  day.  Dr.  Daniel,  who 
was  located  on  the  most  deadly  part  of  the  African  coast  in 
charge  of  H.  M.  troops,  gives  actual  proof  from  ocular  de- 
monstration of  the  truth  of  these  remarks.  At  Rio  Formosa, 
which  he  visited  in  1839,  he  found  two  vessels  moored  a  short 
distance  from  the  mouth  of  the  river,  one  of  which  had  buried  two 
entire  crews,  within  the  short  space  of  five  months,  a  solitair  per- 
son only  remaining ;  the  other,  which  had  entered  at  a  mucn  later 
period,  had  been  similarly  deprived  of  one-half  of  its  men,  and 
the  remainder  were  in  such  a  debilitated  condition,  as  to  be 
incapable  of  undertaking  any  active  or  laborious  duty.  He 
concludes  thus:  ^'And  vet,  amid  these  regions  so  rife  with 

*  disease  and  death,  I  have  known  Europeans  reside  for  a 

*  number  of  years  in  the  enjoyment  of  good  health,  from  the 
'  simple  secret  of  moderately  conforming  to  the  habits  of  the 

*  natives,  as  regards  diet,  exercise,  and  attention  to  the  due 

*  performance  of  the  cutaneous  functions." 

This  brings  us  to  the  real  object  of  the  present  article, 
viz..  How  may  this  dread  mortality  and  sickness  be  lessened,  or 
avoided  ?  Why  do  we  sit  down  in  a  state  of  stoical  apathy, 
and  say, '  It  must  be  so,  because  it  always  has  been  so  7  We 
are  confounding  the  "  post  hoc"  with  the  "  propter  hoc."  We 
cannot  change  the  climate,  it  is  true :  but  we  ^^  can  mould  our 
'  obsequious  frames  to  the  nature  of  the  skies,  under  which  we 
'  sojourn* ;"  we  can  study  the  habits  of  the  natives  of  the  soil 
among  whom  we  dwell,  and  **  call  to  our  aid  those  artificial 

*  means  of  prevention  and  amelioration,  which  reason  may 

*  dictate  and  experience  confirm."  f 

*  Dr.  JamM  Johnson,  on  Trofilcal  CUmatet.  f  Ibid. 


38  MOBTALITT  OF   EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA. 

The  causes  of  disease  that  produce  such  fearful  loss  in  the 
ranks  of  our  European  regiments  in  India,  may  be  classed 
under  two  heads:  1st  Those  connected  with  the  locality  itself, 
in  which  the  troops  are  placed,  including  climate,  position, 
barrack  accommodation,  ventilation,  and  drainage;  2ndly.  Those 
over  which  the  individual  himself  has  a  control,  such  as  per- 
sonal habits,  occupation,  amusements,  &c. 

We  shall  briefly  show  by  one  or  two  examples,  what  has 
been  done  by  sanatory  measures  in  diminishing  the  destructive 
effects  of  some  of  our  most  unhealthy  stations  m  this  country. 

From  a  return  shewing  the  mortality  at  Hong  Kong  and 
Tinghae,  we  find  that,  at  the  latter  place,  there  died,  in  less  than 
six  months,  viz.,  from  July  13th  to  l)ecember  31st,  1840,  no  less 
than  433  men  in  three  of  H.  M.  regiments.  The  18  th  regi- 
ment lost  fifty-two,  the  26th  regiment  238,  and  the  49th  re- 
giment 143.  At  this  rate  of  mortality,  an  entire  regiment 
would  have  been  destroyed,  as  regards  numbers,  in  a  twelve 
month. 


per  cent. 

In 

1,000  Men. 

At  Hoog-KoDg  in  1842  there  died  19 

or 

190 

184S          „          22 

»» 

220 

1844          ,.         13i 

ft 

135 

1845           .,           8i 

»» 

85 

1848           „           2i 

It 

25 

Now,  during  the  first  three  years,  the  troops  were  exposed 
to  the  malarious  influence  of  the  paddy-fields,  and  were  very 
badlv  housed.  In  1845,  their  accommodation  and  position  were 
much  improved ;  and  since  that  time,  excellent  barracks  having 
been  built,  and  great  attention  paid  to  drainage  and  ventilation, 
the  sickness  is  not  greater  than  that  of  a  healthy  station.  At 
Kurraclu  and  Bellary,  the  same  results  have  been  produced,  by 
increasing  the  accommodation  and  space  in  barrackia.  At  both 
of  these  stations,  it  was  proved  beyond  a  doubt,  that,  where  ten 
deaths  were  caused  by  cholera,  a  hundred  might  be  attributed 
to  over-cro wdinff.  The  men,  literally,  were  poisoned  by  an  arti- 
ficial pestilential  atmosphere.  This  is  totally  separate  from  a 
bad  locality ;  although,  where  both  causes  are  combined,  as  at 
Secunderabad,  death  mows  down  its  victims  with  two^fold 
power.  At  the  latter  station,  which  is  the  most  unhealthy  in 
the  Madras  presidency,  the  average  mortality  among  the  Euro- 
pean troops,  for  fifteen  years  previous  to  1846-47,  has  been  75 
per  1,000 — being  nearlv  double  the  average  of  the  entire 
presidency,  and  more  tnan  double  the  average  of  the  more 
healthy  stations.  The  men  composing  the  regiment,  are  crowd- 
ed into  small  barracks  and  narrow  verandahs,  while  the  officers 


MORTALITY  OF  EUBOPEAN  S0LDIEB6  IN  INDIA.  39 

of  the  same  regiment^  and  the  detachment  of  artillery,  who  are 
quartered  in  more  roomy  barracks  at  no  great  distance,  are 
comparatiyely  healthy  and  free  from  disease. 

Dr.  Burke,  the  late  Inspector-General,  speaking  of  this  sta* 
tion,  says,  "  The  excess  of  casualties  in  H.  M.  regiment  at 
Secunderabad  over  that  of  any  corps  in  the  other  stations  of 
the  presidency,  during  four  years,  is  117  men  ;  a  loss,  there- 
fore, intrinsically  of  that  station,  exclusive  of  officers,  wo- 
men and  children.  It  has  been  stated  that  every  European 
soldier  landed  in  India,  costs  the  state  £100  sterling ;  calcu- 
lating from  which,  the  intrinsic  loss  of  117  European  soldiers 
by  Secimderabad  in  4^  years  is  £11,700  sterling.  But, 
as  these  117  men  have  to  be  replaced,  the  doing  so  will 
cost  another  £11,700  ; — to  which  must  be  added  the  loss  in 
acclimati2dng  these  latter,  amounting  on  the  lowest  calcula- 
tion to  one-eighth,  or  £1,462  ;  giving  a  sum  total  of  £24,862^ 
as  the  actuajf  loss  sustained  in  4^  years,*  or  probably  as 
three  lakhs  of  rupees  in  five  years.  But  as  Secunderabad 
would  appear  to  have  been  a  station  for  European  troops  for 
at  least  thirty  years,  the  cost  to  the  state  for  that  period  may 
be  estimated  at  twelve  lakhs  at  least." 
So  much  for  the  value  of  fresh  and  pure  air,  as  a  mere  ques- 
tion of  finance ; — but  it  has  often  struck  us  as  one  of  the  stran- 
gest anomalies,  that  it  should  be  so  litUe  valued  and  appreciated, 
by  all  classes,  and  in  every  country  and  climate.  Until  the 
discovery  of  the  circulation  of  the  blood  by  the  great  Harvey, 
it  was  the  universal  opinion  of  both  ancients  and  moderns,  that 
air  was  the  circulating  fluid  in  our  veins  and  arteries.  It  is  too 
much  the  habit,  in  the  present  day,  to  fall  into  an  opposite  error, 
and  to  fancy  that  it  never  enters  into  our  animal  system  at  all; 
or  at  any  rate  to  act,  as  if  we  had  such  an  idea.  Who  is  there, 
(however  poor  or  straitened  his  circumstances  may  be)  that 
would  offer  his  fellow  a  dirty  plate,  or  a  cup  of  dirty  water  ?  A 
hair,  a  straw,  a  mere  mote  is  carefully  picked  out,  before  we  put 
the  glass  to  our  lips  ;  and  yet  we,  one  and  all,  with  strange  in- 
consistency, think  nothing  of  swallowing  draughts  of  dirty  air. 
The  particles  of  dust,  that  we  so  carefuUy  wipe  from  our  mouth, 
or  the  minute  substance,  that  we  detect  floating  on  the  sur- 
tsuce  of  our  draught,  and  pause  to  remove,  ere  satisfying  our 
thirst,  are  in  themselves  harmless ;  the  infinitesimal  speck  of  car- 
bonized matter,  that  has  haply  fiJlen  from  the  fire  on  our  meat, 

*  We  do  not  quite  see  the  propriety  of  thus  doubling  the  loss  in  4}  years.  It 
would  appear  that  the  real  pecuniary  loss  snstaiued  is  the  expense  of  bringing  out 
the  men,  who  haTedied;  or  £11,700,  with  a  per-centage  addea  for  the  acclknatising 
of  the  recmita,  by  whom  their  places  are  to  be  filled  up.— £d. 


40  MORTALITY  OF   EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS  IK  INDIA. 

raises  our  whole  bile^  though,  in  itself,  literally  wholesome; 
but  poisonous  foetid  air,  that  has  been  breathed  over  and  over 
again,  until  it  has  become  destructive  to  animal  life,  we  inspire 
with  the  most  stolid  indifference. 

A  remarkable  instance  of  the  poisonous  effects,  resulting  from 
over-crowding  and  want  of  air,  is  given  by  Dr.  Mackinnon. 
It  proves  how  the  bad  reputation  of  a  station  may  be  entirely 
owing  to  local  causes  (not  natural  or  peculiar  to  the  site),  which 
might  be  easily  removed  or  remedied.  In  speaking  of  Dina- 
pore,  he  tells  us,  **  that  the  European  regiment  quartered  here, 

*  occupies  two  ranges  of  buildings  extremely  hot,  confined  and 

*  ill-ventilated.    In  May  1847,  the  98th  regiment  lost  sixty 

*  men :  whilst  there  was  not  one  death  among  the  artillery,  liv- 

*  ing  within  a  few  yards,  but  in  better  barracks." 

What  ventilation  will  do  for  the  buildings,  drainage  and 
cleanliness  will  do  for  the  locality  ;  although  it  is  too  much  the 
fashion  in  the  present  day  to  "run  up"  cantonments  with  every 
possible  despatch,  and  pay  no  thought  or  attention  to  that  great 
item,  drainage.  The  barracks  are  built,  the  officers'  bunga- 
lows finished,  and  large  pits  and  hollows  in  every  direction  testify 
to  the  activitv,  if  not  to  the  prudence,  of  the  architect.  The 
ground  thus  becomes  artificially  lowered  and  sunk.  During  the 
dry  weather,  these  excavations  become  the  receptacles  of  refuse 
of  every  description,  and  after  the  rains,  they  are  hot-beds  of 
malaria.  Those,  who  know  what  a  large  standing  camp  is  in 
all  its  minutuB,  may  do  well  to  pause  and  consider  what  a 
large  military  station,  with  its  sudder  and  regimental  bazars, 
its  commissariat  establishment,  hospitals  and  thousands  of  camp 
followers,  must  become,  where  no  regular  system  of  drainage  is 
laid  down  and  systematically  carried  out  We,  too  often,  go  on 
the  principle  of  "  every  man  his  own  doctor,"  and  expect  the 
station  to  drain  itself. 

A  foreigner  would  feel  no  little  surprise  at  the  quiet  easy 
way,  in  which,  not  only  our  military  stations  in  this  country  are 
chosen,  but  also  abandoned.  While  these  sheets  are  being 
corrected  for  the  press,  we  learn  that  the  station  of  Ludiioah 
is  "  done  away  with^  as  the  phrase  goes.  Now  Ludi&nah  and 
Kum&l  were  once  considered  two  of  the  very  healthiest  sta- 
tions :  but  diet,  stagnant  water,  and  other  removable  causes, 
have,  in  each  case,  caused  the  loss  of  lakhs  of  rupees  to  the  pub- 
lic, and  much  needless  expense  to  individuals,  who  could  ill 
afford  it.  At  Kum^l,  the  European  barracks  were  good,  but 
badly  placed — close  to  the  canal,  which  was  allowed  to  overflow 
and  form  marshes,  in  the  rushes  and  grass  of  which,  close  to 


HOBTALITT  OF  EUBOPEAN  SOLDXEBS  IN  INDIA.         41 

cantonments,  elephants  even  might  have  been  lost.  At  Ludi- 
inab,  the  European  barracks  (except  those  of  the  artillery) 
were,  and  we  believe  still  are,  what  is  caUed  "  temporary ,"  that 
is,  capable  of  standing  for  two  or  three  years,  and  intended  to 
last  until  they  tumble  I  The  floors  of  the  barracks  at  this  station 
were  lower  than  the  surfiabce  of  the  ground.  If  we  go  a  little 
further^  we  find  the  same  farce  being  enacted  at  Lahore. 
Something  in  the  shape  of  drainage  had  been  commenced  upon 
in  the  cantonment  of  AnarkuUi,  when  it  was  determined  to 
abandon  it ;  but  nothing  was  determined,  in  so  vital  a  matter, 
for  its  substitute,  Meanmir,  which  has  perfect  sew  between  it 
and  the  town  of  Lahore.  Condemning  a  cantonment  of  only 
four  years'  existence,  without  first  establishing  a  perfect  system 
of  drainage  and  cleaning,  is  like  amputating  a  man's  limb  at 
the  hip-joint,  for  the  cure  of  corns  on  his  feet.. 

At  ^ieshawur,  something  is  being  done :  as  the  gardens  and 
irrigation-,  immediately  surrounding  it,  were  nuisances  too  fla- 
grant to  be  winked  at.  Wuzirabad  was  built  literally  in  a 
swamp ;  and  the  officers  of  the  force  stationed  there  had  to 
Bwim^  or  go  in  boats  to  each  other,  last  season ;  but  at  Sealkote, 
(the  site  selected  instead),  we  are  not  aware  that  any  thing  is 
bein^  done  towards  draining  it.. 

These  three  cases  are  the  more  glarii^,  because  sums  of  mo* 
Bey,  fiur  beyond  any  thing  ever  before  heard  of,  are  being  ex- 
pended on  *' Palaces,"  tmrty  feet  in  height,  giving  nearly 
three  times  the  number  of  cubic  feet  of  space  per  man,  hitherto 
eonsidered  necessary  ;  while  the  soldiers  are  intermediately 
ecmdemned  to  live  for  years  in  ill-ventilated,  or  non-ventilat- 
edy  buildings  and  hovels,  that  are,  certainly,  not  half  as  good  as 
the  outer  verandah  of  the  said  "  palaces"  will  be,  when  they 
get  them.  Sixty,  seventy  and  even  eighty  lakhs  of  rupees  will 
be  the  respective  sums  required  for  erectins  each  of  the  new 
cantonments  at  Lahore,  Sealkote  and  Pei&iwur — ^years*  be- 
ing required  for  their  completion,  and  without  any  security 
•r  guarantee,  that  they  will  not  possibly  be  condemned  by 
aome  future  Sir  Charles,  who  may,  peradventure,  ride  across 
the  station^  some  wet  morning  m  1860,  and  find  his  boots*^ 
wet! 

At  Kussowli  and  Subathu,  the  European  barracks  are  not 
twelve  feet  high.  They  were  ordered  by  Lord  Ellenborough  (as 

*  The  cantonment  of  UvAaOa  was  built  by  Col.  Napier  of  the  Bengal  Eneineers 
in  two  yean ;  and  a  foree  of  10,000  men  was  honsed  comfortably  and  commoaiously. 
The  aCalion  was  drained  Bimultaueoiulyy  as  the  earth  waa  dug  out  for  bricks,  of  which 
250  lakhs  were  made. 


42 


MORTALITY   OF  EUROPEAN   SOLDIERS   IN   INDIA. 


an  experiment)  to  be  prepared  without  delay  ;*  but^  though 
temporary,  ten  years  i^o,  they  have  not  yet  been  replaced  by 
others  of  a  better  description. 

Such  are  the  extremes  we  go  into,  when  we  would  do  well 
The  kte  Commander-in-Chief  involved  the  Government  in 
much  needless  expense,  by  rushing  into  impossibles,  and  insist- 
ing on  non-essentials  ;  so  we  do  not  wonder  that  the  Govem(»r 
General  and  the  much  abused  Military  Board  should  wince  at 
every  extra  expense.  But  it  is  not  even  now  too  late  to  recti- 
fy the  error :  and  we  would  suggest  that,  if  no  other  means  o( 
suppljring  funds  for  draining,  baths,  ball-courts,  gymnasia,  and 
gardens,  be  available,  the  height  of  these  monster  barracks  be 
reduced  to  twenty-four  feet,  and  the  inner  space  to  1,200  cubic 
feet  per  man. 

We  will  here  quote  a  remarkable  instance  of  what  may  be 
done  towards  lessening  the  mortality  of  a  station  by  drainmg  ; 
and  it  is  not  less  an  instructive  example  of  the  useful  application 
of  the  labour  of  the  soldier.f  '^  Fort  King  George,  in  the  island 
^  of  Tobago,  was  at  one  time  unhealthy;  it  is  now,  as  appears 

*  by  a  comparative  view  of  the  sick  returns  of  the  army,  one 

*  of  the  healthiest  quarters  in  the  Windward  and  Leeward 
'  island  station.     The  means,  through  which  it  was  made  so,  as 

*  not  of  common  application,  deserve  to  be  brought  under  pub- 

*  lie  notice.     The  fact  is  strong,  but  it  has  not  made  useful 

*  impression  upon  the  oiBcial  authorities.  Fort  St  George 
'  stood,  in  1803,  under  the  lee  of  a  swamp,  at  a  distance  of 
^  nearly  one  mile,  and  at  an  elevation  of  500  feet  above  the 
'  level  of  it.  The  exhalations,  which  arose  from  the  swamp, 
'  carried  to  the  height  by  strong  currents  of  wind,  were  supposed 

*  to  be  injurious  to  the  health  of  the  garrison.      The  cause  was 

*  obvious :  and  the  effect  was  so  destructive  at  one  time,  that 

*  the  commanding  officer  of  the  Royal  Scots  regiment, 
'  which  then  formed  the  garrison,  acting  with  the  impulse 
^  of  a  soldier,  determined  to  drain  the  swamp  by  the  labour  of 

*  the  men,  rather  than  allow  them  to  be  destroyed  in  detail,  by 
'  its  pernicious  exhalations.     The  fact  is  autnentic,  and  it  is 

*  important.  It  furnishes  unequivocal  proof,  that  the  European 
'  is  not  less  capable  of  sustaining  labour  in  tropical  climates, 

*  It  was  generally  anderstood,  and  we  believe  given  out  by  Lord  EUenborongli 
himself,  that  his  object^  in  ordering  these  barracks  to  be  **  rtm  up  without  delay,'*  was 
to  prevent  the  posbibility  of  their  being  objected  to  by  the  Court  of  Directors.  It  is 
possible  that  a  similar  reason  actuated  Sir  Charles  Napier,  when  he  hurried  on  the 
Foundations  and  walls  of  his  monster-model  barracks  in  the  Punj&b. 

t  "  A  view  of  the  formation,  discipline  and  economy  of  armiee,"  by  Dr.  Bobert 
Jackson. 


VOBTALITT  OF  EUBOPEAN  SOLDIEBS  IN  INDIA.         43 

*  even  severe  field  labour,  than  the  African ;  and  it  is  further 
'  of  value^  as  it  shows  that  most  of  what  relates  to  the 
'  quarters  and  accommodation  of  the  military,  may  be  eifected 

*  by  the  military  themselves,  without  expense  to  the  public. 

*  The  planters  lent  the  tools  in  the  present  case ;  and  the  soldiers 

*  of  the  Koyals  drained  the  bog.  They  did  it  without  reward, 
^  and  without  injury  to  their  health.     Fort  King  George  is 

*  now  a  healthy  station,  and  is  rendered  so  by  the  *  Royals.' 
'  Its  future  garrison  may  be  supposed  to  bear  a  lasting  sense  of 

*  gratitude  to  the  memory  of  Lt  Col.  MacDonald,  who  con- 

*  ceived  the  feasibility  of  the  undertaking  from  his  own  good 
'  sense,  and  executed  it  at  his  own  responsibility." 

Though  much  may  be  done  by  the  means  here  pointed  out, 
it  cannot  be  denied,  that  some  of  our  military  stations,  such  as 
Berhampore,  Barrackpore,  and  Masulipatam,  are  decidedly  un- 
healthy localities.  The  former,  after  a  trial  of  seventy-seven  years, 
and  an  expenditure  of  the  enormous  sum  of  sixteen  millions  eight 
hundred  thousand  pounds  sterling  (including  capital  and  in- 
terest), was  abandoned  as  a  station  for  European  troops  by  order 
of  Lord  William  Bentinck,  in  1835.  The  deaths,  on  an  average 
taken  for  thirteen  vears,  amounted  to  103  in  1,000  men :  so 
that,  if  to  the  cost  of  the  buildings,  which  were  unexceptionable, 
we  add  the  intrinsic  loss  resulting  from  the  destruction  of  life, 
we  should  arrive  to  a  result  of  the  most  startling  and  fearful 
nature.  Dr.  B.  Jackson  was  the  first  individual  who  pointed 
out  to  Government,  the  advantage  of  locating  European  troops 
in  the  interior  and  mountainous  parts  of  the  tropicleJ  islands : 
and  '^  since  the  adoption  of  the  measure  proposed  by  him  of 
'  forming  cantonments,  on  the  mountain  ranges,  the  diminu- 
'  tion  in  the  rates  of  sickness  and  mortality  has  been  such  as  to 

*  justify  the  assertion,  that  if  this  measure  had  been  adopted 

*  at  the  time  it  was  first  urged  by  him,  the  lives  of  from  8,000 

*  to  12,000  men  would  have  l)een  saved ;— a  sufficient  lesson,  one 

*  would  think,  to  our  military  authorities,  not  to  delay  the  in- 
'  trodaction  of  improvements,  which  experienced  medical  offi- 

*  cera  concur  in  urgently  recommending."* 

In  the  East  Indies,  the  same  measure  was  advocated  by  Dr. 
J.  R.  Martin,  and  the  plan,  suggested  by  him,  of  calling  on 
military  surgeons  for  notices  of  the  medical  topography  of  the 
country  generally,  was  adopted  and  ordered  for  the  three  presi- 
dencies in  November  1845,  by  the  direct  act  of  the  Government. 

We  confess  that  we  see  no  grounds  on  which  state  policy 
can  defend  the  retaining  European  troops  at  Fort  WiUiam, 
Dam  Dum,  Dinapore,  and  Allahabad,  when  the  range  of  the 

«  BriUflh  and  Foreign  Medico  Cbirurgical  Revicir,  Vol.  IX.,  January  ViSO,page  96. 


44        MOBTALITY   OF   EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN   INDIA. 

Cossyah  hills  to  the  Souths  and  the  Himalayas  to  the  North 
East,  present  such  facilities  for  locating  them  in  a  climate  adapt- 
ed to  their  constitution ;  and  where  they  would  be  a  vigorous, 
hardily-trained  body  of  troops,  ready  to  take  the  field  on  any 
emergency,  instead  of  being,  as  at  present,  corps  of  which  full 
half  the  men  are  either  young  recruits,  invalids,  or  sick.  It 
has  been  proved  by  various  returns,  that  out  of  every  1,000 
British  troops  in  Bengal,  129  men  are  constantlv  confined  to 
hospital  with  sickness ;  and  that  for  every  individual  soldier  there 
are  registered  two  attacks  of  illness  in  the  year  :  and  this,  it 
must  be  remembered,  is  only  the  ratio  taken  as  the  average  of 
the  whole  presidency,  whereas,  at  particular  stations,  as  Fort 
William,  Chinsurah,  and  Dinapore,  the  number  is  much  higher. 

By  a  very  interesting  document  lying  before  us,  we  learn 
that  of  one  of  H.  M.  regiments,  which  arrived  in  this  country, 
eight  vears  ago,  there  are  now  exactly  109  men  left.  One 
seventh  part  only  are  surviving,  after  a  lapse  of  seven  and  half 
years.  At  this  proportion  a  regiment  would  be  decimated  in 
a  twelve  month  I 

We  give  the  details  in  the  form  of  a  Dr.  and  Cr.  account ; 
and  only  wish  that  similar  returns  were  published  yearly  from 
every  regiment : — 

H.  M.  08tA  Regiment,  January 1 1851. 


Periods. 


StreDgth  of  regiment  on  landing  in  China,  July  1842 

Deaths  amongst  this  number,  between  that  period  > 
and  February  1844,  a  space  of  18  months ( 

Strength  of  regiment  on  arrival  of  the  Dep6t,  > 
February  1844  S 

Strength  of  the  Dep6t  Companies  joining  service,  > 
in  1844  S 

Number  of  Recruits  and  Volunteers  received  be- 
tween February  1844,  and  embarkation  from 
Chusan  for  India,  in  July  1846,  a  period  of  two 
years  and  a  half 

Strength  of  regiment  on  landing  at  Calcutta,  in  > 
November  1846 ) 

Recruits  and  Volunteers  received  since 

Deaths,  and  Invalided  since  November  1846,  up  to  ^ 
1st  Januarv  1850  \ 

Number  of  deaths  between  I7th  February  audi 
20th  November  1840,  a  period  of  nine  months  > 
(Not  marching) ) 

Number  of  men  now  effective  who  came  out  to  ) 
China  with  the  regiment  in  July  1842.,  a  pe-  > 
nod  of  seven  and  half  years ) 


Ser- 

Drum- 

Rank& 

jeants 

mers. 

File. 

87 

11 

718 

11 

4 

417 

82 

7 

804 

11 

5 

680 

ti 

1 

258 

52 

18 

689 

1 

0 

644 

29 

7 

403 

8 

1 

83 

7 

1 

101 

HOBTALITT   OF  EdBOPEAN   SOLDIEBS  IN   INDIA.  4 

Ab*traet  tketeing  the  Inergate  and  Deenaie  in  H.  M.  QStA  .B^ttMHt. 


Xnarease  in  Ti  years. 


joiniDg  of  Depdt  .... 
Recruits  TTom  England.. . 
Voliinteen 


ToUl  Incnwe...l,5Q0men 


Strengtb  now  present.. 


Decrease  in  T}  jean. 


B7  Deatb  ... 
InTtJiding  .. 


ToUl  loss  bj  dokness...  1,843 


^1 

The  number  of  men,  who  have  taken  their  dischai^e,  &c., 
has  been  purposely  omitted  from  this  table,  irhich  shows  the 
decrease,  by  sickness  alone,  to  have  been  at  the  rate  of  178 
men  yearly. 

Now,  this  regiment  hae  never  enjoyed  the  advantages  of  a 
hill  station.  Had  a  certain  proportion  of  the  men,  selected 
from  amongst  the  most  unhealthy,  with  due  re^rd  to  their  par- 
ticular cases,  been  located  for  six  months  at  Darjeling,  while 
the  re^ment  was  at  Dinapore  in  1848,  or  immediately  after 
the  corps  arrived  from  China,  the  result  would  have  been  very 
different.  But  we  totally  dissent  from  the  plan  on  which  our 
"  sanataria"  are  made  use  of  at  present  Instead  of  sending 
only  the  invalids  of  the  season  to  Darjeling,  Museliii,  or  Kus- 
Bowli — drageing  the  poor  creatures,  many  in  a  state  of  great 
Buffering  and  exhaustion,  hundreds  of  miles  for  the  purpose,  and 
locating  entire  regiments  at  Dugshae  and  Subathu — we  would 
eamesuy  advocate  an  equal  enjoyment  of  the  hill  stations  by 
each  of  the  European  regimente  serving  in  the  Presidency, 
by  letting  every  corps,  cavalry,  artillery  and  infantry,  benefit 
yearly  by  them  to  an  equal  extent  as  regards  numbers,  and  for  a 
umilar  period.  Thus,  if  a  detachment  of  from  fifteen  to  twenty- 
five  per  cent,  from  every  European  corps  were  marched  to 
the  nearest  hill  station,  so  as  to  arrive  in  the  early  part  of 
April,  and  all  those  not  requiring  a  winter  in  the  hills  ordered 
to  rejoin  head  quarters  again  in  November  or  December,  there 
could  be  no  dissatisfaction  felt  on  the  point  of  Interest  or  favour- 
itism, and  the  greatest  benefit  would  result  to  the  greatest 
number.  A  seven  months'  residence  in  the  hills  is  sufficient 
for  most  parties ; — many  get  tired  and  '•  ennuyed"  in  half  that 


46         MORTALITY  OF   EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS   IN  INDIA. 

time ;  while  to  manj^  the  climate  is  not  only  not  beneficial,  but 
positively  injurious.  To  the  larger  bulk  of  a  European  re- 
giment, if  located  in  good  barracks  at  an  ordinarily  healthy 
station  in  the  Upper  Provinces,  a  hill  climate  is  by  no  means 
necessary.  The  men  should  be  selected  by  the  medical  and 
commanding  officers  of  each  regiment,  with  reference  to 
their  state  of  health  during  the  past  year,  as  well  as  good  con- 
duct, and  be  accompanied  by  a  relative  proportion  of  their  own 
officers,  the  detachment  being  commanded  by  a  selected  one. 
The  only  objection,  that  we  have  heard  offered  to  this  plan  of 
letting  all  the  European  Regiments  benefit  to  an  equal  degree 
yearly  by  our  "  sanataria,"  is  that  the  men  would  suffer  in 
their  drill,  or  fall  off  in  discipline.  With  a  good  selected  field- 
officer  to  command  the  dep6t,  with  a  good  depot-staff,  and  with 
each  regimental  detachment  commanded  by  a  selected  officer, 
we  do  not  see  why  there  should  be  any  falling  off  in  discipline. 
The  argument,  if  true,  would  tell  both  ways;  for,  if  the  men 
from  some  very  "  crack"  corps  did  retrograde  in  their  drill, 
others  would  improve.  All  commanding  officers  of  regiments 
are  not  so  strict,  able  and  considerate,  nor  are  all  regimental 
systems  so  good,  as  that  individuals  and  detachments  might  not 
even  gain  by  removal  for  a  time,  to  be  placed  under  different 
men  and  different  influences.  But  even  admitting  that  there 
were  temporary  deterioration,  and  that  the  men  returned  to 
their  regiments  again  a  little  slack  in  their  parade  duties,  better 
this,  than  having  to  replace  them  by  raw  recruits ;  better  that 
they  should  appear  a  little  round-shouldered  with  the  rud- 
diness of  health,  than  be  stretched  out  on  hospital  cots, 
and  carried  about  in  a  dying  state  in  "  doolies."  Better, 
far  better,  to  be  in  the  hands  of  the  drill  serjeant  than  the 
doctor  1 

There  is  another,  and,  we  suspect,  more  prevailing  reason. 
Some  commanding  officers  would  rather  have  1,000  pale-faced 
Indians  in  their  ranks  than  800  ruddy  Europeans.  Short-sighted 
and  cruel  policy !  Neither  the  ^^ physiqu^  nor  ^^  morale  of  the 
majority  of  Europeans  will  stand  many  consecutive  years  of 
exposure  in  the  plains  of  India.  Napoleon  and  other  great  com- 
manders carefully  watched  the  morale  of  their  soldiers.  It  is 
too  much  neglected  in  India :  and  while  every,  doctor  will  tell 
his  subaltern  or  centurion  neighbour,  that  he  has  been  too  long 
in  India,  and  that  he  should  go  home  and  take  a  run  on  the 
Continent,  or  in  the  Highlands — how  few  think  that  European 
soldiers,  with  fewer  comforts  and  more  exposure,  even  when  not 
positively  prostrated  by  illness,  require  tJieir  change,  and  their 
stimulus.  We  are  convinced  that  for  ordinary  times,  and  to 
meet  daily  wants,  the  system,  we  advocate,  would  save  hundreds 


MOBTAMTY  OF  EUBOPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA.  47 

of  lives  and  lakhs  of  rupees :  and  we  could  shew  that  it  might 
possibly  save  an  anny,  nay  even  an  empire.  No  one,  who 
saw  H.  M.  44th  regiment  marching  for  Kabul  in  1840,  and 
had  witnessed  the  landing  of  the  same  corps  at  Calcutta,  less 
than  twenty  years  before,  but  will  understand  our  meaning. 
At  Arracan,  during  the  Burmese  war,  it  was  as  fine  a  corps  as 
any  in  the  service ;  at  Kabul,  it  was  composed  of  pale-faced 
boys,  many  of  them  bom  in  the  country,  and  of  broken  down 
Indianized  old  men,  who  passed  the  greater  part  of  the  year 
in  hospital     The  Morale  was  as  low  as  the  Physique. 

We  must  pass  on,  however,  to  points  of  special  Hygiene,  over 
which  the  European  soldier  has  individually  a  personal  controul. 
Upon  this  head  Dr.  Daniell  remarks  : — 

^'  Could  those  causes  of  disease,  which  have  been  hitherto 

*  ascribed  to  climatorial  alternations,  be  more  thoroughly  in- 

*  vestigated,  I  apprehend,  we  should  discover  that  no  small 

*  number  were  foimded  on  very  inconclusive  data.  It  is  a 
^  well-known  fact,  that  the  notorious  insalubrity  of  Africa  has 

*  frequently  served  as  the  scape-goat,  on  which  the  blame  of 
'  those  evil  consequences    (resulting  from  the  reprehensible 

*  indulgence    of   dissipated    courses)  might  be  unreservedly 

*  thrown,  without  the  risk  of  their  being  disputed,  or  even  ques- 

*  tioned.  When  we  seriously  reflect  on  the  impaired  consti- 
'  tution  of  two  thirds  of  the  human  beings  who  frequent  these 
^  colonies,  recklessly  indifferent  as  to  the  price  of  life,  we  re- 
^  quire  no  further  argument  for  the  rational  explanation  of 

*  those  abnormal  states  of  the  system,  that  so  largely  swell  the 

*  amount  of  victims  in  these  occasional  and  almost  inexplicable 

*  pestilences." 

Colonel  Sykes  is  not  less  explicit : — "  I  have  a  strong  con- 
viction," he  says,  ^*  that  much  of  European  disease  in  India  is 

*  traceable  to  over-stimulus ;  and  that  the  mortality  amon^  the 
^  European  troops  will  not  be  lessened,  until  the  European 

*  soldier  is  improved  in  his  habits ;  until  he  is  made  to  under- 

*  stand  that  temperance  is  for  the  benefit  of  his  body,  libraries 

*  for  the  benefit  of  his  mind,  exercise  for  the  benefit  of  lus  healthy 
^  and  Savings  Banks  for  the  benefit  of  his  purse." 

The  excessive  use  of  spirituous  liquors,  according  to  the 
same  authority,  and  accordiug  to  all  experience,  is  the  great 
cause  of  sickness  and  mortality  amongst  our  European  troops.  In 
analysing  the  comparative  ratio  of  deaths  between  natives  and 
British  soldiers,  occurring  in  the  three  presidencies,  (table  1) 
three  points  strike  us,  as  remarkable.  '*  In  the  first  mace,  the 
'  great  contrast  between  the  rate  of  mortality  of  the  European 
'  and  of  the  native  troops,  serving  together,  and  exposed  to 

*  the  same  morbific  causes;  secondly,  the    great  difference 


48        MORTALITY  OF  EUBOPEAN  SOLDIERS  IK  INDIA. 


between  the  mortality  of  the  troops  serving  in  the  different 
presidencies;  and  thirdly,  the  circumstance,  that  in  the  Ma* 
dras  presidency,  the  rate  of  mortality  is  highest  among  the 
native  troops,  and  lowest  among  the  Europeans," 
On  the  first  point.  Colonel  Sykes  remarks ; — ^^  I  will  not  say 
that  the  question  is  absolutely  solved  by  the  reply,  "  habits 
of  life ;"  but  I  will  say,  reasoning  firom  analogy,  that  the 
reply  goes  a  great  way  to  solve  it.     The  European  soldier 
in  India  is  over-stimulated  by  food,  over-stimulated  by  drink, 
and  under-stimulated  in  mind  and  body.     He  eats  a  quantity 
of  animal  food  every  day  of  his  life ;  he  drinks  a  quantity 
of  alcohol  every  day  of  his  life,  to  the  amount  of  a  bottle 
of  spirits  in  five  days,  two  drams  being  served  out  to  him 
daily ;  and  he  has  not  any  mental,  and  little  bodily,  exercise. 
Happily,  the  pernicious  practice  has  been  recently  discon- 
tinue ;  but  time  was,  when  the  European  soldier  was  com- 
pelled to  take  his  dram  by  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning,  with 
the  thermometer  varying  firom  70^  to  90^  or  more,  at  dmerent 
seasons  of  the  year,  leavmg  him  in  a  state  of  nervous  irritation 
and  thirst,  which  could  only  be  relieved,  as  he  thought,  by 
further  potations ;  indeed,  I  have  been  assured  within  the  last 
few  days,  by  a  pensioned  artillery  stafi-serjeant,  who  never 
drank  in  India,  and  was  only  in  hospital  five  days  during  twenty^ 
one  yeari  service,  that  he  has  known,  out  of  a  detachment  of 
100  artillery  men,  no  less  than  eight  men  in  straight  jackets- 
at  one  time,  absolutely  mad  from  drink." 
'^  Now,  animal  food,  with  the  assistance  of  such  an  auxiliary^ 
and  combined  with  mental  vacuity,  go  far  to  account  for  the* 
excess  of  mortality  amongst  Europeans." 
The  question  next  arises,  why  the  mortality  of  the  Euro- 
pean troops  in  the  Madras  presidency  should  be  so  much  lead 
than  that  of  the  others,  being  about  three  fourths  that  of  the 
Bombay  troops,  and  but  little  more  than  half  that  of  the  Ben- 
gal army.     There  do  not  seem  to  be  any  such  differences  in  the 
climatorial  diseases,  or  in  the  character  of  the  military  stations 
of  the  three  presidencies  as  are  by  any  means  sufficient  to  ac* 
count  for  this  discrepancy;  and  if  there  were,  we  should  ejcpect 
them  to  manifest  themselves  alike  in  the  native  and  in  the 
European  army. 

'^  That  the  reverse  is  the  case  (for  at  Madras,  the  mortality 
^  among  the  native  soldiers  is  the  greatest,  but  the  least  among 
'  the  Europeans)  must  be  admitted  to  be  a  cogent  argument, 
^  if  not  a  complete  proof,  in  favour  of  the  insufficiency  of  any 
'  such  account  of  the  discrepancy." 

The  following  are  the  causes  assigned  by  Colonel  Sykes : — 
''  The  Bengal  European  army  has  no  supply  of  porter,  but 


MORTALITY  OF  EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA.         49 

18  furnished  with  rum^  a  spirit  not  so  wholesome  as  arracL 
On  the  other  hand,  the  Madras  army  consumes  a  large  quan- 
tity of  porter,  and  drinks  comparatively  little  spirit;  what  it 
does  consume  being  arrack.  The  Botnbay  troops  have  only 
recently  commenced  the  consumption  of  porter,  and  the  spirit 
they  drink  is  understood  to  be  more  wholesome  than  rum, 
and  less  so  than  arrack.  *' These  results,"  says  CoL  Sykes, 
are  certainly  not  condusive ;  but  I  cannot  help  associating  the 
increased  consumption  of  malt  liquor  by  the  Madras  Euro- 
peans, with  their  comparative  healthiness ;  and  the  gradations 
of  the  mortality  in  tne  Bengal  and  Bombay  European  troops, 
as  partly  influenced  by  the  quality  (no  doubt,  much  more  by 
the  quurtity)  of  the  spirits  they  respectively  consume. 
*^  Now,  on  the  other  hand,  the  excess  of  mortality  in  the 
native  army  of  Madras  above  that  of  the  Bengal  and  Bombay 
troopSf  is  equally  attributable  to  a  difference  in  the  habits 
of  the  individuals  composing  it.  Of  the  Bombay  army, 
ox-eighths  consist  of  Hindus,  and  considerably  more  than 
half  of  the  whole  army  are  Hindustanis.  These  men 
never  taste  meat,  fish,  or  spirituous  liquors;  but  live,  I 
may,  from  personal  observation,  venture  to  say,  almost 
excludiveiv  upon  unleavened  cakes  of  wheat,  or  other  ^  Ce- 
realia,'  baked  upon  an  iron  dish,  and  eaten  as  soon  as  cooked. 
The  great  majority  of  ike  Bengal  army  consists  of  a  simikr 
class  of  men.  The  Madras  army  in  its  constituents  is  the 
reverse  of  the  other  two.  In  the  cavalry,  there  are  from  six 
to  seven  Mussulmans  to  one  Hindu,  and,  in  the  infantry, 
there  is  one  Mussulman  to  every  1^  or  If  Hindus;  but 
amongst  the  latter,  there  is  a  considerable  number  of  low 
castes,  without  prejudices  about  food,  and  unrestrained  by  the 
prejudices  of  caste  ^  therefore  the  majority  of  the  native 
troops  of  the  Madras  army  can  eat  and  drink  like  Europeans. 
*^  Thus  then  we  see,  that  whereas  in  the  Madras  army,  in 
which  the  European  and  native  habits  most  closely  assimi- 
late, the  mortality  of  the  former  is  less  than  double  (about 
thirty-eight  to  twenty-one)  that  of  the  latter ;  the  morta- 
lity of  the  Bengal  Europeans  is  nearly  six  times  (about  seventy- 
four  to  thirteen)  that  of  the  Bombay  natives;  the  difference 
bearing  such  a  relation  to  tiie  greater  abstemiousness  of  the 
native  soldiery,  and  the  larger  consumption  of  spirits  by  the 
Eurraeans,  that  it  is  scarcely  possible  to  avoid  the  inference 
that  they  must  be  connected  in  the  relation  of  effect  and  cause." 
Intemperance  is,  we  have  no  doubt,  the  exciting  cause  of 
nine-tenths  of  the  sickness  and  mortality  amongst  European 
troops  in  this  country.  Men  may  disguise  the  fact,  pass  over 
it  as  b^ng  delicate  ground,  or  deny  it  altogether  by  saying, 

H 


60 


MOBTALITY  OF  EUBOPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA. 


^^  it  is  the  climate;^ — ^but  the  tmth  remains^  ^^ If  ycu  drink,  you 
die!^  If  a  man^  walking  on  the  edge  of  a  precipice,  were  to 
act,  as  if  he  were  in  the  middle  of  a  grassy  plain,  and  by  his 
own  folly  were  to  fall  to  the  bottom  of  the  abyss,  no  one  would 
say  that  the  precipice  killed  him ;  bnt  in  India,  the  climate,  the 
heaty  the  sun,  are  the  r^ady  scape-goats  for  man's  insane  action& 

Two  remarkable  paragraphs  in  the  public  journals,  lying  be- 
fore us  at  the  present  moment,  speak  volumes,  as  to  the  results 
of  temperance,  or  the  reverse. 

'^  The  Bombay  Telegraph  contains  some  interestinff  statistics, 
collected  by  Dr.  W.  B.  Carpenter,  on  the  longevity  of  the 
few  private  soldiers  in  the  Indian  service,  who  adhere  to  the 
principle  of  temperance,  as  compared  with  the  great  mdority, 
who  mdulge  in  the  free  use  of  spirituous  liquors.  In  the 
year  1838,  the  daily  average  number  of  Europeans  in  hospital, 
who  were  members  of  the  Temperance  Society,  was  only 
3.65  per  cent.,  while  the  average  of  the  remainder  was  10.20 
per  cent.,  or  nearly  three  times  as  great.  In  the  Cameronian 
regiment,  of  which  a  large  proportion  became  converts  to 
the  temperance  principle,  the  nilmber  of  gallons  of  spirits 
diminished  from  14,000  gallons  a  year  to  2,516:  and  in  1838, 
the  amount  consumed  was  8,242  gallons  less  than  the  r^- 
ment  was  entitled  to  draw.  The  general  average  for  rae 
year  1838  above  ^ven,  is  instructive,  as  it  deariy  demon- 
strates the  evil  e&cts  of  ardent  spirits  on  the  frame  of  the 
European  soldier;  and  the  details  of  the  Cameronian  r^- 
ment  are  conclusive,  as  to  the  possibilitv  of  a  regiment  main- 
taining alike  its  discipline,  and  its  cami^e  in  the  field,  with- 
out the  stimulant  of  large  quantities  of  alcohoL" — Friend  of 
India,  \%ih  July,  1850. 

The  second  paragraph,  that  attracts  our  eye,  is  an  account  in 
one  of  the  Bombay  Journals,  of  a  funeral  monument  erected  to 
the  memory  of  415  soldiers,  women,  and  children,  of  the  78th 
Highlanders,  who  died  in  one  year  in  Scinde.  It  was  this  fearful 
mortality,  that  gave  rise  to  so  much  discussion,  from  the  sensa- 
tion that  it  created  at  the  time,  and  which  has  been  lately  re- 
vived in  some  d^ee  from  the  part  that  the  late  Commander- 
in-Chief,  Sir  Charles  Napier,  took  in  the  matter — he  being  at 
that  time  the  supreme  militaxy  authority  in  Scinde. 

It  would  answer  no  good  purpose  to  open  up  the  question 
again,  as  to  the  immediate  or  remote  cause  of  the  extraordinary 
loss  of  life  on  that  occasion ;  but,  whether  it  was  intempemnce 
on  the  part  of  the  men,  or  improvidence  and  want  of  judgment 
on  the  part  of  those  who  ordered  them  to  march  in  the  month 
of  September,  still  the  &ct  remains  the  same — ^recording  a  loss 
of  life  from  exposure,  which  is,  we  believe,  without  a  parallel. 


MOBTALITT  OF  BUBOPEAN  80LDIEB6  IN  INDIA.         51 

fietaming  to  our  subjeot,  we  next  make  a  long  extract  from 
the  British  and  Foreign  Medico-Chirorgical  BevieWj  as  testify- 
ing not  only  most  fitvouiiably^  as  to  the  state  of  H.  M.  84th  Be- 
giment;  but  being  itself  most  yaluable  and  suggestive. 
The  Reviewer  (at  page  92)  says  : — 

^  Having  learned  that  the  84th  regiment  of  H.  M.  Foot 
has,  for  some  time,  enjoyed  the  reputation  of  bdng  one  of  the 
most  temperate  and  best  conducted  regiments  in  the  Euro- 
pean portion  of  the  Indian  army,  we  have  consulted  the  army 
mediod  returns,  £6r  the  purpose  of  ascertaining,  whether  its 
rate  of  mortality  has  dif^ea  in  any  marked  degree,  from  the 
average  ^ven  above ;  more  eepeciaUy,  since  it  has  been  quar- 
tered at  Secnndendbad,  which  fas  we  have  seen)  lies  under 
the  bad  repute  of  being  one  or  the  most  unhealthy  stations 
in  Ae  Madras  preridency.  In  the  year  1846-7,  the  average 
strength  of  SL  M.  troops,  in  the  Madras  presidency,  was 
5,963,  and  the  number  of  deaths  was  251,  or  4.21  per  cent, 
whidi  is  rather  above  Ae  average  mortality  in  this  presiden- 
cy, as  calcukted  b^  Colonel  Sykes.  Daring  the  first  ^ht 
months  of  this  period,  the  84th  regiment  was  quartered  at 
Ibrt  St.  George,  Madras,  which  is  considered  a  neafthy  sta- 
tion ;  it  then  performed  a  march  of  between  four  and  five 
hundred  miles  to  Secunderabad,  in  an  unusually  wet  season — 
the  roads  (such  as  they  were)  being  in  some  parts  knee-deep 
in  water ;  and  it  took  up  its  quarters  at  Secunderabad,  about 
two  montiis  previoudy  to  the  date  of  the  medical  return 
(AjMil  ist,  1847\ 

^  xhe  return  of^tfae  regiment  for  tiiis  year  presaits  us  with 
the  almost  unprecedentedly  low  number  of  thirteen  deaths  on 
an  average  strength  of  1,072  men ;  the  mortali^  being  thus 
at  the  rate  of  only  1.21  per  cent  Now,  during  the  same  peri- 
od, the  63rd  regiment,  whidi  was  quartered  at  Secunderabad 
up  to  Febmaiy  Ist,  1847,  (or  nine  months  out  <tf  the  twelve) 
lost  seventy-three  men,  winch  was  at  the  rate  of  7.88  per 
cent  for  the  entire  year ;  whilst  the  mortality  for  aU  the  cAer 
stations  in  the  Madras  command  was  only  3.02  per  cent  for 
the  same  year.  Hence  we  see,  that  the  mortality  of  the  84th 
re^ment  for  the  year  1846-7,  was  only  iwo^fths  of  that  of 
the  average  of  the  healdder  stations  in  the  Madbras  presidency, 
'  which  average  its  own  very  low  rate  contributed  to  reduce. 

"  Durii^  the  year  1847-8,  the  total  mortality  in  the  Madras 
'  presidency  was  227  to  6,040  of  average  strength,  or  3.76  per 
'  cent:  but  this  reduction,  firom  the  preceding  year,  was  not  aue 
'  to  any  considerable  difference  in  the  rate  of  mortality  at  the 
'  other  stations,  being  ahnost  entirdiy  consequent  upon  the  di- 
*  minutkm  in  the  number  of  deatibs  at  Secunderabad.  For  the 
^  84tii  regimwt,  which  renudned  at  that  station  during  the 


62         MOBTALITT  OF  EU&OPEAK  SOLDIEBS  IN  INDIA. 

whole  year^  lost  in  that  time,  no  more  than  thirty-nine  men, 
out  of  an  average  strength  of  1,139,  so  that  its  percentage 
of  mortality  was  only  3.42 ;  which  was  below  the  general  aver- 
age of  the  presidency,  and  kss  than  half  the  average  rate 
at  Secunderabad  for  fifteen  years  previously.  It  seems 
impossible  to  attribute  these  remarkable  results  to  an}" 
thmg  but  the  abstinent  habits  of  the  soldiers  of  this  regi- 
ment ;  a  large  proportion  of  them  being  total  ^'  abstainers,^ 
and  those,  who  were  not  so,  being  very  moderate  in  their 
consumption  of  alcoholic  liquors.  The  influence  of  the  sys- 
tem upon  their  moral  health  has  been  no  less  favorable  than 
upon  their  physical  During  the  year  1846-47,  as  we  learn 
from  the  surgeon's  report,  there  was  but  a  single  court-mar- 
tial in  the  entire  regiment  On  the  march  to  Secunderabad^ 
which  occupied  forty-seven  days,  there  was  not  a  single  pri- 
soner for  drunkenness ;  the  o£Gicers  were  surprised  to  find  that 
the  men  marched  far  better,  and  with  fewer  stragglers  than 
they  had  ever  before  known ;  and  it  was  noticed  by  eve- 
^one,  that  the  men  were  unusually  cheerful  and  contented, 
what  a  heavy  responsibility  have  our  military  authorities 
taken  upon  themselves,  in  ordering  the  discontinuance  of 
Temperance  Societies  in  the  army !  We  have  been  inform- 
ed by  a  regimental  surgeon,  recently  arrived  from  India, 
that  within  one  month  after  the  promulgation  of  this  order, 
he  htfd  forty  cases  of  'delirium  tremens'  under  his  care. 
The  reason  assigned  for  this  measure  we  understand  to  be 
that  nothing  like  an  *  imperium  in  imperio^  can  be  permitted 
in  the  army — ^its  systematic  organization  for  military  purposes 
being  (it  is  considered)  interfered  with  bv  any  other,  nowever 
good  its  design,  and  however  beneficial  its  effects.  We  can- 
not imagine  that  the  Commander-in-Chief,  when  he  issued 
such  an  order,  can  have  given  his  attention  to  the  subject,  or  he 
would  have  seen  from  such  returns,  as  those  we  have  adduced, 
how  greatly  temperance  is  to  the  advantage  of  military  subor- 
dination, as  well  as  to  the  health  and  general  welfare  of  the 
troops.  The  difficulty  would  be  got  over  with  the  greatest 
facihty,  if  the  officers  of  the  regiment  would  become  the  of- 
ficers of  its  Temperance  Society,  as  we  understand  to  have 
been  the  case  in  the  84tlL  There  would  then  be  no  ground 
whatever  for  the  apprehension,  that  the  organization  of  the 
Temperance  Societv  could,  in  any  way,  intenere  with  that  of 
the  re^ment,  and  the  example  of  the  officers  could  not  but 
have  uie  most  beneficial  effect  upon  the  men,  as  was  abun- 
dantly proved  in  the  case  just  referred  to. 
"  But  even  if  this  be  not  thought  practicable,  we  would 
strongly  urge  (^with  Dr.  Mackinnon)  that  the  use  of  beer 
shoula  be  substituted  as  much  as  possible  for  that  of  spirits; 


HOBTALITT  OF  EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA.  53 

every  thing  is  in  favor  of  such  a  measure*  It  is  well-known 
that,  since  the  introduction  of  bitter  ale,  as  the  ordinary  be- 
verage at  the  officers'  mess  table,  in  place  of  wine  and  spi- 
rits, the  longevity  of  the  officers  in  the  Indian  service  has  so 
greatly  increased,  that  promotion  is  no  longer  expected  to  be 
more  rapid  in  that  part  of  the  army  than  in  any  other.  The 
thing  has  been  already  done  for  the  soldiery,  to  a  great  ex- 
tent, in  the  Madras  army,  and  more  partially  in  the  Bombay 
force ;  why  should  it  not,  we  ask,  in  Ben^  ? — since  there 
can  be  no  greater  practical  difficulty  in  that  presidency  than  has 
been  already  overcome  in  the  others.  A  fact,  mentioned  by 
Dr.  Mackinnon,  tells  strongly  in  favor  of  the  advantages, 
which  might  be  expected  from  such  a  change,  as  well  as  in 
favour  of  exercise  in  the  open  air,  as  conducive  to  health.  The 
Indigo-planters  at  Tirhdt,  he  tells  us,  lead  active  lives,  enjoy 
the  comforts  of  good  country-houses  and  generous  wholesome 
diet ;  but,  on  the  other  hand,  they  are  subject  to  much  ex- 
posure ;  and  the  district  cannot  be  re^rded  as  very  favour- 
able to  healthy  since,  although  coqiparatively  cool,  well  clad  with 
v^etation,  and  free  from  jungle,  there  are  many  lagoons  or 
ola  beds  of  rivers,  and  extensive  rice-jhils,  full  of  water 
in  the  rains,  but  drying  up  more  or  less  completely  by  evapora- 
tion. '  For  Natives,'  say  Dr.  Mackinnon, '  I  do  not  believe 
there  are  many  parts  of  India  more  unheidthy.  But  the  ap* 
pearance  of  the  indigo-planters  is  that  of  rude,  robust  h^th, 
very  different  from  wat  of  the  Civil  Servants  residing  at  the 
stations  in  the  same  district.  Many  of  them  are  generous 
livers,  as  to  the  luxuries  of  the  table ;  but  as  to  drink,  beer  is 
their  fiivourite  beverage — ^the  slightest  excess  in  spirits  being 
always  found  prejudicial,  and  a  free  indulgence,  fatal  after  a 
time."  The  European  male  population,  during  the  ten  years 
that  Dr.  Mackinnon  resided  among  them,  amounted  to  an 
average  of  130 ;  and  during  this  penod,  ujo  more  than  nineteen 
deaths  occurred  among  them,  which  is  at  the  rate  of  only 
1.46  per  cent,  per  anntm;  ai^d  Beyeral  of  these  deaths  weri 
brought  about  by  diseases,  which  might  probably  be  attributed 
to  habitual  excess  in  diet,  and  wUch  would  be  less  likely 
to  occur,  if  even  the  moderate  stimulus  of  beer,  with  that  of 
high  seasoned  cookery,  were  dispensed  with." 
In  the  concluding  paragraph  we  most  cordially  agree,  and 
we  think  that  the  true  solution  of  the  problem  lies  not  in  the 
consumption  of  beer,  but  in  the  avoidance  of  spirituous  liquors, 
and  the  advantage  of  daily  exercise  in  the  open  air;  while  the 
mind  is  at  the  same  time  occupied,  not  in  a  business,  forced  and 
distasteful,  but  in  pursuits,  which  embrace  both  interest  and 
recreation.  How  widely  does  this  picture  differ  from  that  of 
the  European  soldier  in  India! 


54         MORTALITT  OF   EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA. 

Another  point  on  which  very  much  of  our  sicknefis  depends, 
Viz,,  want  of  pure  and  wholesome  water^  ia  deeerving  of 
special  notice. 
"•^^  It  is  not  to  be  expected  that  tiie  habit  of  water-driiiking 
should  become  more  preyalent  among  our  Indian  army,  unless 
good  water  be  proyided.  We  gather  from  various  passives 
in  Dr.  Mackinnon's  work,  that  very  little  attention  is  usually 
paid  to  this  point  It  is  sometimes  raised  from  wells,  and  kept 
m  large  eartnen  jars  for  use ;  in  other  instances,  it  is  obtained 
from  tanks,  in  which  rain  water  is  collected.  In  bolii  cases, 
however,  it  almost  invariably  contains  a  large  impr^nation 
of  vegetable  and  animal  matter ;  so  that  it  very  spee£ly  be- 
comes foetid.  A  very  slight  degree  of  trouble  is  sufficient  to 
correct  this  evil,  at  an  idmost  nominal  expense ;  the  remedy 
being  simply  to  keep  tiie  reservoirs  clean,  and  to  boil  the 
water,  and  niter  it  through  charcoal  Of  the  pernicious  ef- 
fects of  the  habitual  use  of  foul  water,  there  cannot  be  the 
least  doubt,  either  theoretically  or  practically ;  for  whilst 
theory  would  show  that  the  continual  introdueoon  of  putres- 
cent matter  into  the  system,  in  however  smaU  a  quantity, 
must  predispose  it  to  be  acted  on  by  other  morbific  causes, 
even  if  it  do  not  itself  become  the  exciting  cause  of  diseases, 
experience  demonstrates,  tlmt  epidemics  most  prevail  where 
the  water-supply  is  the  worst" 
To  aggravate  all  this,  the  European  soldier  has  animal  food, 
consisting  invariably  of  the  same  kind,  vie.,  beef  eaten  twice  a 
day,  washed  down  by  draughts  of  new  mm,  or  bad  water,  for 
365  days  in  the  year  without  dianse  or  variety ;  and  this  too, 
in  a  tn^ical  climate,  without  bodily  exerdse,  or  mental  occu- 
pation !  Utterly  opposed  to  this  is  the  plan  laid  down  by  our 
great  military  writer.  Dr.  B.  Jackson. 

He  says,  speaking  of  abstinence  and  exercise ; — 
*^  The  case  has  been  tried,  and  it  has  been  proved  on  many  oc- 
casions, that  persons,  who  live  abstemiously,  and  live  cmefly 
on  vegetable  and  farinaceous  foods,  which  furnish  nutriment 
of  a  less  irritatii^  quality  than  animal  matter,  not  only 
escape  sickness  in  trojacal  climates,  but  preserve  their  health 
in  vigour  and  activity  ;  while  those,  who  live  freely  and  fare 
sumptuously,  die  in  great  numbers.  This  has  been  frequently 
seen  in  time  of  war,  in  the  example  of  prisoners,  who,  fur- 
nished with  a  meaisured  ration,  especially  a  £uinaceous  one, 
chiefly  bread  and  rice,  rarely  experience  sickness. 
"  Occupation  of  mind  and  body,  implying  exercise  to  an  ex- 
tent sufficient  to  act  with  impression  upon  animal  structure, 
is  preventive  of  disease,  particularly  among  Europeans  in 
tropical  climates.  This  opinion  receives  proof  and  illustra- 
tion from  the  example  of  planters,  who  arc  obliged  to  spend 


MOBTALIXY  OF  EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA.  55 

*  the  greater  port  of  the  da^  in  the  sun^  supjerintending  the 

*  field  labors  or  the  slave.  Tms  class  of  people^  in  the  West  In- 
'  diee^  may  be  said  to  work  hard  When  actively  employed^  they 
'  are  little  liable  to  illness :  while  soldiers,  confined  the  greater 
'  part  of  their  time  to  barracks,  supinely  passing  their  hours 
'  in  a  state  of  indolence  and  ease,  suffer  severely :  but  soldiers 

*  are  vigorous  and  healthy  under  activity  of  military  service^ 

*  even  in  tropical  climates — and  this  without  regard  to  season." 
A  direct  and  well  authenticated  proof  of  the  viJue  of  ex- 
ercise, nay,  even  of  hard  labour,  exists  in  the  example  of  French 
soldiers  in  the  Island  of  St.  Domingo,  previous  to  the  revolu- 
tion of  1789.  These  soldiers,  Europeans  and  Natives  of  Frajace, 
were  employed  at  that  time  in  forming  the  great  roads  and 
aqueducts,  which  convey  water  through  the  plains  for  the  pur- 
pose of  irrigating  the  plantations.  They  consequently  worked 
m  the  sun  the  whole  day  long,  as  laliourers  work  in  Europe. 
They  sweated  and  toiled,  and  were  so  tanned  in  colour  as 
scarcely  to  be  distinguished  from  the  Mulattoes.  They  were 
brown  in  colour,  it  is  true,  but,  it  rests  on  good  authority,  that 
they  experienced  little  sickness,  while  employed  in  this  manner ; 
when  confined  to  the  towns,  however,  and  oisposed  at  ease,  or 
idling,  and  rioting,  they  suffered  sickness,  and  died  in  large 
numbers,  like  the  soldiers  of  other  nations. 

We  do  not  advocate  the  necessity  or  even  advisableness  of 
hard  labour ;  much  less  that  of  forced  labour.  We  consider 
that  out-of-doors  employment,  in  which  the  mind  is  occupied 
and  interested,  furmshes  the  best  safeguard  against  disease 
among  our  European  troop  in  this  country.  Let  the  occupa- 
tion be  what  it  may,  still  it  should  harmonize  with  the  taste,  or 
be  conducive  to  the  interest  of  the  individual.  Put  a  European 
on  a  dusty  road,  with  a  musket  in  his.  hand,  and  give  the  (»:der 
to  inarch  ten  nules  into  cantonments — ^he  looks  upon  it  as  an 
irksome  duty,  and,  from  having  nothing  to  break  tne  monotony 
of  the  task,  the  depressing  powers  of  the  mind  are  at  work, 
and  he  is  reported  ul  on  its  completion.  But  change  the  mus- 
ouet  for  a  fowling-piece ;  let  the  pace  be  uncontrolled,  and  the 
mrection  left  to  his  own  choice^ — he  will  walk  double  the  dis- 
tance with  a  very  different  result,  going  over  much  more  diffi- 
cult ground,  and  with  much  more  exposure  to  the  sun.  Try 
the  experiment  in  a  hundred  different  wavs,  the  same  conclu- 
sion mil  be  arrived  at  in  alL  We  all  know  that  an  hour's 
gallop  on  horseback  under  a  burning  noon-dav-sun,  or  through 
the  hot  wind,  is  much  less  exhausting  than  half  the  time  spent 
in  the  saddle  at  a  walking-pace  only ;  and  that  a  game  of  crick- 
et, played  while  the  thermometer  stands  at  80%  is  felt  to  be 


56  MOBTALITY  OF   EUBOPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA. 

less  fatiguing  than  a  morning  parade^  in  which  there  is  neither 
violent  exertion,  nor  a  hi^h  temperature  to  be  endured. 

On  the  marking  out  of  a  new  cantonment  in  this  country, 
officers  are  observed  spending  their  entire  day  in  the  open  air, 
watching  or  (Superintending  the  erection  of  their  bungalows, 
staking  out  their  gardens,  Ranting  trees,  &C5  with  almost  the 
same  indifference  to  heat  and  sun,  as  if  they  were  in  England, 
and  in  the  enjoyment  of  better  health,  sounder  sleep,  and 
greater  appetite,  than  when  living  in  their  residence  with  all 
the  comforts  and  luxuries  that  art  can  supply  to  mitigate  the 
^^  desagremSns"  of  an  Indian  climate.  And,  as  with  the  Euro- 
pean officer,  so  it  is  with  the  private  soldier.  The  longest 
marches  on  record,  and  imder  the  greatest  exposure  to  heat  of 
weather,  have  been  made  by  British  troops,  without  any  injury 
to  the  health.  The  change  of  scene,  the  interest  excited  by 
every  rumour  that  finds  its  way  to  the  camp,  the  speculation  on 
coming  events,  all  act  as  powerful  stimulants  in  counteracting 
the  otherwise  injurious  effects  of  excessive  fatigue  and  expo- 
sure. 

And  here  we  think,  that  G-ovemment  has  not  done  enough 
for  the  European  soldier  serving  in  India.  In  laying  out  every 
new  cantonment,  we  would  wish  to  see  the  '^  Gymnasium" 
commenced  as  soon  as  the  *^  parade  ground ;"  the  cricket-field 
ordered  as  well  as  the  "  Conjee-house" ;  the  "  soldiers'  garden" 
sanctioned  as  much  as  the  canteen. 

It  will  be  a  glory  to  the  Marquis  of  Dalhousie  to  establish 
such  a  system,  and  to  leave  behind  him,  at  every  station,  the 
means  of  innocent  recreation  and  exercise  to  the  soldier,  Eu- 
ropean and  native.  In  one  station  in  the  Upper  Provinces,  viz., 
Lahore,  this  has  been  done  through  the  generous  exertions  of  a 
single  individual — Sir  Henry  Lawrence.  A  large  space  of 
ground,  containing  several  acres,  has  been  laid  out  strictly  as  a 
** soldier's  garden;"  there  are  shady  walks,  ** parterres"  of 
flowers,  a  cricket-field,  swimming  bath.  Gymnasium,  Ball-and 
Backet-courts,  work-shops,  skittle-grounds,  and  a  reading  room 
and  library;  while  the  beverage,  **  that  cheers,  but  not  inebri- 
ates," is  retailed  at  a  very  low  rate  on  the  grounds,  to  the  exclu- 
sion of  all  spirituous  liquors. 

This,  we  believe,  is  the  only  instance  of  the  kind  in  India ; 
but  we  venture  to  predict  that  it  will  be  taken  as  the  model 
for  similar  establishments,  as  soon  as  the  truth  becomes  appa- 
rent, that,  in  order  to  preserve  our  European  soldiers  in  good 
health,  and  prevent  the  slow  but  certain  diseases  produced  by 
drink,  indolence,  and  dissipation,  we  must  provide  something 
else  beyond  the  parade  ground  and  canteen. 


^OBTALITT  OF   EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS  IK  INDIA. 


57 


From  a  list  that  has  been  placed  at  our  disposal,  we  find  that 
one  of  H«  M's  cavalry  regiments,  at  present  serving  in  India, 
18  composed  as  follows.  The  multitude  of  trades  is  very  great, 
and  the  prop<Hrtion  of  labourers  to  artisans  and  mechanics  is 
aboat  €me-fifth  of  the  whole : — 


TAADB. 


NO) 


Apotb«oarie8 8 

AppituBera 1 

Briok4a7er8 12 

Button-makers 1 

BniBh-makera 3 

Bakers 17 

Batchers 17 

CarpoDtexs • 20 

Coloar-mixers 2 

Chemists 1 

Cotton-spinners 1 

Goniers  •.•..•■••••.. • m^««  2 

Compositors.... 1 

Corrector  of  the  Press 1 

Confectioners  1 

Clerks 41 

Coopers 2 

Cabinet-makers 8 

Coal-meters ^.c I 

Carpet-layers 2 

Carrer  and  Gilders 3 

Cigar-makers 2 

Ooth-dressers. 1 

Cooks^ a 

Drapers 7 

Dyers 2 

E^ge-Tool-makers 1 

EDf<ineers  1 

Eogine-Fitters  1 

Farriers • «••  16 

Flax-Spinners    1 

Fishermen 2 

FoQoders 3 

Farmers 1 

Oas-Fitters    S 

Grooms 27 

Gon-Smiths 1 

Oardeaers 2 

OtttrToy-makers    1 

Grocers  1 

fiamess-miJcers    3 

Batters  2 

Hair  dressers 1 

Joiners  4 

•lewelltTS    3 

Land  Surveyors.. 4 


TRADE. 


MO. 


Labourers  126 

Leather  dressers 2 

Miners    I 

Masons  10 

Musicians 2 

Maltsters I 

Mercers  1 

Mill-Stone-makers     « L 

Opticians 1 

Porters   ii 

Printers 0 

Plumbers    L 

Painters 7 

Papermakers  2 

Plasterers   4 

Poulterers  2 

Pewterers  2 

Paper-stainers    2 

PocketBook-Makers  I 

Rug-makers 1 

Hope-makers  1 

Shoeing-Smiths 2 

Sugar-bakers I 

Spiudle-makers I 

Shoe-makers  23 

Servants 40 

Sawyers .• 4 

Smiths    10 

SiWer-Smiths 4 

Saddlers 8 

Stationers  ..■ 1 

Tailors    24 

Tanners 6 

Turners  .« 2 

Tin  Plate-workers I 

Upholsterers 1 

Watch-makers 2 

Weavers ft 

Wheel  Wright J 

Woobcomber I 

646 

No  previous  occupation...  8 

Total...  054 


58         MORTALITY  OF  EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA. 

What  must  have  been  the  amount,  paid  in  premiums  and 
apprentice-fees,  by  the  parents  of  these  646  artisans?    And 
what  would  it  cost  Government  to  obtain  the  services  of  a  like 
body  of  mechanics  for  the  purpose  of  completing   a  railroad 
in  the  Upper-Provinces,  with  all  its  various  requirements  of 
machinery,  carriages,  station-telegraph,  &c.  ?    Why  should  the 
benefit  of  these  men's  early  education  be  lost  to  the  state,  as 
well  as  to  themselves,  when  we  have  them  on  the   spot? 
How  much  might  have  been  done  by  the  soldiers  themsdves, 
during  the  last  two  years,  at  Lahore,  Wuzirabad  and  Peshawur, 
towai^s  the  completion  of  their  own  barracks,  with  positive 
advantc^e  to  all,  not  only  as  regards  pecuniarv  emolument, 
but  the  much  higher  points  of  health  and  life  !     On  board  ship, 
the  European  private  helps  to  work  the  vessel  by  order  of  lus 
Commanding  Officer,  and  takes  a  pull  at  the  ^^  inmn  brace"  with 
a  hearty  good  wilL     On  the  march  he  pitches  his  own  tent,  or 
constructs  a  raft  for  crossing  streams,  without  being  considered 
to  suffer  either    in    character    or  discipline.     It  is  only  in 
cantonment  that  he  is  taught  to  be  a  mere  marching  machine — 
a  parade  automaton.     Some  of  the  men,  in  the  regiment  al- 
luaed  to   it  is  true,  do  obtain  an  addition  to   their  pay  by 
working  at  their  original  trades,  between  the  hours  of  parade  and 
roU-call :  and  the  money,  thus  gained  by  their  own  manual  la- 
bour, is  more  likely  to  be  accumulated  towards  purchasing  their 
discharge  or  deposited  in  a  Savings  Bank,  than  any  surplus 
derivable  from  their  pay,  or  "dry  batta,**  which,  by  a  recent 
excellent  order  of  Government,  is  allowed  to  be  disbursed  daily 
at  the  "  grog-tub,"  to  all  who  prefer  receiving  mone^  to  rum. 

The  expense,  however,  of  each  individual's  providmg  his  own 
tools  is  a  serious  imped^ent  to  the  men  working  at  their  old 
trades.  This  difficulty  would  be  removed,  if  the  officers  of 
each  corps  woidd  establish  and  encourage  regimental  work- 
shops, where,  by  the  division  of  labour,  much  larger  profits 
would  be  accumulated,  and  the  expense  of  materials  and  im- 
plements could  be  defrayed  by  a  per  centage  on  the  price  re- 
ceived for  the  manufacture. 

Half-a-dozen  good  coachmakers  and  wheelwrights^  who 
might  be  found  in  most  European  regiments,  ought  to  be  able, 
in  a  few  weeks,  to  build  a  buggy  that  would  realize  some  five 
or  six  hundred  rupees,  if  well  nnished  and  substantially  put 
together.  So  with  boat-building,  cabinet-making,  engraving, 
pamting,  boot  binding,  and  many  other  trades — ^the  men  wouia 
find  a  ready  market  for  the  manufactured  articles,  especially 
in  the  Upper  Provinces,  where  the  residents  of  a  station  are 
cut  off  from  the  advantages  derived  by  living  near  Calcutta, 
Delhi,  or  Agra. 


MOBTALITY  OF  EUBOPEAK  SOLDIEBS  IN  IKBIA.         59 

From  a  series  of  Papers,  entitled  European  soldiers  in  India, 
which  appeared  in  the  Bengal  Hurkaru,  during  last  year,  we 
make  the  following  extract,  which  touches  upon  this  part  of  our 
subiect.  The  writer,  who  is  evidently  practically  acquainted 
wiui  the  question  he  discusses,  points  out,  that  the  experi- 
ments, hitherto  made  for  providing  occupation  for  the  European 
soldier  in  India,  have  fail^,  simply  from  the  &ct  that  sufficient 
attention  has  not  been  paid  in  the  first  instance  to  the  different 
habits,  tastes,  and  pursuits  of  different  individuals,  and  that 
recreation  ceases  to  be  such,  if  forced.  It  then  becomes, 
in  fact,  only  another  kind  of  drill 

^  Many  persons,"  says  he,  **  who  have  written  in  recommenda- 
tion of  certain  modes  of  recreation  for  European  soldiers  in  In- 
dia, have  simply  urged  those  recreations,  which  they  found 
most  congenial  to  their  own  temperaments.  Some  have  urged 
manual  kbourand  employment,  eitherin  gardens, or  workshops ; 
some  recommend  athletic  games  and  field  sports,  calling  into 
activity  all  the  muscular  powers  of  the  body.  Some,  on  the 
other  hand,  look  more  to  mental  recreations,  and  recommend 
theatrical  amusements,  or  musical  entertainments  of  a  some- 
what similar  kind.  Some  go  further  still,  tod,  being  of  a  more 
sober  turn,  recommend  branch  libraries  and  reamng  clubs, 
chess,  &C.  It  is  seldom,  however,  that  the  advocates  of 
any,  or  all  of  these  various  means  of  recreations,  consider 
that,  according  to  the  old  proverb,  '^  it  is  all  a  matter  of 
taste:"  and,  as  different  men  are  of  different  opinions,  so 
unless  the  soldier  himself  inclines  to  the  species  of  amuse- 
ment proposed  for  him,  it  is  to  him  not  a  recreation,  but  a 
toiL  You  cannot  make  a  man  love  to  dig  in  a  garden,  or 
find  recreation  therein,  by  putting  a  spade  in  his  hand,  and 
preaching  to  him  of  the  value  of  horticultural  pursuits  I  He 
may  like  greens  and  potatoes  well  enough,  when  served  up  at 
table ;  but  he  may  thmk  the  labour  of  procuring  them  by'delv- 
ing  fiir  too  great  a  toil,  and  thus  would  rather  employ 
his  leisure  hours  differently,  and  purchase  all  his  greens  in  the 
market  We  illustrated  this,  the  other  day,  by  observing  that 
some  men  might  like  carpentry-work ; — ^but  that  for  ourselves, 
especially  in  warm  weather,  such  as  it  is  at  present,  we  pre- 
ferred some  less  heating  employment  than  sawing  a  two  mch 
|)lank.  Thus  it  is  with  all  other  occupations  ;  the  man,  who 
oves  the  one,  will  often  detest  the  otner.  The  only  method 
that  appears  to  us  divested  of  innumerable  objections,  is  to 
leave  the  soldiers,  as  much  as  possible,  to  their  own  liberty  of 
choice.  Let  them  take  such  recreation,  as  they  feel  disposed 
to  take,  and  when  and  how  they  like.    To  do  this,  they  must 


60 


MOBTALITY  OF  EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA. 


have  some  leisure  time  allowed  them :  and  their  time  should 
not  be  cut  up  with  what  can  never  conduce  to  the  good  of 
service,  but  must  weary  every  sensible  soldier  to  death ; — we 
allude  to  the  endless  drills  and  parades,  and  all  the  little  ob- 
servances of  military  life,  devised  more  for  the  purpose  of 
keeping  the  men  employed,  than  of  instructing  them  in  any 
branch  of  their  profession.     When  officers  or  soldiers  are  not 
required  for  actual  duty,  let  them  have  as  much  liberty  as 
possible.     Soldiers  are  treated  far  too  much  as  children ;  treat 
them  as  grown-up  men,  and  they  will  behave  as  such.    Let 
them  have  every  facility  for  the  lawful  exercise  of  all  their 
talents  and  mental  or  bodily  powers.    Let  them,  if  acquaint- 
ed with  handicraft  trades,  pursue  those  trades,  if  they  feel 
inclined  to  do  so,  and  whenever  they  are  able.     Let  them, 
if  fond  of  gardening,  garden;  or  if  fond  of  acting,  let  them 
rehearse  plays;   if  fond  of   reading,  let  them  read;    but 
let  them  not  be  driven  to  any  of  these  so  called  recrea- 
tions, as  to  a  task,  because  some  few  of  them  may  chance 
to  like  it.    We  would  always  advocate  freedom  of  action, 
as  far  as  is  consistent  with  the  exigencies  of  the  state.     We 
would  make  all  officers  and  soldiers,  when  on  duty,  do  their 
duty ; — and  let  them,  when  not  on  duty,  do  in  all  respects 
what  any  other  man  may  do.     We  might  carry  out  this  ar- 
gument very  much  further,  but  that  we  fear  the  time  has  not 
yet  come  for  it.    We  doubt  even,  whether  we  carry  with 
us,  as  far  as  we  have  now  ventured,  the  favourable  opinion  of 
many  of  our  military  readers ;  but  we  feel  convinced  that, 
till  soldiers  are  treated  more  as  human  beings,  and  less 
as  military  puppets,  drunkenness  and  all  its  train   of  at- 
tendant evils    will  not  be  put  down.      How  are  we  in 
India  to  get  rid  of  the  monotony  that  hangs  over  Indian 
life,  and  in  particular,  Indian  barrack  life,  which  saps  the 
energy   and  spirit  of   the  bravest  and    most  enterprising 
men  7    When  the  monotony  of  the  daily  drill  is  added  to  this, 
who  can  be  surprised  at  the  results  evolved  by  it  ?     Some  men 
are  constitutionally  formed  to  like  this  kind  of  monotonous 
existence.  We  feel  that  this  must  be  the  case ;  for  otherwise  the 
military  advocate  for  the  eternal  round  of  puppet-show  parade, 
would  not  be  able  to  poiot  to  some  model  men  in  his  estima- 
tion, whose  souls  are  moulded  on  the  pattern  of  a  parade  ground, 
and  who  never  felt  dull  care  in  all  their  lives.     The  reason 
ifi  plain,  that  these  few  exceptions  to  the  rule  are  in  their 
proper  element;  their  mental  fiiiculties,  such  as  they  are^  are  in 
full  occupation;  and  healthful  exercise  they  have  sufficient  of; 
such  men  are  thus  placed  in  the  situations  physically  best 


HOBTALITT  OF  £UBOPBAN  SOLDIEBS  IK  INDIA*         61 

adapted  to  them.  But,  neither  mentally  nor  morally,  are  these 
men  better  than  their'  more  mercurial  companionB,  who  pine 
for  what  they  are  denied,  and,  in  their  idle  hours  of  irksome- 
ness,  seek  the  solace  of  strong  liquors,  to  the  prejudice  of  dis- 
cipline and  order,  and  the  injury  and  ruin  of  their  health. 
Man,  whether  in  the  upper  or  lower  walks  of  life,  must,  to 
enjoy  happiness,  haye  the  means  of  exercising  such  mental 
and  bodily  functions,  as  he  is  endowed  with.  This  is  the  true 
philosophy  of  life;  and,  without  this  liberty  of  action,  all  other 
things  are  positiye  sources  of  pain  and  misery  to  us.  When 
ignorant  men  are  checked  in  the  natural  exercise  of  their 
bodily  or  mental  powers,  they  seek  for  the  means  of  gratify- 
ing dieir  lower  propensities  or  appetites ;  and,  liquor  being 
tiniyersally  cheap  in  India,  it  is  readily  procured  by  them  to 
their  own  destruction.  Nor  are  yile  and  worthless  characters 
wanting  to  aid  the  tempter's  work  and  to  stimulate  a  cray- 
ing  for  liquor,  in  order  that  they  may  thereby  reap  an 
unhallowed  haryest  by  the  illicit  sale  of  the  poisonous  com- 
pound.^* 

Wliere  it  is  impossible  to  proyide  out-of-doors  employment 
and  recreation,  all  the  year  round,  from  the  want  of  proper 
Bhelter,  afforded  by  trees,  or  by  the  shady  side  of  a  high 
wall  or  building,  it  would  at  least  be  practicable  during 
the  cold  season,  from  October  to  March,  at  all  stations.  We 
cannot  see  why  European  soldiers  might  not  spend  their 
leisure  time  in  (for  instance^  laying  out  a  pubuc  garden, 
with  carriage  driyes  rounds  out  not  through^  it; — a  work, 
which  would  be  a  lasting  benefit  to  the  station,  and  might 
be  well  pointed  out  to  succeeding  corps,  to  serve  as  a  sti- 
mulus for  further  industry  and  enterprise,  in  improying  upon 
the  original  jplan.  We  would,  howeyer,  go  eyen  further  than 
this.  We  thmk  that,  if  a  Railroad  were  in  the  course  of  being 
constructed  within  a  reasonable  distance  of  any  of  our  large 
military  stations,  at  which  European  soldiers  are  located,  a  yery 
laige  number  of  yolunteers  would  be  found  in  eyery  regi- 
ment, who  would  feel  it  a  privilege  to  be  allowed  to  shoulder  a 
pickaxe  or  spade,  and  assist  in  tiurowing  up  the  embankments 
of  a  great  national  imdertaking,  that  may,  in  after  years,  be  a 
&r  more  glorious  military  monument  of  what  had  been  achiey- 
ed  by  the  British  soldier  in  India,  than  all  that  has  been  en- 
graved on  marble  urn,  or  mural  tablet.  A  horde  of  Goths 
and  barbarians  may  invade  and  conquer  a  country,  but  it  is  only 
a  civilized  nation  that  can  improve  it;  and  the  first  great  step 

*  Bengal  Hurkaru,  June  17th. 


62         MOBTALITY  OF  EUBOPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA. 

18  the  opemng  out  of  its  resources,  and  making  communication 
perfect,  by  means  of  roads,  canals,  and  naYigable  rivers. 

But,  until  these  truths  can  be  impressed  upon  the  minds  of 
those,  who  have  the  power  and  authority  to  act  in  remodelling 
our  present  defective  system  of  maintaining  a  gigantic  peace- 
army  in  idleness  and  sloth,  we  must  be  content  to  be  looked 
upon  as  visionaries,  and  to  hear  our  plan  ridiculed  as  Utopian 
and  impossible.  Without  the  co-operation  of  the  officers  of  a 
regiment,  we  well  know  that  we  are  undertaking  the  labour  of 
Sisyphus:  and  that  any  scheme — whether  for  the  improvement 
of  the  men,  or  the  education  of  their  children — ^whether  it  be 
to  procure  health  or  recreation — to  establish  a  ^^  soldier's  gar- 
den" or  regimental  work-shops — ^will  necessarily  fall  to  theground, 
if  the  commandant  and  his  officers  take  no  interest  in  the  mat- 
ter. It  cannot  be  expected  that  the  men  will  take  the  initia- 
tive, if  ridicule  and  satire  from  their  superiors  are  to  be  brought 
to  bear  against  them.  The  French  have  long  set  us  an  exam- 
ple in  tms  matter  well  worthy  of  imitation :  and  Napoleon's 
opinion  of  the  value  of  his  corps  of  Pioneers  and  Sappers  was 
never  lessened,  or  detracted  from,  by  any  of  the  most  brilliant 
deeds  of**  the  old  guard." 

In  the  native  army  of  this  country,  where  there  is  all  the 
difficulty  of  caste  and  prejudice  to  be  overcome,  we  find  sepoys 
of  as  high  caste,  and  as  well  disposed  to  fight,  in  the  ranks  of 
the  **  Sappers*  and  Miners,"  as  m  any  other  regiment  of  the 
line.  These  men  will  **  pile  arms,"  and  commence  trundling  a 
wheel-barrow,  or  dig^ng  a  trench,  without  feeling  that,  on  that 
account,  they  are  in  tne  slightest  degree  less  efficient  as  soldiers, 
or  less  honoured  by  their  brothers  and  relatives  in  other 
regiments.  And  so  with  our  Europeans; — we  would  by  all 
means  scout  the  idea,  that  the  men  of  Worcestershire  and  Kent, 
the  sturdy  Hibernian,  and  long  enduring  Scot,  are  only  called 
upon  to  handle  the  spade,  while  engaged  in  the  trenches  before 
an  enemy's  fort.  Why  should  field-labour,  in  which  hundreds 
of  our  troops  have  been  engaged  up  to  the  hour  of  their  en- 
listing, and  the  value  of  which  is  so  universally  admitted 
and  fdt  in  all  military  operations,  be  no  longer  practised,  be- 
cause **  pipe-cl^  and  drill,  say — No  ?"  The  miscellaneous 
duties,  that  our  British  sailors  are  called  upon  to  perform,  and  do 
perform  with  alacrity  and  good  will,  have  never  proved  an  impe- 
diment to  rigid  discipline,  on  the  one  hand,  or  efficient  manoeu- 
vring of  their  ships  on  the  other;  and  yet  the  Nile  and  Trafalgar 

*  We  hare  seen  a  company  of  that  splendid  corps,  with  thirty-five  Brahmiiui  in 
its  ranks,  working  at  a  roaa  with  hearty  good  will* 


HORTALITT  OF  EUBOPEAN  SOLDIEBS  IN  INDIA.         63 

stand  out  as  brightly  on  the  page  of  history  as  Waterloo 
or  Badajoz. 

We  are  glad  to  see  this  subject  taken  up  in  an  earnest  man- 
ner by  an  officer  of  many  years  standing  m  the  service,  Lieut 
Colonel  J.  S.  Hodgson,  of  the  12th  Bengal  N.  I.,  who  has 
recently  given  to  the  world,  a  small  pamphlet  under  the  title  of 
MtUUnry  Musinffs,  Many  of  the  authors  data  and  suggestions 
are  the  fruits  of  actual  experience  during  his  residence  in  India ; 
and,  from  his  knowledge  how  soldiers  may  be  led  and  governed  by 
energetic  men,  who  wul  set  the  example,  as  well  as  give  the  order, 
his  arguments  in  favour  of  ^'  Camps  of  Exercise"  being  formed 
every  successive  cold  season,  are  entitled  to  more  than  a  mere 
passing  notice*  We  are  convinced  that,  as  a  sanatory  measure 
alone,  the  experiment  would  be  attended  with  great  benefit ; 
and  we  hope  to  see  it  fairly  and  fully  tried.  But  we  shall  let 
Colonel  Hodgson  speak  for  himself; — 
*'  That  apathy,  which  characterises  the  British  subject  in 
India,  were  it  the  national  trait,  would  speedily  bring  Great 
Britain,  now  the  foremost  nation  of  the  world,  into  the  same 
scale  with  Spain  and  Portugal 

**  The  endurance  of  military  toil,  in  all  its  forms,  is  compre- 
hended in  a  soldier's  duties.  He  should  be  accustomed  to  do  all 
those  things,  which  appertain  to  military  service,  in  tropical^ 
as  well  as  m  temperate,  climates.  His  physical  capacities  are 
not  unequal  to  their  performance.  This  is  a  fact  which  ex- 
perience has  well  authenticated. 

**  The  plan  of  military  labour  is  intended  to  apply  equally 
to  the  European  soldier :  for  it  would  be  invidious,  and  unjust 
in  the  extreme,  to  exempt  him  from  those  military  toils  exact- 
ed from  the  native  soldiers. 

'*  The  time  of  the  European  soldier  in  India  is  not  sufficiently 
employed.  The  numberless  courts  martial  amply  substantiate 
this  &ct.  The  crimes  are  those  attendant  upon  his  over-feed- 
ing, and  almost  listless  state  of  existence.  Both  his  mind  and 
his  body  are  left  comparatively  without  exercise.  The  com- 
mon  drudgeries  of  the  service  are  all  performed  by  '^  sepahis," 
The  European  soldier  is  kept  in  such  luxurious  indolence, 
that  it  merelv  requires  the  addition  of  a  palanquin  to  each 
soldier's  stock  of  necessaries,  to  render  the  picture  graphic 
and  complete.  In  the  West  Indies,  far  more  work  is  exacted 
of  him,  to  the  vast  improvement  of  his  health  and  character. 
British  seamen  work  with  equal  moral  and  physical  energy 
in  tropical  harbours,  as  in  those  of  more  temperate  latitudes : 
and  the  value  of  such  labour  and  exercise  is  perceptible  in 
their  preservation  of  health,  and  cheerful  spirits,  with  a  pro- 


64 


MORTALITY   OF  EUBOPEAN   SOLDIERS  IN    INDIA* 


portionate  absence  of  crime.  The  exhaustion  in  India  is 
more  a  mental,  than  a  physical,  prostration :  and  both  are 
quite  susceptible  of  yigorous  preservation  by  a  judicious  use 
of  those  faculties,  which  nature  has  bestowed  on  man. 
"  Many  of  the  early  campaigns  of  the  Indian  army  were 
made  in  the  rains  and  hot  months ;  and  yet  the  troops,  both 
European  and  Native,  kept  their  health  in  a  remarkable 
degree.  Sickness  was  almost  unknown ;  the  soldiers  had  not 
time  to  be  sick.  The  battle  of  Flassey  was  fought  in  June : 
the  campaign  in  Guzerat,  extending  over  a  period  of  six 
years,  was  carried  on  during  all  seasons  of  the  year :  the  same 
may  be  said  of  the  Mysore  campaign  from  1790  to  1793. 
'^  beringapatam  was  carried  by  assault  in  the  month  of  May. 
The  campaign  of  1813,  against  the  Mahrattas,  opened  in  the 
rainy  season,  and  continued  throughout,  with  the  most  bril- 
liant results.  The  campaign  in  Java  (1811)  was  carried  on 
with  success  during  the  most  unhealtny  season  of  the  year. 
These  facts,  together  with  a  variety  of  others  all  equally  well 
authenticated,  are  conclusive  that,  so  long  as  the  mind  and 
body  are  keptactivelv  employed,  there  exists  every  reasonable 
hope  of  the  general  health  of  soldiers  continuing  good  and 
undisturbed — ^though  exposed  to  all  the  dangers  of  a  tropical 
climate  during  the  most  inclement  seasons  oi  the  year.  It  is 
more  than  probable,  that  the  troops,  which  served  in  the  above 
enumeratea  campaigns,  would  have  experienced  a  far  greater 
mortality,  had  they  been  subjected  to  tne  slothful  effects  of  a 
cantonment  or  barrack  life,  than  they  did  from  actual  con* 
flict  with  the  enemy  in  the  field.  Greater  objection  is  antici- 
pated by  the  author  to  his  plan  from  the  Eurc^ean  than 
from  the  Native.  The  realization  of  such  objects  must  un- 
questionably entul  personal  trouble ;  and  personal  trouble  is 
abhorrent  to  an  extent  in  this  country,  which  would,  if  more 
generally  known,  excite  the  derision  of  our  fellow  subjects 
in  Europe. 

*^  There  is  but  a  very  small  portion  of  energy  exerted  in 
resisting  the  enfeebling  effects  of  example — ^the  writer  will  not 
say,  climate  ;  for  he  believes  that  a  trifling  amount  of  mental 
vigour,  only  properly  brought  to  bear,  is  always  sufficient  to 
modify,  if  not  ward  off,  its  stealthy  approach. 
**  Common  sense  cannot  acquiesce  in  the  assumption  of  an 
impracticability,  where  no  attempt  is  made  to  ascertain  its 
feasibility.  The  exclamation  of  what  a  bore  T'  appears  to  be 
the  general  anathema,  whenever  duty  is  required.  Perhaps 
there  is  no  army,  in  which  less  duty  is  exacted  of  its  officers^ 
thaB  from  those  of  the  Native  regiments  of  the  Indian  army. 


MOBTAUTT  OF  EUROFEAN  SOLDIERS  IK  INDIA*  65 

'  ^^  This  syatem  of  loilitary  Jaboiir  in  time  of  peace  can  only  be 
'  pat  into  energetic  and  effective  train  by  the  cordial  zeal 
^  and  patriotiBm  of  the  European  Officers.  Its  adoption 
'  will  give  a  noble  impulse  to  the  native  soldier ;  tend, 
'  by  the  difiiision  of  a  patriotic  motive,  to  strengthen  and  se* 
'  cure  the  British  Empire  in  the  East ;  and  redound  to  the 
'  imperishable  honor  of  the  native  army  of  India.  Surely 
'  these  are  momentous  national  considerations,  not  unworthy 
'  the  ambition  of  British  officers. 

*'  In  carrying  out  a  system  of  military  labour,  distinct  camps 
^  of  exercise  might  be  formed,  and  separate  portions  of  work 
'  allotted  to  the  different  divisions,  to  be  effected  under  the 
'  acientific  supervision  of  the  proper  officers.  By  this  arrange- 
'  ment,  a  spirit  of  ardour  and  emulation  would  obviously  be 
'  excited  and  fostered." 

We  are  fully  aware  that  there  would  be  an  outcry  raised  at 
first  on  the  bare  mention  of  European  soldiers  working  in  a 
tropical  climate.     There  would  be  a  cry  of  "  coolies,^  **  slaves/* 
"^  convicts  ;'*  but  the  outcry  would  come  firom  those,  who  have 
either  paid  the  subject  of  the  ^^  mortality  of  our  troops  in  India," 
lU)  attention,  or  who,  from  ignorance  and  prejudice,  look  upon 
the  very  idea  of  change  or  improvement,  as  embodying  some- 
thing revolutionary  and  destructive.     To  such  we  would  beg 
to  quote  the  words  of  one,  whose  writings  will  probably  outlive 
thoee  of  most  of  his  co-temporaries,  and  whose  energy  and  per- 
seyemnce  enabled  him  to  overcome  all  opposition^  oecause  his 
heart  was  in  the  work.     Dr.   Arnold  says  : — 
^'  There  is  nothing  so  revolutionary,  because  there  is  nothing 
flo  nimatural  and  so  convulsive  to  society,  as  the  strain  to 
keep  things  Jixed^  when  all  the  world  is,  by  the  very  law  of 
its  creation,  in  eternal  progress  ;  and  the  cause  of  all  the  evils 
m  the  world  may  be  traced  to  that  natural,  but  most  deadly 
error  of  human  indolence  and  corruption — that  our  business 
is  to  preserve,  and  not  to  improve.     It  is  the  ruin  of  us  all 
alike,  individuals,  schools,  and  nations." 
From  the  returns  of  six  of  H.  M.  regiments,  serving  in  the 
nunc   preridency,  who  have  arrived  in  this  country  within 
the  last  eight  years,  we  find  that  the  average  of  mortali- 
ty amongst  the  officers  is  one  in  every  regiment  yearly,  and 
the   average  number  arriving  with  each  regiment   was  37f 
Taking  the  aggregate  of  the  whole  number  in  the  six  regiments, 
viz.,  226,  this  gives  less  than  three  per  cent,  as  the  yearly  ratio  of 
deaths  amongst  European  officers,  which  tallies  exactly  with  the 
nomber  we  before  quoted  from  Dr.  Hutchinson's  tables  ^of  29 

K 


66         MORTALITY  OF  EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA. 

in  I3OOO  for  all  tropical   stations,  where  British   troops  are 
stationed*" 

With  civilians,  the  average  mortality  is  2^  per  cent :  but 
with  the  European  private,  the  mortality  is  from  five  to 
seven  per  cent.  How  is  this  great  difference  caused  ?  It  is  not 
from  exposure :  for  the  habits  of  our  military  officers,  their  fond- 
ness for  field  sports,  their  visiting  the  mess  house  or  billiard  table 
at  all  hours,  their  attendance  at  Committees  and  Courts,  cause 
them  to  be  much  more  exposed  to  the  climate,  than  either  the 
civilian  in  his  '^  Kcbcheri^  or  the  soldier  in  his  barrack.  It  is 
not  from  work  or  duty  ;  for  here  the  occupant  of  a  barrack  is 
almost  wholly  exempt,  whilst  the  civilian  is  more  engaged  than 
his  military  brother.  Is  not  the  cause  to  be  found  in  the  ab- 
sence of  employment,  or  recreation,  and  the  want  of  variety  and 
novelty  ?  W  ould  not  this  be  the  verdict,  if  the  civilian,  instead 
of  the  military  officer,  were  compelled  to  experience  a  twelve 
months'  trial  of  barrack-life  in  India.  The  author  of  the  papers^ 
On  the  European  soldier^  whidi  we  have  before  quoted,  extends 
the  necessity  of  change  and  variety,  even  to  the  daily  rations 
served  out  to  the  troops :  while  he  allows  tiiat  these  are  liberal  in 
quantity  and  of  wholesome  quality,  he  insists  that  the  system  of 
admittingno  variation,  during  the  twelve  month8,is  abad  one,  and 
productive  of  much  that  requires  to  be  corrected.  The  *^  toujoura 

Jerdrix"  is  more  easily  tolerated  by  the  human  stomach  in  Eng- 
md,  than  in  this  country:  and  every  one,  who  has  experienced 
the  horrors  of  a  daily  grilled  ^'  Murghi^  while  making  a  long 
*^  d&k"  trip,  can  imagine,  that  365  rations  of  stewed  beef  in  the 
year  would  be  by  no  means  an  improvement. 

The  necessity  of  a  variety  in  the  daily  meal  is  now  not  only 
admitted,  but  enforced  in  all  our  Indian  jails — vegetables  either 
being  supplied  two  days  in  the  week,  or  rice  served  out  instead 
of  ^'  atta,  on  Sundays.  The  argument,  though  quaintly  put  b/ 
the  writer,  has  sound  sense  to  recommend  it,  and  we  therefore 
give  it  as  it  stands. 

*^  Our  military  readers  will  be  aware,  that  an  uniform  table 
'  of  daily  rations  has  been  established  for  the  European  troops 
'  of  the  three  presidencies,  being  the  same  at  all  stations  and 
'  seasons,  and  on  the  same  scale,  as  is  allowed  for  Her  Majesty's 
'  soldiers  in  Jamaica,  with  the  addition  thereto,  of  firewood  and 
'  salt  granted  gratis.     The  rations  are  as  follows : — 

'^  One  pound  of  bread  per  man. 

<<  One  pound  of  meat  per  man. 

«<  Four  ounces  of  rice  per  man. 

^  One  and  two-seventh  ounces  of  sugar  per  man. 


HOBTALITT  OF  EUBOPSAN  80LDIEB8  IN  INDIA*  67 

"  Five  ounces  of  tea  amonest  every  seyen  men. 

"  Tluree  pounds  of  firewood  per  man. 

*'  One  cmttack  of  salt  per  man. 
*'  It  is  provided  that  in  every  instance^  when  the  actual  cost 
to  Grovemment  of  the  rations  above  specified  (fuel  being  sup- 
plied gratis)  shall  fall  short  of  the  actual  stoppage  of  three 
annas  and  four  pie  per  day,  the  soldiers  shall  be  entitled  to 
receive  the  difierence  back  from  Government  through  the 
Commissariat.  This  difference  in  the  month  usually  amounts 
to  ten  annas,  and  sometimes  even  to  a  ra|>ee.  Taking  a 
month  of  thirty  days,  the  cost  of  a  man's  rations,  supposmg 
that  a  rupee  is  returned  to  him,  would  be  five  rupees,  five 
annas,  ana  four  pie.  These  rations  are  not,  however,  valued 
BO  highly  by  the  men.  We  have  heard  that,  in  the  case  of 
a  man  drawing  rations,  and  messing  with,  other  men,  en- 
titled to  draw  ^^  dry  batta,"  and  who  consequently  re- 
ceive no  rations,  his  rations  are  only  taken  as  an  equi- 
valent to  four  rupees,  which  shows  the  value  put  upon 
them.  Queen's  troops,  coming  from  home,  like  their  Indian 
rations,  and  consider  them  to  be  superior  to  those  served  out 
at  home ;  and  recent  arrivals  will  often  make  no  objections 
to  recdve  supplies,  which  would  be  rejected  by  older  stagers 
in  India.  There  is  nothing,  therefore,  to  be  objected  to,  in 
the  scale  of  rations  laid  down,  nor  to  the  Government  system ; 
nnless  we  suppose  that  an  old  hand  in  India  could  provide 
himself  with  a  better  meal,  at  a  cheaper  rate,  than  is  provided 
by  Government.  It  is  not  probable,  that  any  one  would  be 
able  to  retail  the  small  quantities  of  rice,  tea,  sugar,  or  salt  at 
a  cheaper  rate,  than  they  can  be  supplied  by  the  (Jommissariat. 
The  same  may  also  be  said  of  the  bread,  which  must  be  baked 
m  large  quantities.  We  suspect,  therefore,  that  it  is  the 
meat,  whicn  is  considered  to  lower  the  general  value  of  the 
rations;  and  it  is  very  possible  that  its  invariable  nature  adds 
weight  to  this  objection.  In  Bengal,  the  meat  served  out  is 
invariably  *'  beef," — ^not  exactiy  the  roast  beef  of  old  England, 
bat  a  very  lean  and  tough  representative  of  it.  The  '  lean 
Idne  of  Pharoah'  woidd  appear  fat,  in  comparison  with  those 
which  are  frequentiy  slaughtered.  It  is  extraordinary,  how 
beef  is  associated  with  British  soldiers  of  all  times.  Learned 
authorities  might  be  quoted  to  show,  that,  from  the  earliest 
days,  aU  our  great  batties  have  been  won  per  force  of  British 
bee£  There  is  a  good  stoiy  told  of  the  Duke  of  Marlbo- 
imiffh's  cook,  who  invited  the  French  Marshal's  cook  to  dine 
with  him,  in  return  for  a  grand,  entertainment  given  by  the 


68 


MORTALITY  OF  EUBOPEAN  SOLDIEBB  IN  INDIA.' 


Frenchman.  This  latter  had  all  the  extraordinary  dished  that 
his  country's  art  could  invent ;  the  Englishman  was  unable 
to  excel  him  in  this  respect,  and  placed  on  the  table  nothing 
but  a  plain  sirloin  of  beef  and  a  plum  pudding.  *^  Sir,''  said 
the  Frenchman,  '^  this  is  so  uncommon  a  dish,  that  I  did  not 
expect  any  thing  like  it"  "  Very  likely  Monsieur,"  replied 
Mr.  Bull ;  "  but  this  is  a  dish  for  an  Englishman  to  be  proud 
of:  it  has  carried  my  countrymen  twice  through  France  alrea- 
dy, and  I  don't  doubt,  but  that  it  will  do  so  again." 
"  Whatever  credence  we  may  give  to  this  story,  which  is  just 
as  likely  to  have  originated  in  a  little  quiet  satire  of  the  pri-^ 
mitive  mode  of  cooking  practised  by  the  English,  and  their 
contempt  for  their  more  scientific  opponents  in  the  art  of 
'  gastronomic,'  the  practice  of  administering  to  English  sol* 
diers  pretty  severe  doses  of  a  tough  substance,  called  beef>  has 
continued  to  this  day.  Our  readers  must  not  suppose,  that 
the  beef  is  usually  roast.  A  kind  of  stew  with  vegetables  is 
the  more  usual  mode  of  cooking ;  but  we  are  not  mclined  to 
recommend  this  dish  to  any  one  for  365  days  of  the  year. 
Let  our  readers,  who  are  inclined  to  doubt  our  notions  of 
this  matter,  try  this  ration  of  beef  for  a  year  or  two  continu- 
ally. Is  there  no  surgeon,  or  assistant  surgeon,  of  sufficient 
resolution,  to  adventure  on  the  task  of  this  experiment,  and 
to  try  in  his  own  proper  person  its  efiects  ?  We  can  fancy 
him  exclaiming : — 

"  0  dura  mcssorum  ilia  !" 

'  and  forswearing  beef  for  ever  after. 
*'  When  we  really  come  to  consider  this  question  gravely,  it 
must  appear,  that  the  constant  sameness  of  this  food  is  injurious 
to  the  men:  and  weknow  that,  in  consequence  of  this  opinion,  €&^ 
&afta  is  very  often  much  preferred  by  the  old  soldier.  It  is  es- 
teemed a  privilege  to  be  allowed  to  draw  dry  batta,  instead  of 
receiving  rations ;  and,  if  we  are  correctly  informed,  it  has  fre- 
quently been  applied  for  and  refused.  Some  men  considered 
their  ration  of  oeef,  as  comparatively  good  for  nothing ! 
'^  We  must  not  tire  the  patience  of  our  readers:  for,  if  these  arti- 
cles are  to  be'of  any  service  in  pointing  out  what  is  objection*^ 
able,  we  feel  they  must  be  short  and  to  the  point :  but  we  must 
make  room  for  a  little  support  from  our  old  friend  Fergusson. 
He  says,  that  although  our  soldiers'  ration  is  abundant  and  ex*- 
pensive,  yet  we  seem  to  have  overlooked  a  great  physiologi- 
cal principle,  and  that  is,  the  natural  appetite  for  change  and 
variety.    ^^  It  is  ever  the  same ;  and  no  man,  even  if  he  will> 


MORTALITY  OP  EUEOPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA.'  60 

can  be  satisfied  with  this."  His  stomach  and  digestive  or- 
gans will  be  heard  in  their  own  cause ;  and,  if  they  be  not  at- 
tended to,  their  owner  will  flj  to  alcohol  in  solace  of  their 
disappointment. 

"  How  this  unvaried  meal  has  continued  so  long  in  vogue,  it  is 
difficult  to  say.  Most  of  those,  who  have  the  power  to  change 
it,  see  not  its  ill  effects :  and  some  feel  a  difficulty  in  meddling 
with  a  part  of  ^  a  system*'  It  is,  indeed,  a  system,  which  ruins 
the  health  of  many  a  poor  soldier.  We  only  wonder  how  they 
stand  it — ^tough  beef  and  new  rum  taken  daily  ajd-libitum  I 
What  better  recipe  could  we  have  for  chronic  dysentery? 
Could  it  be  worse,  if  soldiers  were  contracted  for  in  each  regi* 
ment^  at  so  much  per  head,  for  any  available  man  kept  fit  for 
duty,  of  a  given  height  and  weight  ?  This  would  give  a  sol- 
dier the  same  chance  as  a  horse,  or  an  elephant,  or  an  ass,  which 
animals,  both  in  diet,  clothes,  and  exercise,  are  often  more 
scientifically  treated,  than  our  men!  But  seriously,  would 
not  the  Chmese  system  of  paying  the  doctor,  according  to  the 
health  of  the  men,  be  better  than  the  present  ?  Kot  that 
we  wish  to  blame  either  commanders,  or  medical  officei's,  for 
the  system  of  the  day :  they  have  found  it  as  it  is ;  and  very 
few  commanding  officers  have  either  will  or  power  to  change 
it.  They  have  grown  grey  with  the  idea,  that  soldiers  are 
different  animals  from  civilians ;  and,  though  they  may  com- 
pare soldiers  of  one  nation  or  one  time,  with  those  of  ano- 
ther, yet  they  seldom  ever  think,  that  soldiers  can  either 
thinks  eat,  dress,  or  act  as  other  human  beings  about 
them.*^ 

We  might  extend  the  subject  much  further,  and  furnish  me- 
lancholy details  of  the  mortality  amongst  the  children  of  our 
European  soldiery.  The  same  causes,  viz.,  impure  air,  bad 
water,  improper  food,  confinement  to  the  barrack,  want  of 
amusement  or  employment,  tell  with  ten-fold  power  upon  the 
offspring,  whether  bom,  under  such  adverse  circumstances,  of 
sicUy  parents,  or  experiencing  such  a  change  in  their  habits 
and  moae  of  life,  on  arriving  in  this  country. 

Taking  the  returns  of  two  regiments,  that  reached  India 
last  year,  we  find,  that  in  one  there  have  been  bom  44  children, 
of  whom,  at  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  month,  there  are  only  29 
surviving,  shewing  a  loss  of  27  per  cent,  within  the  first  year. 

In  another  regiment,  52  children  have  been  born  within 
fourteen  months,  of  whom  32  have  died  in  the  same  period, 

*  Bengal  Hurharu,  June  21st,  1850. 


70 


MORTALITY  OF  EUBOPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA. 


giving  a  ratio  of  mortality  equal  to  33  per  cent  during  the 
first  twelve  month  of  their  life  in  India. 

In  another  case,  taking  the  children  bom  in  England  or  on 
board  ship,  who  arrived  with  the  regiment  in  India,  eight 
years  ago,  out  of  159  (the  original  number)  no  less  than  112 
nave  perished.  Of  the  remaining  47,  how  few,  in  all  probability, 
will  grow  to  manhood  I  Hence  we  see  that,  whether  we  take 
100  children  imported  from  England,  bom  of  healthy  parents, 
or  100  children  Dorn  of  the  same  parties  within  the  first  year 
of  their  arrival  in  India,  still  the  melancholy  result  is  the  same 
— proving,  beyond  all  doubt  or  question,  the  system  of  barrack 
life  amongst  our  European  soldiery  in  this  country  to  be  totally 
unfavorable  to  colonization. 

This  will  be  seen  still  more  clearly  by  the  following  table, 
shewing  the  respective  ages  of  the  survivors  of  261  children 
bom  in  one  regiment,  since  landing  in  India  8  years  ago : — 


From 

r 

to         8 

Years  of  age 

41 

ft 

6 

to        7 

8 

It 

5 

to        6 

18 

»i 

4 

to        5 

15 

^118  Surviving. 

19 

8 

to        4 

20 

»» 

2 

to        3 

15 

Under 

2 

88  J 

Died 

148 

Total  in 

ECight  years. 

261   Births 

It  would  be  interesting  to  know  what  number  of  children, 
bom  of  European  soldiers  in  India,  ever  return  to  England ;  and 
what  is  the  proportion,  in  a  regiment  of  those,  who,  under  the 
most  favourable  circumstances,  attain  the  age  of  21.  Many  of 
the  deaths  necessarily  must  be  attributed  to  the  loss  of  the  mo- 
ther, during  infancy  or  childhood ;  and  it  is  gratifying  to  know 
that  there  is  now  an  Asylum  in  the  Hills,  which,  from  the  admi- 
rable care  and  superintendence  exercised  over  those,  whose  cause 
we  are  pleading — the  children  and  orphans  of  European  soldiers 
serving  in  India — aifords  the  best,  if  not  the  only  true,  insurance 
of  life  and  health,  to  a  large  class,  who,  with  claims  upon  every 
one  of  us,  have  been  hitherto  sadly  forgotten  and  neg- 
lected 

By  a  late  report  we  observe  that  the  juvenile  inmates  of 
the  Lawrence  Asylum  amount  to  136,  of  which  number  nearly 


MOBTALITT  OF  EUROPEAN  SOLDIEBS  IN   IN  PI  A. 


71 


balf  are  under  ten  years  of  age,  as  will  be  seen  in  the  state- 
ment following : — 


Sex. 

S  o 

25 
22 

47 

i 

•5 
N 

24 
18 
42 

s 

o 
14 

6 

20 

a  S 
'^^ 

n 

18 
14 
27 

2& 

o  o 

37 
29 
66 

9 
O   §0 

-:< 

'O  o 

89 
81 
70 

64 
41 
105 

S| 

12 
19 
81 

4^ 
S 

1 

1 

70 
59 
129 

• 

oa;2 

S  2 
Ph  « 

6 

1 
7 

Total  num- 
ber in  the 
Schools. 

Boys 

76 

Girla 

60 

Totals 

186 

Whenit  is  remembered  that,  out  of  this  number,  four-fifths  have 
lost  either  one  or  both  parents,  and  may  therefore  reasonably 
be  supposed  to  have  suffered  in  some  degree  in  their  health,  for 
want  of  that  care  and  attention,  which,  it  is  rightly  considered, 
none  but  a  parent  can  bestow — the  value  of  the  Institution,  and 
its  admirable  locality  as  a  sanatarium,  may  be  judged  of,  on 
learning  that  only  two  deaths  have  occurred  since  the  com- 
mencement in  Apnl  1847,  and  these  were  cases  of  children,  who 
had  been  only  "  a  few  weeks  in  the  Asylum,  and  who  arrived 
in  a  state  of  disease."* 

What  a  far  different  result  is  shewn  to  be  the  case  in  the 
Lower  Orphan  School  of  Calcutta,  where  the  deaths  are  stated 
to  be  one  in  fifteen  ;t  and  how  is  it  that  the  officers  of  the 
Company's  Service  do  not  advocate  its  removal  to  the 
hiUa? 

It  may  appear  surprising  that  length  of  residence  does  not 
appear  to  acclimatize,  or  confer  a  greater  degree  of  inununity 
£rom  disease  in  India.  By  returns  of  the  several  ages,  at 
which  death  occuTB  in  this  country,  it  is  fonnd,  that  among 
the  voung  civilians  arriving  in  India,  the  ratio  per  cent,  of 
deaths  during  the  first  year's  residence  may  be  stated  to  be  1.95 

During  the  2nd  year's  residence     2.35 

„  3rd     „  „  2.00 

„  4th     „  „  2.20 

*    Second  Beport  of  the  Lawrence  Asylum  for  the  orphan  and  other  children  of 
European  soldiers,  serving  or  having  served  in  In<Ua.  Snnawnr  near  Kussowlie,  1800. 

f    Article  by  H.  T.  Prinsep.  Esq.,  on  the  mortality  for  affes  and  buihs  of  Indo> 
Brnoiis  m  the  Orphan  School,  Calcatta,  during  40  yean.— iuiaftc  Societ^ft  Jmamal, 


72        MORTALJTY   OP   EUROPEAN   SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA. 


Here  we  see  that,  tracing  the  same  individuals  through  four 
successive  years  of  residence^  the  liability  to  mortality  is  on  the 
whole  augmenting. 

The  same  result  will  be  arrived  at  with  regard  to  mili- 
tary ofeoers,  who  generally  reach  this  country  at  about 
the  same  age — ^viz.,  from  eighteen  to  twenty.  From  perusing 
the  valuable  tables  furnished  in  Major  Tulloch's  Parliamentary 
Keports,  we  find  that  the  mortality  amongst  Ensigns  (youths 
recently  arrived)  is  23  per  1,000. 

Lieuts,  at  least  three  years  longer  resident 27    per    1,000 

Captains,  twelve  to  thirteen  years  longer  34      „        „ 

And  so  on,  in  a  corresponding  proportion  with  the  higher  grades. 
Out  of  1,184  deaths  among  regimental  officers  of  the  Bengal 
army,  the  following  is  the  proportion  occurring  annually  in 
each  rank,  and  at  each  age  : — 


Colonels,  aver- 
age age  61. 

Lieut.  Colo- 
nels, average 
age  51. 

Majors,  aver- 
age age  40. 

Captains,aver- 
age  age  86. 

Lieutenants, 
average  a(;e 
25  to  30. 

Ensigns,  aver- 
age age  18  to 
25. 

Died  annually  per  1,000  7 
of  each  class S 

50.4 

48.4 

41.0 

84.5 

27.5 

23.4 

The  mortality  amongst  the  civil  servants  for  a  period  of 
forty-six  years — from  1790  to  1836,  exhibits  almost  precisely 
the  same  results,  viz  : — 


' 

Age  ahove  50 

and  service 

over  30  years. 

Age  40  to  50. 

Service  25  to 

80. 

Age  40  to  45. 

Service  20  to 

25. 

A^e  85  to  40. 

Service  15  to 

20. 

Age  25  to  80. 

Service  5  to 

10. 

Died     annually    per } 
1,000  of  each  class.  S 

48.6 

30.4 

35.4 

23.4 

20.8 

In  the  six  European  regiments  before  alluded  to,  as  serving 
at  present  in  India,  and  from  which,  very  interesting  "  re- 
turns" afford  much  valuable  information  touching  the  "  sta- 
tions at  which  located ;"  the  time  spent  in  tents,  and  on  the 
march,  campaign  or  field  service ;  the  number  of  men  invalided^ 
and  dead;  the  recruits  that  have  joined,  since  the  arrival 
of  the  regiments  in  India,  and  the  number  now  effective  of 
the  original  strength,  the  casualties  by  cholera  or  other  diseases^ 


MOBTALITT  OF  EUROPEAN  SOLDIEBS  IN  INDIA. 


73 


&a,  &C.,  we  learn^  that  the  average  age  of  the  privates  is  as 
foflows : — 


No.  of  Regiment 

Date  of  Arrival. 

In  September,  1851. 

In  the           let 

Arrival  in  India    1842 

The  average  age  is  82 

2nd 

1842 

26i 

8rd 

1846 

26i 

4th 

1846 

26J 

5th 

1849 

26i 

8th 

1849 

24 

Mean  of  the  whole  number  in  six 

regiments  is — 26.96 

Tbid  table  shews  a  very  close  approximation  in  each  regi- 
ment :  and,  in  the  first,  in  which  the  average  age  of  the  men 
stands  as  high  as  thirty-two,  it  should  be  explained,  that  in 
no  other  corps  has  there  been  such  a  heavy  mortahty.  Of  1 ,035, 
who  originally  landed  with  the  regiment  eight  years  ago, 
no  less  than  649  have  died,  of  whom  400  were  cut  bff  within 
thirteen  months  only !  The  youngest  seem  to  have  been  the 
principal  victims. 

We  might  conclude  here,  without  branching  out  further 
into  deta£,  though  the  subject  is  by  no  means  exhausted ;  but 
must  find  room  for  one  more  extract  from  the  Medico-  Chirurgical 
Semtw  ; — 
*^  We  have  said  enough,  we  think,  to  show  that  among  the 
causes  of  disease, which  tend  to  keep  up  a  high  rate  of  mortal- 
ity among  the  European  residents  in  tropical  climates,  the 
greater  number  are  readily  preventible,  either  by  the  direct 
remedial  measures,  which  the  civil  aiui  military  authorities 
have  it  in  their  power  to  apply,  or  by  the  individual  self- 
regulation,  which  tney  have  it  greatly  in  their  power  to  en- 
csoiirage ;  and  we  would  urge  upon  them,  therefore,  in  the 
strongest  manner,  that  wherever  the  returns  show  an  unusu- 
ally high  rate,  not  imputable  to  the  transient  influence 
of  an  epidemic,  they  enquire  into  its  causes,  and  endeavour 
to  remedy  them,  instead  of  quietly  setting  it  aside  as  an  in- 
evitable result 

*^  We  have  seen  what  has  been  the  eBScacy  of  such  remedies 
at  Hon^  Kong  and  at  Bellary,  and  we  trust  soon  to  have 
an  equiuly  favourable  result  at  Secimderabad.  Can  nothing 
be  done  for  Bansickpore,  to  remedy  the  fearful  mortality  to 


74 


MORTALITY  OF   EUROPEAN   SOLDIERS  IN  INDIA. 


^  which  every  regiment  stationed  there  seems  liable  ?    Look  at 
'  the  sad  details  of  this  station. 

"  The  3rd  Native   Infantry,  stationed  for  three  years  at 
'  Mynp4ri,  lost  twenty-six  men  out  of  an  average  strength 

*  of  753  ;  during  three  years  at  Barrackpore,  out  of  an  aver- 
^  age  strength  of  865,  it  lost  283  men. 

'^  The  57th  regiment,  when  stationed  at  Benares,  lost  in 

*  three  years  thirty-five  men,  out  of  an  average  strength  of 
'  749 ;  during  three  years  at  Barrackpore,  out  of  an  average 

*  strength  of  892,  it  lost  240  men. 

"  The  58th  Native  Infantry,  stationed  at  Jumaulpore,  lost 

*  in  three  years  twenty-four  men;    during  the  next  three 

*  years,  at  Barrackpore,  it  lost  208  men."  p,  95. 

Here  are  three  different  regiments,  which  at  three  remote 
stations,  during  a  period  embracing  nine  years,  only  lost  an 
aggregate  of  eighty-five  men  out  of  2,253  ;  but,  when  station- 
ed at  Barrackpore,  the  aggregate  loss  was  increased  to  731 
out  of  2,636.  The  great  difference  between  the  stations,  in 
calculating  the  percentage  of  mortality,  will  be  best  seen  by 
putting  it  into  a  Tabular  form  ;  thus: — 


a 

'Eb 


Srd 
57th 
58tb 


a 
o 


CO 
u 

9 


Mynpoorie 
Benares  .. 
Jumaulpore 


Aggregate.. 


753 
749 
751 


2253 


e 

OS 
CO 


GO 


26 
35 
2 


85 


«->    OB 

S    ^ 


3 
H 


a 

u 

p. 
IS* 

0 


u 
o 

S 

O 

a> 
be 

m 


1 

H 
1 


CI 

d 
o 

u 


Barrackpore... 
Barrackpore... 
Barraokpore... 


• 

eo 

^^ 

& 

a 

rica 
gth. 

00 

5= « 

d 

3  g 

|Z5* 

OD 

s 

O 

a> 

•-3 

Oi 

865 

288 

27i 

892 

240 

27 

879 

20b 

23| 

2636 

731 

"^ 
»^  ti 

a  «.- 
P   O 

d  o 
d  M 

<5 


9 

8 


8» 


i 

<<  We  have  not  the  slightest  doubt  that  this  fearful  rate  of 
mortality  is  in  great  part  dependent  upon  removable  causes. 
How  heavy  a  responsibility  rests,  therefore,  upon  those,  who 
have  not  merely  every  facility  for  investigating  them,  but 
the  absolute  power  of  removing  them,  when  discovered*  No 
considerations  of  expense  ought  to  prevent  the  recourse  to 
the  most  efficacious  means  for  the  prevention  of  disease,  that 
it  may  be  possible  to  devise ;  since,  to  say  nothing  of  other 
considerations,  there  can  be  no  doubt  that,  whether  the  direct 
pecuniary  economy  of  sanitary  reform  will  prove  as   great 


MORTALITY  OF   EUROPEAN  SOLDIERS  IN   INDIA.  75 

among  a  civil  population^  as  its  more  sanguine  advocates  main- 
tain^  every  rupee  judiciously  laid  out  in  improving  the  ac- 
commodation^  drainage,  water-supply,  &c.,  of  such  of  our 
troops,  as  are  posted  in  tropical  stations,  will  be  repaid  over 
and  over  again — ^in  the  diminution  of  all  the  expences,  con- 
sequent upon  the  continual  replacement  of  such  individuals 
as  die,  or  are  invalided — upon  the  loss  of  effective  force  oc- 
casioned by  the  constant  presence  of  a  large  amount  of  sick- 
ness, and  upon  the  frequent  removal  firom  station  to  station — 
which  last  measure  is  at  present  required  to  diminish  the 
destructive  effects  of  the  most  unhealthy  stations  upon  the 
troops  stationed  there,  or,  at  any  rate,  to  distribute  them  over 
a  large  number,  and  thus  to  equalize  them,  instead  of  letting 
them  fall  for  any  length  of  time  upon  one  corps.  How  much 
has  been  done  in  this  respect  in  the  navy,  is  Known  to  every 
one*  The  current  statement,  that  three  ships  may  now  be 
kept  afloat  with  the  number  of  men  that  were  formerly  re- 
quired for  two,  is  not,  we  believe,  in  the  least  exaggerated. 
**  It  was  in  a  great  degree  through  the  sagacity  of  Sir 
Gilbert  Blane,  that  those  improvements  were  devised,  and 
through  his  perseverance,  that  they  were  effected,  which  turned 
a  ship  of  war  from  the  floating  hospital,  which  it  too  frequently 
was,  into  the  healthful  residence,  which  it  may  now,  under 
judicious  management,  be  considered.  Much  has  been  done 
in  the  army  in  the  same  direction,  chiefly  owing  to  the 
corresponding  sagacity  and  perseverance  of  Dr.  Robert 
Jackson ;  but  much  still  remains  to  be  done  ;  and  we 
are  certain  that,  if  the  military  authorities  would  order  an 
investigation,  by  competent  inquiries,  into  the  condition  of 
every  station  reputed  to  be  unhealthy,  and  would  seriously 
set  uemselves  to  think,  not  how  little  they  need  do,  but  how 
much  they  can  do,  to  remove  the  causes  of  disease,  which  will 
then  be  disclosed  to  them,  they  will  soon  be  rewarded  by  such 
diminution  in  the  amount  of  sickness  and  mortality,  as  shall 
most  amply  demonstrate  the  capacity  of  the  European  soldier, 
for  health  and  longevitv  in  any  stations,  but  such  as  are  lo- 
cated in  the  midst  of  pernicious  exhalations,  whose  influ- 
ence no  sagacity  or  prudence  can  avert. 

*^  But  here,  as  in  many  other  instances,  we  have  to  complain 
of  the  very  small  degree  of  attention,  which  has  been  too  fre- 
quently given  to  medical  representations  by  the  civil  and 
military  authorities.  There  is  scarcely  a  page  of  Dr.  Mackin- 
non*s  work,  which  does  not  bear  testimony  to  the  justice  of 
this  complaint. 

"  It  is  not  merely  of  their  apathy,  that  the  medical  officer 


76         HOBTALITT  OF  EUBOPEAN  80LDI£R8  IN  INDIA* 

'  has  to  complain.  It  is  too  frequently  the  case  that  the  at- 
'  tempt  to  draw  attention  to  the  imperfection  of  the  existing 

*  barrack  accommodation,  sanitary  regulation,  &c.,  causes 
'  the  medical  man  to  be  regarded  as  a  troublesome  meddler, 
'  and  becomes  a  bar  to  his  advancement,  instead  of  being 
'  considered  (as  it  most  assuredly  should  be)  an  evidence  of 
'  his  intelligence  and  zeal.  ^  It  has  been  suggested  to  me  by  a 
'  friend,'  says  Dr.  Mackinnon,  *that  my  remarks,  regardiii^ 

*  public  health  and  the  saidtary  regulations  existing  in  this 

*  country,  are  too  freely  spoken.  I  cannot  think  so  ;  for  I  de- 
'  scribe  things  as  they  are ;  and  it  ought  not  to  be  displeasing 
'  to  a  great,  just  and  benevolent  government  to  know  the  truth. 
'  In  other  parts  of  his  work,  he  gives  every  credit  to  the  Su- 
'  preme  Government  for  its  desire  to  promote  sanitary  improve- 

*  ments,  but  laments  the  want  of  co-operation  among  the   sub- 

*  ordinate  officials.'' — British  and  Foreign  Medxco-Chirurgieal 
Review. 

The  authorities,  referred  to  in  the  preceding  paragraph,  can- 
not even  shelter  themselves  under  the  plea,  '^  Am  /  my  bro- 
ther's keeper  ?"  We  entreat  them  to  remember,  that  their  posi- 
tion involves  responsibilities  on  this  head ;  that  the  commission 
they  hold,  and  the  pay  they  receive,  bind  them  as  honest  men 
to  do  faithfully  the  work  that  is  before  them.  And  let  those 
who  are  labouring  in  the  good  cause,  and  are  discouraged  and  dis- 
countenanced, remember  that  there  is  a  day  coming  when  the  fiuth- 
ful  steward  will  be  very  surely  distinguished  from  the  slothful  one: 
and  with  this  assurance  let  them  not  ^^  be  weary  in  well-doing." 
Their  efforts  may  seem  fruitless  ;  but  let  them  remember 

"  Not  all,  who  seem  to  fail,  have  failed  indeed  ; 
**  Not  all,  who  fail,  have  therefore  toiled  in  vain." 

The  importance  of  the  subject  must  be  our  excuse  for  the 
length  and  the  frequency  of  our  extracts.  We  desire  not 
to  DC  original,  but  to  be  useful ; — we  care  not  to  cry  up  any  set 
of  men  or  opinions,  or  to  run  down  others.  We  are  neither 
exclusively  medical,  military,  nor  civil  in  our  views.  We  sim- 
ply advocate  common  sense,  and  the  golden  rule  of  doing 
as  we  would  be  done  by.  Government  and  individuals  have 
dearly  bought  the  knowledge,  that  dismpation  and  malaria,  foul 
air  and  foul  water,  cause  deatL  Let  us  only  benefit  by  past 
experience,  and,  as  is  the  duty  of  a  great  government,  act 
not  impulsively  and  by  starts,  but — as  sensible  men  do,  when 
they  act  for  themselves— examine  and  enqtdre  deliberately  and 
impartially y  and  then  act  decidedly  and  honestly.  We  hope 
to  return  to  the  subject. 


THE   EAST  INDIA  COMPANY  AND  ITS  CHABTEB.  77 


Abt.  DLL — 7%e  Times  News'paper :    London.  1851. 

Deflobable  ae  the  ignorance  and  the  indifference  of  both 
Houses  of  Parliament  may  be  upon  matters  connected  with 
India,  and  opposed  as  the  views  of  parties  have  hitherto  always 
been,  when  tne  question  of  the  general  administration  of  the 
Anglo-Indian  empire  was  under  discussion,  it  is  consolatory  to 
reflect,  that  on  two  important  points  there  has  ever  been,  and 
now  is,  wonderful  unanmiity  of  opinion.  A  Bright  may  indeed 
declaim,  both  truthfully  and  well,  upon  the  irresponsibility  of 
that  indefinite  complex  mosaic,  formed  by  the  India  Board, 
the  India  House,  and  the  East  India  Stock  proprietors — may 
show  how  such  a  tesselated,  discordant,  non-organized  aggrega- 
tion of  distinct  and  independent  bodies  baffles  and  eludes  in- 
vestigation, and  renders  responsibility  less  than  nominal — that 
this  want  of  simplicity  of  structure  and  concrete  form  pro- 
duces the  great  fault  of  the  home  Indian  Government,  name- 
ly ''  that  you  can  never  place  your  hands  upon  it;"  that  the 
mover  of  the  question,  not  perfectly  convenient,  or  perhaps  not 
quite  agreeable,  to  any  one  of  the  three  constituent  (but  not 
co-operative)  bodies  of  the  London  Indian  Government,  very 
quicjdy  finds  himself,  Sancho  like,  on  the  blanket,  manned 
at  the  corners,  not  only  by  "  quelques  drapiers  de  Segovie 
et  des  Fripiers  de  Cordoue/'  but  also  by  higher  functionaries 
of  the  East,  as  well  as  of  the  West,  who  prove,  however,  both 
high  and  low,  '^  tous  bons  compagnons,  et  gens  deliberee, 
qui  poussez  d^vn  mesme  esprit^  maKe  their  unfortunate  Sancho 
cut  capers  in  the  air,  untU  they  are  weary  of  their  amusement ; 
when  they  charitably  replace  him,  '^  ou  ils  I'avoient  pris,  c'est-a- 
dire,  sur  son  ane'' — that  needless  secrecy,  and  objectionable 
unprofitable  mystery  are  the  characteristics  of  such  a  system — 
ana,  to  use  his  own  simile,  weary  of  this  game  of  thimble  rig, 
a  Bright  may  even  go  the  length  of  saying  ^^  Let  them 
get  rid  of  the  Board  of  Controul  and  the  Court  of  Directors, 
and  have  a  Government,  which  would  be  responsible  to  Parlia- 
ment for  conducting  the  affairs  of  a  great  country  like  India." 
But  he  never  dreams  of  demanding  either  of  two  things,  a  re- 
presentative form  of  Government  for  the  millions  of  India,  or 
the  transfer  of  the  home  branch  of  the  Indian  administration 
to  the  overworked  and  inefficient  Colonial  Office.  These  are 
points,  in  which  he  agrees  with  Whig  and  Tory ;  neither  of 
whom,  whether  in  or  out  of  office,  have  ever  advocated  a  repre- 
sentative form  of  Government  for  our  eastern  subjects,  or 
sought  to  add  to  the    weight  of   responsibility,   which    al- 


78  THE  EAST   INDIA  COMPANY  AND   ITS   GHABTER. 

ready  overtaxes  the  energies  and  breaks  the  back  of  the  ill-fat- 
ed well-badgered  Colonial  Secretary.  From  various  motives^ 
men  of  all  shades  of  opinion  and  of  all  sections  of  political  par- 
ties, however  widely  differing  in  their  views  upon  the  eflSciency 
of  the  existing  system,  or  the  necessity  for  its  thorough  reor- 
ganization, thus  assent  to  two  most  important  particulars; — 
first,  that  India  cannot  be  considered,  and  is  not,  ripe  for  self- 

fovemment;  and  secondly,  that  this  great  Empire,  in  the  home 
ranch  of  its  administration,  requires  an  establishment,  separate 
and  distinct  from  that  under  which  the  colonies  of  the  crown  are 
governed,  and  thoroughly  efficient  for  the  performance  of  the  high 
responsible  duties  with  which  it  is  charged.  These  uncontested 
universally  received  admissions,  once  set  forth  and  carefully  kept 
in  view,  remove,  not  only  at  the  outset  of  our  inquiry,  but  after- 
wards in  the  course  of  more  advanced  progress  along  the  path 
of  investigation,  many  doubts  and  not  a  few  difficulties.  Re- 
garded as  axioms,  these  two  admissions  lie  at  the  foundation 
of  all  that  has  been,  or  can  be,  written  on  the  subject  of  our 
rule  in  India :  and,  whatever  the  superstructure  to  be  raised  on 
this  basis,  there  is  an  evident  advantage  in  clearly  understand* 
ing,  that  there  is  no  necessity,  either  to  prove,  or  specially  to 
advert  to  such  well  established  propositions : — it  would  be  a 
waste  of  the  time  and  patience  of  the  reader. 

In  thus  assuming  two  most  important  £Eicts,  as  axioms  of  uni- 
versal acceptation,  it  does  not,  however,  follow  as  an  inevitable 
consequence,  that  the  subversion  of  all  native  Governments, 
the  destruction  of  native  States  and  Rulers,  and  the  thoroi^h 
extinction  of  all  elements  for  the  natural  and  gradual  de- 
velopment of  institutions  in  harmony  with  the  habits,  feel- 
ings, and  state  of  civilization  of  the  millions  of  India,  are 
to  be  regarded  as  no  hardship  on  the  native  races.  Foreign 
domination  must  ever  be  a  hardship:  and,  the  more  marked  the 
difference  in  the  language,  creed,  character  and  civilization  of 
the  dominant  race,  the  more  severely,  because  on  a  greater 
variety  of  points,  will  the  yoke  press  upon  the  necks  of  those, 
on  whom  it  has  been  imposed  by  conquest.  It  cannot  but  gall 
them  in  a  thousand  ways:  and  Peel  evinced  a  statesman-like 
apprehension  of  truth,  when,  in  connection  with  our  rule  in 
India  and  the  welfare  and  contentment  of  its  vast  population, 
he,  early  in  his  career,  urged  it  to  be  our  duty  ^*  to  atone  to 
'  them  lOT  the  sufferings  they  endured^  and  the  wrongs  to  which 
'  they  were  exposed,  in  being  reduced  to  that  rule ;  and  to  afford 

*  them  such  advantages  and  confer  on  them  such  benefits,  as 
'  may,  in  some  degree,  console  them  for  the  loss  of  their  inde- 

*  pendence."    It  may  suit  the  purpose  of  a  panegyrist  His- 


THE   EAST  INDIA  COMPANY  AND  ITS  CHABTEB.  79 

torian,*  circulated  by  the  Coart  of  Directors  throughout  India, 
to  endeavour  to  invalidate  the  wisdom  and  acumen  displayed  in 
these  remarks,  by  drawing  a  very  exaggerated  contrast  between 
the  beneficence  of  British  rule  and  the  cruelty  and  oppression 
of  native  tyranny.  It  may  also  not  be  impolitic  on  the  part  of  a 
Secretaryt  in  the  Foreign  Department,  to  array  the  vices  of 
Mnhammadan  princes,  the  instability  of  their  sway,  and  the  evils, 
which  the  Moslem  rule  entailed  upon  the  country,  now  under 
the  milder  and  more  intelligent  supremacy  of  a  Christian  power : 
—but  such  pictures,  as  the  latter  author  has  given,  though  tole* 
rably  truthtul  and  correct  so  far  as  they  reach,  by  no  means 
shake  or  controvert  the  views  of  Peek  At  the  utmost,  they 
show  that,  to  a  certain  degree,  greater  in  intention  than  in 
effect,  our  administration  has  evinced  a  disposition  to  study 
the  welfare  and  prosperity  of  the  conquered  masses,  over  whom 
its  supremacy  had  been  established,  and  from  whom  the  revenue 
for  the  maintenance  of  that  supremacy  was  to  be  derived.  But 
it  is  not  in  human  nature,  that  gratitude  for  minor  self-respec- 
tive benefits  should  have  the  power  to  quench  the  hate  of 
foreign  dominion,  still  less  to  render  the  burthen  of  a  foreign 
voke  tolerably  agreeable.  To  argue  in  this  manner  womd 
betray  such  an  oversight  and  neglect  of  the  deep,  ineradicable 
principles  of  human  nature,  as  could  only  be  reasonably  ascrib- 
ed, either  to  very  gross  ignorance  and  an  utter  inexperience 
of  men,  or  to  a  blind,  self-interested  desire  to  ignore  the  exist- 
ence of  feelings  inseparable  from  man's  nature.  No  one,  tho- 
roughly conversant  with  the  secret  political  history  of  India, 
even  during  the  last  ten  years,  will  Imve  been  able  to  close  his 
eyes  to  facts,  which,  at  times,  brought  uncomfortable  evidence  of 
Gor  real  position  in  India — ^proving  that,  however  laudable  were 
many  of  the  intentions  of  tne  British  Government  towards  the 
insKj  millions  under  its  sway,  it  had  neither  struck  root  into  the 
feelings,  nor  into  the  affections  or  confidence  of  the  people, 
whom  it  had  enjoyed  the  opportunity  of  most  effectively  be- 
friending ;  and  that,  on  the  contrary,  their  sympathies  were  in 
nnison  with  the  hopes  and  wishes  of  the  discontented  classes, 
whom  our  rule  and  system  has  cast  into  poverty  and  insigni- 
ficance, and  whose  hostility  is  only  the  deeper  and  more  heart- 
oorroding,  from  the  necessity  for  suppressing  and  concealing  its 
ebullitions. 

Granting  all  that  can,  with  any  truth,  be  alleged  of  the  su- 
perior int^rity,  the  more  impartial  justice,  the  higher  intelli- 
gence, the  more  perfect  organization,  the  greater  security  to 

♦  Thornton.  t  EUiot. 


80  THE   EAST  INDIA  COMPANY  AND  ITS   CHABTEB. 

person  and  property,  which  characterize  British  supremacy- 
and  granting  that  our  debt  of  fifty  millions  (a  considerable  part 
of  which  is  owed  to  chiefs^  who,  in  times  of  financial  embar- 
rassment, were  rather  coinpulsorily  induced  to  advance  large 
sums  on  the  security  of  (Company's  paper,  and  to  rich  na- 
tives) enlists  a  certain  number  m  favour  of  the  permanence  of 
our  power ;— these  admissions  do  not  warrant  the  assumption, 
that  our  rule  is  popular ;  that  our  institutions  harmonize 
with  the  temper  and  nabits  of  the  people;  that  the  higher 
classes  are  at  ease ,  contented  with  their  position,  and  well 
disposed  towards  those,  who  have  superseded  them  in  the 
management  of  the  country.  The  case  is  notoriously  the  re- 
verse of  all  this.  Any  check  to  our  arms — any  reverse,  such  as 
the  memorable  one  at  K&bul — or  even  any  at  all  doubtful  and 
resultless  battles,  such  as  Hardinge  and  Gough  fought  with  the 
Sikhs — ^prove  at  once,  how  quaky  are  the  foundations  of  the 
Anglo-Indian  empire.  However  much  the  panegyrists  of  its 
beneficent  character  may  feel  inclined  to  mdulge  in  lauda- 
tory declamation  upon  the  hold,  it  is  acquiring  of  the  minds  and 
feeling  of  the  people,  of  the  respect  and  affection  they  bear 
towards  a  power,  mstinguished  by  a  mild  and  conciliatory  exer- 
cise of  autnority — these  self-iadnunistered  gratulations  must  be 
taken  at  nothing  more  than  they  are  worth,  unless  it  be  wished^ 
at  some  critical  period,  to  rue  the  confidence  placed  in  rhodo- 
montades.  On  such  an  occasion,  the  ruler,  wno  built  on  these 
illusions,  would  soon  be  taught,  that,  over  large  tracts,  not  the 
faintest  echo  responsive  of  such  feelings  reverberated  from  the 
breasts  of  the  people ;  that,  where  most  favourably  disposed,  the 
cultivators,  the  village  communities,  which  form  the  great 
mass  of  the  population,  entertain  but  a  passive  feeling  of 
favour  towards  their  European  masters ;  and  that  anything  like 
an  active,  spontaneous  outburst  of  loyal  sympathy,  in  support  of 
our  administration,  is  alike  foreign  to  the  character  ana  habits 
of  the  class,  and  to  the  depth  of  good  will  entertained  towards 
our  rule. 

How  is  it  possiblQ  that  matters  should  be  otherwise?  Up 
to  the  present  time,  whether  willingly,  or  unwillingly  does  not 
much  affect  the  question,  encroachment  and  conquest  have 
been  the  distinctive  attributes  of  the  Anglo-Indian  Government. 
Chief  after  chief,  state  after  state,  have  been  subdued ;  until, 
with  the  exception  of  a  few  subordinate  isolated  principalities, 
whose  prolonged  existence  is  felt  to  be  a  pure  act  of  grace,  the 
whole  of  India,  in  its  entire  length  and  breadth,  has  submitted 
to  our  authority.  An  Empire,  won  thus  rapidly  by  the  sword, 
cannot;  however  much  it  may  be  desiderated  by  the  conquer- 


THE  EAST  INDIA  COlfPANT  AND  ITS  CHABTKB.  81 

ing  race,  at  once  efface  the  remembrance  of  its  ori^n,  or 
easily  conceal  the  conditions  of  its  existence.  The  imposition  of 
a  few  ephemeral  inatitutions,  modelled  upon  the  exemplars  of  a 
high  Western  civilization,  and  to  which  the  spirit  of  Eastern 
manners  has  not,  as  yet,  had  time  to  adapt  itself,  only  bring  into 
stronger  and  more  violent  relief  the  antagonistic  mond  and  intel- 
lectual states  of  the  ruled  and  rulers.  Speak  to  well-informed 
natives,  by  which  designation  we  do  not  mean  English-crammed 
Babtis  of  Calcutta,  but  men  of  experience  and  observation 
among  the  chiefs  and  people,  at  a  distance  from  the  immediate  dr- 
des  of  the  Presidencies,  and  from  such,  enquire  their  views  and 
opinions  of  our  power.  Will  they  dwell  on  our  system  of  juris- 
prudence, on  the  purity  of  our  courts,  on  the  knowledge  and  im- 
partiality of  the  Company's  judges  and  subordinate  ministerial 
officers,  upon  the  lightness  of  our  revenue  assessments,  and  the 
sreat  public  roads  and  canals  of  irrigation,  which  either  have 
been  constructed,  or  are  in  course  of  construction  ?  Not  one  in 
a  thousand  will  allude  to  any  of  these  things :  but  they  will  say 
that  we  are  masters  in  the  art  of  war ;  that  discipline  and 
military  organization  were  unknown,  prior  to  the  advent  of  the 
British ;  that  our  military  institutions  are  incomparable,  and 
by  native  states  inimitable: — ^they  will  add  too,  that  truth,  as 
compared  with  themselves,  is  sacred  among  Englishmen ;  and 
that  we  are  faithful  to  our  engagements.  The  generosity,  the 
justice,  the  beneficence  of  the  British  rule,  an  Englishman 
)s  disappointed  to  find,  are  generally  left  to  his  own  suggestion  as 
topics  :  and  he  learns  speedily  that,  however  he  may  have  flat- 
tered his  imagination  on  the  subject  of  our  paternal  sway,  the 
8word,inthemindsof  chiefs  and  people,  isthe  symbol  of  the  Anglo- 
Indian  dominion ;  that  its  nine  pounders  are  the  orators,  who  have, 
up  to  the  present  time,  spoken  most  intelligiblv  to  the  people : 
and  that,  although  our  general  character  for  truthfulness  and  good 
fifcith  is  acknowledged,  all  the  hallucinations,  as  to  gratitude  for 
oomparative  security  of  person  and  property,  respect  for  inte- 
grity and  impartiality,  are  mere  moonshine — and  that  too,  faint 
of  ray,  a  complimentary  reflection  from  his  own  suggestive  in- 
quiries and  questions. 

Public  feeling  will,  of  course,  vary  ;.  for  some  parts  of 
India  were  rescued  by  the  British  arms  from  a  state  fast 
verging  on  anarchy ;  and  in  such  portions  of  the  country, 
the  memory  of  those  evil  days,  even  where  not  fresh,  has  not, 
as  yet,  been  altogether  worn  out  : — ^but^  though  it  has  been 
oiir  alleged  policy  everywhere  studiously  to  defend  the  rights 
of  the  ryot,  and  put  do¥m  all  tyranny  or  oppression  prac- 
tised upcm  the  people ;.  and  we  have,  therefore,  m  some  degree^. 


82  THE   EASr  INDIA  COMPANY   AND   ITS   CHARTER. 

taught  the  latter  to  look  to  U3  as  disposed  to  be  the  defenders 
of  the  poor^  and  to  arbitrate  equitably  between  the  weak  and 
the  powerful,  yet  in  so  doing,  we  have  alienated  a  large  and 
very  influential  class,  without,  at  the  same  time,  supplanting  them 
in  the  hold,  which,  from  similarity  of  language,  habits,  and  some- 
times creed,  they  still  maintain  over  the  minus  and  feelings  of  the 
masses.  We  have  struck  little  root  in  the  lower  strata  of  native 
society ;  though,  on  the  whole,  the  best  feeling  towards  us  is  to 
be  found  there :  but  the  great  distance  between  those  classes 
and  ourselves,  and  the  intervention  of  classes  decidedly  hostile, 
who  intercept,  neutralize,  and  distort  the  current  of  action  be- 
tween the  British  functionary  and  the  populace,  weaken  extreme- 
ly, wherethey  do  not  succeed  in  annihilating,  the  bonds  of  sympa- 
thy, confidence,  and  good  will,  which  might  otherwise  already 
have  attained  to  some  strength  in  our  older  provinces. 

This  may  not  be  a  flattering  representation  of  the  position,  we 
occupy  in  India;  but  it  is  a  natural  consequence  of  the  rapid,  all- 
crushing  energy  of  our  sweep  to  supremacy,  and  of  our  state,  as 
a  highly  civilized,  conquering  race,  having  little  in  common  with 
the  conquered,  and  separated  from,  and  raised  above,  them  by 
language,  creed,  moraU,  manners,  and  the  aflluence  derived  from 
the  subdued.  There  has  not  been  the  time  or  the  opportunity  for 
the  rise  and  spread  of  a  class  of  impressions,  resulting  from  wise, 
liberal,  unselfish,  legislative  measures,  and  from  the  operations 
and  the  blessings  oi  continued  peace.  Providence  may,  indeed, 
reserve  for  the  Anglo-Saxon  race,  the  honour  of  stereotyping  such 
impressions  ultimately  on  the  minds  and  hearts  of  the  heteroge- 
neous millions  of  India :  but,  under  this  supposition,  our  rulers 
will  not  further  or  expedite  the  attainment  of  the  great  end 
of  their  mission  in  the  East,  by  ignoring  the  r^dities  of 
their  present  position,  and  by  colouring  to  their  fimcy  the 
actual  feelings  of  the  native  community.  Renowned  as  con- 
querors, and  not  unknown  as  tax-gatherers,  it  would  not  be 
wise  to  count,  as  yet,  on  having  realized  any  great  capital  of 
popularity.  The  Anglo-Saxon  in  India  moves  upon  the  sur- 
face ;  darkness  is  upon  the  face  of  the  deep  beneath  him ;  and 
it  remains  to  be  seen,  whether  he  will  be  given  that  spirit  and 
wisdom,  which  can  alone  enable  him  to  form,  enlighten,  and 
mould  into  a  higher  state  of  moral,  intellectual,  and  physical  civi- 
lization, the  chaotic  mass  of  people — aye,  of  nations — ^which  ac- 
knowledge his  supremacy. 

Nor  can  the  warmest  admirers  of  our  present  system  deem  it 
strange,  that  our  popularity  should  be  rated  so  moderately,  if, 
descending  from  generalities,  they  consider  in  some  detail  one 
of  the  mam  features  of  the  Anglo-Indian  administration.     The 


THE  EAST  INDIA   COMPANY  AND   IT9  CHABTEH.  83 

|ro68  revenue  raised  from  the  empire,  is  now  stated  to  amount  to 
Twenty-seven  and  a  half  millions  sterling;  and,  if  the  military  ex- 
penditure, ordinary  and  extraordinary,  is  assumed,  in  times  of 
peace,  to  be  Ten  millions  8terling(a  state  of  war  adding  about  Two 
Bullions  more),  and  the  civil  expenditure,  ordinary  and  extraordi- 
nary, to  be  also  about  Ten  millions  sterling — the  estimate  will  be 
nearly  correct,  and  yields  a  total  of  civil  and  military  expenditure, 
amoonting,  under  ordinary  circumstances,  to  at  least  Twenty  mil- 
lions sterling.  From  this  estimate  are  excluded  extraordinary 
grants,  whether  on  account  of  public  works,  such  as  are  in  contem- 

flation,  if  not  already  actually  assigned,  for  the  Ganges  canal  and 
^unjab  works  of  irrigation,  or  on  account  of  donations  to  the  army, 
and  a  war  scale  of  staff  and  analogous  expenses ;  for  such  inci- 
dental charges  have  but  a  partial  bearing  on  the  subject  in  view. 
Here  then  is  a  customary  gross  expenditure,  for  ^e  ordinary 
administration  of  the  countrv,  of  Twenty  millions  sterling  per 
annum,  out  of  which,  it  will  be  interesting  and  useful  to  ascer- 
tain what  portion  is  paid  to  the  native,  and  what  to  the  Euro- 
pean, functionaries.  This  can  only  be  done  approximately;  but 
still  with  sufficient  accuracy  to  answer  all  practical  purposes. 

By  reference,  therefore,  to  financial  reports,  it  may  be  easily 
calculated^  that,  if  one  third  of  the  civil  expenditure  be  allotted 
to  the  covenanted  and  uncovenanted  European  officers,  and  the 
remaining  two  thirds  assigned  to  the  native  establishments  and 
the  departmental  contingent  expenses  of  all  kinds,  such  pro- 
portions will  not  be  far  from  the  distribution,  whkh.  actually 
attains,  in  the  disposal  of  the  Ten  millions  on  account  of  the 
civil  administration.  When  the  salaries  and  Durbar  expenses 
of  Governors-General,  and  Governors — of  Queen's  law  courts, — 
and  of  the  political  charges  of  the  Government  of  India,  are  in- 
cluded. Three  and  a  half  millions,  and  even  upwards,  may  be 
allowed  as  the  cost  of  European  agency.  Nearly  the  same  pro- 
portion holds  good  in  the  Military  Department,  where  one  third 
of  the  Ten  miUions  may  be  assigned,  as  the  amount  disbursed,  on 
account  of  staff  and  European  officers  of  the  armies;  one  third 
to  the  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates,  native  and  Eu- 
ropean, including  regimental  establishments ;  and  the  remain- 
ing third  may  be  allotted  to  the  Commissariat  and  other  expen- 
8e&  To  be  within  the  mark,  it  may  thus  be  safely  stated  that, 
out  of  ail  expenditure  of  Twenty  millions  sterling.  Six  millions 
eight  hundred  thousand  is  the  annual  disbursement  for  the 
European  agency,  civil  and  military,  employed  in  the  Anglo- 
Indian  empire.  As  upwards  of  Three  millions  (usually  near  upon 
three  and  a  quarter  millions)  go  to  the  home  charges,  it  may  be 
fiurly  stated  that,  out  of  a  gross  revenue  of  Twenty-seven  mil- 


84  THE  EAST  INDIA  COMPANY  AND  ITS  CHABTEB. 

lions, Ten  millions^directly,  or  indirectly^but  mostly  directly,  are 
paid  into  the  handis  of  the  Europeans  connected  with  India.  For 
the  present,  however,  attention  may  be  confined  to  the  distribu- 
tion of  the  Twenty  millions,  annually  spent  on  the  civil  and 
military  administration — this  being  the  disbursement,  to  which 
the  minds  of  the  native  community  are  most  alive ; — ^the  home 
charges  being  a  mystery,  scarce  known,,and,  where  heard  of,  not 
understood,  by  any  but  a  few  of  the  most  intelligent  natives. 

For  the  Civil  Departments,  the  Six  and  a  half  millions,  expend- 
ed on  the  subordinate  native  agency,  are  spread  over  such  an 
immense  surface  of  country,  and  among  such  a  host  of  petty 
instruments,  forming  the  working  machinery  of  the  judicial^ 
police,  revenue,  and  other  civil,  branches,  that,  though  the  sum 
be  large,  yet  there  is  nothing  invidious  in  this  portion  of  the 
outlav.  The  machinery  in  question  must,  under  any  circumstan- 
ces, either  wholly  or  in  part,  whether  we,  or  any  one  else,  ruled  the 
country,  be  maintained :  and,  therefore,  though  much  greater 
than  would  be  thus  expended  under  a  purely  native  administra- 
tion, yet,  as  the  expenditure  is  disbursed  among  the  people,  it 
attracts  little  covetous  notice.  But  the  case  is  different  with 
regard  to  the  distribution  of  the  Three  and  a  half  millions 
to  the  European  civil  functionaries ;  that,  the  higher  classes 
and  the  more  intelligent  natives  feel,  would  all  have  flowed 
into  their  own  hands,  were  the  Government  not  in  ours ;  and, 
accordingly,  it  is  this  part  of  our  system,  which  excites  both 
most  observation  and  most  ill-will  among  the  aspiring. 

Although  nearly  a  similar  amount  is  expended  among  the  Eu* 
ropean  officers  of  the  army,  yet,  as  their  numbers  are  very 
much  greater  and  their  individual  receipts  moderate,  besides 
that  the  outlay  is  evidently  an  inevitable  necessity  on  the  part  of 
the  conquering  race,  that  won,  and  has  to  keep,  the  country  by 
the  sword — the  distribution  is  neither  so  disproportionate  in  ap- 
pearance, nor  so  obnoxious  to  the  envy,  and  offensive  to  the 
pride  of  those  classes,  who  deem  themselves  defrauded,  by 
our  intervention,  of  the  large  portion  of  the  revenue  absorbed 
by  the  European  agency,  in  the  one  case,  they  see  Three 
and  a  half  millions  distributed  among  a  class,  very  limited  in 
numbers,  not  amounting  to  two  thousand  for  all  India,  which 
enjoys  the  monopoly  of  all  posts  of  trust  and  power,  and  which^ 
if  an  average  were  struck  on  the  total  of  civil  employes,  cove- 
nanted and  uncovenanted,  costs  the  state  £1,750  annually  for 
each  man  of  the  favoured  body.  Whilst,  in  the  other  case,  the 
Three  millions  and  three  hundred  thousand  present  few  prizes ; 
and,  being  scattered  amongst  upwards  of  8,000  persons,  make  the 
average  cost  of  each  European  military  officer  a  trifle  upwards 


THE  EAST  INDIA  COHPANY  AMD  ITS  CHABTEB.  85 

of  £412  per  annum,  that  is,  not  one  fourth  of  the  average  of  each 
European  civil  fiinctionary.  Hence  the  very  different  feelings 
which,  as  objects  of  invidioiis  remark,  the  two  services  excite. 

In  reality  the   disparity    is  greater  than  that  which  the 
foregomg  averages  show — the  number  of   covenanted  Civil 
Servants  of  the  Company  being  only  about  800  for  all  India. 
Striking  an  average  upon  the  receipts  of  the  Civil  Service,  as 
indicate  in  Bengtd  by  the  amount  of  the  annual  subscriptions 
to  the  Civil  Service  annuity  fund,  levied  at  the  rate  of  four  per 
cent  on  all  public  allowances,  the  cost  of  each  is  upwards  of 
£1,500  per  annum ;   but  this,  for  many  reasons,  which  it  is 
needless  here  to  detail,  is  not,  in  consequence  of  omissions, 
a  correct  average  upon  the  mere^  covenanted  Civil  Servants  of 
the  Company ;  and,  of  course,  it  wholly  omits  the  larger  class 
of  civil  appointments,   such  as   Governors,  Lieut-Governors, 
Members  of  Council,  Queen's  Judges,  and  the  like.  The  average, 
therefore,  of  £1,750  per  annum  is  not  only  under  the  mark,  but, 
from  the  actual  distribution  of  the  Three  and  a  half  millions,  and 
the  marked  distinction  made  between  the  covenanted  and  the 
imcovenanted  branches  of  the  service  in  their  respective  scales 
of  emolument,  is  not  an  accurate  exponent  of  the  real  difference 
of  footing,  on  which  the  favoured  service  appears  in  the  eyes  of 
the  native  community.     It  is  true,  that,  by  act  of  Parliament, 
the  highest  offices  are  open  to  all :  but,  though  the  law  Impe- 
nal  impose  no  disabilities,  the  law  Directorisd  of  patronage  is 
in  complete  antagonism  to    the    act  of  Parliament  in  this 
respect;  and,  practically ,  a  native  cannot  hope  for  anything  high- 
er than  to  be  admitted  to  compete  with  the  European  uncove- 
oanted  servants  for  the  charges  of  Amfn,  and  Sudder  Amin. 
Sir  J.  W.  Hogg,  when  boasting  that  there  were  native  judi- 
cial officers  in  the  receipt  of  £600,  £700,  and  £800  a  year, 
forgot  to  specify  how  many  native  functionaries  were  in  the 
recdpt  of  such  salaries,  and  what  proportion  their  numbers  bore 
to  the  European  uncovenanted  servants  in  such  positions.     The 
House  of  Commons,  from  the  speech  of  Sir  J.  W.    Hogg, 
were  left  at  liberty  to  come  to  the  conclusion  (and,  indeed, 
reported  as  the  speech  is,  could  not  very  well  arrive  at  any 
other)  that  the  whole  of  this  class  of  appointments  were  in 
the  hands  of  natives ;    a  palpable  fallacy.     Moreover,  what  did 
the  boast  in  reality  reveal,  but,  that  after  many  years  of  labour 
and  the  continuous  exhibition  of  much  ability  and  integrity, 
a  native,   if  fortunate,  may  hope  to  attain  to  such  a  scale  of 
emoluments,  as   an  inexperienced,  and  at  first  incompetent, 
yonth   of  the  Civil  Service  at  once  enjoys  upon  landing  in 
India  ?  It  was  tantamount  to  a  declaration  on  the  part  of  the 


86  THE   EAST  INDIA   COMPANY  AND  ITS   CHABTEB. 

deputy  chairman  of  the  Court  of  Du-ectors,  that  the  highest 
reward  for  eminent  judicial  ability  and  integrity  on  the  part  of 
a  native  was  the  remote  chance  of  some  day  obtaining  a  posi- 
tion^ in  which  such  distinguished  conduct  would  be  remunerated 
on  a  scale  of  not  quite  one  half  the  average  cost  of  each  Eu- 
ropean member  of  the  civil  administration.  How  few  ever 
succeed  in  reaching  this  culminating  point  of  native  ambi- 
tion^ is  notorious  in  India :  and  hence,  not  only  is  there  a 
deep  feeling  pervading  the  higher  and  more  respectable 
classes,  who  recoil  from  the  thought  of  years  of  drudgery 
in  our  offices,  with  such  faint  prospects  of  ultimate  advancement, 
but  a  similar  vein  of  discontent  prevails  among  those  of  a  lower 
class,  who  do  enter  our  offices ;  are  formed  there ;  upon  whom 
all  the  real  heavy  work  of  the  civil  administration  falls ;  and 
who  find,  after  long  years  of  toil,  that  the  service  has  for 
themselves  but  niggardly  rewards,  and  that  the  posts  of 
respectability  and  emolument,  ayailable  to  a  large,  and,  on  the 
whole,  a  meritorious  class  of  competitors,  are  very  few* 
The  very  men,  raised  by  our  system  fix>m  a  state  of  indi^nce 
to  one  of  usefulness  and  influence,  are  often  the  most  bitter, 
because  the  most  severely  disappointed  in  their  aspirations. 
They  are  not  a  whit  less  hostile,  as  a  body,  than  the  humiliated 
gentry,  nor  less  disposed  to  set  the  people  against  the  British 
rule,  to  play  upon  their  prejudices,  foster  ill-founded  apprehen- 
sions, and  foment  a  malignant  discontent,  whenever  occasion 
serves.  All  this,  their  knowledge  of  our  system,  our  iso- 
lation firom  the  people,  and  their  own  intervention  as  the  chief 
chain  of  connection  between  ruled  and  rulers,  enables 
them  to  do  effectually  when  so  disposed.  We  shall  hereafter 
show  that  this  is  not  a  visionary  idea,  but  borne  out  by  facta 

The  European  reader  of  these  pages  will  scarcely  apprehend 
the  extent  of  the  disparity  upon  which  we  have  dwelt,  and  the 
effects  which  it  must  inevitably  produce,  unless,  first  bearing  in 
mind  the  general  condition  of  the  people,  he  at  the  same  time 
has  presented  to  him  the  status  of  the  ruling  few.  He  must 
bear  in  mind,  that  the  great  mass  of  the  population  consists  of 
the  agricultural  classes ;  and  that,  even  where  the  Muhammadan 
population  shows  a  considerable  ratio  to  the  Hindu,  as  in  the 
North  Western  Provinces,  and  where  the  country  is  dotted 
with  a  fair  proportion  of  large  cities  and  good-sized  towns,  be- 
sides large  cantonments  of  troops,  the  simple  village  communi- 
ties vastly  preponderate.  Thus,  by  the  census  of  the  N.  W.  P., 
taken  in  1848,  the  agricultural  classes  are  rated  at  14,724,233, 
whilst  the  non-agricultural  classes  amount  only  to  8,475,435. 
In  other  parts  of  India,  the  agricultural  classes  would  yield  a 


THE  EAST  INDIA  COMPANY  AND  ITS     CHARTER.  87 

much  greater  excess  over  the  non-agriculturists ;  for  in  the  N. 
W.  P.,  out  of  a  population  of  23,199,668,  as  many  as  3,747,022 
are  Mussalmans ;  of  whom  2,150,745  are  non-agriculturists. 
Now,  if  the  &yourable  assumption  be  made,  that  Government  on- 
ly takes  one  fourth  of  the  gross  produce  of  the  land,  and  the  aver- 
age produce  may  be  calculated  as  ^ving  a  return  of  24s.  per 
acre;  ISs.  remain  to  the  cultivator  to  cover  all  the  charges  of 
nJfling,  reaping,  and  disposing  of  the  crops,  besides  the  clear  pro- 
fit, or  rent,  on  which  himself  and  family  are  to  subsist  Adopt- 
ing, for  example,  the  Cawnpore  statistics,  the  proprietors,  a 
daw  nnmbermg  16,542,  average  78  acres  each :  ana  therefore 
this,  the  most  wealthy  class,  consisting  of  the  landed  gentry,  under 
the^  supposition  that  the  whole  estates  were  under  cultivation, 
which  is  a  fallacy,  would  average  a  gross  receipt  of  £70  per  annum, 
out  of  which,  when  the  expenses  of  cultivation  are  deducted, 
the  net  rent,  or  profit  received  by  the  proprietors,  will  scarcely 
average  more  than  one  third,  or  from  £23  to  £30  per  annum. 
When  we  come  to  the  61,000  hereditary  tenants,  averaging  6 
acres  each,  and  35,000  tenants  at  will,  averaging  4  acres 
each,  the  former  large  class  will  have  an  average  gross  return 
from  the  land  of  £5-8  per  annum,  and  the  latter  £3-12  per 
annum,  out  of  which  the  proprietor's  rent  must  be  paid,  the 
land-tillage  charges  met,  and  the  tenant  maintain  himself  and 
his  fiunily.  Mr.  Montgomery,  in  a  note  at  page  39,  averages 
the  cultivation,  for  reasons  assigned,  at  only  3  acres  per 
cultivator;  but,  as  our  object  is  to  present  the  most  favour- 
able view  that  the  subject  admits,  although  not  at  all  doubting 
the  accuracy  of  Mr.  Montgomeiy's  average,  we  prefer  adhering 
to  the  somewhat  higher  ratios  above  given.  Sutherland  assumes 
£4-19  as  the  total  produce  per  annum  of  a  cultivator;  from 
which,  if  one  fourth  oe  taken  as  the  Government  revenue  de- 
mand, there  will  remain  £3-14-3,  which  nearly  tallies  with  our 
lower  average.  Considering  that  the  census  gives  an  average  of 
ox  persons  to  each  house,  which  is  probably  about  the  mark, 
for  the  agricultural  classes,  the  foregoing  yearly  incomes  of  here- 
<Iitary  tenants  and  of  tenants  at  will  are  extremely  small,  and 
e?en  those  of  the  proprietors  but  slightly  raised  above  pauper- 
ism. Perhaps,  a  iairer  view  of  the  condition  of  the  people  may 
he  derived  m>m  a  general  average  struck  upon  the 

7,54,818    acres  at  ISs 13,586,724 

53,411       „     „   248.     1,281,864 

Giving  a  total  of  14,868,588 

For  the  maintenance  of 5,83,460 


88  THE  EAST  INDIA  COMPANY  AND  ITS   CHARTER. 

agriculturists^  and  the  cost  of  cultivation ;— or  an  average  of  some^ 
what  less  than  £1-5-6  annually  per  head^  to  cover  tilli^e  charges 
and  support  of  individuals  connected  with  the  land.  The 
Cawnpore  district  is  selected,  because  it  is  a  productive  one, 
has  the  advantage  of  considerable  towns,  a  large  cantonment^ 
good  markets,  both  in  the  district  itself,  and  in  its  neighbour- 
hood, as  atLucknow;  has  been  some  time  under  our  management ; 
and  because  its  statistics  have  lately  been  ably  set  forth.  It  may 
therefore  be  taken  as  a  fair  sample ;  and  though  every  province 
in  India  would  vary  in  the  average  thus  struck,  yet  a  mean  of 
the  whole  would  not,  in  our  opinion,  deviate  far  from  the  result, 
derived  from  the  authoritatively  printed  Cawnpore  statiatios, 
of  28.  l^d.  monthly  per  head  of  population. 

The  questions  of  our  different  modes  of  levying  the  land  re- 
venue, and  of  the  weight,  or  lightness  of  our  assessments,  are  not 
here  under  consideration:  and  we  are  perfectly  well  aware  that  an 
average,  thus  struck,  necessarily  gives  a  more  favourable  gene- 
ral result,  than  that  corresponding  with  the  actual  condition  of  a 
people — for  it  throws  out  of  consideration  the  partial  accumula- 
tion of  wealth,  and,  with  a  communistic  sweep,  levels  all  ranks, 
conditions,  ages,  and  sexes,  to  one  standard.  Such  a  standard, 
evidently  fallacious,  if  specially  applied  to  individual  cases,  is, 
however,  useful  as  a  general  exponent,  or  sign  of  the  state  of  a 
people;  and  the  reader,  when  casting  his  eye  down  the  subjoined 
scale  of  civil  functionaries,  should  bear  in  mind  the  scale  of 
civilization  among  agricultural  millions,  corresponding  with  a 
condition  where,  after  deduction  of  the  Government  demand  of 
a  fourth,  that  vast  population  averages  per  head  a  gross  return 
from  the  land  of  2s.  l^d.  Under  such  circumstances,  civiliza- 
tion could  not  be  expected,  even  were  the  religion  and  the 
manners  of  the  people  other  than  they  are,  to  attain  any  very 
exalted  degree :  and  that  which  prevails,  namely,  a  system  of 
agricultural  village  communities,  whose  internal  organization  is 
perfectly  simple,  thoroughly  efficient,  moulded  by  and  adapted 
to  the  means,  religion,  and  habits  of  the  pauper  masses,  would 
seem  to  be  the  only  one  suited  to  the  existing  condition  of  the 
people.  TVhether  or  not  our  civil  establishments  are  not  pitch- 
ed at  too  high  a  scale,  with  reference  to  the  wants  of  a  com- 
munity, which  has  only  reached  to  such  a  stage  of  civilization, 
may  be  matter  for  after  consideration :  but  that,  which  is  now 
required,  is,  that,  realizing  to  himself  the  actual  condition  of  the 
many  millions  of  India,  as  indicated  by  the  foregoing  observa- 
tions, the  reader  picture  to  himself  the  relative  positions  of  the 
ruled  and  rulers,  and  the  degree  of  intercourse  Ukely  to  subsist 
between  a  small  class  of  very  highly  paid  foreigners,  dropped 


THE  EAST  INDIA  COMPANY  AND  ITS   CHARTER.  89 

hj  onr  system  like  king  Logs  amid  the  multitude^  and  separated 
from  them^  not  alone  as  being  the  isolated  recipients  of  power 
and  affluence^  but  also  by  the  more  formidable  barriers  of  creeds 
of  language^  and  of  the  highly  artificial  civilization  of  the 
West — ^whidi  is  in  such  violent  contrast  with  the  patriarchal 
fiimplicity  pervading  the  life  and  manners  of  a  poor^  labouring 
Eastern  people.  What  Sir  Thomas  Munro  wrote  to  Canning 
in  1823,  is  still  but  too  true*     '^  By  not  coming  to  India  you 

*  have  escaped  the  irksome  task  of  toiling  daily  through  heaps 

*  of  heavy  long  drawn  papers.    I  never  had  a  very  high  opinion 

*  of  our  records ;  but  it  was  not  until  my  last  return,  that  I 
'  knew  that  they  contained  such  a  mass  of  useless  trash.  Every 
^  man  writes  as  much  as  he  can,  and  quotes  Montesquieu 
'  and  Hume  and  Adam  Smith,  and  speaks  as  if  we    were 

*  living  in  a  country,  where  people  were  free   and  governed 

*  themselves.  Most  of  their  papers  might  have  been  written 
'  by  men,  who  were  never  out  of  Englimd,  and  their  projects 

*  are  nearly    as  applicable  to  that    country    as    to  India.'' 
Though  our  records  in  the  course  of  eight  and  twenty  years 
have,  at  any  rate  in  the  Bengal  Presidency,  been  materially  im- 
proved, and,  Hume  and  Montesquieu  being  out  of  fashion,  data 
have  been  accumulated,  upon  which  some  degree  of  reliance  can 
be  placed — stiU  the  habit  of  speaking  and  writing,  with  refer- 
^oe  to  India,  as  if  it  had  attained  a  wholly  different  stage  of 
civilization  from  that  which  it  presents,  is  but  too  prevalent. 
The  education,  language,  and  ideas  of  the  English  gentleman, 
often  most  unintentionally  on  his  part,  travesty  eastern  matters, 
and  convev'  fidse  impressions  of  the  actual  conditions  of  the 
dusky  millions  under  our  rule.    The  press  too,    essentially 
representing  only  the  European  portion  of  the  community, 
airi  representing  it  too  but  partially,  being  chiefly  restricted  to 
the  subjects  of  local  interest  at  the  Presidency  capitals,  has 
ikot  tended  to  correct  so  much,  as  might  otherwise  have  been 
&e  case,  this  habit  of  viewing  our  Eastern  subjects  through  the 
i&BtoTiing  medium  of  a  pair  of  English  spectacles.    Perhaps, 
therefore,  the  very  matter  of«-&ct»point  of  view  of  what,  on  the 
general  average,  each  head  of  the  agricultural  popidation  is  worth 
per  annum^  may  enable  our  English  readers  more  truthfully  to 
realize  the  state  of  the  people,  as  compared  with  that  of  their 
rulers,  than  any  more  elaborate  description  which  we  could  have 
attempted.     "  What  is  he  worth  T  is  a  thoroughly  English 
mode  of  measurinff  a  man;  but  as  a  mode  of  gauging  the 
^enl  concfition  ca  a  people,  it  is  of  less  objectionable  applica* 
tkm  than  in  the  case  of  individuals.    Keeping  therefore  the  six<* 

N 


90  THE  EAST  INDIA  COMPANY  AND  ITS  CHARTEB. 

1>ence-a-week  millionB  in  nund,  let  the  eye  run  down  the  fol* 
owing  list  for  Bengal  alone : — 

(Governor-General  of  India Rs.  250,800  0  0 

■<  Chief  Justice •. 88,347  2  0 

C  2  Puisne  Judges,  each 62,510  4  0 

4  Members  of  Council,  each  160,320  0  0 

5  Judges  of  Sudder  Dewani  Adawlut,  average  each     52,200  0  0 

2  Members  of  Sudder  Board  of  Revenue,  ditto  ...     52,200    0    0 

3  Members  of  Board  of  Customs  Salt  and  Opium, 

average  each 52,200  0  0 

4  Political  Employment,  average  each 50,000  0  0 

4  Secretaries  to  Government,  ditto 52,200  0  0 

2  Opium  Agents,  ditto 42,000  0  0 

9  Revenue  and  Abkati  Commissioners,  at  an  aver- 
age each  of. 38,000  0  0 

30  Judges,  at  an  average  each 30.000  0  0 

45  Collectors  and  Magistrates,  at  salaries  of  from...  38,000  0  0 

To 28.000  0  0 

And...  12.000  0  0 

9  Miscellaneous  Appointments,  varying  from 28,800  0  0 

To 15,000  0  0 

22  Additional  Collectors,  Joint  Magistrates  and  De- 
puty Collectors,  from 12,000  0  0 

To 8,400  0  0 

12 -Secretaries  to  Boards   80,000  0  0 

1  Register  - 30,000  0  0 

35  Assistants,  at from  6,600  0  0 

To 4,800  0  0 

Deputation  allowances  are  omitted. 

We  add^  by  way  of  contrast  with  the  above,  the  scale  of 
salaries  in  the  Uncovenanted  Branch  of  the  Civil  Service,  as  set 
forth  in  the  Finance  Conunittee's  Beport  in  1843,  since  which 
time,  however,  there  have  been  some  modifications,  which  would 
slightly  alter  the  averages  struck  on  the  data  afforded  by  the 
tables  appended  to  the  report  of  the  Committee.  The  follow- 
ing scale  of  salaries  appears  to  us  a  very  proper  one,  and  would 
be  80  considered  by  the  members  themselves  of  this  branch  of 
the  service,  were  it  not  for  the  violent  contrast  with  the  pre- 
ceding one,  which  invites  invidious  comparisons. 

UKOOVSN ANTED  8BBYI0B. 

86  Principal  Sudder  Amins  averaging  each  5,228  0  0 

80  Sudder  Amins,  ditto 8,060  0  0 

217  Munsifis,  ditto  1,344  0  0 

134  Uncovenanted  Deputy  Collectors,  ditto  3,516  0  0 

With  the  exception  of  the  few,  though  not  insignificant, 
appointments  heading  the  list,  which,  being  Crown  patronage,  are 
bracketed  together,  all  the  rest  are  the  routine  grades  of  the 
Civil  Service ;  a  service,  of  which  it  has  been  justly  observed. 


THE   EAST   INDIA   COMPANT  AND  ITS   CHARTER.  91 

tiiAt  its  members  are  all  sure  of  raizes.     When  the  eye  runs 
^wn  this  list,  which  only  includes  Bengal  Proper,  and  omits  the 
Agra,  Madras,  and  Bombay  Presidencies,  the  full  yalue  of  this 
one  branch  of  the  patronage  of  the  Court  of  Directors  can  be 
estimated,  and  their  jealousy  of  any  infringements  of  its  privi- 
leges can  be  easily  understood.     It  is  a  most   noble    patri- 
mony for  a  corporate  body  of  twenty-four  self-elected  gentle- 
men to  monopolize :  and  well  may  their  sons,  nephews,  and  cou- 
ains  bear  them  gratitude  for  sending  them  into  a  vineyard; 
hedged  and  guarded  with  such  extreme  solicitude.     The  fact  is, 
that,  under  this  system,  the  Grovemment  of  India  is  in  the  hands 
of  afewfainilies,ul  more  or  less  connected  by  intermarriages,  and 
all  having  their  roots  in  the  Court  of  Directors.    All  therefore 
have  a  common  interest  in  the  sttitu  quo  ;  and  all  are,  not  only 
banded  together,  but  also  linked  with  the  Directors  of  the  E.  L 
Company,  by  every  tie,  which  can  foster  sympathy  and  create 
imhy  of 'piIrpoBe.    To  avoid  any    appro<^h   to  penonality, 
we  abstain  from  tracing  out  the  web  of  a  few  families,  which, 
Kke  a  capacious  net,  embraces  no  small  share  of  India ;  in  so 
doing,  however^  we  forego  what  would  prove  equally  amusing 
and  mstructive  to  our  reeulers,  and  would  cast  much  Ught  upon 
points,  not   otherwise  easily  comprehensible.    But,  although 
it  is  in  our  power  to  give  a  succinct  sketch  of  the  snug  famUy 
groups,  into  which  the  Anglo-Indian  civil  administration,  in  great 
measure,  resolves  itself,  as  the  general  statement  answers  every 
purpose,  without  giving  offence  to  many  good  and  able  servants, 
there  is  no  need  to  inflict  the  pain  of  such  a  dissection.    Illus- 
trative of  the  fact  however,  may  be  instanced  the  advice,  which 
a  hunented  dignitai^  of  the  Church  gave  to  a  young  man  starting 
on  his  career.     ^*  My  dear  Sir,  in  society  in  India  it  is  never  safe 
to  express  any  opinion  upon  the  conduct,  public,  or  private,  of 
any  member  of  the  services ;  for  the  chances  are  iimnite  that 
you  are  talking  to    his  relative  or  connexion ;  and  remarks, 
innocent  in  intention,  ma^  in  consequence  give  offence,  and 
create  mischief."    The  advice  was  excellent :  but  the  truth,  upon 
which  it  is  based,  has  a  far  higher  bearing  than  that  of  warning 
a  youth  frt>m  making  enemies ;   viewed  with  regard  to  the 
internal  administration  of  India,  it  lays  bare  the  root  of  much' 
that  18  unsound  and  calls  for  amendment,  but  which  cannot  be 
expected  to  meet  with  reform  under  the  existing  system. 

jliiB  radical  defect,  in  what  may  be  termed  the  organization 
of  the  service,  pervades  all  its  branches  to  an  extent  often  but 
httle  suspected.  It  is,  however,  most  conspicuously  prevalent  in- 
the  more  favoured  and  lucrative  civil  line.  The  defect  is  not 
fiurprising,  for  it  is  a  patural  consequence  of  a  century  of  rulc^ 


92  THE   EAST  INDIA   COMPANY  AND  IT8   CHARTEB. 

under  the  present^  or  a  slightly  modified^  Directorial  patronage^ 
which  of  course  instinctivdy  flows  in  set  channels.  It  is  an  evil 
of  the  greatest  magnitude  and  of  the  most  noxious  practical 
workings  and^  in  our  opinion^  of  far  more  importance  than  the 
mere  economical  question  of  the  emoluments  of  the  Civil  Service* 
With    respect    to    emoluments,    the    salaries,  when  con- 
trasted with  the  general  condition  of  the  people,  are  enor- 
mously disproportioned ;  and,  when  compared  with  the  scale 
of  salaries,  which  attains  in  England,  appear  extravagantly 
high.     There  can  be  no  doubt  that,  under  another  system 
and  a  less  close  monopoly  of  patronage,  the  work  could  be  as 
well  done  at  a  cheaper  rate:  yet,  with  respect  to  some  of 
the  salaries,  we  are  of  opinion  that  it  would  be  impolitic  to  re- 
duce them.    Where  a  high  order  of  ability  and  much  experi- 
ence are  required,  it  is  sound  economy  to  remunerate  wem 
well,  and  bad  economy  to  pare  them  down; — the  saving  being  an 
insignificant  item  in  the  balance  sheet  of  India,  and  holding  no 
proportion  to  its  deteriorating  effect  on  the  hopes  and  exertions 
of  those  ambitious  to  rise.    There  is,  however,  a  large  class,  in 
which  reduction  might,  with  advanti^e,  be  carried  into  effect : 
for  the  general  run  of  the  salaries  is  pitched  at  too  high  a  scale, 
and  have  thus  given  a  false  ratio,  on  account  of  which  the  suboiv 
dinate  native  and  uncovenanted  functionaries,  measuring  their 
own  work  and  emoluments,  are  too  apt  to  feel  deeply  discontent- 
ed.    So  long  as  unnecessarily  high  salaries  are  maintained  aa 
unapproachable  objects  of  invidious  comparison,  this  discontent 
has  always  a  show  of  reason :  and  the  existence  of  two  such  scales 
of  salaries,  as  those  of  the  covenanted  and  uncovenanted  servioes, 
both  really  blended  in  work  together,  but  the  maximum  emo- 
luments of  the  one  pitched  at  the  minimum,  or  entrance,  retainer 
of  the  other,  is  an  anomaly  very  repulsive  to  able  servanta. 
Few  but  those,  who  have  had  the  opportunity  of  watching  the 
effect  upon  the  general  service  of  the  state  produced  by  exces- 
sive salaries  in  any  one  branch,  can  appreciate  the  unfavourable 
influence  they  exercise,  not  alone  on  the  other  branches  of  the 
public  service,  but  also  upon  the  Government  itself,  which,  with 
OQQ  such  established  scale  of  reference,  is  often  constrained  to 
comply  with  the  conventional  ideas  it  has  fostered,  and  is  thua 
forced  into  unnecessary  expenses.     This  sort  of  action  and  reao- 
tion  tend  to  increase  and  perpetuate  the  evil. 

Several  successive  Governors-General  appear  to  have  been 
convinced  of  the  expediency  of  remedying  such  a  state  of  affairs^ 
and  endeavoured  to  introduce  reforms ;  but  where  were  they  to 
find  instruments  to  carry  out  their  views  ?  Financial  Commit- 
teesj  composed  of  those  interested,  perhaps  sometimes  uncon8ci-> 


TH£  EAST  INDIA  COMPANY  AND  IT8  CHABTER.  93  ^ 

oualy,  in  defeating  the  very  objects  for  which  they  are  assem- 
bled, are,  in  their  results,  very  like  some  of  Lord  John  Russell's 
kte  Parliamentary  Committees— expert  at  neutralizing :  for  they 
are  sure  of  the  warm  sympathies  of  their  brethren  of  the  servi- 
ces, and  equally  so  of  paternal  approval,  though  covert,  on  the 
part  of  the  Directors.  Here  then  is  a  subject,  which  it  is  no- 
torious, that  a  Governor-General  cannot  at  present  deal  with ; — 
(me  of  those  matters  of  administrative  principle,  which  can  only 
be  successfully  and  properly  handled  at  homeland  by  Parlia- 
ment, taking  scrupulous  care,  however,  that,  if  done  in  Commit- 
tee, or  before  Parliamentary  Commissioners,  there  be  no  suspi- 
cion of  Leadenhall-street  influence.  No  other  authority  can 
effectually  grapple  with  this  thorny  subject :  and,  if  Parliament 
or  its  Commissioners  lean  on  the  Court  of  Directors,  they  will 
inevitably  be  misled,  and  all  real  Financial  reform  frustrated* 

Lord  William  Bentinck  in  1828,  1829, 1830,  at  a  considera- 
able  expense  and  trouble,  had  a  Finance  Committee  at  work. 
What  were  the  results  ?  Between  the  Commission  themselves, 
and  the  Court  of  Directors,  his  contemplated  reforms  were 
reduced  to  a  minimum — it  misht  be  said  completely  emasculated 
—And  in  that  very  branch  of  the  service,  which  in  his  opinion 
needed  the  most  pruning  and  setting  in  order.  Baffled  in  one  di- 
f^on,  he  had  recourse  to  the  expedient  of  employing  military 
inen,asa  cheaper,and,when  properly  selected,an  equally  efficient, 
civil  machinery.  But  there  are  limits  to  this  resource,  and 
moreover,  it  is  one  to  which  the  Court  of  Directors,  naturally 
coongh,  have  a  most  jealous  aversion.  Contenting  himself,  there- 
fore, with  what  he  could  effect  without  very  violent  opposition 
in  this  track,  he  also  broke  ground  in  the  extended  employment 
of  nativeB  and  of  uncovenanted  servants.  How  unpalatable 
aU  this  was  to  his  Honorable  masters,  may  be  seen  by  reading 
their  spedal  advocates,  and  in  particular,  their  own  historian, 
Thornton. 

Lord  Auckland  made  a  few  more  encroachments;  but  he 
veoeived  a  lesson,  as  to  the  spirit  such  measures  would  evoke 
among  theDirectors,  when  he  made  Captain  Carpenter,  Deputy 
Collector  aad  Joint  Magistrate  of  Benares.  This  officer 
lad  been  retained  with  the  Ex-Bajah  of  Coorg;  and  the 
Governor-General,  thinking  to  turn  a  sinecurist  into  a  use- 
Ad  servant,  and  to  sive  aid  to  the  over-burthened  Magistrate  of 
fieaarea,  h2t2sarded  uie  exj^riment  of  investing  Captain  Carpen- 
ter with  subordinate  magisterial  powers.  Lord  Auckland  soon 
learnt  his  error.  The  Court  of  IMrectors  had  made  no  difficulty 
in  approving  of  the  measures  carried  out  in  1838  against  the 
Aimra  of  &$inde,  or  of  those  whidi,  under  the  Buseophobia, 


94  THE  EAST   INDIA  COMPANY  ANI>  ITS  CHAETER 

were  undertaken  against  Herat  and  Dost  Muhammad  Khan:  but 
these  were  very  different  acts  from  trenching  on  the  preroga- 
tive. The  latter  was  a  far  more  hazardous  and  delicate  trans- 
action—-one  in  shorty  that  could  not  be  tolerated ;  so,  the  arrange* 
ment  was  disapproved^  and  the  Governor-General  ordered  imme- 
diately to  cancel  the  appointment,  in  no  very  considerate  or  compU" 
mentary  manner. 

The  results  of  Lord  EUenborough's  Finance  Committees  are 
well  known.  No  one  at  all  conversant  with  the  former  ones 
ever  for  an  instant  anticipated,  that  even  his  energy  and  his 
avowed  indifference  to  Directorial  interests,  could  overcome  or 
alter  the  truly  conservative  spirit  of  his  Committees.  Both  were 
therefore  laborious  mummeries:  but  they  are  said  to  have 
caused  no  small  alarm  in  Leadenhall-street,  and,  in  conjunction 
with  some  special  acts  of  severity,  and  his  disregard  of  the 
doctrine,  since  promulgated  and  acted  upon,  that  the  high  poli- 
tical appointments — ^the  few  prizes  in  that  department--are  the 
indefeasible  right  of  the  Civil  Service,  are  generally  believed 
to  have  excited  the  violent  animosity,  which  was  displayed  by 
the  Court  of  Directors.  We  are  of  opinion  that  the  latter 
body  might  safely  have  viewed  the  assembly  of  the  Finance 
Committees  with  the  profoundest  tranquillity  and  equanimity* 
It  needed  no  prophetic  gift  to  foresee  and  foretell  their  fruits ; — 
Nothing  I 

Neither  Lord  Hardinge,  nor  Lord  Dalhousie  can  be  charged 
with  having  lost  sight  of  politic  respect,  both  for  their  own 
interests,  and  for  a  partiality,  pardonable  enough  (as  human 
nature  is  constituted)  on  the  part  of  their  masters.  Both  saw  the 
sore,  and  have  avoided  getting  into  an  unprofitable  conflict  by 
probing  it  The  consequence  has  been  a  harmony,  but  seldom 
disturbed  Lord  Dalhousie  may  act  as  he  fancies  with  respect 
to  the  Koh-i-n6r,  or  any  other  booty  ;  he  may  leave  India  to  be 
governed,  as  it  may,  whilst  he  makes  Thibet  his  headquarters  ; 
he  may  thus  virtually  abdicate  the  charge  conferred  upon  him 
by  his  two  masters,  the  Crown  and  the  Court  of  Directors ;  but 
he  knows  well,  that  all  this  is  of  little  importance,  provided  he 
abstains  from  giving  a  shock  to  the  nervous  svstem  of  the 
old  lady  (as  some  natives  take  her  to  be)  of  Leaaenhall-street. 
A  few  gentle  passes  over  her  revered  head,  along  her  trunk,  and 
down  to  her  very  extremities,  suffice  to  put  her  into  a  pleasant 
trance ;  and  the  good  creature  will  then  remain  in  a  state  of 
comatose  insensibuity  to  all  the  proceedings  of  '^  our  Grovemor- 
General.''  But  let  him  only  pinch  a  toe  of  his  patient — ^touch 
one  of  the  members  of  the  favoured  service,  or  their  salaries — 
and  the  counterpass  will  not  only  send  a  shock  through  the  cor* 


IWB   EAST  INDIA  COMPANY  AND  ITS   CHARTER.  95 

poiBte  body  in  India^  but  to  the  very  brains  of  the  neuralgic 
^stem  in  the  IncUa  House.  Farewell  then  to  accord,  and  to 
tne  ssps  of  Hogg !  Here  then,  we  have  no  hesitation  to  repeat, 
in  the  revision  and  reform  of  the  general  scale  of  civil  salaries, 
is  scope  for  Parliamentary  Ciommissioners.  They  alone  are  com* 
petent  to  deal  vdth  the  matter  in  an  independent  manner. 

We  have  before  stated,  however,  that  we  regard  the  mere 
economical  measure  of  a  reduction  of  salaries,  as  of  purely 
secondary  importance.  Wisely  carried  into  effect,  it  would  be  a 
beneficial  measure ;  and,  if  accompanied,  either  by  the  extension 
of  the  uncovenanted  service,  or  the  amalgamation  of  the  two 
now  distinct  branches  into  one,  would  enable  the  State,  at  the 
same^orareduced,  cost,  to  provide  amagi8tracy,numerous  enough 
for  the  wants  of  the  population,  and,  therefore,  calculated  to 
render  the  check  and  supervision  of  our  police  and  judicial  es- 
tablishments much  more  efficient  than  at  present 

A  question  of  higher  importance  to  the  permanent  welfare  of 
India^  appears  to  be,  whether  the  patronage  of  the  Court  of 
Directors  should  be  continued  to  them,  after  the  expiration  of  the 
Charter — to  be  exercised  in  the  same  manner  and  under  the  same 
conditions  as  at  present.  Those  most  hostile  to  the  Court  of 
Directors  will  probably  make  no  difficulty  in  conceding  that, 
provided  the  basis,  from  which  the  patronage  emanates,  were 
expanded,  they  have  no  objection  to  the  class  or  stratum  of 
society^  out  of  which  the  recruits  for  the  Civil  and  Military  Ser-* 
vices  of  India  are  drawn.  The  qualities  required  are  active  ha- 
bits, proper  feeling,  intelligence  and  education ;  but  these  should 
be  combined  wiu  as  much  independence  from  the  fictitious 
wants  of  a  highly  artificial  state  of  Western  civilization  as  pos- 
able.  There  should  be  a  union  of  superior  intelligence  with 
simplicity  of  habits  and  character;  the  natives  of  India  are 
equally  repelled  by  either  extreme.  What  to  them  wears  the 
air  of  a  supercilious  exquisite  refinement,  is  as  foreign  to  their 
comprehension  and  as  repellent  to  their  feelings,  as  some  of  the 
coarse  vices  of  our  lower  grades  are  disgusting  to  their  ideas 
of  propriety.  Now,  we  know  no  class,  which  is  likely  to  fur- 
aish  more  promising  instruments  for  a  vigorous  Anglo-Indian 
admin]8tration,ihantiie  class  of  gentlemen,  from  whose  fitmilies 
they  are  at  present  in  great  measuredrawn — ^fiimilies,  which  are 
neither  too  poor  to  be  able  to  afford  their  children  a  good  sound 
education  and  to  instil  into  them  the  necessity  for  exertion  and 
flelAdependence ;  nor  too  rich,  so  that  their  sons  escape  exposure 
to  tlie  msidious  action  of  a  home  training  in  the  lap  of  affluence 
and  luzniy,  and,  from  the  first,  form  moderate  views  and  expec- 
tations.   Uidding  this  opinion^  we  should  regret,  for  the  sake  of 


96  THE   EAST  INDIA  COMPANY  AND  ITB  CHARTER. 

India,  to  Bee  the  patronage  pass  into  hands,  which  would 
disseminate  it  differently  ;  with  whom  the  acquisition  of  Parlia- 
mentary influence  and  support  being  the  rule,  all  else  must  be 
subordinated  to  that  primordial  exigency.  Such  disposers  of 
patronage  would  probably  dip  both  higher  and  lower  in  the 
strata  of  English  society  for  their  Indian  recruits,  than  the 
stratum,  from  which  they  are  usually  derived  ;  but  it  may  be 
doubted,  whether  the  service  would  be  benefitted  by  this ; 
in  fact,  it  is  pretty  certain,  that  it  would  be  deteriorated. 
We  hold  therefore  to  the  continuance  of  the  great  mass  of  the 
Indian  patronage  in  the  hands  of  the  body  of  East  India 
Directors ; — but  neither  of  such  limited  numbers,  nor  of  so 
anomalous  a  constitution  and  position,  as  they  are  at  present. 

The  best  commentary  upon  the  truth  and  good  sense,  whioh 
characterized  some  of  Mr.  Bright's  remarks  in  the  debate  on  Mr. 
Anstey's  East  India  motion,  was  lately  afforded  by  the  debate  in 
the  House  of  Lords  upon  the  Punjab  booty  question.  We  should 
compliment  ourselves  on  the  fact,  that  India  had  actually  been 
the  subject  of  two  debates  in  that  august  assembly,  were  it  not 
that  a  doubt  may  be  reasonably  entertained,  whether  the  mo- 
tions on  Indian  affiiirs  in  the  Upper  House,  since  Mr.  Anstey's 
in  the  House  of  Commons,  may  not  be  fairly  ascribed  to  the 
imperative  necessity,  under  which  the  Peers  laboured,  of  carv- 
ing out  work  for  themselves.     To  assemble,  day  after  day,  in 
their  gorgeous  hall  to  do  nothing,  except  to  exhibit  the  epecta* 
cle  of  the  hereditary  legislators  awaiting  work  from  their  mas* 
ters,  the  Lower  House,  was  dreadMly  undignified  and  humilia- 
ting.   Evidently  too,  there  was  no  hope  of  this  state  of  torpor 
being  invaded ;  for  the  Commons  [were  still  floundering  through 
the  swamps  of  the  Ecclesiastical  Title  Bill,  and  the  life  of  their 
session  was  otherwise  paralysed  by  the  flickering  animation  of 
an  expiring  Grovemment.    All  the  world  were  as  busy  as  bees 
about  the  Exhibition ;  and  foreigners,  after  a  good  look  at  Pax- 
ton's  Crystal  Palace,  would  probably  peep  into  the  gold-bedi- 
zened hall  at  Westminster.     It  was  a  hard  case;  something 
must  be  done  for  the  credit  of  the  house ;  so  Lord  Whamcliffe, 
honest  man,  hit  on  the  pis  idler  of  Indian  public  works,  and 
expatiated  with  the  usual  share  of  Parliamentary  ignoranoe, 
upon  a  topic  on  which  he  knew  that  his  audience  were  as  pro- 
foundly ignorant  as  himself.     Hobhouse,  as  Lord  Broughton, 
proved  his  own  intimate  acquaintance  with  the  subject^  by 
chiming  in  harmoniously  with  all  that  had  been  said  laudatory 
of  the  East  India  Directors,  and  by  talking  wisely  of  the  Eastern 
and  Western  Jungle  canals.     Tms  afibrded  Lord  EUenborough 
an  opportunity  to  announce  his  very  heterodox  views  respecting 


THE  EAST  ISDJJL  COMPANY  AND  ITS  CHABTEB.  97 

the  several  merits  of  tank  and  canal  irri^tion^  and  to  touch 
on  roads — ^rail  and  plain — and  cotton.  The  latter  Peer,  how- 
ever, with  more  "  actuality^  (to  use  the  Press  term  for  hitting 
off  topics  of  momentary  interest)  than  Lord  Whamcliffe,  had 
alreaov  conceived,  that,  as  every  body  went  to  see  the  £oh-i- 
ntir,  the  question  '^  how  it  came  there ;"  might  have  a  general^ 
as  well  as  a  specific,  interest  Though  unpalatable  to  the  Court 
of  Directors,  it  was  certainly  admirably  calculated  to  give  an 
additional  zest  to  the  pleasure  of  the  Exhibition-vidting  world 
^-the  mystery  enveloping  its  change  of  hands  being  quite  as 
enigmatical  as  Chubb's  Sensitive  Case*  Whether  that  brilliant 
be  an  exemplar  of  the  precision  of  ourpolitical  sense  of  *  meum' 
and  *  tuum  in  the  a&irs  of  Indian  Princes,  does  not  so  much 
interest  us  at  present ;  but,  from  the  ventilation  of  such  ques- 
tions, as  Lords  WhamclifFe  and  EUenborough  mooted,  collateral 
questions,  often  of  the  deepest  importance,  arise  and  are  dis- 
cussed :  and  one  such  turned  up  in  the  course  of  the  booty  de- 
bate, which  deserves  notice  in  connection  with  the  matter  we 
bave  in  hand. 

'Utt.  Bright's  observation,  upon  the  difiiculty  of  laying  your 
band  on  the  Lidian  Government,  was  curiously  exemplified. 
Lord  Broughton  dedgnated  the  Court  of  Directors,  as  respecting 
India,  Trustees  for  the  Crown :  whilst,  on  the  other  hand,  the 
Doke  of  Wellington  argued  that  the  Governor  General  is  the 
representative  of  the  Crown.  The  latter  was  indubitably  nearest 
tbe  mark>  in  point  of  fact,  though  not  in  point  of  law.  But,  as 
representative  of  the  Crown,  and  therefore  the  fountain  head  of 
justice — ^the  one  person,  to  whom  both  India  and  England  are 
entitled  to  look  lot  independence  of  thought  and  impartiality 
of  judgment  and  action — the  one  person,  upon  whose  fearless 
and  unbiassed  exercise  of  these  attributes,  the  purity  of  the 
Anglo-Indian  administration  rests — ^how  is  a  Governor-General 
I^aced  with  reference  to  his  other  masters,  the  Court  of  Direc- 
tors, who^  as  the  parents  or  patrons  of  the  office  holders  in  In- 
dia, are  keenly  affected  by  any  economical  reforms,  or  acts  of  a 
remedial*  or  pimitive  character,  which  the  Governor-General 
may  deem  it  essential  to  carry  into  effect  ?  His  authority  is, 
by  act  of  Parliament,  subjected  to  the  durante  bene  placito  of 
toe  very  body,  counter  to  whose  sympathies  and  interests  it 
may  firequently  be  his  imperative  duty  to  act.  No  one  will  be 
inclined  to  judge  very  severely,  or  to  expect  more  from  noble- 
men or  commoners  thus  drcumstanced,  than  may  be  reasonably 
anticipated  with  respect  to  the  average  amount  of  principle, 
which  pervades  political  men  of  the  day :  but  it  is  nevertheless 
essential  to  mark  one  of  the  most  glaring  defects  of  the  exist- 


98    THE  EAST  INDIA  COMPANY  AND  ITS  CHARTER. 

ing  system^  and  to  point  out^  that  as  you  can  seldom  hope  that 
eiuier  noblemen  or  commoners  of  wealth  and  independence  will, 
from  motives  of  pure  benevolence,  quit  the  arena,  on  which 
their  talents  have  gained  them  political  weight  and  distinction, 
in  order  to  exile  themselves  to  rule  in  India ;  so,  it  behoves  the 
legislature,  calculating  on  the  circumstances  of  the  average  de- 
scription of  Governors-General  they  are  likely  to  obtain,  to 
place  these  men,  on  whom  depends  ultimately  the  general  char- 
acter, which  our  Anglo-Indian  administration  is  to  maintain, 
in  a  position,  in  which  independence  of  thought  and  action 
shall  be  secured  to  them  with  as  anxious  a  jealousy,  as  that 
evinced  by  our  British  constitution  for  the  thoroura  integrity 
and  independence  of  the  bench  of  Judges.  If  it  be  advisable 
that  the  Judges  in  England  shall  not  hold  their  commissions, 
durante  bene  placito  of  the  Crown,  how  far  more  essentially 
necessary,  that  a  Governor-General,  the  representative,  like  the 
Judges,  of  the  highest  attributes  of  the  Crown,  shall  not  hold 
his  commission,  durante  bene  placito  of  a  corporate  bodj  of 
twenty-four  gentlemen,  themselves  wholly  irresponsible,  but 
whose  sons,  nephews,  and  connections  form  the  machinery  of 
that  administration,  for  the  purity  and  efficiency  of  which  he  is 
held  responsible  by  the  Crown  and  by  his  country?  As  well 
might  we,  in  England,  invest  those,  whose  private  interests  and 
parental  feelings  are  sure  to  be  affected  by  a  Judge's  decrees, 
with  the  privilege  of  issuing  authoritative  opinions  upon  that 
Judge's  decisions,  and  with  the  authority  of  stripping  him  of 
his  ermine  at  their  pleasure.  This  anomaly,  the  fruitful  source 
of  much  of  the  mal-administration  and  needless  extravagance 
which  exists,  lies  at  the  root  of  the  existing  system.  It  is  inde- 
fensible in  theory,  and  incalculably  evil  in  practice,  subjecting 
the  many  millions  of  India,  to  the  really  irresponsible  Govern- 
ment of  a  limited  and  not  wealthv  class,  consisting  chiefly  of 
the  numerous  members  of  a  few  ramilies,  with  no  interest  in 
the  country,  other  than  that  of  obtaining  as  high  salaries  as 
they  can  whilst  there,  and  of  leaving  it  with  their  thousand  a 
year  pension,  and  accretions  from  savings,  as  soon  as  they  pos- 
sibly can.  The  tendency  of  such  a  system  is  to  render  the 
interests  of  the  few,  all  in  all.  The  interests  of  the  many  are 
attended  to,  so  far  as  subserves  the  interests  of  the  few,  and  no 
further. 

Fortunately,  the  force  of  home  public  opinion  being  ap« 
preciable  even  in  India,  and  the  service  so  eminently  desir- 
able, the  few  have,  on  the  whole,  been  most  laudably  anxious 
to  fulfil  their  duty  with  talent  and  integrity.  The  faults^ 
with  few  individual  exceptions,  have  been,  and   ate,  rather 


THE   EAST  INDIA  COMPANY  AND   ITS   CHARTER.  99 

thoee  of  the  system  than  of  the  particular  instruments :  but 
the  result  is,  that  there  has  been  but  little  progress;  the 
Indian  community  of  nations  has  stood  still — the  silent,  but 
not  unobservant,  witnesses  of  the  (to  them)  phantasmagoric 
entrances  and  exits  of  the  functionaries,  forming  the  well 
pud  pageant  of  our  civil  administration.  It  is  to  be  pre- 
somea,  that  an  arrangement  so  preposterous  and  in  such  violent 
antagonism  to  every  sound  principle  of  constitutional  legislation, 
will  not  be  permitted  to  continue :  and  that,  as  the  remedy  of 
this  radical  evil  is  as  easy  as  it  is  essential,  the  Court  of  Direc- 
tors will  be  forced  to  part,  either  with  their  patronage,  which 
they  would  be  very  loath  to  do,  or  with  that  unrestricted  power 
of  recall,  which,  with  the  view  of  rendering  Governors  subser- 
vient to  the  corporate  interests  of  the  Court  of  Directors,  the 
latter  keep  hanging  *  in  terrorem'  over  their  heads.  Consistently 
with  the  welfare  of  India,  these  two  functions  cannot  exist 
in  the  same  hands :  and  it  is  not  difficult  to  foresee  that  the 
new  Charter  Act  will  certainly  altogether  fail,  if  vitiated  by  an 
enactment  so  impolitic  and  reprehensible,  that  the  application 
of  its  principle  in  England  to  the  office  of  a  parish  beadle 
would  never  DC  tolerated.  For  the  sake  of  India,  we  wish  to 
see  the  initial  patronage  of  appointments  to  the  Civil  and  Mili- 
tary Services  retained,  as  one  of  the  functions  to  be  discharged 
by  a  properly  constituted  Court  of  Directors.  But,  strong  as 
our  conviction  may  be,  that  such  an  arrangement  will  secure  the 
best  material  for  the  members  of  the  services,  and  much  as  we 
should  regret  to  see  the  patronage  pass  into  hands,  whose  rule 
of  action  would  be  of  an  entirely  different  stamp,  and  whose 
oscillations  from  high  to  low  could  never  be  predicated,  and 
ought  traverse  the  whole  scale  from  the  aristocratic  summit  to 
the  democratic  refuse  of  the  people  of  England — ^yet,  even  this 
would  be  preferable  to  the  prolonged  existence  of  an  anomaly, 
whidi  no  unprejudiced  and  disinterested  person,  who  has  watch- 
ed the  internal  working  of  the  present  system,  can  have  failed 
to  recognize  as  its  most  deeply  seated,  most  radical  evil.  If  the 
fountain  head  is  to  be  freed  from  poisonous  self-respective  in- 
fluences, let  a  Governor-General's  commission  be  for  the  same 
limited  period  as  at  present,  subject  of  course  to  renewal,  if  the 
home  authorities  thmk  proper :  but  let  it  be  made  out  for  such 
period,  guamdiu  bene  se  gesserint;  and  let  them,  Uke  the 
Judges  of  England,  be  lawfully  removable  only  on  the  address 
of  hotik  Houses  of  Parliament  It  wUl,  hereafter,  be  shown  how 
the  home  branch  of  the  Indian  administration  may  be  made 
really,  and  not  alone  nominally,  responsible  to  the  Houses  of^ 
Farlijunent :  and  how,  in  this  manner,  the  Govemor-Gcnerat 


100        THE   EAST  INDIA  COMPANY  AND  ITS   CHARTEB. 

would  also  be  directly  amenable  to  the  control  of  these  assem- 
blies. But^  with  this  exception,  there  ought  to  be  no  check  upon 
the  independence  of  a  GroyemoroOeneral  in  council,  other  tnan 
that  of  the  members  of  such  a  council ;  and,  with  the  view  of 
the  efficiency  of  this  check,  these  members  ought  never,  on  any 
pi^tence  or  plea,  to  be  separated  from  the  Goyemor-General 
vVliereyer  the  exigencies  of  India  demand  the  presence  of  a 
Govemor-Greneral,  there  most  assuredly  the  attendance  of  the 
Supreme  Council  is  imperative :  and,  in  order  that  its  members 
may  feel  themselves  on  a  right  footing,  both  with  respect  to  the 
Governor-General  and  to  the  Court  of  Directors,  they  also 
should  be  not  otherwise  removable  before  the  expiration  of 
their  five  years,  than  upon  address  by  the  Parliament — ^their 
commissions  running,  like  that  of  the  Governor-General  himself, 
qvamdiu  bene  se  gesserinty  for  the  specified  period,  which  too,  if 
advisable,  should  be  renewable. 

Whatever  may  be  thought  of  the  recall  of  Lord  William 
Bentinck  from  Madras  and  of  Lord  Ellenborough  from  Bengal, 
late  events,  which  we  could  quote,  and  the  truly  Whig  expedi- 
ent of  shifting  off  responsibility,  by  diluting  all  action  through 
the  tardy  proceedings  of  commissions,  which  can  throw  no  other 
light  upon  the  subjects  of  inquiry,  than  what  the  Government 
already  possess,  prove  the  absolute  necessity  of  the  reform 
which  we  advocate.  External  energy  has  never  been  wanting, 
whether  for  aggression  or  defence — and  would  not  again  be 
wanting,  were  it  necessary.  But  having  rounded  off  our  Empire, 
and  taken  up  its  lines  of  natural  frontier ;  the  risk  of  invanon 
having  sunk  into  a  bugbear,  which  no  one  entertains  ;  and  the 
causes  for  aggression  having,  in  future,  to  be  sought; — ^the  pros- 
pect  is  promising  for  the  internal  improvement  of  the  Empire,  if 
its  fimctional  energy  be  not  paralysed  by  an  evil,  which  gnaws 
its  core.  Future  danger  lies  in  the  collapse  of  the  Empire, 
should  the  organization  of  the  administration  remain  on  such  a 
footing,  as  to  render  the  defecation  of  its  internal  evils  almoat  a 
moral  impossibility. 

We  do  not  think  Lord  Dalhousie  a  timid  man,  or  inclined  to 
countenance  corruption:  but  his  conduct,  on  several  occasions, 
has  betrayed  a  politic  perception  of  the  difficulties  of  his  position » 
and  a  mode  of  getting  over  them,  adroit,  rather  than  straight- 
forward, and  studious  of  expediency,  rather  than  of  principle. 
Nor  is  this  surprising:  for  there  is  no  mistaking  the  anifnus 
of  the  Court  of  Directors.  Wherever  a  Civil  Servant  of  the 
Company  is  assailed,  mark  how  callantiy  the  Parliamentary 
tnembers  of  the  Court  step  forward  in  his  defence  I  Nothing 
pould  have  been  finer,  if  only  truthful  and  disinterested,  than 


THE  EABT  INDIA  COMPANY  AND  ITS  CHABTEB.        101 

the  boldness  with  which,  on  Mr.  BaiUie's  Ceylon  motion.  Sir 
J.  W.  Hogg,  in  his  support  of  Lord  Torrinffton,  seized  the 
opportnnity  of  defending  his  Lordship's  chief  adviser.  Sir  T.  H* 
Maddock.  The  following  passage  in  the  course  of  his  un- 
candid  attack  upon  the  venerable  Chief  Justice  of  Ceylon, 
Sir  A*  Olipfaant,  is  an  admirable  specimen  of  building  on  the 
ignorance  of  the  House.  As  reported  in  the  THmes,  it  runs 
as  follows :  '^  With  respect  to  Sir  H.  Maddock,  it  should 
'  be  remembered,  that  he  was  a  distinguished  man,  who  had 
'  rendered  service  to  his  country  in  trying  times,  whose  private 
'  character  was  beyond  reproach,  and  who,  therefore,  was  a 
*  very  proper  person  to  be  listened  to  by  the  Government.'* 
Our  English  readers,  although  they  must  be  ignorant  of  the 
Talue  of  Sir  J.  W.  Hogg's  estimate  of  the  man,  may  yet 
jud^e  from  this  instance  of  the  acuteness  of  those  Directorial 
feelings,  which  led  the  Deputy  Chairman  to  make  such  a 
desperate  endeavour  to  screen  from  that  public  odium,  which 
his  conduct  richly  merited,  a  member  of  the  favoured  ser- 
vice;— ^that  too,  oe  it  remembered,  when  the  individual  in 
question  had  made  himself  notorious  by  intermeddling  in  the 
policy  of  the  Governor  of  a  Crown  colony,  and,  by  a  fatal 
presumption,  which  his  position,  as  a  landholder  and  spe- 
culator in  the  colony,  snould  have  restrained,  in  advising 
measures,  of  which  it  is  difficult  to  pronounce,  whether  their 
ill^ality  as  set  forth  by  Sir  F.  Thesiger,  or  their  barbarity,  as 
shown  by  the  Blue  book,  were  most  conspicuous.  From  this 
example,  English  readers  may  easily  infer  the  extreme  delicacy 
and  hyper-caution,  which  it  is  incumbent  on  a  Dalhousie,  un- 
less resolved  to  commit  suicide,  to  observe,  if  he  wish  to  keep 
on  good  terms  with  the  masters,  whose  beneplacito  he  has  to  con- 
sult Circumstanced  as  he  is,  the  impeccability  of  their  sons, 
nephews,  and  cousins,  might  form  a  leading  article  of  his  Indian 
admmiatrative  creed.  To  this,  an  Act*,  passed  not  long  a^o  by 
the  Supreme  Government,  has  gone  fiur  to  set  the  seal  of  legis- 
lative authority. 

The  Act  in  question,  however,  as  it  removes  the  check,  which 
the  independence  of  the  Crown  Judges,  hanging  '  in  terorrem ' 
oyer  the  neads  of  the  Civil  Servants  of  die  Company,  could  not 
£ul  to  exercise,  so  it  necessitates  the  establishment,  in  a  respon- 
sible Governor-General  in  Council,  of  an  authority,  enjoying  in 
its  controlling  powers,  the  same  thorough  independence  of  posi- 
tion, as  that  conferred  on  the  Crown  Judges.     There  must  be  a 

counterpoise  to  the  legislative  exemption  from 

• 

•  Act  No.  18  of  1800. 


102        THE   EAST    INDIA   COMPANY  AND   ITS   CHARTER- 

responsibility  and  restraint  by  the  Crown  Courts,  which  we  have 
noticed.  In  no  other  way  can  the  people  of  India  be  assured  of 
protection  against  the  worst  abuse — the  corruption  of  the  civil 
administration ;  and  none  can  be  conceived  so  effective,  as  that 
which  virtually  brought  the  strength  of  Parliament,  through  a 
Governor-General  and  Council  answerable  to  that  assembly,  to 
bear  upon  this  danger. 

With  respect  to  the  other  alternative,  namely,  that  of  the 
initial  patronage  passing  out  of  the  hands  of  a  properly  consti- 
tuted Court  of  Directors,  we  are  unwilling  to  dilate.  Under 
such  circumstances  as  effectually  broke  off  the  sympathetic  bond, 
which  unites  the  members  of  the  Indian  services  with  the  Di- 
rectors of  the  East  India  Company,  their  authority  over  Governors 
might,  if  not  incompatible  with  the  dignity  of  the  Crown  (whom 
Governors  virtually,  though  not  at  present  legally,  represent)  be 
left  in  the  hands  of  the  Directors ;  but  this  presupposes  a  com- 
plete re-organization  of  the  Court  of  Directors,  so  as  to  render 
them  really  responsible  to  Parliament ;  and  such  a  re-organiza- 
tion would  necessitate  a  greater  amount  of  radical  change,  than 
that  which  the  first  noted  modification  of  the  existing  system 
would  entail.  Moreover,  now  that  steam  has  brought  England 
near  to  India,  and  that  the  chiefs  and  people  of  the  latter  coun- 
try begin  clearly  to  understand,that  Great  Britain  is  not  governed 
by  the  East  India  Company,  but  by  the  Queen  and  Paruaments, 
and  that  the  East  India  Company  is  altogether  a  subordinate 
body,  forming  no  portion  of  the  constitutional  Government  of 
England,  and  having  no  claim  from  rank,  distinction,  or  intelli- 
gence to  the  sovereignty  of  India — ^there  is  a  palpable  and  an  un- 
explainable  absurdity  (as  all  know,  who  have  endeavoured  to 
render  it  comprehensible  to  either  chiefs  or  people)  in  continu- 
ing the  unrestricted  power  of  recall  of  the  representatives  of  the 
Crown  in  a  mere  ancillary  body,  enjoying  the  customary  immu- 
nity from  responsibility,  which  forms  the  well  known  character- 
istic of  all  close^  self-elected  corporations. 

Whilst,  however,  sedulously  guarding  the  independence  of 
Governors  from  the  sinister  influences  of  twenty-four  gentlemen, 
who,  many  of  them,  know  no  more  of  India  than  they  do  of 
Siberia,  or  the  Mountains  of  the  Moon,  we  have  said  that,  on  no 
plea  or  pretence  whatever,  should  the  Governor-General  become 
independent  of  the  Supreme  Council  This  is  a  point  of  veiy 
great  importance,  deserving  the  most  careful  attention  of  the  le- 
gislature. It  would  not  be  difficult  to  show,  that,  from  the  time 
of  Lord  W.  Bentinck  to  the  present,  there  has  never  been  any- 
necessity  for  the  now  habitual  separations  from  their  Council^ 
which  seem  to  be  the  favourite  object  of  each  successive  (jover- 


THE  EAST   INDIA   COMPANY  AND   ITS   CHARTER.        103 

nor-Creneral.  The  result  of  this  systematic  departure  from  the 
intentions  of  the  Act  is,  that  the  Council  becomes  virtually  a 
cypher,  and  practically  has  little  or  no  influence  on  the  measures 
of  most  moment  to  the  Empire.  If  he  be  a  man  of  ability  and 
cneigy,  the  Governor-General,  invested  with  all  the  powers  of 
the  uovemor-General  in  Council,  except  those  of  legislating, 
has  no  check  upon  the  course,  which  these  qualities  may  choose 
to  ran,  except  the  accidental  influence,  which  irresponsible  se- 
cretaries may  be  able  to  acquire  and  to  exercise.  It  will  then 
depend  upon  the  degree  of  experience  and  of  self-reliance, 
which  a  Gt)vemor-General  has,  how  far  such  accidental  influen- 
ces may  operate  at  alL  On  the  contrary,  if  a  weak  man,  he  in- 
evitably falls  completely  into  the  hands  of  his  secretaries,  who 
thus  practically  usurp  the  functions  of  the  Council.  It  would 
be  needless  to  point  out  the  numerous  objections  to  either  alter- 
oatave:  but  fortunately  the  remedy,  though  it  may  come  some- 
what late,  is  simple.  Wipe  out  from  the  next  Charter  Act  the 
clause,  which  sanctions  the  deputation  of  the  Governor-General 
vUhaut  his  council,  but  with  all  its  powers ;  and  substitute  a 
clear  provision,  thaf,  wherever  the  Governor-General  moves^ 
there  too  must  proceed  the  Council.  Under  the  present  ar- 
nngement,  there  can  be  little  hesitation  in  saying  that,  beyond' 
affording  three  or  four  gentlemen  the  opportunity,  in  the  course 
of  five  years,  of  feathering  their  respective  nests  and  of  making 
snug  purses,  the  Council  and  its  President  are  politically  of 
extremely  little  use. 

When  the  Governor-General  is  away,  invested  with  all  the 
executive  powers  of  the  Council,  the  poation  of  the  President 
in  council  is  as  great  an  anomaly  as  any  that  can  be  conceived  ; 
for  clearly,  either  the  President  in  council  is  a  shadow  and  has  no 
authority,  or  else  you  create  for  the  nonce  two  Governors-Gene- 
nl*  with  equal  and  independent  powers.  The  Act,  at  present 
in  force,  is  bo  worded  and  constructed  that  either  position  may 
he  argued,  on  the  specifications  of  the  Act  as  a  basis,  with  pret- 
ty equal  soundness  of  reasoning.  Accordingly,  instances  are 
Bot  unknown  of  a  dash  between  these  two  exalted  functiona- 
ries; and  the  late  Governor-General  refused  on  one  occasion,  to 
use  his  own  words,  to  become  the  President  in  council's  regis- 
tering clerk* 

Again,  look  at  the  consequences,  when  the  subordinate  Go- 
vernments are  concerned,  e^ould  by  accident  (which  is  possible 
encmgh  in  practice)  under  certain  emergencies,  the  President  iir 
coun^  and  the  Governor-General  dash  in  their  independent 
communications  to  the  minor  Presidencies.  The  responsibility 
of  construing  the  provisions  of  the  Act,  and  of  deciding  which 


104       THE  EAST  INDIA   COMPANY  AND  ITS   CHARTER. 

master  to  obey^  lies  on  the  shoulders  of  the  GrOTemors^  who 
would  need  a  good  deal  of  legal  acumen  to  meet  the  cases^ 
which  might  at  any  hour  arise,  and  have  sometimes  already  arisen, 
under  the  current  Act. 

The  arrangement  has  a  further  glaring  fault.  Usually  the 
Deputy  Grovemor  of  Bengal  is  at  ute  same  time  President  in 
council ;  and  as,  such,  he  pronounces  ex  cathedrd  upon  the  pro- 
priety of  his  own  acts.  We  have  known  these  in  several  instances 
called  into  question,  and  an  appeal  made  to  the  Govemor-Grene- 
ral  of  India; — and  such  appeal  rendered  nu^tory  by  the  Deputy 
Governor  preferring,  in  his  other  office  of  l^resident  in  council, 
to  deal  himself  with  the  appeal  against  his  own  acts. 

There  is  but  one  remedy  for  these,  and  other  numerous  ano- 
malies. Wherever  the  Governor-General  may  move,  there  too 
must  move  his  Council ;  and  no  Lieutenant  or  Deputy  Governor, 
whilst  a  Govemor^General  was  in  the  country,  should  ever  be 
President  in  council :  though  it  is  very  proper  that  some  one  of 
the  subordinate  Governors  should  be  appointed,  with  reference  to 
the  sudden  demise,  or  other  termination  of  the  career  of  a  GK>- 
vernor-General,  provisional  President  in  connciL 

This  Council  naving  a  very  important  part  to  play,  if  our 
views  are  correct,  its  composition  and  the  selection  of  its  mem- 
bers should  be  with  regard  to  its  functions  as  the  Supreme 
Council  for  all  India  ;  and  the  nomination  of  its  members  should 
rest,  not  with  the  Court  of  Directors,  but  with  the  responsible 
branch  of  the  home  Indian  administration.  Besides  the  Gt>vernor- 
General  and  the  Commander-in-Chief,  the  Council  should  consist 
of  two  civil  and  one  military  member,  taken  firom  the  Indian 
services.  The  Home  Branch  of  the  Indian  Government,  being 
answerable  to  Parliament  for  the  selection  of  the  members  from 
the  services,  would,  probably,  pay  more  attention  to  merit,  abi- 
lity, and  experience,  than  to  mere  seniority:  whilst  the  members, 
feeling  their  position,  though  a  secure  one,  yet  one  of  real  res- 
ponsibility, would  have  every  incentive  to  a  wise  and  indepen- 
dent discharge  of  their  duties. 

It  follows,  as  a  consequence  of  the  changes  advocated,  that 
puerile  secrecy,  the  present  East  India  House  mystification  of 
the  most  simple  and  ordinary  affiiirs,  would  form  no  part  of 
the  system.    Mill's  evidence  m  1832  was  true  to  the  letter. 

^'  The  secrets  of  the  Indian  Government,  like  most  other  se- 
^  crets,  are  in  general  good  for  very  little.  In  short,  I  do  not 
'  think  I  am  going  a  step  too  far,  when  I  say,  that,  if  all  the  se- 
*  cret  dispatches,  which  have  been  sent  from  England  to  India, 
'  instead  of  having  been  sent,  had  been  put  into  the  fire,  the 
'  situation  of  Inma  would  hardly  have  been  different  from 


THE   BA8T  INDIA  GOHPANT  AND   ITS  CHABTEB.        105 

*  what  it  18."  Except,  noder  circiunstances  of  peculiar  difficul- 
tj  in  war  times,  it  is  seldom  of  any  use  in  India ;  though,  at  pre- 
aent,  secrecy  forms  the  rule  of  the  service,  and  that,  not  alone  in 
the  diplomatic  department,  where,  to  a  moderate  extent,  it  may 
be  useful  and  sometimes  even  necessary,  but  also  in  every 
biandi  <^  the  general  administration. 

To  the  Gt>yemor  General  and  his  Council,  thus  constituted,  we 
would  entrust  the  very  onerous  charge  of  selecting  fit  men  as 
Lieutenant  Governors,  not  alcme  of  the  Agra,  but  also  of  the 
Madras  and  Bengal,  Presidencies.     There  can  be  no  reason,  af- 
ter the  experiment  so  successfully  made  with  the  Agra  Presiden- 
ey,  why  tne  others  should  not  be  placed  upon  an  equally  simple 
and  efficient  footing.    No  good  reason  can  be  devised  after  this 
practical  example,  for  maintaining  the  present  expensive  ma- 
chinery of  Governors,  Councils,  Boards,  and  all  theur  costly  ad- 
juncts in  triplicate*     A  Lieutenant  Governor  at  each  Presi- 
dency, with  responsible  secretaries  in  the  Revenue,  Customs,  and 
Manne  Departments,  would  be  more  effective,  and  half  as  expen- 
siTe  as  the  present  system.    A  Lieutenant  Governor  for  the 
Bengal  Presiaency ;  another  for  the  North  Western  Provinces, 
that  is  for  the  present  Agra  Presidency  and  the  Punjab ;  and  a 
third  for  the  present  Madras  and  Bombay  Presidencies  con-' 
joined,  would  be  ample  provision  for  the  local  administrations ; 
which  should  be  subordinate  to  the  Supreme  Government,  and 
cease  to  correspond  direct  with  tho  Home  Branch  of  the  Anglo- 
Indian  admimstration.       Without  the  slightest  detriment  to 
the  efficiency  of  Government,  by  the  abolition  of  useless  but  cost- 
Ij  Councils,  Boards  of  administration,  and  Boards  of  a  multipli- 
city of  denominations,  a  saving  to  the  state  of  at  least  £250,000 
per  annum  would  accrue :  and,  as  the  Home  correspondence 
would  be  simplified,  and  necessarily  reduced  to  one  half  its  pre- 
sent bulk,  there  would  follow  no  indgnificant  relief  to  the  Home 
BnuH& :  and  no  Secretary  of  the  Inma  house,  or  anaWous  fxmo- 
tionaiy  of  the  Home  Branch,  would  in  future  years,  when  giving 
eulogistic  evidence,  advance  the  feet,  that  500  folio  volumes 
were  in  daily  use.    No  stronger  condemnation  of  a  needlessly 
complicated  machinery  of  administration  could  well  have  been 
pven :  and,  as  we  are  pretty  sure  that,  since  18^2,  no  improve- 
meat,  except  in  the  reduction  of  the  length  of  the  despatches 
from  India,  has  occurred,  their  number,  if  we  mistake  not,  must 
have  moeh  increased. 

On  die  subject  of  Boards,  we  hold  an  opinion  entirely  op- 
posed to  that  which  has  prevailed  at  all  the  Presidencies.  Res- 
ponsible secretaries  are  a  far  more  efficient  instrumentality.  Not 
wdy  wouM  we  sweep  away  the  Boards  at  the  three  Presideu- 


106       THE   EAST   INDIA  COMPANY  AND   ITS  CHARTER. 

ciea]|whichVe  have  chalked  out,  but  there  ahould  be  no  such 
thing  in  connection  with  the  Supreme  Government.  Besides 
the  Home^  the  Foreign^  the  Financial^  and  the  Military  Secre- 
taries of  llie  Government  of  India,  there  should  be  a  Marine 
Secretary,  and  a  Secretary  of  public  works.  Corresponding 
with  these  Government,  or  State,  Secretaries,  there  should  be 
local,  or  under,  secretaries  at  each  Presidency,re8ponsible  to  their 
several  Lieutenant  Governors,  in  the  same  manner  as  the  Go- 
vernment of  India's  Secretaries  would  be  held  answerable  for 
their  several  departments  by  the  Supreme  Government.  Under 
one  or  other  of  these  heads,  the  duties,  now  ostensibly  performed 
by  irresponsible  Boards,  can  without  difficulty  be  dassified :  and, 
if  India  is  to  make  any  advance  from  its  present  condition,  there 
can  be  no  hesitation  in  saying,  that  the  Department  of  its  Public 
Works  is  one  of  primary  importance,  though  hitherto,  because 
not  cominff  with  propriety  under  a  civil  functionary's  chaige,  it 
has  been  tne  fiishion  to  hold  it  as  of  an  entirely  secondary  order. 

In  support  of  our  opinion  respecting  Boards — ^an  opinion  form- 
ed after  watching  the  operation  of  several  different  kinds,  both 
civil  and  military — ^the  practice  of  Lord  Dalhousie  may  be  ad- 
duced. If  Boards  were  of  the  utility,  and  had  the  qualities 
which  their  advocates  instance,  where  would  have  been  the  ne- 
cessity for  the  numerous  Commissions,  which  lately  have  been 
the  order  of  the  day  ?  Boards  are  notoriously,  in  India,  sub- 
sidiarv  to  the  interests  of  the  pillow — ^perfect  swamps  of  indi- 
vidual responsibility.  But  for  the  charge  of  personality,  which 
we  would,  if  possible,  studiously  avoid,  we  could  run  through 
nearly  all  the  Boards  of  all  the  Presidencies,  in  support  of  the 
unexaggerated  accuracy  of  the  foregoing  definition  of  a  Board. 

Secretaries,  under  our  proposed  system,  would  have  no  sine- 
cures ;  and,  as  they  ought  to  be  men  of  talent  and  experience,  their 
salaries  ought  not  to  be  on  a  lower  scale  than  those  which  are 
at  present  allotted  to  the  different  Secretaries  of  the  Govern- 
ment of  India.  The  Presidency  Secretaries  should,  as  at  present, 
be  on  a  lower,  but  still  a  very  handsome,  scale  of  remuneration : 
for  it  must  be  repeated  that  a  niggardly  economy  in  such  ap- 
pointments is  extremely  prejudiciiu  to  the  real  interests  of  good 
administration.  In  the  same  manner,  the  highest  judicial  ap- 
pointments, the  prizes  of  that  important  branch  of  a  sound  Go- 
vernment, ought,  as  at  present,  to  be  liberally  paid :  but  there 
can  be  no  good  reason  for  maintaining  the  existing  aeneral  scale 
of  civil  salaries,  whi(ji,  in  every  department,  is  out  of  proportion, 
alike  to  the  exigencies  of  the  service  and  to  the  condition  of 
the  people.  The  latter  we  have  shown  to  be  in  a  state,  which 
in  England  would  be  termed  general,  if  not  universal,  pauf^* 


THE  EAST  INDIA  COMFAlTr  AND  ITS  CHABTEB.        107 

rism;  and  if  the  total  amount  of  property  nnder  litigation  in 
the  courts  were  compared  with  the  judicial  charges^  the  ex- 
orbitant ratio,  which  the  latter  bear  to  the  former,  woidd  sub- 
stantiate the  &ct  alleged — ^that  the  cost  of  the  covenanted 
branch  of  the  judicial  service  is  extravagantly  out  of  all  keep- 
ing or  proportion  with  the  real  condition  and  the  real  wants 
of  the  people.    We  are  well  aware,  that  this  comparison  only 
presents  one  phase  of  the  subject :  but,  as  an  indication  of  the 
adaptation  of  cost  of  establishments  to  work  to  be  done  in  one 
laige  class  of  cases,  no  one  can  deny  the  propriety  of  such  a  test 
Cast  out  of  account  the  Crown  Courts  at  the  Presidencies,  and 
the  highest  appellate  Courts  of  the  Company,  namely  the  Suddur 
Dewani  and  Nizamut  Adawluts — all  of  them  Courts,  in  which  the 
salaries  of  the  Judges  ought  to  be  high — and  then  strike  the  ratio 
between  the  mere  salaries  of  the  European  Judges  and  the 
value  of  the  property  litigated  before  them,  and,  according 
to  the  different  Jrresidencies,  it  will  vary  between  fifty  and 
seventy  per  cent 

The  state  of  society  and  of  civilization,  which  pervades  the 
many  millions  of  India,  calls  for  a  simple,  cheap,  expeditious 
administration  of  justice.  Ours  is  neither  cheap,  nor  expeditious. 
Indeed  it  has  become  so  complicated  a  system,that  the  people  are 
never  presumed  to  understand  it,  whilst  the  pleaders  and  the 
subordinate  ministerial  officers  are  perfect  adepts  at  making 
a  profitable  use  of  its  intricacies :  and  consequently,  the  latter 
classes  prey  upon  the  ignorance  of  the  people  to  a  degree 
but  little  apprenended,  and  often  very  unwillingly  admitted,  by 
the  European  judicial  officers.  Now  as  a  remedy  for  thecomplex 
evils  of  our  police  and  judicial  system,  India  does  not  want 
a  more  elaborate,  bar-trained  set  of  European  functionaries, 
with  ideas  of  law  and  equity  derived  from  tnat  Augean  stable^ 
which  the  genius  of  a  Bentham  and  the  labours  of  a  Brougham 
Ittve  hitherto  failed  to  weed  of  its  gross  fdlacies  and  inconsisten- 
cies, and  chaotic  maze  of  sinister  and  noxious  influences.  Eng- 
land is  herself  struggling  to  recover  somewhat  of  the  natural  and 
simple  system  of  justice,  from  which  she  has  so  far^and  fittaUy 
wandered.  Her  County  Courts — ^her  as  yet  futile  attempts  at 
systematic  registry — her  insufficient  throes  to  shake  on  the 
incubus  of  a  Court  of  Chancery,  whose  rules  and  practice  of 
eqnibr  are  to  the  nation  synonymous  with  expence,  vexation^ 
and  hopeless  delay — are  all  warnings  against  plunging  India 
bto  the  meshes  of  a  system,  from  which  our  own  country  is, 
with  slow,  toilsome,  doubtAil  success,  striving  to  disentangle  it- 
self. India  needs  no  such  system,  nor  any  approach  to  it  On 
the  contrary  that  system  must  serve  as  a  beacon  to  warn  our 


108       THE  EAST  IKDIA  COW? ANT  AND  ITS  CHABTEB. 

Stately  vessel  off  from  the  shoals  and  rocks  of  the  Law  Ocean 
of  old  England — an  ocean  of  such  perilous  and  uncertain  na- 
vigation, that  no  insurance  ofHces  have  been  as  yet  bold  enough 
to  do  business  with  the  unfortunate  craft,  that  are  forced  upon 
its  treacherous  waters. 

To  a  certain  extent  we  concur  in  the  following  remaricB, 
elicited  from  the  talented  editor  of  the  Spectator  by  the  trial 
of  Joti  Pursaud  :  *^  The  trial  of  JotI  Fursaud  at  Agra  illus- 
trates at  once  the  best  and  the  worst  features  of  the  Eng- 
lish political  system.  Although  direct  bribery  may  have 
declined  in  the  polite  circles  of  official  life,  corrupt  motive, 
self-interest,  over-ruling  patriotism,  and  a  servile  submission 
to  the  cant  of  the  day,  are  more  powerful  than  ever  they 
were ;  and  all  India,  it  may  be  said,  is  sacrificed  to  the  spirit 
of  officialism,  cliquery,  and  systematic  laxity.  At  the  same 
time  there  is  something  in  the  indelible  Saxon  impulse  to  in- 
dependence, which  works  even  through  those  corruptions; 
thus  the  development  of  our  law  system  brings  with  it  law- 
yerism,  and  that  independence,  which  tells  so  well  in  the  pro- 
fession, and  which  may  be  hired  for  the  occasion."  The 
greatest  curse,  that  could  be  inflicted  upon  India,  is  the  deve- 
lopment of  that  law  system,  of  which  the  independence  of  die 
barrister  and  the  boldness  of  counsel  may  be  incidents,  but  most 
certainly  are  not  necessarily  resulting  consequences.  The  edi- 
tor has  been  led  very  remarkably  to  over-estimate  the  mode  in 
which,  from  the  instance  of  Mr.  Lang's  defence  of  Joti  Pur- 
saud, ^^  the  Hindus  appreciated  this  display  of  English  legal 
machinery."  If  there  be  one  thing  more  dreaded  under  our 
rule  than  any  other,  it  is  this  very  English  legal  machinery,  as 
exemplified  at  Calcutta,  Madras,  and  Bombay  :  the  mere  name 
of  the  Crown  Courts  is  a  terror — and  a  terror  that  from  these 
foci  has  diverged  and  spread  far  and  wide  over  the  breadth  of 
the  land.  The  natives  of  India,  of  any  education  or  observation^ 
are  as  much  alive  to  the  evils  of  the  English  legal  machinery  as 
the  editor  of  the  Spectator y  when  he  penned  an  editorial,  entitled 
^*  Equity  swallowing  up  law  f  for  they  have  had  cruel  experience 
of  the  working  of  the  English  system,  and  could  parallel  the 
illustrations  so  forcibly  given  in  the  subjoined  extract,  by  in- 
stances quite  as  telling.  Neither  Hindu,  nor  Mussalman,  but 
would  answer'  the  question  put,  exactly  as  the  editor  himself 
does.  Speaking  of  the  Committee  appointed  by  the  Law 
Amendment  Society,  he  says : — 

The  Committee  investigated  the  cause  and  nature  of  the  distinction  be- 
tween law  and  equity ;  balanced  the  advantages  and  dis-advantages  flow- 
ing from  the  distinction  ;  and  oonsidered  the  best  plans  for  abolishing  the 
distinction. 


THE  EAST  INDIA  COHPAKT  AND  IT8  CHABTXB.       109 

The  jurifldiotion  of  tb«  Gouii  of  Ghanoery  wu,  in  its  origin,  nothing 
more  nor  less  than  a  spiritual  usurpation  by  the  Ecclesiastioal  Chancellors 
of  the  fourteenth  century.    The  technical  rules  incapable  of  expansion,  and 
tbe  strict  and  unvarying  judgments,  which  in  earlier  times  the  common  law 
opposed  to  the  tyranny  of  the  barons,  or  the  corruption  of  Judges,  became 
iotolerably  restriotiTe,  as  freedom  advanced  and  the  social  relations  of  the 
nbjeet  became  more  complex.    The  clerical  Chancellors^  therefore,  after 
the  ezuDple  of  the  Prsstors  at  Borne,  assumed  to  exercise  a  personal  com- 
palsion  over  the  citizen,  in  cases  where  the  rigid  common  law  would  have 
emitted  to  assert  some  right,  or  restrain  some  wrong.    Their  jurisdiction  was 
St  first  tbe  mere  substitution  of  the  arbitrinm  of  a  religious  Judge  for  the 
fixed  deerees  of  tbe  letter  of  the  law:  but,  in  course  of  time,  tbe  application 
of  dieir  discretion  was  regulated  by  fixed  rules,  which  they  drew  in  part 
from  tbe  civil  law,  and  in  part  from  abstract  morality  and  justice ;  and  at 
|be  present  day,  tbe  arbitrium  of  the  Judge  pievails  no  more  in  Equity  than 
io  Law.    Preoedent  has  superseded  discretion  ;  and  the  decrees  of  the  Chan- 
eellor^who  has  long  ceased  to  be  an  Ecclesiastical  personage — are  no  Ion- 
g€t  moulded  on  each  individual  wrong,  but  are  binding  in  their  application 
to  entire  classes  of  cases.    We  have  thus  two  systems  of  jurisprudence,  of 
diftrent  origin,  principles  of  action,  and  modes  of  procedure ; — the  Equita- 
ble system  having  been  originally  framed  to  mitigate,  correct,  and  assist  the 
legal,  but  having  now  lost  that  flexibility  and  power  of  individualizing  its 
nlief,  which  such  an  office  would  seem  to  require. 

Only  two  advantages  can  be  alleged  in  favour  of  preserving  the  division 
of  jurisdiction  thus  established :  the  preservation  of  the  ancient  forms  of 
oommon  law,  and  the  increase  of  professional  skill  attainable  by  the  divi- 
sion of  professional  labour.  The  first  can  only  have  been  mentioned  by 
the  Law  Amendment  Committee  to  show  their  impartial  attitude.  At  this 
^iM  of  dav,  when  the  injustice  wrought  hj  *  forms  of  actions*  has  already 
eoDdemned  them  to  a  speedy  abolition,  it  is  an  anachronism  to  count  tbe 
preservation  of  ancient  forms  as  an  advantage.  If  they  be  preserved,  let 
^m  be  preserved  in  the  Museums  of  the  country  for  antiquarian  inspec- 
tion, and  not  in  its  Forums  for  afflictive  use.  The  second  advantage  is  illu* 
^ry;  for  division  of  labour  in  the  acquisition  of  substantive  law  would  be 
obviously  facilitated  by  the  adoption  of  one  uniform  rule  of  formulaiy  law. 

What,  then,  are  the  advantages  ?  Here  is  a  list  of  them,  which  we  will 
iDike  plain  by  adding  the  pith  of  some  of  the  striking  illustrations,  which 
the  Committee  has  industriously  collected — 

"  1st,  The  line,  which  separates  the  two  jurisdictions,  is  so  uncertain,  that, 
in  many  oases,  preliminary  investigation  of  great  nicety  is  required,  before 
it  ean  be  aseertained  whether  the  remedy  should  be  sought  in  law  or  in 
equity. 

"  2nd.  In  many  oases  a  complete  remedy  cannot  be  had,  without  having 
noonrse  to  both  Courts,  and  thus  bringing  two  lawsuits  instead  of  one. 

'*  3rd.  Courts  of  Law  are  compelled  to  decide  without  reference  to  equita- 
ble principles ;  and,  consequently,  to  do  injustice,  with  a  full  knowledge  of 
the  fact,  and  an  anticipation  of  the  subsequent  overtbrow  of,  their  judgment 
hj  the  intorforenoe  of  a  Court  of  Equity. 

4th.  Courts  of  Law  and  Equity  in  many  instances  administer  the  same 
law ;  and  thus  a  party  is  liable  to  be  twice  vexed  for  the  same  matter,  and 
to  have  the  jud^ent  of  a  Court  of  Law  in  his  favour  rendered  valueless  by 
the  adverse  decision  of  the  Chancellor  on  the  same  point. 

'*  fttb.    The  existence  of  two  distinct  systems  of  pleading  and  practice  is 
of  itself  a  great  evil. 
*'  6th.     Courts  of  Equity  are  compelled  to  decree  that  the  parties  them- 


110       THE  EAST  INDIA  COHFAKT  AKD  ITS  CHAETEB* 

selves  should  carry  their  orders  into  effect,  which  occasions  much  endless 
trouble  and  expense. 

To   begin,   then  : — in  any  case  inTolviug  many  complex  interests,' no 
lawyer  is  able  to  tell  his  client  for  certain,  which  is  the  proper  court  to  ask 
relief  from.    In  the  great  railway  case  of  Moseley  and  Alston,  which  we 
all  remember  a  year  or  two  ago,  uie  counsel  argued  seven  days  before  the 
Vice-chancellor  of  England,  as  to  whether  they  ought  to  begin  the  fight  in 
the  Courts  of  Law  or  in  the  Court  of  Chancery  ;  and  Sir  Launcelot  Shad- 
well  decided  in  favour  of  Chancery  ;  but,  after  Ave  days  more  argument,  on 
appeal  before  the  Lord  Chancellor,  Lord  Cottenham  reversed  the  other  de- 
oison,  and  handed  the  parties  over  to  the  Courts  of  Law.    It  was  still  pos- 
sible that  the  Law  Courts,  more  certain  of  the  limited  extent  of  their  pro. 
vince,  would  drive  them  back  again  into  the  region  of  £quity.    So,  in  an 
old  case  reported  by  Peere  Williams,  the  defendant  stopped  a  suit  in  Chan- 
cery to  recover  the  sum  due  upon  a  bond,  because  an  action  at  law  would 
lie ;  and  then  he  got  Chancery  to  stop  the  action  at  law,  because  there  bad 
been  no  consideration  for  the  Dond.    How  absurd,  that  the  Court  of  Equity 
could  not  entertain  the  suit,  and  that  the  Court  of  Law  could  not  retain  the 
action  !    But  sometimes  the  Lord  Chancellor  will  go  into  those  Courts  of 
Law  for  advice  of  the  Judges  on  matter  of  law,  or  assistance  of  the  juries 
on  matter  of  fact    When  he  has  thus  driven  the  suitor  to  the  expense  of 
proceedings  before  other  tribunals,  he  maintains  his  independence  by  dis- 
regarding the  advice,  and  doing  without  the  assistance,  which  he  has  sought 
In  the  case  of  Morris  versus  Davis,  the  Lord  Chancellor  put  the  suitors  to 
the  enormous  expense  of  three  trials  at  law,  and  after  all  decided  the  issue 
of  fact  for  himself;  and  everybody  remembers  how  Lord  Eldon  once  took 
the  opinions  of  two  benches  of  law  Judges,  and  then  decided  the  law  in 
a  manner  inconsistent  with  all  their  opinions.    These  expensive  remedies 
offer  such  irresistible  temptations  to  the  wealthy  and  dishonest,  that  justice 
is  actuallv  bought  by  the  richest  suitor.    But  not  only  are  the  two  systems 
unparallel  in  procedure ;  they  are  antagonistic  in  principle.    A  Court  of 
Law  utterly  shuts  its  eyes  to  the  interest  of  the  orphan,  for  whom  property 
is  vested  in  trust; — it  sees  onlv  the  trustee ;  but  the  Court  of  Equity  views 
the  infant  as  the  owner,  and  the  trustee  as  a  person  with  a  conscien- 
tious duty  to  perform.    Equity  views  the  purchaser  of  a  debt  as  the  owner 
of  that  debt ;  but  Law  says  that  there  cannot  be  such  a  thing  as  a  purchase 
of  a  debt :  so  Equity  is  obliged  to  compel  the  seller  to  let  the  buyer  use  bis 
name  in  an  action  at  law  for  the  recovery  of  the  debt.  At  law,  the  husband 
can  seize  all  his  wife's  unsettled  property  ;  and  the  law  even  encourages  him 
to  seize  it,  by  holding  that,  if  he  survive  her,  his  right  to  it  will  become;  in- 
defeasible :  therefore  Equity  will  in  some  cases  seize  the  husband  himself, 
and  make  him  hold  the  property  *'  in  trust"  for  his  wife.    Law  and  equity 
carry  their  war  so  far,  that  they  seem  unable  to  agree  in  their  primaiy  moral 
code.    Practically,  a  deed,  which  is  foul  in  the  Court  of  Chancery,  may  be  fair 
in  the  Court  of  Law  ;  for  some  instruments,  which  an  Equity  Judge  would 
impound  and  destroy,  the  Judge  and  jury  at  law  must  respect  and  enforce. 
This  vile  confusion  of  principle  and  justice  involves  even  third  parties  in  its 
consequences ;  for,  if  a  man  let  his  land  on  lease,  and  then  mortgage  his  rever- 
sion, tne  person,  to  whom  he  mortgages  the  land,  may,  under  very  common 
circumstances,  eject  the  leaseholder  notwithstanding  the  lease,  and  take  the 
land  to  himself.    These  things  are  not  merely  "  fictions  of  the  law ;"  they  are 
much  worse  than  "  shams" — they  are  moral  lies,  the  habitual  practice  of 
which  cannot  but  blunt  the  moral  sense  ;  and  while  they  exist,  the  world  has 
cause  to  say,  not  in  any  vulgar  declamatory  spirit,  but  with  serious  truth,  that 
no  thorough  lawyer  can  be  a  thoroughly  moral  man. 


THE  EAST   INDIA   COMPANY  AND   ITS   CHAKTER.  Ill 

*'  What  remedy  can  be  deyised  to  meet  these  numerous  and  glaring  evils  ?" 
You  may  amalgamate  the  two  systems,  so  as  to  embrace  the  juster  principles 
of  Eqaity  in  the  system  of  Law.    In  doing  this,  you  may  preserve  the  existing 
Jurisdictions  concurrently,  simply  importing  the  principles  of  Equity  into 
the  Courts  of  Law;  or  you  may  abolish  one  of  these  jurisdictions,  and  admi- 
nister the  principles  of  both,  by  the  procedure  of  one  of  them,  or  by  some 
newly-framed  procedure.    The  first  mode  was  tried  by  Lord  Mansfield  in  the 
latter  half  of  the  last  century,  when  he  sought  to  take  notice  of  equitable 
elaiffls  and  defences  in  a  Court   of  Law.    llie  main  objection   to  it  is, 
that  under  it  the   Court  of  Chancery  would  virtually  become  a  Court  of 
Appeal  for  the  control  of  a  large  number  of  decisions  in  the  Courts  of  Law : 
you  must  therefore  have  but  one  jurisdiction  to  apply  the  principles  of  the 
two  systems.    But  the  modes   of  procedure  in  Chancery  are  so  cumbrous 
and  expensive,  that  to  adopt  them  solely   would  be  a  falling  back ;  while 
against  the  adoption  of  the  modes  of  procedure  in  the  Law  Courts,  there  is 
the  experience  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania.    In  that  state  there  is  no  Court 
0/  Chancery ;  the  principles  of  equity  and  law  are  administered  as  one  code 
bjtbe  courts  of  law, — the  legal  principle  always  yielding  in  case  of  conflict  to 
the  equitable  :  but  the  courts  there  admit,  that  with  their  rules  of  procedure, 
they  cannot  enforce  the  just  maxim,  that  he,  who  seeks  equity,  must  do  equity, 
nor  deal  with  more  than  two  interests  in  the  same  suit   The  remaining  course, 
that  of  framing  a  new  procedure  suited  to  administer  law  and  equity  as  a 
nnfiie  code,  is  the  one  tnat  has  been  adopted  by  the  State  of  New  York. 

The  inquiries  of  the  Committee  of  tne  Law  Amendment  Society  into  the 
operation  of  that  experiment  were  assisted  by  the  American  Ambassador, 
Mr.  Lawrence.  A  series  of  questions,  prepared  for  the  purpose,  were  for- 
warded by  that  gentleman  to  such  quarters  in  the  United  States,  as  should 
iosare  answers  to  them  of  the  greatest  jurisprudential  weight  and  the  most 
perfect  freedom  from  any  sort  of  bias.  We  understand  that  they  settle 
the  question  in  favour  of  the  New  York  Code,  for  the  cheap  and  speedy 
admioietration  of  justice  which  it  has  introduced.  This  fact  will  be  more 
formally  communicated  to  the  public  in  due  time.  Meanwhile,  the  public 
will  receive  with  deference  and  welcome  the  unanimous  conclusions  of  the 
Law  Amendment  Committee — 

**  That  justice,  whether  it  relate  to  matters  of  legal  or  equitable  cogniz- 
ance, may  advantageously  be  administered  by  the  same  tribunal;  that 
where  the  principles  of  law  conflict  with  those  of  equity,  the  latter  shall 
prevail,  to  the  exclusion  of  the  former;  that  all  litigation,  whether  it  relate 
to  matters  of  legal  or  of  equitable  cognizance,  may  advantageously  be  sub- 
jected to  the  same  form  of  procedure ;  and  that  the  rules  of  procedure  be 
embodied  in  a  code." 

Why,  that^  which  with  great  labour  the  Law  Amendment 
Committee  arrive  at  as  a  novel  result^  and  which  the  British 
public  are  to  receive  with  deference  and  welcome  (when  they 
can  get  it)  is  the  formulary  of  our  Indian  law  system — a  for- 
mnlary^  which,  besides  bemg  in  harmony  with  reason  and  com- 
mon sense,  has,  moreover,  ^e  advantage  of  being  in  general 
nnison  with  the  principles  of  the  Hindu  and  Mussalman  codes. 
Let  us  have  no  approach  therefore  to  the  English  system,  which 
18  in  course  of  laborious  self-combustion,  in  order  that  from  its 
ashes  may  arise  the  very  system,  which  we  have  already  without 
its  aid.     No  greater  curse,  we  confidently  repeat,  could  be  in- 


112         THE   EAST  INI>IA  COMPANY   AND   TTS   CHARTER. 

fiicted  on  India,  and  none  more  likely  to  shake,  if  not  dissolve,, 
our  power. 

Although  opposed  to  the  English  system  of  law  and  its  ma- 
chinery, yet,  at  the  same  time,  with  the  view  of  obtaining  a 
cheaper  and  more  numerous  magistracy,  and  of  throwing  open 
to  the  wholesome  influences  of  Saxon  independence  and  impulse 
the  whole  range  of  our  Indian  civil  admmistration,  we  would, 
although  retaining  a  large  portion  of  initial  patronage  in  the 
hands  of  a  Court  of  Directors,  break  up  the  monopoly,  which 
at  present  vitiates  the  system,  by  making  the  covenanted  and 
uncovenanted  services  to  coalesce,  and  by  empowering  the 
Governor  General  in  council  to  employ  in  civil  charges,  not 
only  such  military  officers,  as  appeared  peculiarly  qualified  for 
entering  upon  the  discharge  of  civil  duties,  but  also  any  Euro- 
peans, whose  acquirements  and  experience,  whether  obtained  at 
the  Bar  as  pleaders,  or  in  any  other  manner,  during  a  residence 
in  India  of  five  or  six  years,  ensured  an  efficient  discharge  of 
the  duties  entrusted  to  them.   If  five  or  six  years  in  India  were 
deemed  too  short  a  period  of  probation,  before  European  resi- 
dents could  be  employed  in  substantive  civil  charges,  it  might 
be  increased ;  but  that  period  is  ample  for  the  purpose  of  weak- 
ening mere  ministerial  mfluence,  and  sufficient  too  for  qualifica- 
tion, being  the  time,  which  a  civilian  in  fact  takes  to  prepare 
himself  in  India  for  real  utility  in  the  administration ;  it  is  the 
calculated  time  of  what  may  be  termed  his  apprentice-ship* 
Such  a  modification  would  somewhat  reduce  the  estimated 
value  of  Directorial  patronage,  each  share  of  which  was  former- 
ly estimated  to  be  worth  £13,000  per  annum,  and  now,  in  con- 
sequence of  the  lamentable  over-supply  in  all  professions,  may 
probably  be  fairly  rated  as  having  a  value  of  £15,000  or  even 
£16,000  per  annum  ;   but  the  administration  would  be   im- 
mensely oenefited  by  a  measure,  which  rendered  available,  not 
only  the  talent  to  be  found  in  a  very  large  military  service^  but 
also  that  of  men  of  education  and  experience,  who,  by  energy 
and  ability,  succeeded  in  working  out  for  themselves  a  posi- 
tion in  public,  and  in  official,  esteem  in  India. 

One  point  must  not  be  lost  sight  of,  or  blinked  from  sub- 
serviency to  the  cant  of  English  prejudices.  It  is  of  great  poli- 
tical importance,  though  the  fact  is  often  overlooked,  that  civil 
and  pohtical  employment  should  be  open  to  military  men.  Not 
only  does  this  curcumstance  incite  the  army,  generally,  to  the 
acquisition  of  the  Eastern  languages  and  to  a  Knowledge  of  the 
people ;  but  it  insures  to  the  British  Government,  by  their  em- 
ployment in  such  charges,  military  men  practically  conversant 
with  the  character  and  habits  of  our  vast  population :  it   forms 


I 


tHB  BAST  INDIA  GOMPANT  AND  ITS  CHARTER.        113 

n  daas  of  officers  of  a  high  stamp,  men  fit  to  cope  with  such 
emei^encies  as  might,  at  any  unforeseen  moment,  arise  in  an 
empire,  constituted  as  that  of  India.     Overweening  security  is 
oat  of  place ;  those,  who  know  our  position  best,  avow  its  internal 
dangers,  and  confess  the  precarious  nature  of  our  footing.    At  a 
moment  when  least  expected,  there  may  be  need  for  a  class  of 
men,  who,  to  the  professional  confidence  of  experienced  officers, 
knowing  what  the  sword  can  do,  unite  an  intimate  acquaintance 
with  the  country  and  its  institutions.     These  are  the  men  for 
times  of  peril;  and  the  Indian  Government  should  always  have 
tiiem  at  command.     They  are  as  cheap,  and,  when  properly 
selected,  as  efficient  a  civil  machinery  as  the  Government  can 
obtain:  and,  though  we  do  not  go  the  length  of  Colonel  Suther- 
land, who  advocated  one  united  service  for  India,  for  which  those 
entering  it  should  be  trained  in  the  first  instance  to  habits  of 
military  life,  because,  in  our  opinion,  such  a  united  service  would 
be  too  exclusive :  yet,  undoubtedly,  the  example  of  the  Arracan, 
the  Tenasserim,  the  Saugor  and  Nerbudda,  and  the  Punjab 
Territories,  proves  how  extensively  such  machinery  may  be  ap- 
plied, not  only  beneficially  to  the  people,  but  with  financial 
and  political  advantage  to  the  Gt>vemment.     The  same  reason- 
ing applies  more  strongly  to  the  political  department,  in  which, 
as  Mr.   Elphinstone  justly  observed,  military  experience  is  an 
essential  element  of  an  efficient  political  officer's  training.  Who- 
ever were  employed,  however,  whether  covenanted  civil  servants, 
military  men,  or  nncovenanted  Europeans  of  education  and  abi- 
lity, let  all  be  open  to  their  industry  and  energy.    Away  with 
the  system,  which  has  lately  been  adopted,  of  rendering  high 
dvil  and  political  appointments,  the  feather  beds,  on  which  to 
let  down  easily  civil  secretaries  disappointed  of  a  seat  in  Council, 
or  unequal  to  further  continuance  m  their  Secretariat  labours ! 
High  political  charges  ought  not   to  be  restricted  to  any  one 
class  or  department;  for  Grovemment  should  not  be  cramped 
in  the  selection  of  its  instruments  for  important  posts :  but  this 
we  bold  to  be  a  vastly  different  thing,  firom  avowedly  rendering 
the  few  prizes  of  the  political  line  the  means  of  comfortably 
shelving  civilians,  who,  from  their  seniority,  or  from  other  con- 
siderations, are  found  in  the  way,  and  are  therefore  thus  provided 
for,  at  the  expence  of  the  just  expectations  of  old  and  deserving 
■crvMts  of  diiBtinction  and  ability. 

Under  the  system,  thus  briefly  and  inadequately  sketched 
oat,  there  would  be  fewer  civil  appointments  for  the  Directors 
to  distribute,  and  they  would  be  of  less  intrinsic  value :  because, 
civil  offices  being  open  to  competition,  mediocrity  would  not,  as 


114       THE  EAST  INDIA  COMPANT  AND  ITS  CHARTEB. 

at  present,  be  certain  of  high  emolaments.  The  supply  too 
would  have  to  be  regulated  by  the  demand :  and  as  this  would 
fluctuate  within  limits,  which  a  few  years  would  show,  there 
would  be  no  practical  difficulty  in  adjusting  the  average  amount 
of  this  branch  of  patronage.  One  result,  however,  evidently 
would  be,  that  Haileybury  should  be  abolished,  and  that  candi- 
dates for  the  civil  appointments  in  the  gift  of  the  Directors 
should  either  be  passed  College-men,  whose  standing  and  ability 
would  thus  be  known,  or,  if  not  College-men,  that  they  should  be 
made  to  go  through  the  ordeal  of  an  examination  before  inde- 
pendent examiners.  We  advisedly  say,  passed  College-men,  be- 
cause we  think  it  a  great  misfortune  both  to  men  themselves 
and  to  the  service,  when  they  come  out  too  young  and  half 
educated :  it  prolongs  a  (to  the  state)  very  expensive  period  of 
probation  and  of  empirical  acquisition  of  knowledge,  at  the  cost, 
not  only  of  the  Government,  but  also  of  the  people.  It  would 
of  course  be  easy  to  ensure  that  the  College  course  had  compre- 
hended the  study  of  the  principles  of  international,  civil,  and  cri- 
minal law,  and  that  the  wide  subject  of  jurisprudence  had  entered 
larjeely  into  the  line  of  study.  With  this  provision,  the  usual 
coUesiate  course  and  its  concomitant  rivalry  with  the  foremost 
youth  of  the  nation,  would  &r  out-balance  any  supposed  advan-* 
tages  from  matriculation  in  such  an  institution  as  that  of  Hailey- 
bury, and  would  furnish  functionaries  of  far  higher  promise. 

Government,  under  such  circumstances,  would  have  a  veiy 
wide  sphere  of  selection  fqjr  the  machinery  of  the  internal  aa- 
ministration  of  India.  Mere  seniority  would  cease  to  be  the 
rule  of  the  service;  mediocrity  would  find  its  level  and  not 
be  pushed  above  it ;  and,  as  in  an  empire  of  such  heterogeneous 
elements,  there  is  an  infinite  variety  of  offices,  so,  by  throwing 
open  the  civil  branches  of  the  service,  in  the  manner  we  advo- 
cate, there  would  be  no  difficulty  in  adapting  the  instruments  to 
their  intended  functions.  At  the  Presidencies,  where  British 
mercantile  interests  prevail,  where,  consequently,  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  element  enters  largely  into  the  social  structure,  and  where 
the  Crown  Courts  have  been  long  established  and  have  inocula- 
ted the  community  with  English  lawyerism,  its  tastes  could  be 

Ltified  by  the  appointment  of  Magistrates  trained  at  the  bar. 
W  the  nullions  of  India,  who  dread  English  lawyerism  eyea 
more  than  the  present  Company's  Courts,  the  Director's  civil 
nominees,  the  European  residents,  tlie  natives  of  talent  and 
education,  and  the  army,  would  all  iiimish  their  quota :  and,  with 
such  a  variety  of  basis,  it  would  be  an  easier  matter  than  it  is  at 
present,  for  the  Anglo-Indian  Government  to  meet  the  requisi- 


THE  EAST  INDIA  COMPANY  AND  ITS  CHABTEB.        115 

lions  of  a  vast  population  at  no  overwhelming  cost,  and  to  find 
fit  men  for  every  position.     This,  with  a  simple  code  of  laws, 
in  lieu  of  an  indigested  mass  of  regulations ;  courts  of  judica- 
ture adapted  to  the  social  organization  and  condition  of  the 
people,  wnich  our  present  courts  most  decidedly  are  not ;  a  sim- 
pfification  of  the  whole  system  of  procedure,  and  the  incorpo- 
lation,  to  a  much  larger  degree  than  at  present,  of  the  system 
of  Pancbayet — are  essential  to  putting  some  stay  to  the  present 
anarohy  of  law,  and  to  the  harvests  of  vile,  intriguing,  case- 
csuaiiig  Vakils.    Increase,  rather  than  diminish,  the  powers  of 
the  Judges'  and  Magistrates'  Courts;  cease  to  nurse  and  foster 
•n  endless  system  of  appeal ;  make  the  people  in  greater  mea- 
mre  settle  their  own  dinerences,  as  they  did  of  old  everywhere, 
and  now  do  over  large  tracts  of  India,  by  Panchayet ;  quash 
iit^tion  by  developing,  instead  of  crushing,  the  most  effective 
institution,  that  the  genius  of  the  people  could  have  devised  for 
tliwartiiig  litigious  intriguers.    What  the  Courts  of  Beconcile- 
inent  are  to  Denmark,  Panchayets  have  from  time  immemorial 
been  to  India.    Well  may  Sleeman  say,  ^  The  people  are  con- 

*  founded  at  our  inconsistency;  and  say,  where  they  dare  to 

*  speak  their  imnds.  We  see  you  giving  high  salaries  and  high 
'  prospects  of  advancement  to  men,  who  have  nothing  on  earth 

*  to  do,  but  to  collect  your  revenues,  and  to  decide  our  dis- 
'  pates  about  pounds,  shillings  and  pence,  which  we  used  to 
'  aedde  much  better  among  ourselves,  when  we  had  no  other 
'  ooort  but  that  of  our  elders  to  appeal  to." 

Onr  system  has  overlooked  a  fact,  to  which  all  history  bears 
testimony.  As  evil  pervades  mankind,  and,  according  to  the 
idigion,  the  diibate,  the  country,  the  physical  and  psychologic* 
cal  condition  of  the  people,  adapts  itself  with  wondrous,  pliancy 
to  infect  the  mass  as  much  as  possible ;  so  in  conflict  with  evil^ 
and  endeavouring  to  subdue  it,  are  those  principles  of  virtue, 
which,  whencesoever  derived,  enter  more  or  less  into  all  ethical 
and  religious  systems,  and,  backed  by  the-  interests  of  the 
Biijority,  which  are  always  in  antagonism  to  individual  rapacity 
sad  violenoe^  base  their  mode  of  action  upon  the  structure  of 
^odety,  and  the  general  habits  and  condition  of  a  people.  Ac- 
^Qidingly,  in  no  two  countries^  with  the  same  object  m  view — 
Ae  discovery  of  truth,  do  we  find  precisely  the  same  means 
s^opted  for  elidting  it  There  is  a  national,  as  well  as  an  in^ 
findoal^  idioeyncracy^  The  morale  of  every  people  is  the  com^ 
Pttite  j^oduction  of  so  many  different  elements,  that  it  wouldr 
oe  as  vain  to  look  for  exact  similarity  of  character  in  any  two 
nAms,  as  in  any  two  persons.     We  Englidi  are  too  fond 


116       THE   EAST   INDIA   COMPANY  AND   ITS   CHARTER. 

of  putting  our  hats  and  long-tailed  coats  upon  eveiy  people 
we  meet  with  on  the  face  of  the  earth ;  forgetting  that  where 
they  already  enjoy  turbans,  dhotis,  &c.,  the  symmetrical  har- 
mony of  the  whole  cannot  be  more  remarkable  than  the  fehcity 
of  adaptation.  We  are  so  wedded  to  our  own  institutions  and 
their  forms,  that  our  eyes  are  closed  to  the  merits  of  other 
systems,  which  are  the  birth  of  the  physical  and  moral  conditions 
of  a  people,  to  which  our  own  nation  bears  no  analogy.  The  a)n* 
sequences  are  well  set  forth  by  Holt  Mackenzie,  ^^  We  are  every- 

*  where  met  by  people  complaining  of  the  authorities  set  over 

*  them,  and  the  authorities  complaining  of  the  people.  The 
'  longer  we  have  had  the  district,  the  more  apparently  do  lying 
'  and  litigation  prevail,  the  more  are  morals  vitiated,  the  more 

*  are  rights  involved  in  doubt,  the  more  are  the  foundations  of 
'  Society  shaken,  the  more  has  the  work  of  civil  Government 
'  become  a  hopeless,  thankless  trial,  unsatisfactory  as  to  its 
'  immediate  results,  hopeless  as  to  its  future  effects."    What 
was  a  true  picture  in  1830  we  will  vouch  for  being  as  accurate 
in  1851.     One  and  twenty  years,  instead  of  amending,  have 
deepened  the  shades  of  this  terrible  sketch  of  our  rule — and  this 
too,  in  spite  of  many  very  noble  efforts  on  the  part  of  indiii- 
duals  to  stem  the  torrent.     Throughout  this  article  we  have 
sought  to  avoid  personality ;  and,  therefore,  even  where  it  is  to 
praise,  we  will  not  mention  instances  of  men  labouring,  in  a 
manner  unknown  in  England,  from  break  of  day  to  Sun  down ; 
borne  up,  as  long  as  the  ^^  physique"   would  last,  and   even 
somewhat  longer,  by  the  high  resolve  to  do  their  own   work 
and  check  corruption.     We  could  mention  examples  of  strong 
men  breaking  down  in  health  from  the  difficulties  and  anxieties 
incurred  in  brining  to  justice  an  all  influential  but  deeply 
corrupt  Amlah.  We,  however,  only  notice  the  instances  to  show 
that  the  system  is  more  to  blame  thian  the  men, who  endeavour  to 
work  it  out,  often  with  a  selfnlevotion  most  exemplary,  but  too 
constantly  futile  as  to  good.      There  is  too  much  of  oentraliza* 
tion  in  our  judicial  system ;  too  little  has  been  left  to  that  beet 
of  all  modes  of  maintaining  security  of  person  and  property,  the 
instrumentality  of  the  people  themselves.     This  was  the  agency, 
to  which  the  native  system  of  police  and  the  institution  of  the 
Panchayet  trusted  for  the  administration  of  a  vast  mass  of  civil 
and  criminal  business,  which  is  now  drawn  to  our  courts  as  a  focus: 
— a  dung  heap  would,  perhaps,  be  a  somewhat  more  correct  ei- 
mile ;  for  there  the  mass  accumulated,  and,  leavened  with  perjured 
witnesses  and  sordid  unscrupulous  Vakils,  wholly  unchecked 
by  the  control  of  local  public  opinion,  became  a  mass  of  hopeF^ 


THE   EAST   INDIA   COMPANY  AND   ITS   CHARTER,        117 

lesB  corruption — differing  from  a  dung-heap,  howev er,  inasmuch  as 
it  may  and  does  infect,  but  cannot  manure,  the  district,  its  ope- 
ntion  present  and  future  being  unmixed  eyil.  Why  throw  out 
of  gear,  as  we  have  done,  the  sanative  action  of  loosl  opinion  ? 
It  IB  the  only  one,  which  operates  effectually  among  the  mil-  ^ 
lions  of  India.  Public  opinion,  in  our  sense  of  the  word,  they 
have  none ;  but  local  and  class  opinion  is  aU  influential  with 
them ;  and  the  Panchayet,  as  an  institution,  is  founded  on 
the  instinctive  perception  of  this  characteristic  of  the    peo- 

tle.  Accustomed  to  the  broader  action  of  a  public  opinion 
aving  a  far  more  comprehensive  base,  we  have  lost  sight  of 
a  normal  element  of  the  character  of  a  purely  agricultural  and 
very  poor  people,  much  attached  to  their  land  and  their  neigh- 
bour village  communities,  but  not  caring  a  straw  for  any 
opinion  beyond  the  sphere  of  the  small  circle,  which  compre- 
hends their  sympathies  and  interests.  Starting  from  a  higher 
stage  of  civilization  and  more  complex  relations,  we  have 
overlooked  a  radical  difference  between  ourselves  and  the 
people  whom  we  govern.  Take  them  in  their  own  social 
atmosphere,  surrounded  by  its  own  checks  and  influences,  and 
the  cultivator  of  India  is  as  truthful  as  any  other  peasant ;  in- 
deed, on  some  points  and  occasions,  singularly  more  so :  but 
remove  him  from  this  atmosphere  to  one,  where  he  feels  free 
from  the  circumscribed,  but  all-potential,  social  opinion,  which 
forms  the  very  mle  and  essence  of  his  mind  and  habits,  and 
Tou  at  once  strip  him  of  the  only  real  principles,  which  actuate 
his  conduct  in  life.  In  a  word  our  system  is  a  failure,  because 
it  ignores  the  fact,  that  in  India  there  is  as  yet  no  such  thing 
as  public  opinion  among  the  millions ;  with  uiem  local  opinion 
isallin  alL 

Centralization  of  power  is  essential  to  our  supremacy; 
but  centralization  of  authority  in  the  administration  of  ci- 
vil and  criminal  justice,  though  often  confounded  with  the 
former,  is  a  wholly  distinct  afiair,  and  is  in  direct  antagonism  to 
the  abnormal  condition  of  a  pauper  agricultural  population, 
with  whom  local,  and  not  public,  opinion  is  the  mainspring  of 
life.  Simple  as  this  distinction  may  seem  to  those,  who,  like  the 
writer,  have  passed  years  of  life  amid  the  cultivators  of  India, 
and  lying,  as  it  does,  at  the  very  root  of  any  scheme  for  the  due 
police  and  iudicial  administration  of  such  a  people  as  we  have 
to  deal  with,  yet,  there  are  no  indications  that  this  simple  ele- 
mentary consideration  has  ever  either  been  applied  or  kept 
clearly  in  view,  in  the  course  of  our  endeavours  at  internal 
administration.    Fiscal  considerations  indeed  forced  it  upon  our 


118        THE   EAST   INDIA   COMPANY  AND  ITS   CHARtEB. 

attention :  and,  in  effecting  Revenue  settlements  for  the  various 
districts  of  the  North  Western  Provinces,  a  course  was  adopt- 
ed more  in  accordance  with  the  radical  fact,  to  which  ad- 
vertence has  been  made.     Where  financial  interests  were  at 
stake,  we  could  thus  be  heedfol  to  take  advantage  of  the  full 
influence  of  local  opinion.  The  close  of  an  article  on  the  Settle- 
ment of  N.  W.  Provinces,  in  the  December  number  of  this 
BevietOy  gives  satisfactory   evidence  that  in  financial  matters 
we  are  fully  alive  to  this  elementary  principle.    Why  lose  sight 
of  it,  directly  the  interests  of  the  people  are  alone  purely  at 
stake  ?   Why  saddle  them,  to  the  extent  we  avowedly  have  done, 
with  a  police  and  judicial  system,  which  ignores  the  fundamen- 
tal axiom,  that,  judicially  speaking,  in  India  local  opinion  is  as 
yet  everything — aye,  even  more  than  religion  itself,  which  it 
often  modifies,  whilst  public  opinion  is  nothing,  positively  no- 
thing, and  therefore  wholly  uninfiuential  on  ihe  miUions  as  a 
rule  of  private  conduct?    One  would  have  thought  that  a  com- 
mon sense,  matter-of-fact  people,  like  the  Anglo-Saxon  race, 
would  have  not  only  completely  seized  this  elementary  princi- 
ple, but  would  have  been  careful  to  apply  it ;  and  so  we  believe 
they  would,  had  not  class  interest,  and  a  concomitant  but  short- 
sighted ambition  to  grasp  all  attributes  and  functions  of  power, 
led  to  an  undue  attempt  at  a  centralization,  which  not  oulj  faib 
in  its  ostensible,  but  abo  in  its  real,  objects ; — power  being  nine 
times  out  of  ten,  nay  we  may  say,  ninety-nide  times  out  of  a 
hundred,  in  the  hands  of  the  Amlah,and  not  in  the  hand  of  the 
civil  functionary.  Aiming  at  the  shadow,  the  reality  is  thus  lost: 
whilst  on  the  contrary,  a  system  more  in  conformity  to  the  ele- 
mentary principle  of  the  force  of  local  opinion  would,  by  strip- 
ping Amlahs  and  Vakils  and  purchasable  witnesses  of  their 
noxious  authority  and  sinister  influences,  not  only  be  far  more 
satisfactory  to  the  country,  but  insure  to  the  civil  functionary 
far  greater  and  more  wholesome  influence  and  authority  over 
the  people  through  the  people  themselves. 

Having  extended  our  remarks  to  a  greater  length  than  was 
contemplated,  the  consideration  of  the  Home  Branch  of  the 
Indian  administration;  of  a  properly  constituted  Court  of  Direc- 
tors ;  of  the  Army,  and  of  its  associated  departments,  must  be 
left  to  future  articles. 


IKDO-BAOTEIAN  NUMISMATICS^  ETC.  119 


Abt.  IV. — 1.  Ariana  AntiqtuL  A  descriptive  account  of  the  An," 
tiqtdties  and  Cains  of  Affghanistan.  By  //.  H,  WUsany  M.  A,, 
F.  K  S.,  ifc.  London.  Published  under  the  authorUy  of  the 
Hcrihle  ike  Court  of  Directors  of  the  E.  I  C.    1841. 

2.  Beitrag  zur  Geschichte  der  Griechischen  Konige  in  Baktrien, 
Kabul,  und  Indien;  durch  EntzifferuTig  der  aU  Kabulischen 
Legenden  auf  ihren  Munzen :  von  Christian  Lassen.  Bonn. 
1838.     Translated  for  the  Asiatic  Society.     Calcutta. 

3b  Note  on  the  Historical  Results  deducibk  from  recent  discoveries 
in  Affghanistan.    By  H.  T.  Prinsep^  Esq.     London.    1844. 

It  is  hardhr  more  than  ten  years^  since  James  Prinsep^  when 
about  to  read  some  of  his  Numismatic  essays  before  the  members 
of  the  Asiatic  Society,  apologized  for  troubling  them  with  so  dull 
a  subject,  and  added,  that  many  of  his  scientific  friends  had  com- 
plained of  bein^  ^*  deluged  with  old  coins."  Little  did,  either  the 
eaaayist  or  his  hearers,  at  that  moment,  foresee  the  ^nd  results, 
which  were  one  day  to  crown  these  seemingly  frmtless  labours. 
If  they  had  known  what  the  future  would  produce,  they  would 
have  contemplated  these  embryo  discoyeries  with  the  feelings 
of  Belzoni,  when  he  penetrated  the  Pyramids  and  unyeiled  the 
mmmnied  remnants  of  Pharoah's  line,  or  with  the  feelings  of 
Layaid,  when  his  toilsome  excayations  at  last  reyealed  the  Nine- 
veh of  Scripture.  In  awe  and  wonder^  they  would  haye  ex- 
claimed:— 

**  Stop  !  for  thy  tread  is  on  an  Empire's  dost  ; 
An  earthquake's  spoils  are  sepnichred  below !" 

^  This  same  Society,  which  then  grudged  a  few  minutes  atten- 
tion to  the  Numismatic  treatises  of  its  gifted  secretary,  would 
now,  perhaps,  be  proud  to  own  that  its  fame  is  partially  based 
on  the  seryices  rendered  to  Numismatical  science,  and  would  be 
eager  to  daim  the  honour  of  haying  tended  the  infancy,  and  fos- 
tered the  growth,  of  discoyeries  that  should  pour  a  flood  of  light 
on  the  darkest  portion  of  Asiatic  annals.  As  the  Society  has 
appreciated  the  yalue  of  this  science  for  the  elucidation  of  his- 
tory, so,  we  hope,  will  the  public.  And  we  feel  assured  that 
all,  who  may  study  the  coins  of  Indo-Bactria,  will  find  tiieir 
ideas  enlarged  and  their  trouble  well  repaid. 

It  has  been  the  &shion  to  look  upon  Numismatics,  as  one  of 
the  driest  departments  in  antiquarian  study.  Eyer  since  Monk- 
bams,  the  Antiquary,  was  pictured  by  the  greatest  of  our  des- 
criptiye  painters,  the  scoffing  portion  of  the  public  haye  found 
an  armoury  stored  with  the  weapons  of  wit,  and  a  quiyer,  from 


120  INDO-BACTRIAN  NUMIBMATICS   AND 

which  might  be  drawn,  at  pleasure,  the  pointed  shafts  of  irony, 
banter,  and  inuendo.  These  resources  have  often  been  brought 
into  play  for  the  purpose  of  casting  ridicule  upon  Numismatics. 
Nor,  indeed,  can  it  be  denied,  that  this,  like  most  other  sciences, 
has  had,  and  may  still  have,  some  absurd  accessories.  There 
are,  doubtless,  in  the  world  many  coin-fanciers  who  gloat  over 
rust-eaten  medals  of  indescribable  rarity,  which  have  been 
grubbed  up  with  infinite  labour  and  cost,  in  order  that  they 
might  be  hoarded  in  a  particular  drawer  of  a  particular  cabinet. 
All  this  may,  no  doubt,  furnish  a  very  fair  mark  for  the  pop-guns 
of  satire.  But  it  surely  does  not  foUow,  that  the  whole  science 
is  an  absurdity.  What  branch  of  science,  however  useful  and 
laudable,  has  ever  been  prosecuted  without  short-comings  and 
errors,  which  excite  the  regrets  of  the  educated  and  the  laughter 
of  the  ignorant  ?  May  we  not  say  with  Sydney  Smith  ? — ^^  If  it 
^  is  fair  to  argue  against  a  science,  from  the  bad  method  by  which 
'  it  has  been  prosecuted ;  such  a  mode  of  reasoning  ought  to  have 

*  influenced  mankind  centuries  ago,  to  have  abandoned  all  the 

*  branches  of  Physics  as  utterly  hopeless.  We  have,  surely,  an 
^  equal  right  to  rake  up  the  mouldy  errors  of  all  the   other 

*  sciences ;  to  reproach  astronomy  with  its  vortices,  chemistry 

*  with  its  philosopher's  stone,  history  with  its  fables,  law  with 

*  its  cruelty  and  ignorance :  and,  if  we  were  to  open  this  battery 
'  upon  medicine,  there  is  no  knowing  where  we  should  stop.** 
Nor  should  the  learned  labours  of  tne  Numismatist,  the  inter- 
preter and  illustrator  of  coins,  be  reproached  with  the  vanities 
of  the  mere  collector  of  coins,  who  cannot  divine  the  meaning 
of  the  relic  when  he  has  found  it. 

But  if  it  be  really  true,  that  the  Numismatist  is  not,  like 
Peter  Schlemmil,  running  after  a  shadow,  but  is  striving,  with 
all  his  faculties,  to  grasp  a  precious  substance — then  let  us  think 
for  a  moment,  what  this  substance  is,  and  what  are  the  tises 
of  coins. 

We  all  know  the  scriptural  circumstances  connected  with  the 
coin,  that  bore  the  ima^e  and  superscription  of  CaBsar.  It  wiU 
not  be  forgotten,  that  this  coin  was  chosen  as  the  aptest  proof 
and  illustration  of  Boman  domination  in  Judea.  It  is  evident 
that  a  similar  use  may  be  made  of  the  coins  of  all  countries. 
They  must  all  give  the  name  of  the  ruler  and  of  the  country 
ruled.  The  power  of  issuing  coins  and  of  regulating  the  cur- 
rency is  an  universal  attribute  of  the  Supreme  Government,  be 
it  monarchical  or  otherwise.  The  discovery  of  numerous  coins 
in  a  particular  locality,  would  (unless  it  were  shewn  that  they 

*  Vide  Sydney  Smiths  Bketches  of  Mora.  Philosophy. 


GREEK  CONNECTION  WITH  THE  EAST.        121 

had  been  conveyed  there  in  the  course  of  commerce)  furnish 
presumptiye  proof  that  a  certain  goyernment^  or  dynasty^  had 
leigned  in  that  locality.     If  the  coins  of  another  dynasty  were 
found  there,  it  would  appear,  that  the  one  had  superseded  or 
snoceeded  the  other.    But  more  detailed  information  than  this 
may  often  be  gathered  jGrom  the  coins.     They  were  sometimes 
iDBcribed  with  political  or  constitutional  maxims,  or  embellished 
with  insignia,  which  typified  the  form  of  Government.  Nothing 
can  be  more  impressive  than  the  manner,  in  which  a  recent 
writer  on  Prophecy  has  identified  the  coins  of  several  great 
empires  and  potentates  with  the  mysterious  descriptions  of  Holy 
Writ*    Every  coin  must  have  a  superscription  written  in  the 
language  of  the  country,  or  of  its  riders.     If  the  language  be- 
come gradually  polished  or  barbarized :  if  it  be  modified :  if  it 
be  an^gamated  with  other  tongues  :  if  it  be  abruptly  altered  : 
all  these  changes  must  be  insensibly  recorded  on  the  coins. 
And  it  is  superfluous  to  call  to  mind  that  the  afiinities  and 
roots  of  languages  are  greatly  relied  upon  by  Ethnologists,  to 
trace  the  origin  of  nations,  and  the  degrees  of  relationship  which 
subsist  between  the  several  branches  of  the  human  family. 
Those,  who  are  only  conversant  with  the  unadorned  and  unin- 
teresting coins,  current  in  the  British  Empire  during  the  present 
century,  would  scarcely  have  an  adequate  notion  of  the  elabo- 
rate workmanship,  which  has  distinguished  the  mintage  of  other 
countries  and  other  times.     In  ancient  days,  religious  emblems 
were  minutely  depicted  on  the  coins.     Figures  of  gods  and 
heroes — ^the  symbols  of  Ecclesiastical  polity ;  of  rites,  cere- 
monies, festivals,  and  ordinances,  were  delineated  with  the  best 
artistic  skill  that  the  country  could  boast  of.    Where  all  these 
points  are  thoroughly  and  accurately  represented,  it  is  needless 
to  expatiate  on  the  rich  fund  of  informaticm  thus  supplied,  or 
the  picture,  thus  presented  to  posterity,  of  the  faith,  manners, 
modes  of  thought,  arts,  and  civilization  of  distant  periods  and 
nations.    We  cannot  follow  out  this  tempting  subject,  which 
would  lead  us  into  too  wide  a  field  of  discussion*    But,  without 
paunng  to  particularize  aU  the  value  of  Numismatical  science, 
we  may  exemplify  its  general  utility  by  a  familiar  instance, 
drawn  from  Engbsh  history. 

Suppose  that  there  were  no  written  records  of  English  histo- 
ry, ana  that  the  only  memorials  of  the  past  were  the  collections 
of  coins  in  the  British  Museum  and  other  places.  Let  us 
consider  how  much  we  should  know  under  these  circumstances.. 
We  should  begin  by  observing  some  barbarous  coins,  bearing 
British   names.     There  would  be  little  difficulty  in  attributing 

*  Re?.  E.  B.  Elliott's  Hor^t  ApocalyptietB. 


122  INDO-BACTEIAN  NUMISMATICS  AND 

these  to  the  aboriginal  Britons.  Next  would  be  found  a  set  of 
medals^  evidently  Roman^  commemoratiiig  yietories  gained  at 
places  known  to  be  in  England.  The  Roman  invasion  would  be 
thus  indicated.  Then  would  be  seen  coins,  denoting  the  minor 
kingdoms,  which  composed  the  Heptarchy.  The  emblem  of 
the  Cross,  which  now  begins  to  appear  on  the  coins,  would 
point  to  the  introduction  of  Christianity.  A  series,  distinct 
from  the  British  and  the  Roman,  which,  by  a  comparison  of 
nomenclature,  could  be  traced  to  the  Saxons,  would  indicate  a 
foreign  invasion.  Every  name  in  the  Saxon  dynasties  would 
appear.  The  development  of  Ecclesiastical  policy  would  be 
snewn  by  coins  inscribed  to  saints,  and  by  medals  struck  in  the 
names  of  archbishops  and  bishops.  Some  regal  coins  of  Danish 
mintage,  bearing  the  names  of  Suein  and  Cnut,  would  shadow 
forth  the  advent  of  the  Danes.  Then  a  change  would  be  per- 
ceptible in  the  names  and  figures  of  the  coins.  The  most  ordi- 
nary acquaintance  with  Norman  affairs  would  enable  the  Numis- 
matist to  identify  the  figures  with  the  feunily  of  the  Conqueror. 
As  the  reigns  of  the  several  kings  were  followed  out,  aUuaions 
would  be  found,  in  the  inscriptions,  to  the  Irish  acquisitions  in 
Henry  IIL's  reign,  and  the  French  conquests  under  Edward  III. 
This  latter  point  would  be  further  elucidated  by  an  interesting 
series  of  Anglo-Gallic  coins,  discovered  in  France.*  The  armo- 
rial bearings,  emblazoned  on  the  coins,  would  illustrate  the 
progress  of  Feudalism ;  and  specimens  of  Baronial  coins 
would  show  what  power  was  once  claimed  and  exercised  by  the 
English  aristocracy.f  The  constantly  occurring  figure  of  a 
ship  would  represent  the  foundation  of  our  naval  power.  The 
severing  of  England  from  the  Romanist  communion,  and  the 
investiture  of  tne  Sovereign  with  Ecclesiastical  supremacy 
in  Henry  VIII.'s  reign,  are  plainlv  told  by  the  legends  on 
the  coins.  Next  we  should  learn  from  the  inscriptions,  that 
Scotland  had  been  incorporated  with  England.  The  civil  dis- 
sensions, in  Charles  L's  reign,  would  be  indicated  by  the  medals 
struck  in  commemoration  of  the  sieges  which  distinguished 
the  campaigns,  and  by  the  currency  of  coins  issued  during  the 
king's  retirement  to  Oxford  and  stamped  with  the  Oxford 
crown.  From  this  time,  the  date  of  the  coinage  begins  to  be 
engraven.  The  Commonwealth,  the  Protectorate,  and  the 
Restoration  are  all  annnounced  by  the  legends  on  the  coins. 
The  Revolution  of  1688,  and  the  enthronement  of  a  foreign 
prince,  would  be  shewn  by  the  quartering  of  the  arms  of 
Nassau.     The  "  coins  of  the  plantations,^  bearing  such  names 

♦  Vide  NumitinaHc  Manual,  by  J.  Yongc  Akerman,  F.  S.  A. 
t  NumitmaUc  Chrmiehf  London. 


GREEK  CONNECTION  WITH  THE   EAST.  123 

as  Massachusets,  New  York,  and  Baltimore,  would  mark 
the  foundation  of  our  Colonial  Empire.*  In  token  of  our 
glowing  nayal  superiority,  we  should  find  that  ships  and  nauti- 
cal devices  were  prominent  objects,  in  what  are  called  the  figur- 
ations of  the  coins.  After  the  time  of  Anne,  British  coi|]»ge 
ceases  to  be  interesting,  inasmuch  as  nothing  more  was  en- 
gnyen  than  the  name  and  date  of  the  Sovereign.  In  this 
tapid  summary,  we  have  not  paused  to  sketch  the  national 
progress  in  arts,  dress,  manu&ctures,  and  general  civilization, 
erinoed  by  the  Numismatic  devices.  But  enough  has  been  said 
to  shew  not  only  the  amount  of  historical  corroboration  fur- 
nished by  Numismatical  science,  but  the  amount  of  positive 
knowledge  afforded  thereby,  whether  political,  economical,  or 
chionolc^caL  The  coins  alone,  if  interpreted  with  skill, 
labour,  and  learning,  would  almost  give  us  an  outline  of  the 
leading  facts  of  English  history. 

We  shall  further  perceive  the  value  of  coins  when  we  come 
to  analyse  the  nature  of  historical  evidence — when,  following 
the  logical  method  and  rigorous  reasoning  of  such  writers  as 
Paley,  we  examine  and  arrange  the  grounds  of  our  credence  in 
nanated  facta.  A  coin  indicates  certain  facts,  which,  from  their 
nature  and  publicity,  could  not  well  have  been  misrepresented: 
and  with  which  those,  who  stamped  the  inscriptions,  must  have 
been  particularly  acquainted.     The  coin  has  been  found,  and 

SKluced  under  circumstances,  which  forbid  the  supposition  of 
ud  or  coUusion ;  because  its  meaning  was  not  understood  at 
the  time,  but  was  only  discovered  soler  laborious  research. 
We  will  not  say  that  all  coins  fulfil  these  conditions ;  but  a  vast 
number  certainly  do.  And  when  they  are  such  as  we  have 
described,  a  valuable  corroboration  is  afforded  to  history^ 
fUKi  a  firm  foundation  is  laid  for  our  historical  belief.  There 
ifl^  indeed,  much  truth  in  the  saying,  that  coins  are  witnesses 
which  cannot  lie.  With  the  corroborative  weight  they  have 
given  to  history,  they  do  much  to  disprove  the  dogma  of  the  vir- 
taoso,  who  said  '^Do  not  read  History  to  me ;  for  that  I  know  to 
be  fidse."  Let  any  period  of  history  be  illustrated  by  a  complete 
series  of  coins,  the  dlBcovery  of  which  has  been  weU  authenticat- 
ed ;  and  most  persons  would  admit  that  this  apophthegm  is  a 
libel  on  knowledge.  When  a  number  of  old  coins  are  suddenly 
exhumed  from  the  cavities  of  the  earth,  or  the  recesses  of  some 
Delected  ruin,  we  feel,  as  if  a  host  of  co*temporary  witnesses 
had  risen  from  the  dead. 
History  has  always  been  considered  to  have  two  hand-maids, 

*  NumimtiHe  Manual^  pp.  352-3^. 


124  INDO-BACTRIAN  NUMISMATICS  AND 

Chronology  and  Biography;  but  we  think  she  has  a  third, 
namely  Numismatics.*    Moreover^  if  coins  are  useful  as  colla- 
teral testimony^  in  periods  where  history  is  full  and  explicit; 
how  much  more  useful  must  they  be,  in  periods  of  which  we 
know  nothing  or  little,  and  where,  perhaps,  that  little  serves 
but  to  convince  us  of  our  iterance,  and  to  stimulate  our 
curiosity  ?     Such  was  the  period  to  which  the  Indo-Bactrian 
coins  related :  and  we  shall  see,  in  the  sequel,  to  what  extent 
they  have  enlightened  us.     Thus,  while  Numismatical  science 
must  always  be  useful  as  a  bulwark  and  co-adjutor  of  history, 
it  may  sometimes  be  indispensable  as  our  sole  guide,  and  our 
sole  source  of  knowledge.     Its  vindication,  therefore,  rests  on 
this  broad  basis,  that,  if  the  history  of  the  human  race  is 
interesting,  or  useful,  so  are  Numismatics,  and  vice  versd.  Those, 
therefore,  who  declare  that  they  derive  no  pleasure  or  instruc- 
tion from  Numismatics,  might,  with  nearly  equal  reason,  dis- 
claim all  interest  in  such  things  as  Biography,  Chronology,  or 
Politics.     Numismatics  does  not  form  an  isolated  department  of 
learning,  embracing  a  limited  ran^e  peculiar  to  itself,  and  capa- 
ble of  being  studied  without  reference  to  any  other  science. 
Its  difficulties  cannot  be  mastered  by  the  mere  exercise  of  taste, 
or  by  the  dint  of  uninstructed  talent:  but  varied  and  extensive 
learning  must  be  brought  to  bear  on  the  subject,  and,  in  propor- 
tion as  this  may  be  done,  so  will  the  interpretation  of  the  coins 
be  successful  or  otherwise.    This  science,  then,  so  £Eur  from  being 
intrinsically  dull  and  mono-ideal,  is  closely  interwoven  with  all 
these  sections  of  knowledge,  which  are  most  useful,  most  amusing, 
and  most  generally  studied.     It  has  been  thought  necessary 
to  enter,  at  some  length,  into  the  general  merits  of  Numismatical 
enquiry,  in  order  that  we  might,  thereby,  justify  the  propriety 
of  noticing  the  results  of  Indian  Numismatics  in  the  elucidation 
of  Asiatic  annals.     This  subject  we  shall  introduce  to  our  read- 
ers, by  a  brief  narrative  of  the  singular  circumstances,  which 
attended  the  discovery  of  the  coins,  that  were  to  rescue  from 
oblivion  the  history  of  Central  Asia. 

The  year  1830  was  a  great  epoch  in  Indian  Numismatics. 
Coins,  indeed,  had  been  collected  before  that  time  by  Messrs. 
Tod,  Tytler  and  others.  But  they  had  not  proved  of  any 
especial  value  in  an  historical  or  antiquarian  point  of  view. 
No  class  of  Numismatists  had  arisen.t  Some  private  collec- 
tions had  been  purchased  by  the  Government  on   the  death 

*  Akin  to  the  evidence  of  Namismatics,  and  of  eqnal  (or  even  {plater)  value  and 
interest,  is  that  of  monuments,  which  carries  us  back  to  an  antiquity^  far  beyond 
that  of  any  hitherto  discovered  coins. — Ed. 

t  Vide  Preface  to  Ariana  Antigua, 


GREEK  CONNECTION  WITH  THE   EAST.  125 

of  the  Collectors.  The  Asiatic  Society  of  Calcutta  bad  shewn 
no  promise  of  the  distinguished  part^  it  was  afterwards  to 
play  in  the  nurture  of  Numismatical  science.  It  had  a 
scantily  filled  cabinet^  of  which  no  account  had  been  given 
to  the  world.*  Even  the  great  savant,  James  Prifisep, 
who  was  almost  to  lay  down  his  life  for  science,  and  to 
weary  out  his  splendid  faculties  in  the  decyphering  of  unknown 
Alphabets,  had  not  yet  learnt  to  take  an  interest  in  coins.  In 
the  particular  department  of  Numismatics,  which  we  are  no- 
ticing, still  less  had  been  done.  Some  stray  coins  had  been 
pick^  up,  few  and  far  between,  and  had  been  sent  to  Europe, 
merely  to  serve  as  inexplicable  enigmas  and  to  exercise  inge- 
nuity. But  the  winter  of  knowledge  was  now  passing  away 
and  a  rich  harvest  season  was  at  hand. 

In  the  centre  of  the  Sind-Saugor  Doab,  bounded  by  the 
Indus  and  the  Jhelum,  and  half  way  between  Jhelum  and 
Attock,  there  was  a  village  named  Manikyala.  Near  this  village, 
which  was  distinguished  for  its  mural  and  sepulchral  remains, 
there  arose  a  posted  conical  structure,  which  the  natives  called 
a  tope,  or  sthupa.  In  1831,  M.  Ventura,  the  well  known  Ge- 
neral in  Runjit  Sing's  army,  happened  to  be  encamped  here 
with  a  small  force.  Having  nothing  better  to  do,  he  occupied 
his  leisure  by  excavating  the  topcf  The  cap  of  the  cupola 
was  opened,  and  layer  after  layer  of  masonry  was  removed. 
Here  and  there,  between  the  interstices  of  the  stone,  coins, 
chiefly  of  copper,  were  found.  After  the  perforations  had  been 
carried  to  a  depth  of  nearly  seventy  feet,  a  copper  box  was 
discovered  beneath  a  large  slab  of  quarried  stone.  It  was  filled 
with  liquid,  and  contained  a  golden  cylinder  and  silver  disc. 
Within  it  and  around  it,  were  found  about  sixty  copper  coins. 
With  the  utmost  liberality,  the  General  placed  his  new  found 
treasures  at  the  disposal  of  the  Asiatic  oociety  and  its  Secre- 
tary Mr.  J.  Frinsep.  The  coins  were  ascertained  to  belong  to 
the  class,  since  well-known  as  the  Indo-Scythian.  At  the  same 
time,  it  was  observed  by  M.  Ventura's  companions  at  Manikyala, 
that  the  ground,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  principal  edifice, 
was  studded  with  smaller  topes.  Some  fifteen  of  these  were  ex- 
cavated by  M.  Court,  one  of  the  officers  serving  under  Ventura. 
Besides  Lido-Scythic  coins,  there  were  dug  up  seven  Roman 
specimens : — one  of  them  bore  the  superscription  of  JuliusCsesar, 
another  of  Mark  Antony.    Such  are  the  wanderings  of  a  coin ! 

But  we  must    now  follow  the  movements  of  another  la- 

*  Professor  Wi]soD,howeyer,  published  an  aecount  sabsequently  in  1831. 
f  Vide  Ariana  AnHqua,  and  Journal  of  Uie  Asiatic  Society  pcusim. 


126  INDO-BACTRIAN   NUMISMATICS  AND 

bourer  in  the  field  of  science.  The  existence  of  topes  in 
Kabul  had  been  observed  by  Mr.  Moorcroft  in  1820,  when 
setting  out  on  his  ill-fated  journey  to^Yard  Samarkand.  These 
observations  were  confirmed  by  Lieut  Bumes,  when  on 
his  mission  to  Bokhara,  in  1832.  During  the  year  1834, 
Mr.  Charles  Masson,  an  individual  residing  in  Anghanistan, 
resolved  to  examine  a  series  of  topes,  which  he  had  seen  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Jelalabad*  For  this  purpose,  he  asso- 
ciated himself  with  a  Dr.  Honigberger,  a  medical  ofiScer  in  the 
service  of  Kunjit  Sing. 

These  topes  proved  to  be  not  only  Numismatic  repositories, 
but  also  religious  edifices.  Now,  if  it  could  be  determined  to 
what  sect  tney  belonged — then  this  fact  would  help  to  shew 
what  was  the  State-religion  of  those  kingdoms  to  which  the 
coins  might  be  attributable.  This  led  to  an  interesting  com- 
parison of  these  structures  with  kindred  edifices  in  the  ex- 
treme south  of  the  Peninsula  and  in  Ceylon.  And,  as  the 
object  of  this  comparison  much  concerns  the  ethnological  and 
political  questions  about  to  be  discussed,  we  shall  devote  a  short 
space  to  a  consideration  of  the  meaning  and  nature  of  these 
topes.* 

About  fifty  topes  were  discovered  at  Hidda,  Darunta, 
and  Chahar  Bash.  Those  localities  are  in  the  vicinity 
of  Jelalabad.  They  were  massive  structures,  ranging  from 
70  to  150  feet  in  height,  and  from  100  to  200  feet  in 
circumference.  They  consisted  of  a  basement,  or  pedestal, 
supporting  a  square  tower,  which  was  surmounted  by  a  coni- 
cal top.  There  was  generally  a  flight  of  steps,  leading  up 
to  the  basement,  and  facing  the  East.  '  There  were  also  subter- 
raneous passages  conducting  from  the  surface  of  the  ground 
to  the  foundations,  and,  in  the  vulgar  imagination,  filled  with 
hidden  treasures.  The  building,  generally,  stood  on  an  emi- 
nence, overhanging  a  ravine,  or  water-course.  The  presence  of 
running  water  was  indispensable ;  and,  where  not  furnished  by 
nature,  fresh  and  gushing  from  among  the  neighbouring  rocks, 
it  was  supplied  by  means  of  beautifully  constructed  aqueducts. 
Though  oftener  separate,  the  topes  were  sometimes  clustered 
together  in  a  plain,  as  at  Chahar  BagL  Near  to  every  tope 
there  was  found  an  attendant  tumidus,  which  seemed  a  kind  of 
satellite  to  the  main  structure.  The  topes  were  not  destitute  of 
ornament.  The  superstructure,  which  rose  above  the  basement^ 
was  generally  encircled  by  a  belt  of  mouldings,  formed  of  bluish 
slate  stone^  which  stood  out  in  strong  relief  against  the  white 

*  Vide  Memoir  on  the  Topes  of  Affghanistan,  by  C.  Masson. 


GKEEK   CONNECTION  WITH   THE   EAST.  127 

painted  surface.  The  interior  was  solid,  with  the  exception  of 
one  small  chamber  in  the  centre.  Within  this  hollow  were 
generally  found  coins,  and  a  metal  chest  containing  relics.  But 
both  stones  and  relics  were  often  scattered  among  the  quarried 
stones,  and  even  throughout  the  foundation  below  the  surface  of 
the  ground.  The  relics  were  images,  vases,  instruments,  cy- 
linders, bits  of  bone,  and  ashes.  Wherever  the  bones  and  ashes 
were  plentiful,  the  other  relics  were  scanty.  The  tumuli  always 
contained  bones,  skulls,  and  ashes,  but  seldom  anything  else. 
Near  many  of  the  topes,  there  were  carefiilly  excavated  caves 
with  niches,  doubtless,  meant  to  contain  idols.  The  relics  were 
seldom  stamped  with  any  distinct  religious  symbols.  But  one 
€!urthen-ware  seal  bore  a  I^aU  inscription,  which  was  subsequent- 
ly ascertained  to  be  a  formula  of  Buddhistic  invocation.  And 
on  one  of  the  vases  was  engraven  the  figure  of  Gautama, 
preaching  to  a  Buddhist  nun.  The  coins  belong  principally 
to  the  Scythian  kings  of  India ;  some  to  the  Sassanian  dynasty ; 
and  a  few  to  the  Boman  Emperors  of  the  East ; — ^showing  how 
extensive  the  commerce  of  upper  India  must  once  have  been. 

The  first  step  in  the  investigation  was  to  compare  the  Affghan 
topes  with  those  observed  in  other  places.     One  tope  had  been 
examined  near  Benares ;  some  near  Ountur ;  some  near  Bhilsa ; 
a  great  number  in  Ceylon,  of  gigantic  size  and  finished  archi- 
tecture, and  accompanied  by  caves  and  tumuli,  there  called  Dah- 
gopas ;  and  also  a  magnificent  specimen  at  Rangun.     It  was 
Been  that  the  AfiPghan  topes  corresponded  exactly  with  specimens 
existing  among  a  people  still  Buddhist,  and  which  bore  unmis- 
takable marks  of  Buddhist  origin.    This  is  quite  enough  to  show 
what  sect  raised  the  buildings  under  consideration,  especially  as 
no  sect,  besides  the  Buddhists,  ever  claimed  them.*  And  we  have 
just  seen  that  some  of  the  relics  oiFer  internal  evidence  to  the 
same  effect     Assuming  then  these  topes  to  be  Buddhist,  what 
was  their  purpose  ?    Now  there  can  be  no  doubt  as  to  the  pur- 
pose of  the  Ceylon  topes,  caves,  and  tumuli.     The  tope  was  the 
supposed  burial  place  of  one  of  the  saintly  Gautamas ;  the  tu- 
muli, or  dahgopas,  were  the  tombs  of  the  saint's  disciples ;  the 
caves  were  the  shrines  of  his  priests.     It  is  surely,  then,  most 
reasonable  to  refer  the  Affghan  topes  to  the  same  object  f 

We  suppose  then  that  the  topes  were  intended  to  veil  the 
sacred  remains  of  the  Gautamas.  There  will  be  little  difficul- 
ty in  fixing  their  date.  They  were,  probably,  not  prior  to  our 
acra :  for  they  contain  coins  of  princes,  who  arc  known  to  have 

*  The  Hindus,  however,  used  to  venerate  them, 
t  Sec  ProfcsBor  Wilson's  summing  up  of  the  evidence. 


128  INDO-BACTEIAN  NUMISMATICS   ASTf 

• 

reigned  at^  or  after^  that  period.  Those^  which  contained  coin? 
of  Kadphises  and  Kanerkes  (who  will  be  hereafter  mentioned), 
could  not  well  have  been  earlier  than  the  first  and  second  cen- 
turies; nor  those,  which  contain  Sassanian  coins,  earlier  than  the 
fourth.  Nor  on  the  other  hand,  could  they  have  been  later 
than  the  eighth  century,  when  the  followers  of  the  prophet  be- 

fan  to  vex  the  unbelievers  in  Kabul  and  Affghanistan.     It  will 
e  seen,  subsequently,  that  the  Indo-Scythian  dynasty,  whose 
coins  are  found  in  the  topes,  reigned  from  the  first  to  the  third 
century  of  our  sera.     The  discovery  of  the  topes  in  A%hani^ 
tan  would  certainly  show  that  Buddhism  had  prevailed  during 
that  period  in  this  region.     It  would  also  prove,  that  the 
Indo-Scythian  princes  encouraged  Buddhism.    This  is  confirm- 
ed by  the  fact,  that  Buddhist  emblems  appear  on  their  coins. 
The  few  Roman  medals  may  have  been  deposited  in  the  build- 
ings, because,  not  being  unaerstood — amne  ignotum  pro  majgidfi" 
CO — they  were  looked  upon  as  mysterious  rarities.    But  such 
could  not  have  been  the  case  with  the  Sassanian  coins,  which^ 
of  course,  bore  emblems  of  Mithraism,  or  the  worship  of  the 
elements.     But  what  could  Mithraism  have  to  do  with  Bud- 
dhism?    It  could  not  be  answered    that  its    real    purpose 
was  unknown,  as  in  the  case  of   the   Roman  coins.     For 
the   Sassanian  princes  were,  at  that    time,  most    notorious 
throughout  Asia.    As  the  religious  and  political  reformers  of 
the   Persian  empire,  and  as  zealous  propagandists,  they  had 
made  their  name  universally  dreaded.     What  then  was  meant 
by  this  admission  of  Mithraic  coins  into  Buddhist  temples  ? 
The  coins  explain  this.     In  all  the  coinage  of  the  Indo-Scythian 
kingdom,  there  is  a  palpable  admixture  of  Mithraic,  Buddhist^ 
and  Brahmanical  emblems.   It  is  clear,  therefore,  that  the  Indo- 
Scythians  patronized  all  three  forms  of  faith.     What  wonder 
then,  that  the  religious  edifices,  constructed  at  that  time,  should 
be  decked  with  heterogeneous  symbols?     Such  are  the  curious 
cross  rays  of  light,  which  the  different  departments  of  discovery- 
throw  upon  each  other.     And,  indeed,  the  concatenation  of  cir- 
cumstances, attending  these  curious  monuments,  is  wonderfuL 
Who  would  have  thought,  that,  in  the  North  of  India,  there  would 
be  discovered  Buddhist  buildings,  containing  coins  of  Scythian 
kings  with  the  names  written  in  Greek  letters,  and  with  titles^ 
partly  Greek,  partly  Persian,  partly  Indian — or  that  rude  imita- 
tions of  the  Greek  Hercules  and  the  Greek  Victory,  on  Scythian 
coins,  should  be  found  in  the  same  casket  with  coins,  also  Scy- 
thian, but  blending  the  emblems  of  Mithra,  of  Siva,  and  of 
Buddh,  and  yet  exhibiting  Greek  inscriptions?    What  can  be  a 
greater  conglomeration  than  these  things,  of  which  we  are 


GBEEK  CONNECTION  WITH  THE   EAST.  129 

aboat  to  unfold  the  narrative  ?  And  yet  not  a  mere  conglome- 
lation ; — ^for^  as  enquiry  proceeds^  order  is  educed  out  of  this 
seeming  confusion.  This  meeting  of  all  religions  on  the  neutral 
ground  of  India  was  not  fortuitous,  but  the  result,  as  we  shall 
see  presently,  of  regular  and  intelligible  mutations  in  systems, 
governments,  and  races. 

From  this  di^ession,  we  must  revert  to  the  advancing  course 
of  discovery.  We  have  seen  how  General  Ventura  and  Mr. 
Masson  discovered  Indo-Scythic  coins,  under  circumstances, 
which  materially  aided  the  prc^ess  of  research.  We  have  yet 
to  see  how  Mr.  Masson  disinterred  a  series  of  coins,  which  illus- 
trated the  history  of  the  Grseco-Bactrians,  the  predecessors  of 
the  Indo-Scythians. 

About  twenty  miles  east  of  the  modern  city  of  Kabul,  there 
is  a  level  piece  of  table  land,  extending  over  six  square  miles, 
called  the  plain  of  Beghram.  The  surface  was  strewed  with 
fragments  of  pottery,  metab,  and  sculpture.  Here  and  there 
arose  solitary  mounds  of  stone  and  brick,  which  seemed  to  indi- 
cate the  remains  of  human  habitations.  The  happy  situation 
of  this  plain  at  a  spot  where  rivers  meet,  and  where  the  main 
roads  and  mountain  passes  converge  from  all  the  four  quarters, 
and  the  interesting  vestiges  visible  on  the  surface  of  the  ground — 
all  this  would  soon  shew,  even  to  the  casual  observer,  that  here 
had  once  existed  a  great  capital  In  modern  times  the  plain 
had  become  a  sheep  pasture.  A  vague  avarice  induced  the 
shepherds  to  scratch  up  the  soil  in  search  of  treasure.  Soon 
they  found  seals,  rings,  oits  of  metal,  and  coins  in  vast  quanti- 
tieSb  The  coins,  whicn  were  principally  copper,  they  would  hawk 
about  the  city  of  EabuL  As  these  *^  treasure  troves"  became 
frequent^  the  trade  began  to  thrive.  And  soon  the  mint-masters 
and  copper-smiths  of  the  city  would  repair  to  the  great  plain,  visit 
the  tents  of  the  shepherds,  and  purchase  the  coins  by  weight. 
It  was  estimated,  that  about  thirty  thousand  coins  a  year  used  to 
be  procured  in  this  manner,  and  melted  down.  And  thus  were 
consigned  to  indiscriminate  destruction,  myriads  of  coins,  which 
the  greatest  academicians  in  Europe  would  have  honoured  with 
a  place  in  their  cabinets,  and  wmch  might  have  told  us  more 
about  Central  Asia  than  all  the  histories  that  ever  were  written  I 
At  last,  in  July  1833,  Mr.  Masson,  being  engaged  in  searching 
for  the  site  of  one,  among  the  many  Aiexandrias  founded  by 
Alexander  the  Great,  happened  to  visit  this  plain.  He  first 
met  with  eighty  coins.  These  specimens  appearing  to  be  valu- 
able, he  prosecuted  the  search,  until  he  had  amassed  upwards  of 
thirty  thousand  coins,  of  which  the  greater  part  were  copper , 

s 


130  INDO-BACTRIAN   NUMISMATICS  AND 

and  the  remainder  silver  and  gold.  From  this  collection  were 
evolved  the  annals  of  Indo-Bactria,  and  the  history  of  Greek 
connection  with  the  East. 

The  Asiatic  Society's  Journal  was  the  organ  through  which 
these  results  were  announced  to  the  public  Mr.  Masison  him- 
self contributed  a  great  many  paper&  But  the  most  elaborate 
analysis  was  made  by  James  Prinsep.*  A  gtesit  di£Sculty  arose 
at  the  outset.  The  inscriptions  on  the  obverse  of  the  medal 
were  Greek ;  but,  on  the  reverse^  an  unknown  character  pre- 
sented itself.  The  first  object  then  was  to  decypher  this 
character.  Mr.  Masson  had  pointed  out  some  Pehlevi  ffllgns, 
which  had  been  found  to  stand  for  certain  Greek  names.  '^  It 
struck  me,"  writes  Mr.  Prinsep,  "  that  if  the  genuine  Greek 

*  names  were  faithfully  expressed  in  the  unknown  character,  a 
'  clue  through  them  might  be  formed  to  unravel  the  value  of  a 
'  portion  of  the  alphabet,  which  might,  in  its  turn,  be  applied  to 
'  the  translated  epithets,  and  thus  lead  to  a  knowledge  of  the  Ian- 

*  guage  employed."  This  plan  was  followed  out  with  infinite  la- 
bour and  skill,  and  met  with  complete  success.  This  most  arduous 
and  valuable  service  to  science  was  the  last,  which  he  lived  to 
perform.t  The  interest,  attaching  to  these  discoveries,  was  not 
confined  to  India.  The  news  spread  to  Europe,  and  raised  a 
sensation  in  the  academic  circles  of  London,  Pans,  Vienna,  Grot- 
tingen  and  Bonn.  The  first  great  scholar,  who  took  up  the 
subject,  was  M.  Baoul  Bochette.  He  was  followed  in  his  own 
country  by  M.  Jacquet,  and  in  Germany  by  the  Giotefends, 
MiiUer,  and  ArsetL  The  Journal  des  Savans,  the  Journal 
AsioHque,  the  Vienna  Jahr-^fucher,  the  Gottingen  Anzeigen,  and 
the  Numismatic  Journal  of  London,  all  vied  with  the  Calcutta 
Journal  in  disseminating  the  results  of  Mr.  Masson's  dis- 
coveries and  Mr.  Prinsep's  interpretations.  For  some  time^ 
England  did  less  than  the  other  two  great  European  nations,  to 
blazon  abroad  the  exploits  of  her  gifted  sons  in  the  East.  Bat  at 
length,  in  1841,  the  appearance  of  the  handsome  work,  of  which 
the  title  is  prefixed  to  this  article,  redeemed  the  character  of  the 
mother  country.  The  celebrity  of  Professor  Wilson's  name  in 
the  world  of  Eastern  literature,  and  his  long  and  intimate  asso- 
ciation with  Mr.  James  Prinsep  in  the  Asiatic  Society,  give 
his  work  a  peculiar  value.  And  the  Court  of  Directors  have 
evinced  the  interest  they  take  in  this  subject,  by  bestowing 
on  the  publication  their  pecuniary  aid  and  their  influential 

*  Vide  Journal  of  Asiatic  Society,  Vols.  I.~VII.,  pastim. 
t  The  Axianic  alphabet  is  jfivcn  iu  Professor  Wilson's  work. 


GREEK  CONNECTION  WITH  THE  EAST.  131 

patronage.*  At  the  head  of  the  present  article  we  have  placed 
this  woK^  as  being  the  most  complete  and  lucid  exposition  of 
the  whole  subject/oesides,  being  embellished  with  a  great  variety 
of  beautiful  plates.  With  it  we  have  associated  a  learned 
dissertation  by  Professor  Lassen^  on  the  history  derived  from 
the  Bactrian  and  Scythian  coinage.  We  have  also  added  a 
miall  but  useful  volume^  by  Mr*  Thobv  Prinsep,  in  which  the 
penend  results  of  the  Numismatic  discoveries  are  unfolded 
in  a  brief  and  popular  fonn.  Becddes  its  intrinsic  merits  this 
work  possesses  an  additional  interest  from  having  been  com- 
posed with  materiak  left  bv  James  Prinsep  at  his  decease,  and 
nom  having  been  written  by  his  brother. 

It  has  been  already  intimated  that  these  discoveries  relate  to 
the  medisBval  history  of  Grecian  Bactria.  But  before  treating 
of  this  history,  it  is  necessary  that  we  should  fix,  with  geo- 
graphical precision,  the  limits  of  this  somewhat  undefined 
country.  Bactria,  as  understood  by  the  Greeks,  was  nearly  coin- 
cident with  Ariana,  or  Central  Asia.  Its  northern  boundary 
was  the  Jaxartes ;  its  southern  the  Indian  Ocean.  The  eastern 
boundary  was  formed  partly  by  the  Indus,  and  partly  by  a  line 
dnwn  n(Mrthwards  from  the  sources  of  that  river.  The 
western  frontier  might  be  described  bv  a  Hue  drawn  from  the 
floath  eastern  comer  of  the  Aral  lake  to  the  Caspian  sea : 
and  thence  southward.  The  vast  square  tract  thus  marked 
off  was  divided  into  two  halves  by  the  Caucasian  chain,  the 
Qpper  half  being  again  subdivided  by  the  Oxus.  Above  the 
great  range  of  mountains  are  the  Steppes  of  Tartary ;  below 
them  is  me  desert  of  Gedrosia.  Such  was  the  country,  which 
the  Macedonians  styled  the  province  of  Bactria. 

The  ancient  history  of  this  country  is  weU  known,  as  the 
Uith  place  of  some  of  the  oldest  languages  and  religions  in 
the  world.  It  was  in  primaeval  times  a  favoured  land  of  fable 
and  of  song,  and  could  boast  of  such  names  as  Zohak,  Ninus,  and 
Semimmis.  It  formed  a  portion  of  the  Assyrian  and  Median 
empires,  and  was  eventually  the  scene  of  Macedonian  triumphs. 
Its  modem  history  is  not  less  interesting,  from  the  rise  of  the 
new  Persian  empire,  the  foundation  and  extension  of  Islam* 
ism,  tile  sudden  erection  and  destmction  of  barbaric  king- 
doms and  the  marvellous  careers  of  Jenghiz,  Timilr,  and  Baber. 
Its  commercial  importance  had  been  conmderable  from  the 
earliest  ages,  and  was  greater  still  in  later  times,  when  it  was 
traversed  by  the  routes,  through  which  the  products  of  the 

*  No  bookseller  could  have  afforded  to  publish  the  work  with  its  present  stprlc 
and  finish.  The  Court  published  it  at  their  owu  expense.  The  bulk  or  the  edition 
^7  presented  to  Mr.  Masson's  mother. 


132  INDO-BACTBIAN  NUMISMATICS  AKO 

East  and  West  were  conveyed*  For  many  centuries  it  was, 
eminently,  the  country  of  great  roads  and  vast  caraYans. 
But,  between  the  ancient  and  modem  periods  of  histoiy,  or, 
more  accurately,  between  the  epoch  of  Alexander  the  Great 
B.  C.  330,  and  the  epoch  of  Ardeshir  Baba-jan,  A.  D.  230,  there 
intervened  a  space  of  more  than  500  years,  which  may  be  called 
the  mediseval  period  of  Central  Asia.  1^  period  was  almost 
utterly  unknown ;  and  yet  was  evidently  worth  knowings  as 
being  the  transition  aera  orom  old  things  to  new,  and  the  point 
where  conflicting  systems  in  religion  and  politics  met  toother. 
A  few  hints  had  been  gathered  from  the  scattered  notices  of 
classical  writers,  themselves  ill-informed,  and  from  the  vague 
accounts  of  Chinese  historians.  All  these  paltry  scrape  of 
knowledge  were  ably  arranged  and  set  forth  during  the  last 
century  by  Bayer.  But  his  learned  treatise  only  served 
to  shew  how  little  the  highest  scholarship  could  do  in  its  e£Port8 
to  pierce  the  impenetrable  gloonw 

The  announcement,  that  the  missing  links  in  the  chain  of 
events  were  to  be  supplied,  would  be  interesting  to  all  students 
of  history.  But  the  expectation  of  filling  up  the  void,  by  Grecian 
coinage  of  all  others,  was  specially  calculated  to  attract  the 
observation  of  Numismatists,  For  no  coinage  in  the  world 
is  more  instructive  than  that  of  Greece.  Its  artistic  beauts 
alone  would  rivet  the  attention  of  every  cultivated  mina 
The  marble  and  the  canvas  did  not  express  all  the  loftiest 
conceptions  of  the  Greek.  The  precious  metals  were  also 
made  to  bear  the  impress  of  his  TOnius.  The  mould  and  the 
dye,  together  with  the  chisel  and  the  brush,  equally  became 
the  instruments  of  imparting  an  outward  form  to  Greek  ideas. 
In  the  opinion  of  the  Greeks,  the  bonds  of  commercial  pater- 
nity, of  political  imion,  and  of  patriotic  sympathy,  among  the 
numerous  members  of  the  great  federation,  would  be  strengthen- 
ed, if  the  medium  of  exdiange  should  be  stamped  wiui  the 
marks  of  their  common  religion,  of  rites,  games,  and  ceremo- 
nies, equally  dear  to  all  the  states,  whatever  might  be  the 
differences  m  their  constitution  and  Government.  Nothing, 
therefore,  can  be  more  perfect  than  the  figures  of  the  gods  and 
heroes,  or  the  personifications  of  inanimate  nature,  engraven  on 
the  coins,  which  thus  furnish  a  key  to  the  whole  mythol<^cal 
system  and  to  the  ritual  of  religious  observances. 

But  ancient  Greece  is  just  as  mteresting  for  its  multiform  poli- 
tical developments,  as  for  its  pre-eminence  in  art.  And  here 
again,  the  coinage  is  a  most  faiuiful  mirror  of  this  great  national 

*  Vide  Heoren's  rammary  of  these  commercial  routes,  in  his  *'  Researches  iato 
the  hi8toi7  of  Asiatic  nations." 


GB££K  COVKECTION  WITH  THE  EAST.  133 

characteristic.   In  the  inscriptions,  the  sacred  D^m6s  of  Athens 
luid  its  place,  as  well  as  the  kings  of  Lacedasmon,  or  of  Macedon. 
If  a  city  enjoyed  its  own  laws,  it  would  assume  the  title  of  Au- 
tonomos :  if  a  naval  power,  tluit  of  Nauarchidos ;  if  a  guardian 
of  any  ffreat  temple,  that  of  Neokoros ; — and  so  on.*    Those 
states,  that  were  bound  together  by  treaties  of  amity,  recorded 
the  ikct  on  the  coins :  either  by  a  special  inscription,  or  by  the 
symbol  of  joined  hands.     There  was  scarcely  a  public  o£Bce  of 
note  or  rank,  in  any  state,  that  was  not  denoted  by  coins.    The 
Aichons,  the  Ephori,  the  Amphictyons,  the  ministers  of  the 
games,  festivals  and  mysteries,  are  aU  represented.  TVlth  regard 
to  colonial  coinage,  the  Syracusan  medallions  are  glorious  in- 
stances of  the  high  art  attained  in  the  distant  dependencies  of 
Greece.    The  geographical  position  of  the  states  was  also  gene- 
rally defined,  u  a  city  was  at  the  foot  of  a  mountain,  or  on  the 
Bea  shore,  the  circumstance  would  be  stated  on  the  coins.t  In  the 
same  way,  there  are  few  Grecian  rivers  of  any  importance,  which 
were  not  named.    But,  as  the  Greek  coins  had  been  the  mute, 
though  eloquent,  witnesses  of  their  country's  glory,  in  her  palmy 
days,  so  also  they  became,  in  time,  the  sad  records  of  her  degene- 
racy and  servility.     They  represented  the  deified  Bomd,  and  the 
Senate  personified  as  a  divinity:   and  they  shewed,  in    the 
pompous  titles  bestowed  on  the  Emperors,  how  conquered  Greece 
could  stoop  to  oriental  flattery.  Such  was  the  coinage  that  Alex- 
ander the  Great  was  to  carry  in  his  victorious  train  to  Egypt, 
Syria,  Persia,  Bactria  and  India!    The  Macedonian  mintage 
turned  out  specimens,  that  may  be  classed  with  the  best  efforts 
of  Greek  art ;  and  Philip  of  Macedon  lived  in  the  period,  when 
Greek  coinage  reached  its  climax.     The  coins  of  Macedon  pre- 
served their  celebrity  even  in  the  dark  ages,  and  served  as 
models  to  barbarous  nations.     It  is  supposed,  that  the  first 
rude  coins  of  ancient  Britain  were  struck  m  imitation  of  Mace- 
donian specimens,  that  were  current  all  over  Europe.^    If  so, 
how  boundless  must  have  been   the  influence  of    Macedon! 
Alexander's  successors  taught  the  art  of  medallography  to  the 
Scythians,  who  carried  it  across  Central  Asia  into  the  heart  of 
India;   and  coins  of  Macedonia  Proper  foimd  their  way  to  the 
northern  wilds  of  Britain,  the  "  Ultima  Thule"  of  the  then  known 
world.     The  chief  divinities,  figured  by  the  Macedonian  artists, 
were  Apollo,  Minerva,  and  Hercule&  We  shall  find  these  con- 
stantly re-issuing  from  the  Bactrian  mintage :  we  shall  see 

*  Vide  Aherman*M  NumumaiU  MamuMl,  pp.  26^28. 
t  Vide  Aherman'i  NumUmatie  Manual,  pp.  13—15. 
X  NumUmatic  MamuU,  p.  211. 


134  INDO-BACTBIAK   NUMISMATICS  AND 

with  what  fidelity  the  Greeks  in  Central  Asia  preserved,  in  their 
coinage,  the  style  of  the  parent  state,  both  as  to  design  and 
execution ;  and  we  shall  further  observe  how  Grecian  ideas  were 
reproduced,  modified,  and  gradually  barbarized,  as  they  passed 
away  &om  the  Greeks,  and  were  adopted  by  Scythian  dy- 
nasties. 

We  shall  now  touch  on  the  history  derived  from  the  Greek 
coins  of  Bactria.  On  the  death  of  Alexander,  this  province^ 
esteemed  one  of  the  wealthiest  in  tixe  empire,  fell  to  the  share 
of  the  Selencidse,  and  was  placed  under  the  control  of  a  local 
Governor.  But  this  viceroy  soon  raised  the  standard  of  rebellion. 
Antiochus  marched  against  the  rebels ;  formed  an  alliance 
with  Chandragupta,  the  monarch  of  upper  India  (called  Sandra- 
cottus  by  the  Greeks),  and  ceded  to  him  several  districts  of 
Lower  Bactria — ^that  is  part  of  the  country  lying  south  of  the 
Caucasian  range,  and  on  either  side  the  Indus.  But  the  bonds, 
which  held  together  the  world-wide  empire  of  Macedonia,  soon 
beffan  to  loosen ;  and  the  Bactrian  governors,  though  shorn  of 
half  their  dominions,  took  advantage  of  the  general  confu- 
sion to  declare  themselves  independent.  The  kingdom  thus 
created,  embraced  Bactria  Proper,  that  is  the  countries  north 
of  the  great  mountains,  and  some  of  the  countries  to  the  soutL 
Eastwards  were  the  Paropamisian  dominions  of  the  Indian 
.monarchs — a  line  of  kings  ennobled  by  such  names  as  Chandra 
Gupta,  Asoka,  and  Subh&gasdna.  Their  policy  was  to  nrofit  by 
the  dissensions,  which  tore  the  Macedonian  empire,  and  to  side 
with  whichever  party  had  the  upper  hand.  In  this  wbj, 
by  helping  Antiochus  against  the  rebel  Greeks  of  Bactria, 
they  had  regained  a  part  of  the  Paropamisus.  To  the  north 
were  the  Scythian  hordes,  at  present  tolerably  quiet,  but 
containing  in  themselves  the  elements  of  strife  and  destruc- 
tion, which  should  one  day  burst  upon  Central  Asia.  On 
the  west  lay  the  formidable  and  aggressive  kingdom  of  Parthia.* 
The  Parthian  Arsacidse  were  originally  Syrian  subjects 
Thirsting  for  independence,  they  revolted  again  and  again. 
The  first  Bactrian  prince  purchased  indemnitv  for  his  rebel* 
lion/  by  lading  the  Seleucidae  against  his  fellow  rebels  of 
Parthia. 

The  second  Bactrian  prince  reversed  this  policy;  made 
common  cause  with  the  Parthians,  and  helped  to  establish 
the  throne  of  the  Arsacidse.  He  little  thought  that  the  power, 
he  thus  raised,  would  one  day  be  to  his  house  the  deadliest  of 
rivals.     Such  were  the  circumstances  and  such  the  neighbours, 

*  See  Mr.  H.  T.  Prinscp  s  account  of  the  Parthian  coins  in  the  cabinet  of  the 
Eaiai  India  House,  presented  by  Sir  H.  WiUock. 


CREEK  CONNECTION  WITH  THE  EAST.  135 

with  which  the  two  first  kings  of  Bactria,  both  named  Diodotus 
(Theodotus  ?  ),  found  themselves  surrounded.  The  thirds  named 
Ettthydemus^  had  to  brave  the  vengeance  of  Antiochus^  who 
strove  to  win  back  his  lost  dominions  in  Central  Asia.  The 
SeleaddiB  defeated  the  Bactrians  in  a  pitched  battle^  and  again 
formed  an  alliance  with  the  Indians5  under  king  Subhdgasena, 
to  whom  were  ceded  all  the  remaining  Bactrian  provinces, 
floath  of  the  Caucasus.  But  Antiochus  spared  the  kingdom 
of  Bactria  Prober,  because  he  thought  it  would  serve  as  a 
convenient  barrier  against  Nomad  irruptions. 

The  next  Bactrian  prince,  named  Demetrius,  grieved  at 
ike  loss  of  these  southern  Provinces,  and  sorely  pressed  in 
Bactria  Proper  by  an  aspirant  named  Eukratides,  deter- 
nuned  to  re-oonquer  the  I^arapomisus,  and  to  found  there 
a  kin^om  for  himself,  where  ne  might  reign  secure  from 
Us  nvaL  But  while  he  pushed  his  victorious  arms  towards 
the  south,  Eukratides  pursued  him  from  the  NortL  Hav- 
ii^  first  seized  upon  Bactria  Proper,  Eukratides  possessed 
himself  of  Demetnus's  Indian  conquests,  and  again  extend- 
ed the  Grffico-Bactrian  dominion  to  the  banks  of  the  In- 
dos.  He  had  now  reached  the  limit  of  Bactrian  power,  and 
was  the  sole  ruler  of  Ariana.  But  the  close  of  his  reign  was 
haraased  by  aggressions  from  the  Parthians  and  the  Scythians ; 
ukl  he  was  at  last  murdered  by  his  own  son  Heliokles.*  Be- 
fore, however,  we  chronicle  the  parricide's  reign,  we  must  pause 
to  note  some  internal  changes  that  were  in  progress. 

Hitherto  the  devices  and  inscriptions  of  the  Bactrian  coin- 
age had  been  executed  in  a  pure  strle  of  Greek  art  The 
figures  of  the  divinities  were  tastefully  engraven.  The  em- 
b^ms  associated  with  the  main  figure,  the  helmet,  fillet,  spear, 
tripod,  bow  cUamvs,  sBffis,  the  Herculean  club  and  lion-skin, 
were  all  stricdy  cmaaiciJ.  The  inscriptions  were  in  polished 
Greek,  with  the  characters  distinctly  wrought  But,  in  the 
reign  of  Eukratides,  a  square  copper  coinage  issued  from  the 
Bactrian  mints,  with  bilin^al  inscriptions.  On  the  obverse 
of  the  coin,  the  legend  wotud  be  in  Greek ;  on  the  reverse,  in 
a  language  and  chwicters,  designated  by  some  as  Arianian,  by 
others  as  Kabulian.  The  task  of  decyphering  and  interpreting 
the  words  of  this  language  was  chieny  performed  by  James 
Prinsep.  The  language  was  at  first  supposed  to  be  Zend ;  but 
was  eventually  shewn  to  be  Prakrit,  a  rude  and  colloquial 
form  of  the  language,  so  well  known  as  Sanskrit     It  there- 

*  It  has  been  doabted  whether  Heliokles,  the  parricide,  is  the  Heliokles  of  tlie 
coiiu.    In  this  place  we  have  followed  Professor  Wilson. 


I 


136  INDO-BACTBIAN  NUMISMATICS  AND 

fore  belonged  to  the  Indian  fftmilj.  But  the  characters  were 
evidently  not  Indian,  being  written  from  right  to  lef^  They 
seemed  to  belong  to  the  Semitic  class,  which  include  the 
alphabets  of  the  Phoenician  Hebrew,  and  a  form  of  the 
Pehlevi,  nearly  allied  to  these  which  had  a  local  currency  in 
Western  Persia.  The  precise  locality  of  this  language  could 
hardly  be  Bactria  Proper ;  otherwise,  traces  of  it  would  haye 
been  found  in  the  purely  Bactrian  coins.  From  these  premises, 
it  was  inferred  witn  tolerable  certainty,  that  the  dialect  belong- 
ed to  the  peqple,  who  dwelt  west  of  tiie  Indus,  and  south  of 
the  Hindu  Kush — a  race  partly  Indian,  and  partly  Semitic. 
Such  being  the  language,  which  the  Bactrian  prmces  now 
adopted  on  their  coinage,  it  is  clear  that,  from  this  date,  namely 
the  re-conquest  of  Lower  Bactria  by  Demetrius  andEukratides, 
the  Greek  colonists  began  to  cast  their  ideas  in  an  oriental 
mould,  and  to  domesticate  themselves  in  their  Indian  possessions ; 
to  conciliate  and  naturalize  their  Indian  subjects ;  and  to  fuse  to- 
gether the  Western  and  Eastern  elements  of  the  body  politic  It 
will  be  found  also  that  the  finish  of  Grecian  art  in  the  coinage 
begins  to  decline.  We  shall  miss  the  dignity  of  the  Minerva, 
the  beauty  of  the  Apollo  with  the  rays  of  glory  round  his 
head,  the  majesty  of  the  thundering  Jove,  the  massive  strength 
of  the  club-bearmg  Hercules,  the  god-like  energy  of  the  chain- 
ing Dioscuri,  and  the  airy  gracefulness  of  the  winged  Victory. 
AU  this  must  now  gradually  give  place  to  ruder  devices.  The 
elephant's  head  win  occur  more  frequently  than  heretofore,  and 
the  Indian  buU  will  figure  on  the  coins.  In  short,  the  exclu- 
sive idiosyncracy  of  Grecian  coinage  will  begin  to  pass  away. 

We  return  to  Heliokles,the  last  monarch,  who  nued  from  the 
Jaxartes  to  the  Indus.  At  this  time  the  destinies  of  Parthia 
were  swayed  by  Mithridates  the  Great.  Arsacidan  aggression, 
commenced  during  the  reign  of  Eukratides,  was  perseverin^ly 
continued  now.  The  western  districts  of  Bactria  havmg 
been  forcibly  annexed  to  Parthia,  and  the  central  provinces 
severely  harassed,  the  arms  of  the  invader  were  carried  even 
into  the  Indian  provinces.  Some  ancient  historians,  indeed,  have 
included  India  among  the  Mithridatic  conquests.  But  Numis- 
matic enquiry  would  seem  to  shew  that  the  Parthians  did  not, 
at  this  period,  gain  any  permanent  footing  south  of  the  Hindu 
Kush ;  though  subsequently  they  formed  some  minor  principa- 
lities in  that  quarter.  As  re^rds  the  present  period,  the  coms 
reveal  the  names  of  as  many  kings,  not  Parthian,  as  could  have 
reigned  within  the  ascertained  interval  of  time.  Even  pro- 
fessor Lassen,  who  attributes  to  the  Parthians,  instead  of  to 
the  Scythians,  the  subversion  of  the  Graeco-Bactrian  kingdom^ 


GBEBK  CONNECTION  WITH  THE  EAST.        137 

admits  that  these  Parthians  did  not  establish  any  dominion 
in  India,  or  the  Paropamisus.  At  all  events  these  Parthian  in- 
varioos,  combined  with  constant  attacks  from  the  Scythians, 
made  the  Bactrian  empire  totter  to  its  fall.  Its  centralization 
being  thus  broken  up,  the  several  provinces  became  separate,  and 
nuged  themselves  under  distinct  sovereigns. 

xlie  coins  would  shew  that,  between  this  date,  viz.,   155 
B.  G.  and  the  period  of   the  great   Scythian    invasion,  se- 
veral synchronous  dynasties  of  Grreek  origin  reigned  in  dif- 
ferent parts  of  Bactria.    Hitherto,  assistance  has  been  derived 
from  classical  authorities  in  the  composition  of  a  consecutive 
history.      But    the    coins    are    henceforth    almost    our    sole 
guides  in  tradng   the    fortunes    of  these    scattered    dynas- 
tiea     Even   in  the  foregoing  narrative,  although  the  names, 
engraven  on  the  coins,  had  (many  of  them)  been  previously 
known  to  fame :  yet  the  succession  both  of  persons  and  events 
bas  principally  been  determined  by  Numismatic  evidence.     The 
sovereigns  of  one  fiunily  fortunately  adopted  a  coinage,  which, 
though  it  differed  in  details,  yet  agreed  in  style.     The  model- 
ling of  the  portraiture,  the  emblematical  devices,  the  dress,  and 
the  figuration  of  the  tutelary  deity,  generally  corresponded ;  just 
as  in  modem  times,  the  armorial  bearings  among  the  members 
of  the  same  family  correspond.     In  the     brief  and   event- 
fiil   period,    which    intervened  between    the    death  of  He- 
lioUes  and  the   Scythian  invasion,  similarity  in  Numismatic 
bhzonry  furnishes  valuable  data,  by  which  the  members  of  the 
same  dynasty  may  be  grouped  together.     Identity  or  similarity 
in  Monograms  may  also  supply  means  of  distinction.      The 
l^nogram  is  a  mark  or  symool,  introduced  on  the  field  of  the 
coin.    Whatever  its  particular  signification  may  be,  its  value  re- 
mains the  same  for  purposes  of  identification.     The  Bactrian 
Monograms  have  always  been  supposed  to  be  something  more 
than  mere  devices.     Many  efforts  have  been  made  to  discover 
their  import  without  any  decisive  success.  They  have  been  vari- 
ously considered,  as  referring  to  places,  to  person,  and  to  dates. 
Bat  it  is  now  generally  admitted,  that  dates  are  not  symbolized 
by  them.     From  many  of  them.  Captain  Cunningham  has,  with 
pnt  ingenuity,  deduced  the  forms  of  letters — which  letters  he 
believes  to  be  the  initials  in  the  names  of  various  cities  and 
places  of  mintage ;  and  thus  he  gathers  a  mass  of  collateral  infor- 
mation, as  to  the  dominions  which  belonged  to  the  several 
dynasties.     As  yet,  however,  this  interesting  path  of  enquiry 
w  not  been  thoroughly  explored.*     Such  then  are  the  means, 

*  It  is  no  n«w  fiust  in  Ifnmiflmatics,  that  Bzergnal  abbreriationa,  which  differ  but 
little  from  Monogrami^  and  also  devices,  have  been  employed  to  mark  the  plaoes  of 


138  INDO-BACTRIAN   NUMISMATICS   AND 

which  the  coins  have  afforded  us  of  distinguishing  the  different 
dynasties  in  a  period,  where  history  is  silent. 

The  names  of  eighteen  kings  have  been  classified  under  five 
dynasties.  The  first  four  were  anterior  to  the  Scythian  in- 
vasion. The  fifth  was,  probably,  founded  about  the  same 
time  with  that  catastrophe,  and  certainly  survived  it  Of  the 
four  dynasties  first  named,  two  existea  in  upper,  and  two  in 
lower,  Bactria.  Of  the  two  southern  dynasties,  one  was  founded 
by  the  descendants  of  Demetrius.  It  will  be  remembered,  that 
this  prince,  flying  from  Eukratides  in  Bactria,  raised  his 
standard  in  the  Paropamisus.  Although  Eukratides  overran 
this  territory  also,  yet,  after  his  death,  Lysias,  the  son  or 
descendant  of  Demetrius,  regained  this  portion  of  the  patri- 
mony. His  coins  resemble  those  of  his  predecessor  in  confi- 
guration, but  differ  materially  from  them  in  language.  De- 
metrius's  coinage  was  purely  Grreek.  In  Lysias's  coinage,  the 
inscriptions  are  partly  in  the  language  of  Ariana.  The  former 
was  essentially  a  Bactrian  prince,  though,  towards  the  close  of 
his  career,  he  aimed  at  Indian  sovereignty.  The  latter  was 
a  Greek  sovereign,  reigning  over  an  Indo-Semitic  people,  whose 
language  he  adopted  in  his  Numismatic  superscriptions.  Hence 
the  diversity  in  the  coinage  of  two  kindred  sovereigns.  After 
Lysias,  Professor  Wilson  places  a  king  named  Amyntas  and 
a  queen  named  Agathokleia,  whose  husband  has  since  been 
ascertained  to  have  borne  the  name  of  Strato.  The  imagery 
of  the  coins  would  certainly  seem  to  connect  these  persons  with 
the  Demetrian  family.  Beyond  this,  however,  there  is  little  in- 
formation regarding  them. 

Another  kmgdom  was  founded  by  a  prince,  named  Agathokles, 
in  the  provinces  adjacent  to  the  Indus.*  The  exact  date  of 
this  event  is  as  yet  a  disputed  point  The  coins  of  this  king 
and  of  his  successor  Pantaleon  are  remarkable,  as  exhibiting, 
in  some  degree,  the  concurrence  of  Grecian  and  Asiatic  ima- 
gery. The  inscriptions  are  bilingual.  But  the  Prakrit  words 
are  written,  not  in  the  Semitic  characters  of  Ariana,  but  in 
the  Pali  letters  of  India.  The  divinitv  on  the  coins  is  Bacchus. 
An  Indian  mintage  might  possibly  be  thus  devoted.  More- 
over, it  is  known,  that  the  vme  flourished  in  the  mountainous 

mintage.  The  Greeks  used  to  represent  the  sovereign  cities,  which  issued  the  eoinsy 
by  the  initial  letters  of  the  names :  and  the  Romans  represented  thehr  places  of 
coinage  in  the  same  manner.  The  British  Idngs  nsed  to  adopt  fiuieiful  devices  for 
this  purpose.  The  devices,  however,  are  so  arDitrary,  and  in  snch  great  variety,  that, 
without  explanatory  information,  no  consistent  theory  or  interpretation  ooold  be 
based  on  them.    Consult  Akerman  on  this  point. 

*  The  position  of  this  king  has  been  much  disputed :  he  has  been  assigned  to  aereral 
different  dynasties.    We  have  again  followed  Professor  Wilson. 


6BEEK  CONNECTION  WITH   THE   EAST.  139 

regions  of  that  quarter :  and  Bome  relics  have  been  diflcovered, 
wmch  shew,  that  the  worship  of  the  Grecian  Bacchus  was 
popular  among  the  mountaineers,  or  it  niay  have  been  that  the 
Grieek  rulers  introduced  the  orgies  of  their  favourite  God 
at  the  vintage  seasons*  There  is  also  on  the  coins  a  figure  of 
Jupiter,  holdinff  a  three-headed  Artemis,  who  bears  a  torch  in 
either  hand*  &  this  device,  M.  Kaoul  Rochette  has  discerned 
the  influence  of  Arianian  Mithraiam  on  Grecian  mythology. 
In  connection  with  this  idea,  we  observe  a  somewhat  elaborate 
female  figure,  dressed  in  the  Persian,  rather  than  in  the  Indian, 
ityle.  This  kingdom  was  short-lived.  It  was  subverted  by  the 
itill  more  interesting  dynasty  of  Menander,  which  we  shall 
advert  to  presently. 

Of  the  two  northern  dynasties,  one  followed  Heliokles  in  di- 
reet  succession.  It  comprises  the  names  of  only  two  kings, ' 
Antalkides  and  Archebius.  The  imagery  on  their  coins  would 
wem  to  shew  that  they  sprung  from  the  stock  of  Heliokles. 
They  probablv  reigned  in  Bactria  Proper,  and  in  the  upper 
part  w  Arachosia,  or  the  country  lying  immediately  below 
ike  Caucasian  range.*  The  other  dynasty  consisted  of  Anti- 
machus  and  Philoxenus.  The  devices  on  their  coins  shew 
them  to  have  been  distinct  baax  the  other  Bactrian  dynasties, 
and,  perhaps,  to  have  imitated  the  design  of  the  Syrian  mintage. 
Their  precise  locality  has  been  a  matter  of  much  dispute. 
The  fiffure  of  Neptune  holding  a  palm  branch,  and  the  device 
of  the  Indian  bull,  have  been  considered  to  indicate  a  naval 
▼ictory  gained  in  the  southern  seas,  towards  the  mouths  of 
the  Indus.t  No  Numismatic  specimens,  however,  have  been 
discovered  in  those  regions,  which  confirm  this  view.  Indeed, 
the  coins  of  this  dynasty  have  been  invariably  found  in  more 
northern  localities.  Besides,  there  were  so  many  other  principa- 
lities, unquestionably  founded  in  this  quarter,  that  it  is  difficult 
to  find  space,  or  time,  wherein  to  place  an  additional  dynasty. 
We  have  followed  Professor  Wilson  in  locating  them  in  a  tract 
immediately  above  the  Hazarah  hills :  from  which  post  it  may  be 
presumed  tiiat  they  made  a  last  stand  against  the  Scythians. 

The  long  threatened  destruction  at  length  arriveid.     Down 

Cured  the  Scythian  Sakas  from  the  wil<u  of  Siberia.     The 
pless  empire  of  Bactria,  dismembered  by  internal  strife  and 
hanssed  by  its  old  enemies  the  Parthians,  fell  an  easy  prey  to 

*  Snch  1b  Professor  Lassen's  opinion.    Professor  Wilson  does  not  bring  them  be- 
wv  the  moantains. 

^  f  The  rare  occnrreiice  of  this  figure  of  Neptune  renders  it  difficnlt  to  form  a  de- 
ridtd  opinion.  Professor  Lassen,  being  unable  to  account  for  the  ftnat  of  a  naval 
^^ctory  m  the  south,  has  conjectured  that  the  scene  of  contest  was  the  Lacus  Drangia- 
■«»  or  Aral  Lalce. 


I 


140  INDO-BAGTBIAN   NUMISMATICS  AND 

the  barbarians  in  127  B.  C.  The  political  ascendancy  of 
Greece^  which  had  long  been  waning  north  of  the  great  moun- 
tains, now  set  for  ever.  The  Sakas  carried  everything  before 
them,  till  they  reached  the  Caucasus,  where,  for  the  present, 
they  rested,  content  with  their  triumphs. 

We  have  only  now  to  follow  the  fortunes  of  the  last  remnant 
of  Grssco-Bactrian  power  in  the  south-eastern  extremity  of 
the  empire.     For  some  years,  previous  to  the  great  Scythian 
inroad,  a  prince,  named  Menander,  had  been  overthrowing  the 
petty  principalities,  which  had  risen  on  the  ruins  of  the  Bactrian 
empire,  and  had  consolidated  a  kingdom  in  Kabul  and  in  the 
provinces  east  of  the  Indus.     It  is  supposed,  with  much  rea- 
son, that  he  held  the  upper  Doab  of  the  Granges  and  Jomna, 
and  may  have  even  penetrated  much  further,  both  eouthwaitl 
and  eastward.     He  might  have  shared  the  &te,  which  befel  bis 
countrymen  north  of  the  Caucasus ;  but  the  torrent  of  Scythian 
invasion  was  arrested,  probably,  by  the  Parthians.    And  thus, 
perhaps,  the  very  nation,  whose  implacable  rivalry  had  made 
the  Bactrian  empire  defenceless  a^inst  its  barbarous  foes,  was 
instrumental  in  preserving  the  offshoot,  which  had  established 
itself  in  the  Faropamisus.     So  the  branch  continued  to  live 
after  the  parent  trunk  had  been  cut  away.     Many  coins  of 
Menander  have  been  dug  up  in  various  parts  of  the  North 
Western  Provinces :  and  this,  coupled  with  the  statements  of 
classical  authors,*  would  go  far  to  shew  that  his  kingdom  extend- 
ed to  this  neighbourhood.  Up  to  the  first  century  of  our  sBra  Us 
coins  were  current  in  Guzerat ;  and  there  is  little  doubt,  that  he 
held  the  Indus  provinces  down  to  the  sea.     The  various  atti- 
tudes of  mortal  combat,  in  which  the  coins  represent  this  prince, 
would  shew  the  many  struggles  and  difficulties  by  which  he 
attained  his  regal  state.     But,  when  once  seated  on  the  throne, 
he  difiused  national  wealth  and  contentment :  and  tradition  has 
handed  down,  that  eight  cities  contended  for  the  honour  of  con- 
ferring the  rites  of  sepulture  on  his  remains.     To  his  successor 
have  been  attributed  the  names  of  Apollodotus,  Diomedes,  and 
Hermsdus.    But  as  to  the  position  of  the  first  two  names,  both 
in  respect  of  time  and  place,  serious  doubts  may  be  entertained: 
and  it  is  not  improbable  that  they  belonged  to  some  of  the 
earlier  Bactrian  dynasties.     In  the  coinage  of  this  dynasty,  the 
devices  are  for  the  most  part  purely  classical,  interspersed  oc- 
casionally with   figures  of  the  bull  and  the  elephant.      The 
regal  titles  and  t£e  representations  of  the  tutelary  divinities 
are,  many  of  them,  borrowed  from  the  Syrian  mintage  of  the 

*  They  assert  that  he  passed  the  riTer  Isamus.    This  river  has  been  supposed  by 
some  to  mean  the  Jmnna :  Msyor  Conninghan  holds  that  it  is  the  Eesun. 


GREEK  CONNECTION   WITH   THE   EAST.  141 

Seleuddfe.  But  the  coins  of  the  last  king  Hermseus  exhibit 
tokens  of  decline.  The  figures,  human  and  divine,  the  emblems 
and  the  letters,  become  barbarized  both  in  design  and  execution. 
And  thus  the  coins  begin  to  tell,  in  silent,  but  intelligible,  lan- 
guage, that  Scythian  influence  had  reached  the  last  stronghold 
of  Bactrian  independence,  and  that  the  traces  of  the  Macedonian 
policy  in  Asia  were  fast  fading  away — ^to  be  lost  for  ever.  The 
dynasty  of  Menander  became  extinct  about  50  B.  C.  But 
before  we  describe  the  collision  of  the  Scythians  with  the  races 
of  upper  India,  we  shall  pause  to  take  leave  of  political  Hel- 
lenism in  Asia. 

The  Greeks  had  now  ruled  for  200  years  in  the  very  heart  of 
Asia : — and  to  every  thinking  mind  will  be  suggested  the  ques- 
tion, what  influence  had  the  Greeks  on  the  Asiatics,  or  the 
Asiatics  on  the  Greeks  ?    It  is  generally  considered,  that,  in 
the  eastern  Satrapies  of  the  Macedonian  empire,  the  Greek  did, 
to  a  certain  extent,  forget  the  rugged  customs  of  his  mountain 
home,  and,  while  revdling  in  the  luxuries  of  the  East,  did 
adopt  oriental  manners  and  imbibe  oriental  ideas  of  worship. 
But  the  Bactrian  Greek  was  an  exception  to  this  rule.     The 
natives  of  Bactria  difiered  from  all  the  other  orientals,  with 
whom  the  Greeks  had  mingled.    The  climate  and  nature  of  the 
country  somewhat  resembled  Macedon.     The  Mithraic  Fire 
worship,  the  adoration  of  the  elements,  and  Zoroaster's  doctrine 
of  light  were,  perhaps,  the  purest  forms  of  faith,  which  the  un- 
aided mind  and  feeling  of  man  had   ever  invented*     Professor 
Lassen  says,  speaking  of  Bactria,  ^^  Here,  if  any  where,  Zoroas- 
ter's doctrines  must  have  been  preserved  most  purely :  and  thus, 
in  the  amalgamation  of  the  Oriental  and  Hellenic  character, 
Bactrian  HeUenism  must  have  formed  from  the  beginning  a 
circle  in  the  revolution  of  the  East"     The  idea  of  this  passage 
is  a  fine  one :  but  Numismatic  enquiry  does  not  support  it,  or 
rather  tends  to  prove  the  contrary.     The  many  hundred  Bac^ 
trian  coins,  which  have  been  discovered,  abound  in  religious  de- 
vices: but^  with  the  exception  of  one  doubtful  instance,  a  Mi- 
thraic emblem  is  nowhere  to  be  found.     Neither  are  there  any 
indications  of  Indian  mythology.     The  figures  of  the  gods  are 
strictly  Macedonian :  and  several  of  them,  such  as  the  Hercules, 
the  Minerva,  and  the  trophy-bearing  Victory,  the  Bactrian  kings 
seem  to  have  borrowed  from  their  great  prototype,  Alexander 
the  Great.     They  would  appear,  therefore,  not  to  have  mingled 
any  foreign  elements  with  the  religion  of  their  forefathers :  nor 
is  there  any  reason  to  suppose  that  the  native  Bactrians  imbibed 
any  Greek   ideas   on  religion,  as  the   Scythians  subsequently 
dii    The  Indo-Bactrians,  that  is,  the  people,  south  of  the  Cau- 


142  INDO-BACTRIAN   NUMISMATICS  AND 

casus  and  toward  the  Indus,  certainly  did  not     In  fact,  thej 
were  more  likely  to  proselytise  than  the  Greeks.     In  India,  the 
Sabaean,  or  Mithraic,  religion,  which,  probably,  had  prevailed 
luiversally  in  the  East,  hM  degenerated  and  branched  out  into 
two  systems,  namely,  Budhism  and  Brahmanism,  both  distin- 
guished for  the  power  and  energy  of  their  priesthood,  and  both 
aiming  at  universal  sovereignty,  political  and  spiritual   The  es- 
tablished religions  of  India,  therefore,  effectually  prevented  the 
spread  of  the  Grecian  religion  to  the  south  of  the  mountains. 
In  a  religious  point  of  view  then,  there  was,  probably,  no  amal- 
gamation between  the  Greek  rulers  and  their  Asiatic  subjects : 
whatever  union  did  subsist  was  political.    That  there  was  some 
such  union,  had  been  already  evidenced  by  the  bilingual  in- 
scriptions.    Some  of  the  regal  titles  Tsuch  as  Nikfe-phoros,  or 
Soter)  were  much  the  same  as  those  borne  by  the  Ptolemies 
and  the  Seleucidse.     The  kings,  while  they  fully  kept  up  the 
prestige  of  the  Grecian  name,  appreciated  the  military  resources 
of  theur  subjects,  and  valued  the  fame  of  the  Bactrian  cavalry, 
as  is  evident  from  the  constant  appearance  of  the  horse  on  their 
coins.     That  the  country  grew  in  material  wealth  under  their 
rule,  is  proved  by  the  prolific  abundance  of  their  silver  coinage. 
Their  mints  not  only  sustained  the  currency  of  Bactria  Proper, 
but  supplied  the  wants  of  the  eastern  divisions  of  their  empire. 
The  silver  pieces  of  Bactria  continued  to  be  a  medium  of  ex- 
change for  some  centuries  after  our  aera.     And,  vast  as  were 
the  monetary  and  commercial  transactions  of  Upper  India,  yet 
the  Bactrian  fund  of  silver  coinage  was  so  adequate,  that  it  was 
not  found  necessary  to  issue  any  silver  coinage  at  all  in  India^ 
until  after  the  decadence  of  the  Indo-Scythian  empire  in  the 
third  century.     Nor  can  any  counter  inference  be  drawn  from 
the  absence  of  gold  Bactrian  coins,  inasmuch  as  the  specific  rea- 
son for  this  circumstance  will  be  hereafter  assigned.     There  was 
much  wisdom  in  Antiochus's  political  principles,  when  he  deter- 
mined to  spare  the  kingdom  of  Bactria,  in  order  that  it  might 
stand  as  a  dyke  between  the  surging  sea  of  Nomad  invaders 
and  the  rich  lowlands  of  Central  Asia.     At  that  time,  the  Scy«* 
thians  were  hanging  like  a  thunder  cloud  in  the  north,  ready 
to  rain  destruction  over  the  civilized  east.    The  Parthian  king- 
dom, at  that  crisis  of  struggle  for  its  own  independent  existence, 
was  unable  to  stretch  forth  the  arm  of  resistance.     Had  the 
Bactrian  kingdom  been  at  that  period  annihilated,  the  Scythiana 
would  have  overrun  Central  Asia,  swept  on  to  India,  or  even 
penetrated  to  the  capital  of  the  Seleucidss.     But,  when  at  last 
the  Scythians  did  prevail,  the  Parthians  had,  in  the  interval, 
gathered  strength,  and  the  Indian  monarchs  had  steadily  consoli- 


6EEEK  CONNECTION   WITH   THE  EAST.  143 

dated  a  colossal  power.  Thus  was  the  progress  of  the  barbarians 
checked.  Such  were  the  benefits  that  Asia  owed  to  the  Bac« 
trian  dynasties^  that  for  so  many  years  shielded  the  east  from 
deeolatioii.  And  when  the  fated  moment  did  arrive,  the  fair 
structure  of  Grecian  ciyilization  had  been  so  well  and  firmly 
nisedy  that  the  conquerors  were  obliged  to  succumb  to  the  hu- 
manizing influences  of  the  conquerea — an  influence,  the  same 
aB  that  which  Horace  declared  tne  Greeks  had  exercised  over 
the  Romans  also; — Greecta  captaferum  mctorem  cepit 

Sach  were  the  interesting  results  of  the  extension  of  Greek 
dominion  from  the  Caspian  to  the  Indus.  The  political  supremacy 
perished,  but  the  moral  influence  survived.  The  dynasties,  of 
iriiich  we  must  now  treat,  are  chiefly  interesting,  because  they 
used  the  Grecian  language,  adopted  the  imagery  of  the  Grecian 
religion,  and  venerated  Ghrecian  art  They  exhibit  also  the 
last  instances,  in  which  the  symbols  of  Greece  were  blended, 
in  the  same  coinage,  with  those  of  India.  And  thus,  in  the 
barbaric  kingdoms  which  follow,  we  shall  behold  Greece  faintly 
imaged,  though  *'  living  Greece  no  more."  Yet  we  shall  see 
bow  Grreece  could  **  brokenly  live  on." 

**  Even  as  a  broken  mirror,  which  the  glass 
In  every  fragment  multiplies  ;  and  makes 
A  tibousand  images  of  one  that  was — 
The  same,  and  mil  the  more,  the  more  it  breaks." 

The  Scythians,  who  overthrew  the  Bactrian  kingdom,  were 
urged  on,  not  only  by  the  love  of  conquest,  but  also  by  the  spur 
of  necessity.  Scythia  Proper  was  not  large  enough  to  hold  all 
the  Nomad  hordes,  that  were  congregated  within  it  At  this 
period,  it  was  a  kind  of  political  volcano.  Within  its  bosom 
were  stirring  and  heaving  all  the  elements  of  mischief.  At 
length,  with  a  tremendous  eruption,  forth  there  issued  a  fiery 
stream  of  lava,  that  was  to  flow  resistless  over  the  plains  of 
Aria.  The  Sakas  were  the  first  tribe,  that  were  driven  out  to 
seek  their  fortune  in  the  South.  And,  in  all  probability,  these 
were  the  destroyers  of  the  Bactrian  empire.  The  ancient 
lecordB  of  India,  when  collated  with  the  Chinese  and  classical 
histories,  leave  little  doubt  that  these  Sakas — after  they  had 
subdued,  first  Bactria  and  subsequently  the  Soter  dynasty  (of 
Menander)  in  the  Paropamisus,  and  had  brought  all  upper 
India  under  their  dominion — were  eventuaUv  overthrown  by 
Vikraniaditya,  king  of  Oujein,  in  B.  C.  56.  This  monarch,  who 
is  a  hero-divinity  with  the  Hindus,  was  sumamed  Sakari,  or  the 
foe  of  the  Sakas.  But  either  he,  or  one  of  his  successors,  was 
forced  to  yield  to  the  Yuchis,  a  second  tribe  of  Scythians,  still 
more  powerful  than  the  first.     These  Yuchis  founded  a  most 


144  INDO-BACTRIAN   NUMISMATICS   AXD 

important  kingdom,  generally  styled  the  Indo-Scythian.  In 
determining  the  time  and  nlace  of  these  Scythian  invasions, 
much  assistance  has  been  derived  from  the  Chinese  annalists 
and  travellers.  It  may  appear  strange,  but  it  is,  nevertheless, 
true,  that  Chinese  literature  has  been  found  of  great  practical 
utility  in  these  respects. 

It  should  be  added,  that  a  series  of  Indo-Parthian  coins  have 
been  found,  which  would  shew  that,  for  a  brief  space,  some  Par- 
thian princes  must  have  ruled  in  the  direction  of  the  Paropa- 
misus.  In  all  probability,  when  the  Bactrian  empire  was 
despoiled,  they  managed  to  seize  a  moiety  of  the  plunder.  We 
shall  then  first  dismiss  this  line  of  Parthian  kings;  and  then, 
passing  on  to  the  Scythians,  we  shall  commence  with  the  Sakas, 
and  afterwards  proceed  with  the  Yuchis. 

Doubts  have  been  already  intimated,  as  to  the  Parthians 
having  acquired  any  Indian  dominions  at  an  early  period.  The 
dynasty,  of  which  we  are  about  to  speak,  are  certainly  Parthians, 
both  in  name  and  in  style  of  coinage.  The  inferiority  of  the 
characters,  in  which  the  Greek  inscriptions  are  engraven,  would 
shew  that  the  coins  belong  to  the  later  and  declining  period  of 
Grseco- Asiatic  mintage ;  and  the  Arianian  inscriptions  on  the 
reverse  woul4  mark  an  Indian  locality.  Various  attempts  have 
been  made,  with  indifferent  success,  to  identify  the  first  prince 
Yonones,  with  personages  of  that  name,  who  figure  in  the 
Arsacidan  history  of  Parthia.  The  coins  of  the  third  prince, 
Gondophares,  are  distinguished  by  a  peculiar  Monogram,  in  whicb 
Professor  Wilson  discerns  a  letter  of  the  Sanskrit  alphabet 
Ecclesiastical  history  corroborates  most  singularly  the  Numis- 
matic evidence  regarding  this  prince.  Saint  Thomas  is  said  to 
have  received  a  divine  commission  to  visit  the  Indians,  who 
were  ruled  by  a  prince  named  Gondoforus.*  The  coincidence 
is  somewhat  striking.  Another  prince,  styled  Abagasus  on 
the  coins,  is  connected  with  Gondophares  by  uniformity  of  Mo- 
nogram. There  are  several  other  princes  included  in  this 
dynasty.  But  we  do  not  know  enough  of  their  reigns  or  their 
policy,  to  make  them  interesting.  And  thus,  we  must  dose  our 
account  of  this  distant  Indian  offshoot  of  that  dynasty,  which 
the  name  of  Mithridates  has  rendered  famous  in  Roman  history , 
and' which  was  remarkable  among  the  kingdoms  of  Macedo* 
nian  origin,  from  having  been  finally  subverted,  not  as  Bactria, 
by  barbaric  invasion,  nor  as  the  Seleucidan  and  Ptolemaic  king- 
doms by  the  irresistible  progress  of  Roman  conquest,  but    by 

*  Sharon  Turner's  history  of  the  Anglo-Saxonji.    Note  to  p.  147,  vol.  IL,  qaotin^ 
a  Saxon  Life  of  St.  Thomas,  to  be  foaod  among  the  Cottonian  manuscripta.     "^  ' 
paaea^  was  pointed  oat  to  us  l)y  a  friend. 


GHEEE  CONNECTION  WITH  THE  EAST.  145 

the  zealoas  onset  of  religious  fervour,  by  the  enthumastic  vigour 
of  ArdeshirBaba-jan,  the  perpetuator  of  the  Magian  tenets,  the 
renovator  of  the  Sabasan  and  Mithraic  religions.  And  while 
we  treat  of  the  Indo-Scythian  dynasties,  and  reflect  how  Budh- 
ism  and  Brahmanism  (both  offsprings  of  Mithraism)  grew 
up  under  the  shadow  of  Greek  civilization,  till  they  overspread 
the  extreme  East,  we  should  not  forget  that  a  great  day  was  at 
hand  for  the  common  progenitor  of  both ;  and  that  Mithraism 
was  to  be  reinstated  in  the  "  high  places"  of  Central  Asia. 

Our  view  must  now  be  turned  towards  the  Saka-Scythians. 
In  the  earlier  coins  of  this  class,  the  letters  can  hardly  be 
decyphered,  being  rude  imitations  of  the  Greek :  and  the 
names  are  frequently  illegible.  The  three  first  names  given 
in  Professor  Wilson's  list,  namely,  Spalarius,  Falirisus,  and 
MavBes,  we  shall  pass  over  summarily ;  merely  remarking, 
with  respect  to  the  two  former,  that  they  are  placed  by 
many  Numismatists  among  the  Bactrian  princes;  and  re- 
garding the  latter,  that  it  corresponds  with  M&ds  or  M&s, 
which  Professor  Lassen  shews  to  be  of  Mithraic  ori^n.  We 
then  come  to  the  interesting  set  of  coins,  which  bear  the  name 
of  Azes.  This  prince  must  have  been  the  greatest,  that  had 
appeared  in  Asia  since  the  days  of  Alexander.  The  extension 
of  his  rule  to  the  frontier  of  Central  Asia  has  led  many  to 
suppose,  that  he  was  of  Indian  origin.  He  certainly  does 
sometimes  figure  on  the  coins  in  an  Indian  attitude.  But  no 
Budhist  or  JBrahmanist  emblems  are  associated  with  him. 
Whether  he  be  Indian  or  not,  the  Chinese  theory,  which  identi- 
fies him  with  Asoka,  or  Ayu,  is  decidedly  wrong.  On  the  other 
hand,  some  of  the  best  authorities,  such  as  Lassen,  conclude 
him  to  be  Scythian.  The  figure  of  the  mounted  king  (a  Szu,  or 
Saka  device,  according  to  Lassen)  and  the  general  aspect  of  the 
types  would  certainfy  favour  this  supposition.  And  it  is 
improbable,  that  an  Indian  ever  could  have  reigned  north 
of  the  Caucasus,  as  Azes  certainly  did.  His  coins  were  foimd, 
chiefly,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Peshawar  and  in  AflTghanistan,  /^ 

also  in  various  parts  of  the  Punjab,  but  not  lower.  They  are 
nomerous  and  greatly  diversified  both  in  type,  device  and 
monogram  ;  and  they  are  generally  executed  with  much  pre- 
cision and  completeness.  The  inscriptions  are  in  Greek  and 
b  Bactro-Pali.  The  imagery  is  drawn  from  Grecian  mytholo- 
gy. Beyond  this,  there  are  no  religious  emblems.  There  are 
no  devices,  that  could  represent  Mithraism  or  Hinduism.  The 
most  important  coins  are  those,  which  indicate  the  extent  of 
^«  empure.     There  is  the  Bactrian  camel,*  the  Indian  lion 

*  See  Profeeior  Laaeen't  able  interpretation  of  theee  emblems. 

U 


/ 


146  1NI>0-BACTRIAN  NUMISMATICS  AND 

and  elephant,  the  bull  of  Kabul.  There  is  also  a  remarkable 
device,  which  represents  Neptune  trampling  on  a  swimming 
figure.  This  has  been  confidently  referred  to  victories  gained 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  Indus.  Connected  with  the  coinage  of 
this  prince,  are  some  specimens,  bearing  the  superscription  of 
Azilises,  who  was,  no  doubt,  a  kindred  sovereign — ^whether 
successor,  or  predecessor,  is  uncertain.  Belonging  to  the  same 
series  are  a  most  numerous  set  of  coins,  displaying  the  title  of 
"  Great  king  of  kings,  the  Preserver."  One  emblem  of  this  set 
represents  a  male  figure  in  a  long  robe,  with  a  cap  and  fillet, 
and  the  right  arm  stretched  over  a  fire  altar.  This  is  interpreted 
as  an  evident  allusion  to  the  Magian  religion.  These  coins  have 
been  found  in  the  very  heart  of  India,  at  JBenares  and  at  Malwa. 
The  nameless  title  has,  by  some,  been  referred  to  a  confedera- 
tion of  states.  But  it  was,  probably,  the  generic  name  of  a 
line  of  kings. 

The  coins,  then,  show  that  there  arose,  upon  the  ruins 
of  Bactria,  a  barbaric  empire  of  Saka-Scythian  origin,  pro- 
fessing a  mixed  religion,  composed  of  Mithraism,  Hellenism, 
and  perhaps  Hinduism — an  empire,  that  stretched  from  the 
confines  of  Tartary  over  the  Caucasian  range,  and  thence, 
centring  itself  in  Affghanistan  and  the  Punjab,  reached  down 
to  the  mouths  of  the  Indus — spread  eastward^  over  the  plains 
of  Hindustan,  to  the  confluence  of  the  Ganges  and  the  Junma — 
and,  southward,  over  Bajputana  to  the  Vindhyan  range  of 
Central  India.  But  for  the  coins,  what  historical  speculatiat 
would  have  dreamt  of  this?  In  fixing  the  dates  of  this 
dynasty,  we  must  remember,  that  it  came  after  the  first 
Scythian  invasion,  and  before  the  second,  by  the  Tokhares,  or 
Yuchis.  It  is  well  known  that  the  Indian  king,  Yikramadityay 
defeated  some  Saka  power.  And  it  may  be  inferred  with 
tolerable  certainty,  that  these  must  have  been  the  Sakas  so 
defeated.  Then,  if  this  be  so,  the  date  of  their  overthrow 
may  be  deduced  with  precision,  for  the  era  of  Vikramaditya 
has  been  placed  beyond  doubt*  What  became  of  the  Saloeia 
after  their  Indian  defeats,  neither  history  nor  Numismatics  in- 
form us.  It  cannot  be  supposed  that  Vikramaditya  pursued 
them  into  Bactria  Proper.  But  whether  they  maintained  their 
power  in  that  quarter,  or  yielded  to  some  other  Sc3rthian  swarniy 
is  unknown — a  point  too  dark  even  for  conjecture.  That 
the  Sakas,  however,  were  succeeded  in  India,  after  no  long  in- 

*  It  ifl  unfortunate  that  Archaeol^sta  have  not  been  able  to  connect  Viknuna- 
ditya  with  any  one  of  the  several  kinds  of  relics,  whether  coins,  or  rock-inscriptionB^ 
or  pillars  ;  while  they  have  succeeded  to  so  great  an  extent  in  establishing  the  position 
of  Chandra  Gupta  and  Asoka. 


GBEEK  CONNECTION   WITH   THE  EAST.  147 

terral,  by  the  kindred  tribe  of  Yuchis,  or  Tokhares,  may  be  re- 
garded as  an  historical  fact.  They  could  not  have  followed  in 
direct  succession,  inasmuch  as  it  was  Yikramaditya,  who  over- 
threw the  Sakas.  But  it  is  known  that  the  kingdom,  which 
his  spirit  and  patriotism  had  founded,  fell  into  confusion  after 
his  death.  And  it  is  most  probable,  that  the  Yuchis  took  that 
opportunity  of  usurping  his  throne  and  power,  and  of  raising 
up  a  great  Indo-Scythian  empire.  We  shall,  henceforward, 
hear  no  more  of  Bactria  Proper ;  our  attention  will  be  confined 
to  upper  India,  including  Affghanistan  and  the  Paropamisus. 

The  coins  of  the  Yuchi,  or  Indo-Scythian,  dynasty  have  been 
discovered  in  vast  numbers.   They  are  entirely  gold  and  copper. 
There  is  only  one  silver  specimen  in  the  whole  set.     Now  it 
has  been  already  stated,  that  the  Bactrian  coinage  was  entirely 
silver ;  while  the  Indian  coinage  was  entirely  gold  and  copper. 
When  we  consider  that  the  two  countries  were  con-terminous, 
and  that  conunercial  intercourse  and  monetary  exchange  largely 
subsiBted  between  them,  it  can  hardly  be  regarded  as  a  fortui- 
tous circumstance,  that,  in  one  country,  the  more  valuable  coins 
should  be  nothing  but  silver,  and,  in  the  other,  nothing  but  gold. 
It  was  not  that  tne  Indians  never  availed  themselves  of  a  silver 
currency ;  for,  as  was  previously  mentioned,  the  silver  pieces 
of  Bactria  were  current  in  India  for  some  centuries  after  our 
9sn;  so  numerous  were  they,  that  it  must  needs  be  concluded 
that  the  Bactrian  rulers  made  special  provision  for  the  monetary 
requirements  of  India,  and  augmented  the  silver  mintage  ac- 
cordingly.    Why  then  did  the  Bactrians  follow  this  policy? 
some  reason  there  must  have  been.    A  reason  is  supplied  by  the 
author  of  the  Periplus,  who  says,  that  the  silver .  denarii  were 
exchanged  with  advantage  against  the  gold  kaltes  of  India.* 
But,  when  the  Bactrian  pieces  became  obsolete  and  fell  out  of 
circulation,  and  the  resources  of  silver  currency  thus  began  to  . 

&il,  the  Indians  introduced  a  silver  coinage  of  their  own.     To*  / 

wards  the  decline  of  the  Indo-Scy thic  power,  and  the  accession 
of  the  great  Gupta  dynasty,  the  Satraps  of  Guzeratf  and  the  ' 

Gupta  sovereigns  of  that  region  coined  beautifully  in  silver, 
while  the  coinage  of  Kanouj,  the  then  capital  of  northern  India, 
continued  to  be  gold.  The  monetary  remains  o(  the  Indo- 
iScythic  epoch  seem  to  shew  that  this  was  a  period  of  national 
wealth  and  commercial  activity.  That  there  was  a  brisk  de* 
mand  in  the  money  market  and  the  bazaar,  is  evinced  by  the 

*  On  this  point  consult  Wilsons  Ariarta  AnHqua,  and  Cunningham'§  Numumaii'  c 
Tract, 

t  Vide  «  Saorashtra  x  Coin«,"  by  E.  Thomaa,  Esq..  B.  C.  S. 


148  INDO-BACTRIAN  NUMISMATICS  AKI> 

immense  issue  of  copper  coins.  The  pice  of  the  Indo^Scythian 
Kadphises  and  Kanerkes  were  current  in  the  Hindu  kingdoms 
of  upper  India^  and  remained  in  circulation  till  the  Muham- 
madan  invasion.  But,  besides  difference  in  metal,  there  wUl  be 
observed  other  important  changes  in  the  specimens  of  the 
coining  series.  They  cease  to  be  bilinguaL  The  coins  of  KsA- 
phises,  the  first  king  on  the  list,  form  a  single  exception  to  this 
rule.  The  Arianian,  or  Bactro-Pali  characters  (of  which  so 
much  has  been  said)  are  no  more  to  be  seen ;  the  Greek  Al- 

{>habet  alone  remains.  Heretofore,  in  each  series,  Greek  mjtho- 
ogy  has  supplied  a  goodly  portion  of  the  imagery :  but  hence- 
forward that  also  disappears.  Greek  art  is  passing  away ;  but  the 
court  language  and  tne  fashionable  orthography  are  still  Greek. 
It  has  been  already  stated  that  the  genersd  features  of  the  coins^ 
and  the  localities  in  which  they  have  been  found,  prove  beyond 
a  reasonable  doubt,  that  this  kingdom  comprised  upper  India, 
that  is  the  tract  of  country  between  the  junction  of  the  Gran* 
ges  and  Jumna  and  the  Western  extremity  of  the  Paropami- 
BUS.  The  first  king  was  Kadphises.  Some  of  his  coins  were  first 
discovered  at  Mathura  (Muttra)  and  Allabahad.  But  the  fi- 
gurations had  become  indistinct  from  long  friction,  and  the  letters 
of  the  inscriptions  could  not,  at  that  time,  be  decyphered.  These 
specimens  remained  therefore  unintelligible,  until  they  were 
compared  with  the  more  recently  discovered  coins.  A  great  num- 
ber of  fellow  specimens  have  been  dug  up  in  Kabm  and  the 
Punjab.  The  king's  dress  and  the  cast  of  his  features  are  un- 
questionably Tartar,  or  Scythian.  In  one  coin,  he  appears  wor- 
shipping  at  a  fire-altar.  In  some  coins,  the  Hindu  Shiva  is 
represented  with  his  usual  attributes,  and  his  attendant  bull,  be- 
decked after  the  regular  fashion.  On  the  reverses  of  the  coins 
(as  we  said  before)  the  Arianian  characters  are  seen  for  the 
last  time.  There  are  other  coins  bearing  the  same  name :  but, 
on  account  of  dissimilarity  of  device,  they  are  conjectured  to 
belong  to  another  Kadphises.  It  is  agreed  on  all  hands,  that  he 
was  not  the  only  one  of  his  race,  who  bore  this  name ;  and  that, 
at  all  events,  otner  kings  must  have  intervened  between  him  and 
the  monarch,  we  are  now  about  to  notice,  namely,  Kanerkea. 
That  this  king  was  of  a  different  lineage  from  Kadphises,  seema 
clear  from  the  absence  of  bilingual  inscriptions,  and  an  addi* 
tional  set  of  honorific  titles  derived  from  the  Magian  vocaba- 
lary.  But  general  uniformity  of  design  and  monogram,  and 
identity  in  place  of  discovery,  would  show  that  boUi  princes 
belonged  to  the  same  race  and  the  same  kingdom.  On  some 
of  the  Kanerkian  coins,  there  appears  the  fi^re  of  the  Sakya 
Sinha,  one  of  the  Mfinis  or  patron  saints  of  Budhism,  in  a 


GREEK  CONNECTION  WITH  THE  EAST.  149 

preachinff  or  benedictory  attitude.  Major  Cunningham  con- 
dden*  that  he  has  got  a  coin  of  this  king,  in  which  the  aspect 
of  the  figure  is  eminently  Budhist,  and  with  an  inscription, 
▼hich  he  decyphers  as  an  invocation  to  Budha.  This  prince 
bas  also  been  identified  with  E^aniki,  or  E[anishka,  a  king  Known 
to  Cashmerian  history,  and  a  zealous  Budhistf 

The  coins  of  the  next  king,  Kenorama,  are  in  much  the  same 
style  as  the  preceding.    But  the  constant  occurrence  of  the  ele- 
pbant  would  seem  to  denote  the  consolidation  of  the  kingdom  in  the 
mterior  of  India.  Neither  is  there  any  thing  that  calls  for  especial 
notice  in  the  coinage  of  the  next  king,  Oerkes,  except  that  his 
dress  closely  resembles  the  vestments  of  the  Sassanian  kings  of 
Persia,  as  depicted  on  their  coins.     There  is  a  fire  altar  plainly 
represented  in  thecoins  of  the  next  king,Baraoro.  The  regal  head 
dress  is  unquestionably  Sassanian.^    We  next  come  to  a  set 
of  coins,  inscribed  with  the  name,  Ardokro :  whether  it  belong- 
ed to  one,  or  to  several  monarchs,  is  uncertain.     Their  principal 
type  is  a  female,  sitting  on  a  high-backed  throne,  and  holding  a 
conincopia.§     The  recurrence  of  this  type  in  the  Gupta  corns 
of  Eanouj  (and  it  will  be  remembered  that  the  Guptas  succeed- 
ed the  Indo-Scythiaus),  associated  with  regular  Hindu  inscrip- 
tions in  Sanskrit,  marks  the  Ardokro  coins  as  the  last  of  the  Indo- 
Scjthian  series,  and  as  belonging  to  the  transition  period,  when 
the  last  vestiges  of  Bactrian  influence  and  Grecian  civilization 
were  fiist  fading  from  our  view  to  be  seen  no  more.     From  a 
comparison  of  the  respective  types    and    monograms,  James 
Prinsep  has  pronounced  the  Indo-Scythian  to  have  been  the 
original  model  of  the  Kanouj  coinage.     And  thus  Indo-Scythic 
history  may,  perhaps,  explain  the  Rajput  tradition,  which  declares 
the  founder  of  the  Kanouj  race  of  Bahtores  to  have  been  a 
Yivan,  or  Greek,  of  the  Asi  or  Aswa  tribe.     A  Bactrian  chief 
was,  no  doubt,  meant.     The  tradition,  however,  is  only  useful 
u  diowing  that  Indian  tradition  preserved  the  remembrance 
of  dominant  races,  who  had  come  down  from  the  north.     It 
cumot  have  much  historical  significance  :  for  the  Rajput  bard 
forgot,  or  ignored  the  fact,  that  it  was  the  comparatively  low 
caste  Guptas,  and  not  the  high-bom  Rahtores,  who  drove  back 
the  Indo-Scythians.     In    Surat  also,  the  southern  extremity 

*  Ifumi§mafie  Traeti,~-J.  A.  S.  Bengal. 

t  See  J.  Prinsep's  accoont  of  thia  king  in  the  Journal  of  the  Aniatio  Soctetv  ;  also 
CnimiDgfaam'a  Treatiae  on  Kaalunerian  coinage.— iViMittMaiie  Chraniele,  Vol,  YJ., 

(IMS.) 

1  fide  Wilson's  Account  of  the  Sassanian  coins. 

I  Lassen  has  ohaerved  that  the  Saka  kings  are  generally  represented  as  mounted, 
ana  the  Tachis  seated  fai  a  chariot,  or  on  a  throne. 


1 


150  INDO-BACTKIAN   NUMISMATICS   AND 

of  their  empire^  the  Indo-Scythians  left  their  Numismatic  devices 
to  be  imitated  by  their  successors.*  These  Numismatic  coinci- 
dences^ while  they  prove  what  James  Prinsep  called  ^^  the  Indo- 
Scy  thic  paternity  of  the  Kanouj  coinage, "  are  still  more  yaluar 
able  as  establishing  the  consecutive  order  of  events.t  The  later 
history  of  Kanouj  is  detailed  in  genuine  and  authentic  nar- 
ratives, and  may  form  a  sound  basis  on  which  to  raise  a  struc- 
ture of  Numismatic  facts.  If,  therefore,  the  ccmnection  of  the 
Kanouj  coinage  with  the  Indo-Scythic,  and  the  connection  of 
the  latter  with  the  earlier  Scythian,  coinage,  and  again  the 
connection  of  this  last  coinage  with  the  Grseco-Bactrian  and 
the  Macedonian  (when  we  again  meet  the  domain  of  history) 
be  all  made  out,  as  we  trust  it  has — then  something  has  been 
done  to  evince  the  fidelity  and  trustworthiness  of  Numismatic 
enquiry,  and  to  vindicate,  in  legal  phrase,  the  ^^  admissibility" 
of  the  coins  as  evidence. 

By  this  time,  that  is,  the  beginning  of  the  third  century,  a 
race  of  Gupta  chiefs  had  arisen.  They  expelled  the  Indo- 
Scythians :  and,  having  thus  rid  themselves  of  foreign  domina- 
tion, they  founded  a  kingdom,  which  extended  from  Nepal  to 
Guzerat  and  from  Magadha  to  the  Paropamisus.  And  thus 
Hindu  supremacy  was  restored  in  the  north  of  India,  where  it 
had  not  been  known  since  the  days  of  Chandragupta  and  Asoka. 

But  before  this  Indo-Scythic  dynasty  is  finally  dismissed 
from  our  consideration,  there  are  one  or  two  questions,  connect- 
ed with  the  religious  emblems  of  their  coins,  which  merit  a  brief 
discussion.  What,  for  instance,  meant  the  Mithraic  emblems  ? 
how  and  from  whence  did  they  get  to  India  ?  Elemental  wor- 
ship was  the  original  faith  of  Central  Asia.  It  is  known  by  the 
several  names  of  Magian,  SabaBau,  and  Mithraic.  This  super- 
stition, in  itself  purer  and  simpler  than  other  forms  of  hea- 
thenism, soon  became  corrupted,  and  degenerated  into  a  mytbo- 
^ogjy  the  most  stupid  and  senseless  of  all.^  As  the  reUgion 
spread,  a  number  of  strange  names  and  epithets  were  incorporat- 
ed into  the  sacred  nomenclature,  and  the  deified  heroes  of 
neighbouring  nations  were  allowed  the  honor  of  apotheosis  in 
the  Mithraic  Pantheon.  But  this  Persian  mythology,  though 
it  no  doubt  was  venerated  in  the  homes  of  the  people,  does  not 
appear  to  have  been  more  than  tolerated  by  the  successors  of 
Alexander.    As  far  as  we  know  it  was  not  politically  encouraged, 

♦  Sec  "  Saurashtran  Coins." 

t  See  TofTs  Rajasthan — Connection  of  the  RajputA  with  the  Scythians,  Chapter 
I.  and  VI. 

I  Sec  Malcohn's  Account  of  the  process  of  corruption  in  the  Hi$iory  of  Ptrtia, 


GREEK   CONNECTION   WITH   THE   EAST.  151 

and  it  certainly  did  not  receive  the  allegiance  of  the  kings. 
When  the  Greeks  lost  their  political  power,  the  barbaric  con- 

Sierors  at  first  adopted  the  Grecian,  and  not  the  Magian,  my- 
ology. And  thus  for  many  years,  the  Greek  religion  con- 
tinued to  be  fashionable.  The  Yuchis,  however,  rqected  the 
European,  and  adopted  the  Asiatic,  mythology.  ^But  when 
established  in  India,  they  deemed  it  politic  to  encourage  the  two 
prevailing  religions  of  that  Peninsula,  namely,  Brahmanism 
and  Budhism — which  were  after  all  only  offsprings  of  the 
parent  Mithraism.  Hence  it  was  that  the  emblems  of  Shiva, 
of  Budh,  and  of  Mithra,  appear  together  on  the  Indo-Scythic 
coinage.  We  will  first  notice  the  names  and  figures,  charac- 
teristic of  MithraisuL* 

The  titular  terms  Miro,  Micro,  or  Mithro,  attached  to  the 
regal  names  of  the  Kanerkian  dynasty,  are  identified  with  the 
word  Mithra,  the  Zendic  name  for  the  sun.  This  famous  word, 
wUch  has  given  a  name  to  the  Mithraic  religion,  re-appears  in 
Persian  as  Mihir,  in  Sanscrit  as  Mitra  and  Mihira.  But  in 
these  two  languages,  it  is  only  one  name  for  the  sun  out  of 
many :  whereas  the  orimnal  Mithra  means  the  one  sovereign 
nm,  and  corresponds  with  the  Helios,  also  found  on  the  coins. 
He  is  seen  in  a  flowing  dress,  with  light  radiating  round  his 
head.  The  Deus  Lunus  of  Asia  Minor  appears  on  the  coins 
|inder  the  Zendic  name  of  Mao  and  Manao  Bago,  correspond- 
ing with  the  Sanscrit  word,  Ma&  The  figure  resembles  that  of  the 
sun,  only  instead  of  the  rays  we  have  the  lunar  circlet.  In 
connection  with  this  divinity,  the  coins  give  the  name  of  Nanaia, 
KAiia,and  N&nalUU).  This  goddess,  a  tributary  of  the  moon,  is 
the  triple  faced  Artemis  of  Agathokles  (the  Bactiian  kii^),  the 
Anaitis  of  the  Persians,  the  Anaia  of  Ajrmenia,  the  Bibi  N&ni 
of  the  Muhammadans.t 

Next  we  have  Athro  on  the  coins,  the  peculiar  god  of 
the  lenicolae,  the  personification  of  fire.  The  figure  is  en- 
cirdedwith  the  sacred  element,  and  the  hair  seems  to  wreath 
itself  into  flames.  The  name  is  also  Zendic,  and  agrees  with 
"  AtarSj^Fire.  The  word  "  Oado"  on  the  coins  has  been  identified 
with  the  Zendic  «  Vato"  and  the  Persian  "  Bad,"  Wind.  Two 
words  **  Okro"  and  **  Ardokro"  have  not  been  satisfactorily  ex- 
plained. The  **  Ard"  has  been  reasonably  conjectured  to  be  the 
ccMnmon  prefix  "  Arta,"  Ghreat,  as  in  Arta  !Xerxes.  Another 
pame,  ''Pharo,"  on  account  of  the  similarity  of  the  figure  to  which 
it  b  attached,  has  been  supposed  to  be  an  epithet  of  the  sun. 

*  See  Lassen's  interpretation  of  these  names  and  fignres. 
t  Wilson's  Ariana  Antiqua. 


152  INBO-BACTRIAN   NUMISMATICS  AND 

Nowy  it  must  be  steadily  borne  in  mind,  that  all  these  names  are 
written  in  the  Greek  character.  Thus  was  the  Greek  lan- 
guage made  the  medium,  by  which  the  people  of  India  were  to 
learn  the  sacred  terminology  of  the  Persian  Zendavesta.  Un- 
til the  discovery  of  the  coins,  no  three  things  could  be  more 
separate — more    irreconcilably    disconnected — than  this    Ian- 

fuage,  this  people,  and  this  religion.  But  now  the  coins  have 
rought  these  three  together  I  And,  thus  corrupted,  Mithnusm 
was  to  run  its  course,  not  only  in  Ariana,  but  in  the  Indian 
Peninsula.  It  was  soon,  however,  to  be  driven  out  from  the 
former  by  the  Sassanian  descendants  of  the  great  reformer, 
and  from  the  latter  by  the  Guptas. 

The  blending  of  Brahmanist  symbols  with  the  pantheistic 
imagery  of  the  Indo-Scythians  needs  not  excite  surprise  ;  but 
the  admission  of  Budhist  emblems  may  suggest  a  few  observa- 
tions. For  some  time  Budhism  was  denied  its  proper  place 
in  history.  It  had  the  misfortune  to  be  overthrown  oy  a  sys- 
tem, in  which  historical  mendacity  in  support  of  reli^ous 
tenets  was  held  to  be  a  cardinal  virtue.*  The  Brahmanists, 
having  established  the  most  complete  civil  and  ecclesiastical 
polity,  and  elaborated  a  polished  literature,  were  reluctant  to 
admit  that  there  had  been  such  a  thing,  as  a  Budhism,  which  once 
ran  Brahmanism  very  hard  in  the  race  of  dominion.  But  the 
veil  was  gradually  withdrawn.  Chinese  literature  gftve  forth 
its  stores  of  information.  Accounts  came  pouring  in  from  Bur- 
mah,  Thibet,  Nepal,  Ceylon.  The  earth  and  the  mountain 
yielded  up  their  monumental  treasures.  Caves  were  penetrated 
— relics  dug  up — ^rock  inscriptions  decyphered.  The  writings 
on  the  Delhi  and  Allahabad  pillars  were  read.  The  coins 
began  to  tell  their  story.  As  our  knowledge  of  the  dynasties^ 
wUch  ruled  in  upper  India  and  Kabul,  began  to  increase,  the 
works  of  several  Chinese  travellers,  who  visited  India  during 
the  first  five  centuries  of  our  »ra,  were  critically  examinedt 
The  correctness  of  their  Geo^phy  and  the  general  truth  of 
their  statements  were  remanmbly  verified  by  the  relics  and 
the  coins,  which  have  formed  the  subject  of  the  present  treatise. 
From  all  this  evidence,  some  scholars  have  believed  that  the  Pa  ** 
language  was  current,  and  the  Budhist  faith  dominant,  at 

*  We  do  not  of  course  mean  to  say  that  Badhism  was  not  mentioned  in  Sanalait 
Literature,  but  only  that  its  position  was  not  duly  described. 

t  We  need  not  give  the  names  of  these  trayellers.    The  accounts  of  their  travels 
were  most  elaborately  oommented  on  bv  Remnaat,  Klaproth,  Bnmonip,  and  otlu 
The  work  of  the  princinal  trayeller,  Fa  Hian,  havinff  been  translated  into  French, 
again  translated  mto  English  by  Bfr.  Laidley  of  Calcutta. 


GREEK  CONNECTION  WITH  THE  EAST.  1^3 

time^  when  the  polished  form  of  the  Sanscrit  was  unknown, 
tnd  when  Brahmanism  could  not  raise  its  head.*      Without 
going  80  far  as  this,  and  without  claiming  any  undue  antiquity 
or  pre-eminence  for  Budhism,  we  may  safely  say  that  for 
sometime,  it  was  at  least  co-extensive  with>  and  at  one  epoch, 
superior  to,  Brahmanism  ;  that  it  extended  as  far  north,  and 
was  probably  carried  into  Indian'  kingdoms  beyond  the  Indus 
and  below  the  Ci^ucasian  range — countries,  wmther  Brahman- 
ism perhaps  never  penetrated;  that  some  of  the  most  illus- 
trious  Hindu    monarchs  were  its    disciples — monarchs,  who 
made  treaties  with  Antiochus  the  Great,  and  kept  the  Bao- 
tiian  Greeks  at  bay ;  and  that  it  took  its  place,  side  by  side 
with  Brahmanism  and  Mithraism,  in  the  adoration  of  the  Indo- 
Scythians,  we  have  already  seen.     And  this  fact  was  further 
strengthened  by  Captain  Cautley's  exhumation  of  a  Budhist 
dty  at  Behar,  near  Seharunpur.     Among  the  ruins  were  dis- 
covered, not  only  a  series  of  Indo-Scythian  coins  with  the 
Budhist  symbols,  but  also  a  collection  of  undoubtedly  Budh- 
ist relics.     The  discovery  of  Indo-ScythiaQ  coins  in  the  Budh- 
ist topes  of  Afighanistan  has  been  already  described. 

With  the  extinction  of  the  Indo-Scythian  power  will  close 
&e  historical  drama,  allotted  to  this  article.  However  ineom<^ 
plete  our  treatment  of  the  subject  may  have  been,  we  trust  that, 
at  all  events^  the  history  itself  has  been  proved  to  merit  attention. 
It  has  been  seen  that  Numismatics  has  exhibited  the  history  of 
tiuree  great  nations,  the  Grrseco-Bactrian,  the  Bactro-Scytluan, 
ud  tiie  Indo-Scythian.  The  coins  have  shown  how  the  Greeks 
consofidated  their  power,  and  extended  it  to  the  furthest  East ; 
how  they  preserved  their  religion,  arts  and  civilization  in  pris- 
tine punty^  and  yet  cemented  the  bonds  of  political  union  with 
thdr  JSastem  subjects ;  how  they  led  on  their  people  in  the  on- 
ward course  of  commercial  activity  and  national  prosperity ;  how 
they  held  the  barbarians  in  check ;  and  how,  weakened  by  inter- 
nal strife,  and  struggling  with  their  rivals,  the  Parthians>  they  fell 
an  easy  prey  to  the  Scythians.  The  coins  have  shewn  how  the 
Bactro-Scythians  raised  a  vast,  but  short-lived.  Empire,  at  one 
time,  greater  even  than  the  Grseco-Bactrian;  how  they  borrowed 
the  arts,  policy,  language,  and  religion  of  the  Greeks ;  how  at 
the  same  time  they  engrafted  on  this  noble  stock,  the  mytholo- 
gy and  the  forms  of  oriental  worship.  Lastly,  the  coins  have 
shewn  how,  on  the  expulsion  of  the  Bactro-Scythians,  a  kindred 
nice  of  Indo-Scvthians  seized  the  southern  and  eastern  por- 
tions of  the  old  empire;  how  they  augmented  the  material 

*  See  Colonel  Sykes'  treatise  oo  the  religious,  moral  and  political  state  of  lQdia> 
^f«re  the  Mnhammadan  invasion. 

W 


154  INDO-BACTRIAN  MUMISHATICS  AND 

wealth  of  monetary  currency  of  this  new  kingdom ;  how  they 
adopted  and  blended  together  the  ideas  and  the  superstitions 
of  we  three  great  sects  of  orientalism^  but  still  retained  the 
Greek,  as  the  classical  language  of  the  court  and  the  state.  Such 
facts  as  these  History  had  not  shewn,  and,  unless  new  materials 
should  be  discovered,  never  could  shew.  Besides  these  points, 
on  which  coins  alone  have  furnished  the  main  body  of  the 
evidence,  they  have  supplied  a  mass  of  collateral  and  supple- 
mentary information  regarding  the  origin  and  growth  of  some 
of  the  oldest  eastern  languages  and  the  most  potent  eastern 
religions.  Those,  who  imagine  that  this  picture  is  overdrawn, 
we  must  refer  to  the  many  learned  and  elaborate  treatises, 
both  English  and  continenttJ,  alluded  to  in  the  foregoing  pages, 
and  to  the  plates,  with  which  most  of  the  works  are  embelUahed, 
and  by  means  of  which  the  reader  may  judge  for  himself, 
whether  the  inferences  drawn  from  the  coins  are  just  and  fair, 
or  not. 

It  must  not,  however,  be  concluded  that  the  Numismatists  of 
India   are  resting   on  their  oars,  or  are  content    with  the 
archsBological  tropes  already  won.     There  are,  we  doubt  not, 
many  acute  and  accomplished  minds  still  labouring  to  throw 
additional  light  on  the  facts  of  this  history.      Not  a  year 
passes  away  without  some  circumstances  being  adduced  in 
confirmation,  addition,  correction,  or  illustration.     Much   has 
been  done  in  the  way  of  correction.     The  position  of  individual 
kings,  and  even  the  dates  and  localities  of  particular  dynasties 
have  been  occasionally  altered ;  but  the  cardinal  points  of  the 
narrative,  the  nature  and  extent  of  the  several  kbgdoms,  the 
succession  of  races,  languages  and  religions — all  thb  has  stood 
unassailed  and  unimpeached  throughout  the  ten  years  of  Nu- 
mismatic scrutiny.      And  it  is  upon  these  points  that    we 
have  endeavoured  to  dwell,  rather  than  upon  points  of  minor 
importance,  which  cannot  be  fixed  with  absolute  certainty,  and 
wmch  do  not  afiect  general  principles  or  theories.    Much  Imui 
idso  been  done  in  the  way  of  corroboration.     And  few  portions 
of  the  subject  have  been  more  strengthened  than  that  which 
relates  to  the  geographical  extent  of  the  several  kingdoms,  both 
classical  and  l^rbarian,  which  existed  in  upper  India.    The  ten- 
dency of  recent  discoveries  has  been  to  skew  that  Kabul  and 
the  Punjab  formed  the  pivot,  on  which  often  turned  the  fate  of 
Central  Asia  and  of  India.  It  is,  indeed,  no  newly  discovered  fact 
that  this  r^on  has  been  to  Asia,  what  the  Netherlands  were 
,  to  Europe,  the  arena  of  incessant  contest  between  the  different 
aspirants  to  universal  dominion.    But  for  auffht  that  history- 
told  us  to  the  contrary,  we  might  have  supposed  that  it  enjoyed 


GBEEK  CONNECTION  WITH  THE  EAST.  155 

• 

a  respite  from  contention  during  the  long  interval  between  the 
invHfflon  of  the  Greeks  under  Alexander  and  of  the  Mussul- 
mans under  Mahmud  The  coins,  however,  shew  that  during 
this  period  also,  it  was  as  sharply  contested  for,  as  it  ever  has 
been  subsequenfly ; — ^that  it  was  the  battle  field,  not  only  of 
ambitious  autocrats,  but  also  of  races,  religions,  and  opinions ; — 
that  it  was  the  scene  of  such  contests,  as  might  be  anxiously 
looked  upon  fto  borrow  the  Homeric  notion)  by  the  gods  of 
Greece,  by  the  Hindu  Triad,  by  the  Grautamas  of  Budhism, 
and  by  the  elemental  divinities  of  Zoroaster. 

Nor  must  it  be  supposed  that  Indian  Numismatics  stop  here. 
We  have  only  traced  the  History  of  India  for  six  hundred 
yean.  But  the  coins,  to  use  Professor  Wilson's  words,  have 
fi^owed  the  destinies  of  India  for  two  thousand  years.  Fol- 
Wing  the  Indo-Scythian  dynastjr  in  close  order,  there  come 
seyend  series  of  Hindu  coins,  which  explain  much  that  was 
obecnrein  the  Ante-Muhammadan  period  of  Indian  history, 
and  which  conduct  us  down  to  the  epoch  of  Muhanmiadancon- 
qaests.  Then,  following  the  tracks  of  authentic  history,  the 
coins  accompany  us  through  the  periods  marked  by  the  several 
Mnhammadan  dynasties,  and  by  the  different  policies,  which 
they  pursued ; — until  at  last  there  appears  a  coinage,  wluch  has 
spread  even  fturther  than  the  Macedonian,  which  heralded 
a  civilization  higher  than  that  of  the  Greeks,  and  which  belonged 
to  an  empire  greater  than  that  of  Alexander.  These  subjects 
may  perhaps  be  treated  of  in  a  future  article :  but  we  shall  not 
touch  upon  them  at  present,  inasmuch  as  we  have  confined 
oosselves  to  the  limits  of  Greek  dominion  and  influence  in  the 
East 


156  INDIAN  EPIDEMICS   AND 


Art.  V. — 1.    Transactions  of  the  Medical  and  Physical  Society 
of  Calcutta.     1825-43. 

2.  Reports  of  the  Commission  for  enquiring  into  the  state  of  large 
and  populous  districts.     London.     1844. 

3.  Report  of  the    General  Board  of  Health  on  the  epidemic 
Cholera  of  1848-49,  tvith  appendices.     London.     1850. 

4.  Act  X.  of  1842.     An  Act  for  enabling  the  inhabitants  of  any 
place  of  public  resort  or  residence  under  the  Presidency  of  Fort 

JVilUamy  not  within  the  town  of  CalcuttOy  to  make  better  provi- 
sion for  purposes  connected  with  public  health  and  convenience. 
Calcutta  Government  Gazette,  lAth  October,  1842. 

5.  Act  XX VL  of  1850.     An  Act  to  enable  improvements  to  be 
made  in  towns.   Calcutta  Government  Gazette,  2\st  June,  1850* 

6.  Report  on  Small  Pox  in  Calcutta,  and  Vaccination  in  BengaL 
By  Duncan  Stewart,  M.  D.     Calcutta,     1844. 

7.  Report  of  the  Small  Pox  Commissioners  appointed  by  Govern' 
ment,  loith  an  Appendix.     Calcutta,  \st  July,  1850. 

8.  Medical  Report  on  the  Mahamurri  in  Gurhvxdin  1849-50.  By 
Dr.  C.  Renny,  Superintending  Surgeon.     Agra.     1851. 

9.  Suggestions  for  the  extension  and  perfection  of  Vaccination^ 
simultaneously  with  the  systematic  study  of  epidemic  and  cn- 
demic  diseases  in  India.  By  J.  R.  Bedford,  Assistant  Surgeon. 
Calcutta.     1851. 

Whilst  civilized  man,  throughout  the  world,  has  brought  his 
highest  faculties  to  bear  upon  the  adaptation  of  natural  pro* 
ducts  to  his  wants  and  wishes ;  whilst  sage  and  savage,  each 
in  his  own  degree,  have  separately,  from  the  earliest  i^es,  toiled 
to  find  a  remedy  for  bodily  disease,  the  heritage  of  their^ com- 
mon fall; — ^the  conviction,  amongst  educated  nations,  of  the 
possibility  of^  not  alone  subduing,  but  actually  warding  ofi^   its 
inroads,  is  but  newly  awakened ;  and,  even  now,  the  question  of 
its  truth  trembles  in  the  mental  balance  of  not  an  inconsider- 
able number.     It  is  ever  the  law  of  mind  to  disbelieve  all  evils 
imperfectly  understood.      Sanatory  Keform  labours  under  the 
disadvantage  of  dealing  with  mal-influences,  which  speak  not  for 
themselves,  but  require  to  be  long  and  sedulously  studied^  ere 
their  distinct  and  undeniable  relation  to  disease  be  recognized. 
Now  that  the  light  of  full  intelligence  is  breaking  on  the  pub* 
lie  mind,  the  ignorance  of  past  ages  is  inexplicable.    Air,  light, 
and  water,  the  very  elements  of  life  and  health,  have  been  aye- 
tematicallv,  it  would  appear,  excluded  from  the  doomed  ialiabi* 
tants  of  large  cities ;  whilst  plague  and  pestilence,  sweeping 


MOFUSSIL   SANATORY   REF0R:M.  157 

awaj  their  tens  of  thousands  in  the  prime  of  life^  have  come  in 
vftin,  as  far  as  any  practically  operative  warning  was  concerned. 
Ciyilizationj  unaccompanied  by  sanatory  knowledge,  has  played 
an  evil  part.  The  high  pressure  of  commercial  activity  in  Eng- 
landy  combined  with  want,  has  forced  into  the  industrial  classes 
a  child-population,  who,  instead  of  obtaining  purity  of  mind  and 
healthiness  of  body  in  open  fields,  have  been  condemned  to 
doubtful  companionship,  to  weakened  power,  retarded  growth, 
aod  imperfect  development  of  mind  and  body,  by  a  system  of 
precocious  labour  in  close  unhealthy  factories.  Nor  does  the  evil 
end  with  this :  a  deteriorated  race  begets  a  like  progeny  ;  and 
thus,  by  slow  degrees,  the  stout  yeoman,  filtered  through  succes- 
sive  generations,  rises  to  the  surface  a  crippled  mindless  man. 

If  the  injurious  conditions,  we  have  thus  so  lightly  touched 
upon,  be  fatal  to  life  and  health  in  ordinary  times,  how  must 
their  influence  become  enhanced,  during  any  epidemic  con- 
stitution of  the  air — when  the  angel  of  death  hovers  above 
and  around  us,  thrusting  his  fiery  torch  into  every  spot,  in 
which  the  neglect  of  nature's  laws  has  suffered  to  accumuJate 
the  fuel  appropriate  to  its  flame!  If  this  be  true  of  England, 
where  with  happily  rare  exceptions,  a  wide  spread  pestilence 
is  now  unknown,  and  where  a  recently  awakened  Govern- 
ment, aided  by  scientific  minds,  is  putting  forth  all  its  strength 
to  crash  the  Hydra,  what  shall  we  say  of  India,  our  present 
theme— a  land  where  death  rides  rampant,  trampling  an  untold 
number  of  victims  beneath  his  courser's  heels,  with  each  suc- 
cessive year  ?  Here  no  breathing  time  is  given.  Epidemics 
prevail  at  all  and  every  season,  sometimes  acquiring  a  maxi- 
mum of  destructive  power,  at  others  sinking  to  a  point,  which, 
still  in  western  nations,  would  be  viewed  with  horror  and  af- 
fright And  how  has  this  been  remedied  ?  What  steps  have 
been  taken  to  protect  the  people  over  whom  we  rule,  to  save  our- 
selves, and  to  circle  with  a  fence  those,  whose  lives  are  dearer  to 
us  tlum  our  own,  against  the  fell  destroyer  ?  Absolutely  next 
to  nothing.  With  the  exception  of  Calcutta  (for  we  limit  our  re- 
marks to  the  presidency  of  Bengal,  although  little  doubting 
their  applicabihty  to  the  subordinate  Governments),  our  Indian 
towns  remain  unchanged,  from  what  they  were  two  thousand 
years  aga 

Deeply  impressed  ourselves  with  the  truth  of  all  that  has 
been  urged  by  sanatory  writers,  we  cite  their  testimony, 
in  conjunction  with  our  own  experience,  to  impress  upon  the 
rulers  of  this  land,  the  absolute  and  urgent  necessity  of  put- 
ting into  force,  without  delay,  a  system  of  reform,  which  shall 
gradually  purge  the  country  of  physical  ills.      A  more  ex- 


158  tNDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

tended  knowledge  of  the  subject  will  demonstrate,  that  these 
are  not  confined  to  Hindustan,  but  constitute  a  nucleus 
and  nursery  for  that  plague,  which  never  dies  with  us — ^the 
Cholera — ^and  which  seems  destined,  whilst  we  remain  indif- 
ferent, to  burst  its  bounds  with  each  decade  of  years,  and  roU 
a  flood  tide  of  death  and  desolation  over  Europe,  than  which  the 
lava-stream  of  thousands  of  volcanoes  woula  be  less  destruc- 
tive. 

The  Acts,  which  we  have  placed  at  the  head  of  our 
article,  prove  that  the  legislature  is  not  indifierent  to  the 
welfare  of  that  great  section  of  the  human  family  amongst 
whom  our  lot  is  cast.  Eight  years  ago  gave  birth  to  the  first 
in  order.  This,  owing,  it  is  said^  ta  difficulties  in  its  operation, 
which,  we  fervently  oelieve  in  some  cases,  are  but  another 
expression  for  the  apathy  of  the  local  executive,  has,  with  one 
or  two  exceptions,  never  been  brought  into  force  throughout 
the  length  and  breadth  of  India.  Such  apparent  failure  in 
legislation  demanded  a  second  attempt ;  and  such,  much  to  the 
credit  of  Government,  and  in  proof  of  its  continued  interest 
in  so  vital  a  subject,  was  made  in  1850,  when  Act  XXVL  saw 
the  light,  the  previous  one  being  simultaneously  repealed. 
How  rar  the  new  provisions  are  calculated  to  effect  the  object 
sought,  we  shall  hereafter  inquire,  merely  remarking,  in  Umme, 
that  legal  facilities  for  such  a  reform  are  useless,  unless  com- 
bined  with  an  inclination  on  the  part  of  the  public,  both  Eu- 
ropean and  native,  to  avail  themselves  of  the  law.  Of  what 
the  Indian  public  of  a  Mofossil  town  is  composed,  and  how 
likely  it  is  to  avail  itself  of  any  measure  involving  taxation, 
our  eastern  readers  need  not  be  informed ;  and  our  English 
ones  may  guess,  when  we  assure  them,  that  on  several  occaaiQiiB, 
within  our  own  experience,  a  meeting  of  native  Mofussil 
gentlemen  got  together,  witih  some  difficulty,  for  the  express 

Eurpose  of  considering  Act  X.  of  1842  above  referred  to, 
ave  one  and  all  decuned  having  any  thing  to  do  with  it, 
when  it  was  understood  that  its  adoption,  even  though  accom- 
panied by  the  most  important  improvements,  was  likely  to 
mvolve  them  in  the  slightest  pecuniai^  contribution,  u  nder 
these  circumstances,  it  becomes  doubly  unperative  upon  oflicial 
European  residents,  to  give  a  mentiU  impulse  to  their  fellow- 
townsmen,  to  lead  the  way,  and  not  to  await  the  spontane- 
ous efforts  of  those,  who,  in  regard  to  knowledge  of  require- 
ments for  the  public  health,  must  of  necessity  be  very  ill- 
informed. 

To  bring  home  the  necessity  of  Sanatory  Reform  to  the 
heads  and  hearts  of  all,  we  have  deemed  it  well  to  consider 


MOFUSSIL   SANATORY   BEFOBM.  159 

the  movement,  in  conjunction  with  epidemic  disease — a  form 
of  malady  only  too  &miliar  to  us  exiles  of  the  East,  and 
which  may  yet,  unless  we  be  warned  in  time,  rob  us  of  those, 
for  whom  life  is  most  cherished     The  subject  appeals  to  no 
one  class  alone,  but  is  of  world-wide  interest.    To  neglect  it, 
16  only  equal  to  the  inconceivable  madness  of  a  squatter  in  the 
fiur  western  wilds^  who  should  omit  to  close  and  bar  his  door, 
when  howling  savages  prowl  around  his  dwelling,  thirsting  for 
blood.    We  tell  those  who  shut  their  ears  in  wilful  ignorance 
to  our  appeal,  that  Cholera,  Small  Pox,  and  Fever,  are  the  wild 
and  howhng  savages  of  medidne,  the  more  dreadful,  because 
no  baiB  or  bolts  exclude  them.    In  either  case  a  remedy 
is  to  be  found  by  eradicating  all  hiding  places  for  the  foe.     As 
ciyilization  converts  the  forest  into  a  smiling  plain,  studded 
with  fields  and  man's  abodes,  so  does  sanatory  science  proscribe 
the  reeking  drain,  the  filthy  cesspool,  and  the  crowded  dwell- 
ing, which  serve  as   hot-beds  and  manufactories  of  disease. 
Impressed  with  these  feelings,  before  entering  on  the  present 
ana  possible  state  of  our  Mofussil  towns,  we  shall  offer  a  slight 
Bketch  of  the  epidemics,  with  which  India  (or  at  least  that  portion 
of  ^  it  contained  in  the  Bengal  Presidency)  has  been  afiiicted.  Fcur 
this  knowledge,  we  are  entirely  indebted  to  the  Transactions 
of  the  Medical  and  Physical  Society  of  Calcutta — ^a  work  no 
less  honorable  to  its  authors  and  contributors,  than  valuable 
to  the  student  of  Indian  disease ; — ^and  especially  to  him,  who, 
at  an  early   period  after  his  arrival  in  this  country,  finds 
himself  the  isolated  arbiter  of  life  and  death,  amongst  surround- 
ing thousands.    Whether  as  a  history  of  the  past,  a  guide 
for  the  present,  or  a  stimulant  to  future  emulative  exertion, 
such   a  record    is  imperatively  necessary;    and  we    regard 
the  discontinuance  of  the  publication,  as  much  in  the  light 
of  a  social  misfortune,  as  a  blot  and  reproach  to  the  Medical 
Service.    If  Calcutta  could  afford  no  men  of  literary  energy 
and  skilly  willing  to  continue  the  Society  from  which  it  issuea, 
and  able  to  wield  their  pens  in  its  behau — ^we  conceive,  it  was 
the  bounden  duty  of  Government  to  have  carried  on  the  work. 
Such  a  course  would  have  redoimded,  no  less  to  the  credit  of 
thestate^  than  to  the  advantage  of  its  subjects.    Owing  to  cir- 
cnmstances^  which  no  great  acumen  is  required  to  understand, 
literary  and  scientific  enterprize  in  the  East  commands  no  per- 
manent existence  without  extrinsic  support  To  this  well  known 
&ct,  medical  literature  is  no  exception.     That  Governmental 
aid  is  not  a  visionary  hope,  we  are  well  assured,  by  that  so 
liberally  extended  to  the  Adatic  Society.     None  can  respect 
mor6  than  ourselves,  the  sciences,  which  have  found  in  it  so 


160  INDIAN   EPIDEMICS  AND 

fit  a  nurse;  but  we  would  venture  to  suggest,  that  the  healing 
art  has  claims  also.  ^'  They  manage  these  things  better  inn 
France."  In  that  country,  so  enlightened  in  all  tiiat  pertains- 
to  science,  a  Medico-Military  Journal  appertaining  to  the  state> 
has  existed  from  the  year  1763,  that  is  for  a  period  of  some^ 
thing  less  than  100  years;  and,  since  1815  only,  fifty-eight  yo- 
lumes  have  seen  the  light.  We  cannot  forbear  quoting  a  sketch 
of  its  history  from  the  British  and  Foreign  Medical  Review  of 
January  1847 : — 

In  1763,  Dr.  Richard  de  Haute-eierck,  Inspector  of  military  hospitals, 
pointed  out  to  the  Duo  de  Ohoiseul..  then  minister  of  war,  the  advantages 
which  would  accrue  to  the  Medical  Department  of  the  army,  from  calling 
upon  the  Surgeons  attached  to  hospitals,  to  give  a  regular  account  of  their 
practice,  and  to  correspond,  on  the  suhject  with  the  Inspector  General, 
who  should  be  empowered  to  publish  the  result  of  that  correspondence. 
The  minister  authorized  Dr.  Richard  to  carry  out  his  plan,  and  to  collect 
and  publish,  at  the  expense  of  Goyernment,  any  interesting  observations 
and  rare  cases,  which  might  thus  be  communicated  to  him.  In  1760,  be 
accordingly  brought  out  a  quarto  volume,  entitled  Reeueil  cC  observations  de  la 
Medicine  des  Hopitaux  Militaires;  wherein,  after  laying  down  the  plan 
on  which  the  Journal  was  to  be  in  future  conducted,  he  pointed  out  the  ne- 
cessity of  studying  the  medical  and  physical  topography  of  the  countries,  oom- 
monly  occupied  by  the  troops,  and  especially,  the  salubrity  or  insalubri^  of 
the  various  garrison  towns,  barracks,  prisons,  and  hospitals.  He  also  gave 
several  reports  of  cases,  descriptions  of  epidemics,  some  topographical  me- 
moirs— particularly,  of  the  towns  of  Montpellier,GhSLlons3ur-Saone,  Toulon, 
Lille,  Bitche,  and  Strasburg — and  a  formulary  of  prescriptions  for  the  use 
of  the  military  hospitals.  The  gratuitous  distribution  of  this  work  excited 
the  zeal  of  the  medical  officers  of  the  army,  and  increased  the  amount  of 
correspondence  on  these  subjects.  In  1772,  a  second  volume  was  published, 
which  contained  four  memoirs  on  topography,  five  on  epidemic  diseases 
observed  in  France  between  1764  and  1770,  with  many  medical  and  surgi- 

S'eal  cases.    Dr.  Richard,  for  his  services,   received  the  riband  of  St. 
iohael,  and  was  created  Baron  de  Haute-sierok. 

In  1781,  an  ordinance  was  published  on  the  subject  of  the  Medical  De- 
partment of  the  army,  by  which,  among  other  things,  the  Journal  de  Medi- 
einet  de  Okirutgiet  et  de  Pharmaeie  Militaire  was  established  ;  it  was  to 
appear  every  three  mouths,  and  to  be  compiled  by  a  retired  consulting  phy- 
sician of  the  armv.  The  object  of  this  Journal  was  to  promulgate  faots 
and  opinions^  relative  to  the  preservation  of  the  health  of  soldiers,  or  to 
the  successful  treatment  of  their  diseases ;  and  nothing  foreign  to  the  medi- 
cal department  of  the  army,  or  of  the  military  hospitals,  was  to  be  inserted. 
The  first  volume  was  published  in  1782  ;  and  it  continued  to  appear  regu- 
larly till  3789,  forming  seven  octavo  volumes. 

The  changes  of  the  administration  of  the  army  by  the  council,  establish- 
ed by  the  minister  of  war  in  1788,  caused  the  publication  of  the  Journal 
to  be  suspended.    It  was  not  intended  to  suppress  it  altogether :  but  the 
new  directory  of  the  hospitals  announced  in  1789,  that  it  would  no  longer 
be  brought  out  at  stated  terms,  as  a  periodical  work.    From  this  date  till 
1801,  the  instability  of  affairs  in  France,  and  the  numerous  calls  of  duty 
on  the  council  of  health  of  the  army,  prevented  the  preparation  of  another 
volume.      In  that  year,     several  omcers  were  appointed  to  prepare    m 
summary  of  the  most  important  papers,  which  had  been  collecting  dur- 


M0FU8SIL  SANATORY  BEFORM.  161 

»g  the  preceding  twelve  years ;  but,  before  tbis  was  completed,  tbeir 
senrioeB  were  required  with  the  grand  army.  Nothing  further  appears 
to  bare  been  done  till  1815,  when  the  Journal  was  re-established — MM. 
Bfron  and  Foumier  Pescay  being  appointed  the  editors.  It  was  at 
first broaght out  iu  bi-monthly  numbers;  but,  this  having  been  attend- 
ed with  many  disadvantages,  the  editors  resolved,  in  1817,  to  publish  it  for 
thefatnrein  half-yearly  volumes;  and  the  title  was  at  the  same  time 
changed  to  that  which  it  at  present  bears.  The  minister  of  war,  in  his 
letter  to  the  Inspectors  of  hospitals  in  1810,  states  the  object  of  the  Journal 
to  be, "  to  diffuse  sound  instruction  among  the  medical  officers  of  every 
rank,  and  to  communicate  to  them,  without  delay,  the  discoveries,  which 
shall  be  made  in  the  theory  and  practice  of  the  healing  art.  All  the  me- 
dical officers  are  called  upon  to  contribute  materials  to  the  Journal.  The 
pablications  of  their  labours  will  have  the  double  advantage  of  being 
izeefal  to  the  service,  and  of  maintaining  among  all  a  noble  emulation,  la 
abort,  tbis  Journal  will  become  a  depot,  where  each  one  may  treasure  up  the 
naolt  of  bis  researches  and  the  discoveries  he  may  have  made." 

To  obtain  the  materials  necessary  for'carrying  on  this  work,  the  principal 
inedieal  officers  of  hospitals  and  the  surgeon  majors  of  regiments  were 
directed  to  forward  monthly  reports,  embracing  all  subjects  relating  to  the 
health  of  the  troops,  either  in  the  prevention  or  treatment  of  disease.  They 
were  also  to  give  a  detailed  history  of  rare  cases  of  disease  among  the  sol- 
diers;  an  account  of  any  epidemics,  with  their  probable  causes  and  most 
BQeeessful  treatment;  meteorological  observations,  &c.  The  principal  me- 
dical officers  of  hospitals  were,  likewise,  to  transmit  quarterly  numerical 
retaros  of  admissions  and  deaths,  and  of  the  diseases  by  which  these  were 
caused.  If  these  were  ever  furnished  regularly,  but  little  use  appears  to 
hare  been  made  of  them ;  which  we  the  more  regret,  as  army  medical  officers 
pessMs  opportunities  of  compiling  satisfactory  reports,  which  rarely  fall  to 
tbe  lot  of  the  medical  profession  in  civil  life.  ^ 

The  editors,  being  fully  impressed  with  the  importance  of  the  study  of 
military  Hygiene,  called  the  attention  of  the  medical  officers  to  the  advan- 
tages to  be  derived  from  a  careful  examination  of  the  "  rules  and  precepts 
reJatiog  to  the  preservation  of  tbe  health  of  soldiers,  and  to  the  mos^suit- 
able  means  for  removing  or  diminishing  the  fatal  influence  of  the  numer- 
ous caoses  of  disease,  to  which  they  are  exposed,  both  in  peace  and  war." 
M.  fiiron,  in  the  second  volume  of  tbe  Journal,  published  a  valuable  Me- 
iBoir  on  tills  subject,  in  which  he  directed  attention  to  the  principal  objects 
of  study.    These  he  arranged  under  seven  general  heads ;   1st.  of  the 
choice  of  tbe  soldier ;  his  physical  and  moral  qualities,  and  ihe  influence  of 
nulitary  discipline  on  the  recruit ;  2nd,  of  the  diet  of  soldiers ;  8rd,  of  tbe 
dotbingof  troops;  4tb,  of  their  quarters: — a,  barracks: — 6,  military  pri- 
■pns;    0,    hospitals;    d,  camps  ana    bivouacs;  6tb,  of   marches,  exer- 
^iMs,  and    military  works;   tbe    influence  of,  a,  victories;  b,  retreats; 
^1  captivity ;  6th,  duties  of  officers ;  discipline  and  habits  of  the  soldier,  incul- 
^ng  the  maxim,   qu*ilfaut  le  defendre  eontre  luirmeme,  et  lui-faire  du  bim 
^oigre  Un  ;  7th,  of  the  duties  of  surgeon-majors  of  regiments. 

Fifty-eigbt  volumes  of  this  Journal  have  now  been  published — a  menu- 
Blent  of  tbe  industry  of  the  medical  officers  of  the  frencb  army,  and  of 
^zeal  and  good  sense  of  the  council  of  health.  The  subjects  ohiefly 
^nated,  beudee  numerous  interesting  cases  in  medicine  and  surgery,  are  Hy- 
giene; medical  topography  ;  histories  of  epidemics  among  the  troops; 
dioical  reports  from  various  military  hospitals ;  surgical  histories  of  cam- 
|Mi^  ;  reviews  of  works  on  military  medicine  and  surgery  ;  biographical 
>^obees  of  deceased  medical  officers  of  the  army ;  extracts  from  the 
^droasos    to    the    pupils    of    the    military    hospitals    at    the   annual 


162  INDIAN   EPIDEMICS  AND 

coHCourtt  and    the    names    of  the  successful  candidates  at  tbese    eon' 
oours." 

Prom  this  it  would  appear,  that  the  inquiries^  which  have  been 
but  recently  proposed  to  the  medical  officers  of  the  Bengal  army, 
were  instigated  by  the  French  Government  no  less  than  thirty- 
five  yeaiB  ago; — ^with  this  most  important  diiFerence,  how- 
ever, that  whilst  the  continental  military  surgeons  were  stimu- 
lated by  the  hope  of  an  honourable  publicity  for  their  labours, 
our  Indian  medicos  may  work  their  fingers  to  the  bone,  in  driv- 
ing the  gray  goose  quill,  and  yet  its  fruits  shall  enjoy  ^^  a  sleep 
that  knows  no  waking.^     Reports  demanding  care  and  skill  are 
now  required :  but  we  much  fear  that,  *^  each  in  his  narrow  cell 
for  ever  laid  "  upon  some  dusty  shelf  in  Leadenhall-street,  or 
amongst  the  archives  of  the  Medical  Board,  their  fate  will  be 
annihilation.     Why  has  the  British  Indian  Government  yet  to 
learn,  that  a  Scientific  Board  and  Office  of  Kecord  fulfils  but 
half  its  truflt,  in  hoarding  up,  as  in  some  Uving  tomb,  the 
stores  of  knowledge,  which  every  day  accumulate  ?    Its  no- 
ble task  should  be  (and  it  is  one  well  fitted  to  the  able  and 
experienced  men,  who  now  hold  office)  to  generalize,  and,  from 
the   thousand    facts  before   them,    to   deduce  great   truths. 
If  it  be  affirmed  (as   we  believe  it  truly  may  oe)  that  the 
establishment  is  insufficient  to  effect  more  than  the  current 
business  of  the  day,  then  the  Government  might  easily  re* 
medy  the  evil,  by  appointing  an  additional  officer,  as  assistant 
secretary,  to  whom  should  be  confided  the  task  of  benefiting 
the  future  by  investigating  the  past,  whilst  his  colleagues,  as 
now,  directed  their  attention  to  the  present.    Whatever  may 
have  been  the  feeling  of  Medical  Boards  in  days  gone  by,  we 
recognize  but  one  sentiment  in  the  present — ^that  of  courteously 
affording  every  facility  to  scientific  inquirers.    The  will  is, 
however,  most  unfortunately  hampered  by  such  a  paucity  of 
establishment,  as  forbids  assistance  being  rendered,  and  thus 
virtually  denies  all  benefit  which  might  otherwise  be  derived. 

We  are  well  aware  that  works  of  striking  merithave  been  pub- 
lished at  the  Government  ezpence,  when  called  for ;  and,  doubt* 
less,  they  would  be  so  again ;  but  we  doubt  whether  the  public 
treasury  would  saddle  itself  with  the  expense  of  printing  any 
other  communicationsthanthoseabsolutely  asked  for  bythestate^ 
even  though  possessed  of  unexampled  merit  But  even  ^were 
it  so,  a  cumbrous  correspondence  must  be  the  necessary  preli* 
minarv.  What  we  desire  to  see,  is  a  State  Journal  of  military 
medicme,  supported,  if  need  be,  hj  the  public  purse: — ^but  -we 
confidently  believe,  that  it  would  involve  no  pecuniary  loss,  as  a 
moderate  price  should  be  charged  upon  each  number.    More- 


MOFI78&IL  SANATOST  BEFOBM.  163 

over,  it  muBt  be  remembered,  that  many  Topographical  and 
Small  Pox  Reports,  together  with  other  works,  such  as  Dr.  Ir- 
vine's account  of  the  Materia  Medica  of  Patna,  Dr.  O'Shaugh- 
nessy's  Bengal  Pharmacopcda^  and  the  surgical  history  of  the 
kit  Punjab  campaign,  by  Field- Surgeon  Macrae,  which  might 
fitly  have  found  a  place  in  such  a  Journal  as  we  advocate,  were 
printed  at  Government  cost. 

We  trust,  however,  better  days  are  coming  I  The  publication 
of  its  '^  Records"  by  the  Bengal  Government  gives  ffolden 
promise,  that,  in  one  office  at  least,  the  white-ant  will,  in  mture, 
be  cheated  of  his  prey ;  or,  at  all  events,  that  his  food  shall  first  be 
"wedded  to  unmortal  type," — a  circumstance,  which,  we  apprV 
hend,  will  considerably  benefit  the  world,  without  defrauding 
him  of  the  good  things,  in  whieh  he  has  hitherto  had  a  vested 
bterest 

We  have  been  led  into  this  digression,  through  failing  to  obtain 
any  printed  account  of  the  epidemic  diseases  of  BengeJ,  earlier 
than  1825,  the  year  in  which  the  first  volume  of  the  Transactions 
imder  review  appeared.  In  other  words,  a  period  of  about 
seventy-five  years,  dating  from  the  virtual  commencement  of 
our  power,  has  been  suffered  to  elapse  without  the  publication 
of  any  available  record  of  this  important  class  of  disease. 

The  year  1825,  then,  must  be  the  starting  point — as  our 
readers  need  not  be  told  of  the  epidemic  form  assumed  by 
Cholera  in  1817,  and  of  the  fatality  apparently  occasioned  by 
the  same  disease  at  Ganjam,  in  the  latter  portion  of  the  last 
century.  To  enquire  into  the  antiquity  of  Cholera,  is  not  our 
pnrpoee  here.  Much  may  be  said  on  both  sides.  Tradition 
may  be  trusted  so  far,  as  to  justify  the  belief,  that,  even  if 
co-eval  with  the  Hindu  race,  the  unfortunate  year  1817  gave 
birth  to  an  access  of  intensity.  A  native  peasant's  notions 
of  his  early  years  are  seldom  very  clear:  but  we  have  always 
found  a  wonderful  unanimity  in  the  opinion,  that  the  present 
fearful  mortality  of  Cholera  was  unknown  at  the  commencement 
of  the  present  century,  and  that  its  existence,  as  a  wide  spread 
pestilence,  wasrare.  The  first  Epidemic,  recorded  in  the  Transac- 
tions, is  the  Inflammatory  Fever  of  1824,  which  is  thus  described 
by  Dr.  Mellis: — 

'  What  ia  the  oause  of  the  epidemic?  is  now,  and  has  for  months  past 
Wen,  the  qaeetion  pat  to  medioal  men,  by  almost  every  person  in  this 
dty  fCalctttta)  and  its  Buhttrbs.  While  some  attribate  it  to  want  of  rain, 
oAers  look  for  it  in  the  increased  heat  and  closeness  of  the  weather  ;  and 
tbeie  are  not  a  few  who,  considering  the  disease  to  have  been  contagious, 
0r  iofectious,  left  their  dwellings,  and  removed,  either  to  boats  on  the  river, 
or  te  distaot  stations. 

Whether  the  quantity  of  rain  which  fell,  was  (from  its  scantiness  or  other- 


164  INDIAN   EPIDEMICS  AND 

wise)  the  cause  of  this  disease,  or  not,  remains  to  be  shown  ;  and  altfaoughr 
from  the  circumstances  I  shall  state  hereafter,  we  shall  have  reason  to 
acknowledge,  that  heavy  falls  of  rain  did  bring  on  the  disease,  yet  the 
influence  of  atmospheric  changes,  as  connected  with  caloric  and  electricity, 
must  not  be  oyerlooked. 

In  our  pursuit  after  knowledge,  it  is  little  cheering  at  times  to  find,  that 
we  are  surrounded  by  immaterial  and  inyisible  agents,  which  elude  our  grasp, 
and  can  never  become  the  subject  of  analysis  or  demonstration. 

In  so  far,  therefore,  as  certain  conditions  of  atmosphere  operate  on  our 
constitutions,  on  mind,  as  well  as  on  matter,  we  must  ever  be  much 
in  the  dark ;  and  not  less  so,  as  regards  the  same  imperceptible  agency* 
causing  changes,  as  well  in  the  course  or  march,  as  in  the  character,  of 
epidemic  diseases. 

Thankful  ought  we  all  to  be.  that  this  disease  has  proved  so  mild  in  its 
character ;  for  we  know  well,  that  a  diflerent  constitution  of  the  atmosphere, 
such  as  existed  during  the  prevalence  of  the  Cholera,  might  have  changed 
the  symptoms  from  those  of  a  mild,  to  those  of  a  most  deadly,  nature.  Had 
such  been  the  case,  I  doubt  not,  that  fear  and  terror  would  have  brought  under 
subjection  the  few  that  remained  untouched  by  the  distemper  ;  and  that 
this  city,  the  residence  of  nearly  half  a  million  of  beings,  would  have 
become  one  vast  charnel-house,  with  none  to  buiy  the  dead,  and  few  to  save 
the  living. 

I  am  led  to  make  these  remarks  from  the  circumstances  of  this  disease 
having  (with  very  few  exceptions,)  spared  none  of  either  sex,  or  of  any 
age.  The  new-bom  infant,  the  aged,  the  weak  and  the  robust,  the  rich  and 
the  poor,  those  reduced  by  disease  to  the  lowest  state  of  existence,  as  well 
as  those  under  the  influence,  of  medicine,  and  under  usual  discharges  from 
the  system,  all  were  alike  the  objects  of  its  attack  ;  for  no  condition,  nor 
circumstances  of  any  sort,  seem  to  have  availed  in  preventing  it  Manj 
families  residing  at  a  considerable  distance  from  Calcutta,  so  far  as  twelve 
or  fourteen  miles— those  who  had  houses  at  Barrackpore,  Serampore,  Dum- 
Bum  and  Garden  Reach — thought,  for  a  considerable  time,  that  they  bad 
escaped ;  but  at  these  places  the  disease  ultimately  appeared,  neither  altered 
in  character,  nor  in  effect.  On  the  river,  too,  higher  than  Berhampore,  and 
so  far  down  as  the  Sand  Heads,  the  disease  prevailed ;  for  scarce  a  day 
passed,  but.  as  Marine  Surgeon,  I  had  patients  arriving  from  every  situation 
betwixt  this  place  and  the  sea. 

Of  the  history  and  progress  of  this  disease,  much  yet  remains  to  be 
known  ;  for  it  still  exists,  and  occasionally  attacks  the  few,  who  have 
hitherto  escaped.  The  first  account,  I  had  of  its  appearance,  was  contained 
in  a  letter,  from  a  medical  friend,  at  Rangoon,  and  it  would  appear,  that  the 
disease  first  shewed  itself  thereabout  the  end  of  May,  or  beginning  of  Jane. 
On  the  IQth  of  the  latter  month,  a  large  portion  of  the  troops,  employed  ia 
the  expedition  under  Sir  Archibald  Campbell,  and  then  at  Rangoon,  bad 
been  ordered  out  to  attack  the  Burmese,  and  were  exposed  to  incessant  and 
heavy  rain  for  four  and  twenty  hours.  The  consequences  were,  that  on,  and 
even  before,  their  return  to  quarters,  the  greater  number  were  seized  with 
the  Fever.  The  disease,  my  friend  wrote  me,  might  be  considered  at  its 
height,  perhaps,  about  the  end  of  June,  or  beginning  of  July,  when  it  declin- 
ed for  a  while  ;  but,  from  all  he  observed  and  could  learn,  it  again  revived. 
Now,  on  referring  to  some  notes  in  my  possession,  as  well  as  from  an 
examination  of  the  prescription  book  at  the  Honorable  Company's  Dispensary. 
I  should  be  led  to  date  the  commencement  of  the  disease  at  this  place  abont 
the  beginning  of  June.  The  cases  which  occurred,  either  at  Rangoon  or 
here,  about  the  end  of  May,  were  too  few  to  excite  particular  notice ;  ancl 


MOFU88JL  SANATOBT  BEFOBU.  165 

it  was  not  till  towards  the  middle  of  June,  that  the  disease  became  very 
general. 

In  its  tymptojns  and  sequela  there  was  no  difierence,  with  the  exception 
of  what  arose  from  indifferent  diet,  and  the  want  of  those  comforts,  which  are 
ttsoallj  afforded  to  the  sick  and  convalescent ;  and,  if  we  take  the  distance 
between  tlie  two  places  at  6  or  700  miles,  we  may  conclude  that  Pome 
eondition  of  atmosphere,  as  well  as  similar  causes,  obtained  at  both.  From 
subsequent  accounts  i  learn,  that  the  disease  extended  in  various  directions  ; 
and  not  only  to  Ghittagong,  the  south  eastern  extremity  of  the  province 
of  Bengal,  but  to  the  Presidency  of  Madras. 

On  looking  at  the  Meteorological  Diary  for  June  1824,  kept  at  the 
Sarreyor  General's  Office,  Chowringbee,  it  will  be  observed,  that  from  the 
1st  to  the  10th,  there  were  five  days  of  heavy  rain ;  and  on  the  two  following 
days.  Korth- Westers,  with  lightning  and  much  rain.  Of  the  remaining 
sixteen  days  there  were  but  ten  without  rain :  so  that  out  of  twenty- 
eight  days  (for  two  are  omitted,}  there  were  eighteen  of  rain,  while  tbe  re- 
maining ten  are  marked  as  being  clear  and  sultry,  after  10  o'clock  a.  h. 
or  from  morning  till  afternoon .  So  much  for  the  state  of  the  atmosphere 
in  June,  1824.  Let  us  now  see  how  it  was  in  1828.  It  will  be  found  that 
ODt  of  thirty  days,  there  were  but  seven,  on  whicb  (what  could  be  called) 
rain  fell ;  for  the  two  or  three  days,  on  which  "  a  few  drops  fell,*'  and  a  lit- 
tle drizzling  rain  occurred,  are  not  worth  notice,  and  had  no  effect  on  the 
general  result.  *  *  *  «  *  * 

I  cannot  close  the  few  remarks,  on  the  state  of  the  atmosphere,  which  I 
have  now  submitted,  without  bringing  to  notice  a  circumstance,  which 
I  think,  will  go  further  to  disclose  one  pro-disposing,  if  not  exciting,  cause  of 
tbe  epidemic,  than  any  yet  mentioned.  I  find  from  the  let  of  May  to  the  end 
of  August,  in  1828,  there  were  but  five  days  of  sultriness,  or  of  close  and 
eloudy  heat ;  whereas  in  the  same  four  months  of  1824,  there  were  no  less 
than  thirty-one.    Had  July  been  complete  (for  seventeen  days  are  want- 
ing), I  doubt  not,  tbe  number  would  have  been  nearer  forty  than  thirty- 
one  ;  but,  taking  it  as  it  is,  in  conjunction  with  the  quantity  of  lightning, 
which  in  1828  was  three  times  greater  than  this  year,  we  are  led  to  con- 
elode,  that  our  atmosphere  must  have  been  more  loaded  with  electrical 
matter,  or  that  tbe  equilibrium  was  so  far  disturbed,  as  to  cause  the  sultri- 
ness I  have  noticed,    fie  this  as  it  may,  however,  it  is  well-known,  that  the 
epidemics  of  the  two  last  centuries  have  been  preceded  by  hot  sultry 
months,  followed  by  heavy  rains ;  and  it  is  not  very  unreasonable  to  sup- 
pose that  a  greater  quantity  of  electric  matter,  in  our  atmosphere,  may 
have  rendered  us,  not  only  more  susceptible  of  fever,  but  more  subject  to 
an  increase  of  its  symptoms,    it  cannot  be  denied  that  electricity  is  a 
powerful  stimulus.    That  our  body  has  its  proportionate  share  of  it,  we 
anew :  and  that  it  is  a  conductor,  and  in  communication  with  the  earth  we 
also  know.     Its  effects  in  asthenic  diseases,  such  as  palsy  and  chronic 
rheumatism,  have  been  acknowledged  by  persons  of  much  science  and 
experience  ;  and,  while  it  increases  the  circulation,  and  accelerates  the  jet  of 
blo|od  in  hemorrhage,  it  promotes  perspiration,  and  excites  to  greater 
activity  the  nervous,  as  well  as  the  absorbent,  system.    If  such  be  its  effects 
when  applied  artificially,  may  not  our  bodies,  at  times,  be  similarly  affected, 
when  it  acta  naturally?     If  what  I  have  stated  lead  to  no  important 
conclusion,  it  will,  at  all  events,  I  hope,  induce  the  Society  to  pay  atten- 
tion to  the  subject  in  future,  and  to  keep  a  meteorological  diary  on  the  fullciit 
scale.    Of  those  at  the  Surveyor  General's  Office,  they  might,  I  doubt  not, 
avail  themselves  for  the  sake  of  comparison,  and  give  to  their  medical 
brethren,  of  other  climes,  some  idea  of  the  atmosphere,  in  which  we  live 
and  move,  and  have  our  being." 


166  INDIAN   EPIDEMICS  AND 

According  to  Dr.  Kennedy  of  Baroda,  the  same  disease  ap- 
peared almost  simultaneously  in  Ouzerat  He  writes  as  follows, 
in  the  same  volume : — 

The  epidemic,  described  by  Dr.  Mellie,  passed  though  the  whole  proyinoe 
of  GuzerM,  during  the  last  hot  months,  and  was  sererely  felt  at  Baroda,  dar- 
ing the  last  wec^  of  May  and  the  beginning  of  June.  Tlie  localities, 
tbereforOt  of  Rangoon  alone,  are  not  to  be  enquired  into,  as  fully  explanatory 
of  its  origin.  The  natives  termed  the  disease,  ToohUia,  a  word  which  im? 
plies  folding  of  the  limbs  to  the  body,  as  they  will  squat  on  tlie  ground, 
cuddling  themselves  up  into  as  little  space  as  possible,  when  cold,  or  in 
pain.  It  could  searoely  have  been  more  general  in  Calcutta  than  it  was 
here ;  for  very  fsw,  indeed,  of  the  natives  escaped,  though  the  Europeans 
were  more  fortunate.  The  former  very  generally,  from  superstitious  motires, 
refused  medical  assistance,  and  trusted  to  nature,  taking  no  nourishment 
save  rice  water ;  they  therefore  felt  the  utmost  debilitating  effect  of  the 
attendant  fever : — few,  who  were  attacked,  recovering  under  three  months 
from  the  debility  and  aching  pains  in  the  wrists  and  ancles,  which  the 
disease  left  behind  it. 

I  was  at  first  inclined  to  attribute  it  to  the  uncommon  heat  of  the  wea- 
ther, and  the  extraordinary  state  of  the  atmosphere,  the  thermometer  hav- 
ing ranged,  in  the  best  and  largest  house  bere,90''  of  Fahrenheit  at  day  break, 
and  108<*  at  noon,  during  a  considerable  proportion  of  that  period — whilst  the 
soil  round  Baroda  being  sandy,  and  the  whole  district  a  level  plain — ^the  hot 
winds, which  are  always  felt  here  in  extreme  severity  from  those  circumstances, 
were  more  distressing  than  usual  from  the  latter  rains  of  the  preceding 
season  having  entirely  failed.  The  effect  of  not  a  single  shower  having 
fallen,  since  the20th  August,  was  not  only,  that  every  stream  and  pool  were 
dried  up  before  March ;  but  all  the  grass  very  early  in  the  season  was 
witherea  away ;  so  that  the  poor  people  had  recourse  to  digging  up  the  roots 
for  forage.  This  so  loosened  the  soil,  in  addition  to  its  original  sandv  na- 
ture, that  when  the  strong  winds  set  in  as  usual,  about  the  middle  of  May, 
at  the  change  of  the  monsoon,  they  swept  along  such  columns  of  dust, 
that  no  language  may  describe  the  misei^  of  heat  and  halfsuffocatioD  we 
had  to  endure.  1  could  not  have  imagined  an  atmosphere  so  loaded  with 
dust,  not  even  in  an  Arab  desert 

Now  this,  I  fancy,  could  not  have  been  the  case  at  Rangoon  :  and,  at  all 
events,  the  influenza,  at  its  period  of  reaching  you  (Calcutta),  must  have 
appeared,  when  the  air  was  purified  and  cooledf  by  rain ;  so  that  extreme 
heat,  and  an  atmosphere,  that  seemed  to  have  half  the  surface  of  the  fields, 
"  pars  plurima  terrs^*'  lifted  up  and  resolved  in  it,  cannot  be  the  proxi- 
mate, though  thev  may  probably  be  the  predisposing,  causes.    *    ^    *     * 

If  I  were  askea  to  class,  or  suggest  a  name  for,  the  disease,  1  should  reaUj 
be  very  much  inclined  to  regard  it  as  a  mild  Scarlatina,  modified  by  tropi- 
cal climates;  for  though  Dr.  Mollis  does  not  mention  uneasiness  in  the 
throat,  as  marking  the  cases  he  saw,  yet  it  was  (though,  certainly »  in  a  very 
unimportant  degree)!  o^  common  occurrence  here.  I  can  speak  from  my 
own  observation,  in  populous  manufacturing  districts  in  Great  Britain » that 
no  epidemic  made  more  rapid  progress  in  spreading  itself  over  the  face  of  a 
country,  and  visiting  all  classes  of  inhabitants  alike,  than  the  Scarlatina. 

*  Lacan*8  descriptUm  of  the  Desert    Pharsalia,  Lib.  ix.,  456. 

t  In  one  instance,  an  officer  of  twenty  years  service  in  India,  the  affiection  of  th« 
throat  was  to  the  patient's  feelings  the  most  tlistressin^  symptom,  and  yet  his  was  a 
severe  attack. 


MOFUSSIL   SANATORY  REFORM.  167 

The  glazed  windows,  cool  fires,  and  the  alternations  of  heat  and  cold,  may 
tend,  ibdeed,  there  to  fix  the  acrimony  of  the  disease  on  the  catarrhal  symp- 
toms, whilst  here  the  poison  may  work  itself  ofi'  by  the  fehrile.  1  merely 
▼entiire  a  coujeoture ;  but  reflecting  on  the  appearance,  and  mode  of  ap- 
petring  of  the  cutaneous  eruption,  the  rheumatic  pains,  the  epidemic  cha- 
rteter,  and  the  critical,  third  day — with  or  without  adding  the  tendency  to 
Cynaucbe,  and  the  succeeding  unaccountable  and  extreme  prostration  of 
strangtb,  I  cannot,  that  I  can  recollect,  seek  for  the  same  train  of  symptoms 
in  any  other  disease. 

The  intelligent  mind  of  Mr.  Twining  did  not  fnil  to  interest 
itself  in  so  remarkable  a  disease ;  and  he  has,  in  the  second 
volnme  of  the  Transactions,  given  us  the  following  account : — 

"  The  fever,  which  prerailed  in  Calcutta,  in  June,  July,  and  August  1824, 
was  equally  remarkable,  whether  we  consider  the  severity  of  the  patient's 
Buffering  at  the  time,  the  few  out  of  the  whole  population  who  escaped  an 
attack,  or  the  very  inconsiderable  mortality  caused  by  it.  The  oluiracter 
of  a  febrile  disease  so  peculiar,  and  in  its  results  so  unlike  the  epidemic 
and  endemic  fevers  of  tropical  regions,  surely  deserves  to  be  carefully 
recorded. 

It  will  be  readily  admitted,  that  the  seasons  have  considerable  efiect  in 
modifying  the  character  of  disease,  however  questionable  the  mode  may 
be,  in  which  unusual  atmospheric  vicissitudes  exeit  their  influence.  I 
should  feel  great  diffidence  in  expressing  an  opinion,  as  to  the  mode  of  action 
sod  precise  efl^eots,  which  the  nature  of  the  seasons  may  have  had,  in  produc- 
ing or  modifying  the  fever  in  question.  Therefore,  while  stating  the  observa- 
tioDS  I  have  been  able  to  collect,  respecting  the  atmospheric  constitution  of 
tbe  years  1823  and  1824, 1  wish  by  no  means  to  place  an  unreasonable  em- 
phasis on  their  relation  to  the  epidemic  of  1824,  being  satisfied  by  the 
mention  of  the  facts,  concerning  the  importance  of  which  the  Members 
of  this  Society  will,  of  course,  form  their  opinions.  Nevertheless,  it  will 
appear,  that  there  existed  the  co-operation  of  agents  acknowledged  to  have 
great  influence  in  the  origin  and  transmission  of  morbific  miasmata.  These 
agents  are  beat,  moisture,*  and  stagnation,  in  a  degree  not  accordant  with 
the  usual  suggestion  of  the  seasons  in  Calcutta. 

In  the  year  1823,  the  hot  season  of  April,  May,  and  the  beginning  of 
Jane,  was,  by  no  means,  remarkable  for  its  intensity  ;  and  Calcutta  was, 
aecoiding  to  the  best  accounts,  quite  as  healthy  in  those  months,  as  it 
usuaJIy  Is  at  that  period  of  the  year.  The  rains,  which  succeeded,  were 
believed  to  be  rather  more  abundant  than  common ;  but  bv  a  reference  to 
the  register  of  the  rain-gage  kept  at  Calcutta,  that  belief  is  unsupported. 
The  rains,  in  the  higher  part  of  Bengal,  and  to  the  westward,  appear  to 
have  been  remarkably  heavy ;  for,  in  the  latter  end  of  July,  the  Damuda 
river  overflowed  much  beyond  the  usual  height  of  its  waters  at  that  season  ; 
and  the  inundations  in  Bengal  generally  were,  in  consequence  of  the 
heavy  rains  in  the  district  just  mentioned,  more  extensive  than  ordinary. 

in  1824,  the  temperature,  indicated  by  the  thermometer  in  April  and 
May,  exceeded  but  little  that  of  the  previous  year ;  but  the  heat  was 
of  a  more  oppressive  description  to  the  sensations ;  and  it  was  observed,  that 
the  occurrence  of  North-westers,  which,  usually,  by  their  frequent  return, 
eool  and  refresh  the  air  in  Calcutta,  and  give,  at  times,  a  temporary  respite 

*  AHhough  heat,  humidity,  and  stagnation  of  the  atmosphere  prevailed  at 
Calcntta,  previoos  to  and  during  the  epidemic,  a  state  of  atmosphere  quite  the  reverse 
of  humidity  prevailed  at  Baroda,  when  a  similar  disease  existed  there  in  1824. 


168 


INDIAN   EPIDEMICS   AND 


from  tbe  liurniDg  heat,  were  reraukably  r&ra  in  those  montha.  The  nins 
commenoed  uousuallf  earlj  ;  the  Brat,  thia  BeMon,  fell  od  tbe  18th  Maj, 
after  whicb  there  were  aii  daya  of  heavy  rain,  and  four  days  in  which  light 
rain  fell,  before  the  end  of  the  month,  nhioh  gave  a  tnnsient  freshness  to 
the  air  :  but  tbe  interiala  betweeD  the  ehowera  were  eitremely  oloaa  and 
oppresaire,  aad  the  evaiioratioD  great,  rsaembliug  a  hot  ateam  rising  from 
the  earth. 

For  tha  data  eontained  in  the  followlug  table,  I  am  indebted  to    Ur.  Gib- 
bon, whose  general  accuracy  will  be  a  suffiaient  pledge  of  it 


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The  8th  column  for  each  year,  in  thia  table,  ahowa  the  number  of  rainy 
days  in  eaoh  month ;  and  of  Uie  figures  placed  fractionally,  tbe  upper 
number  indicates  the  days,  when  there  waa  light  rain,  but  no  appreciable 
quantity  collected  in  the  pluviometer;  the  lower  numbera  shew  the  days 
of  heavy  rain. 

It  app«ara  that  there  was  more  rain  at  Calcutta,  in  tha  shore  stated  flv* 
months  of  1B23,  by  nearly  one  sixth,  than  there  was  during  the  asme 
period  of  1921 :  but  the  early  raine  in  May  and  June  of  the  latter  year 
eiceedad  by  above  one  half,  the  rains  in  tbe  same  raontha  of  tbe  former  year. 
Howevsr,  the  quantity  of  rsin,  that  fell  during  the  whole  of  the  two  years 
referred  to.  was  quite  equal  to  the  general  average  of  rain  annually  in 
Bengal,  which  hoa  been  stated  at  TO  inches.  By  l£e  aame  Register,  from 
which  the  above  table  is  composed,  it  appears,  that  from  the  1st  September 
to  the  end  of  December,  there  fell  16  inches  of  rain  at  Calcutta  in  IB3$, 
and  SB  inches  in  tbe  same  months  of  1824,  making  the  total  of  eaoh  year 
above  TO  inches.  But  it  was  not  necessary  to  inolude  those  month*  in 
the  table,  which  were  auhsequent  to  tbe  cessation  of  the  epidemi& 

J  am  sensible,  that  it  would  have  been  more  satisfactory,  to  have  given 
tbe  average  of  the  daily  temperature  of  each  month  at  stated  hours;  bat 
I  have  not  had  aooees  to  Elegistera  kept  expressly  for  that  purpoaa. 

There  are  states  of  the  atmosphere,  which  influence  our  feelings  of  health, 
and  comfort,  and  doubtless  sieroise  an  action  on  the  buman  constitution, 
in  B  degree  not  to  he  ascertained  by  any  inetrumenta  or  scales  hitherto 
invented.    To  some  occult,  and  not  easily  appreciable,  sgenoy  of  this  sort. 


M0FU8SIL  SANATOBT  B£FOBM.  169 

m^j  be  referred  a  etote  of  the  atmoephere,  which  ooourred  in  the  latter  end 
of  May,  and  frequently  in  June  and  July,  but  in  a  more  remarkable  degree 
firom  the  4th  to  the  9th  of  July,  and  again,  on  the  first  four  days  of  August 
There  was  an  intense  glare  of  white  light  from  the  whole  sky,  extremely 
ptinfal  to  the  sight ;  at  the  same  time,  there  was  such  a  hazy  state  of  the 
regions  of  the  atmosphere,  that  the  sun  could  with  difficulty  be  distinguish- 
ed. This  was  attended  with  an  extremely  close  damp  heat,  more  distressing 
than  the  heat  of  the  brightest  sun-beams  I  ever  experienced.  Can  this 
effect  arise  from  the  transmission  of  the  rays  of  light  through  a  hazy 
atmosphere,  and  depend  on  the  increased  refractive  power  of  the  latter, 
bringing  the  rays  through  innumerable  watery  lenses,  more  perpendicularly 
on  the  earth,  in  the  early  parts  of  the  day  :  so  that,  conjoined  with  the  in- 
flaenoe  of  a  humid  atmosphere,  the  effects  of  thenoonday  sun  are  experienced 
at  a  much  earlier  hour,  than  when  the  sky  is  quite  clear  ?*  On  both  the 
occasions  above  alluded  to,  this  state  of  the  atmosphere,  just  noticed,  was 
SQceeeded  by  an  increased  frequency  of  the  attacks,  and  by  relapses  of  the 
prevailing  fever  in  a  great  number  of  instances.  It  is  true,  that  a  similar 
state  of  atmosphere  prevails  at  Calcutta,  more  or  less,  every  year,  in  those 
moDtbs;  but  its  predominance  in  1824  may  be  attributed  to  the  early  set- 
ting in  of  the  rains  in  unusual  quantity. 

In  the  beginning  of  this  year,  there  was  a  scarcity  of  grain  in  Bengal,  and 
tbeprice  of  rice  rose  considerably  ;  but  I  am  not  aware,  &at  in  the  early  part 
ef  toe  year,  the  native  population  suffered  generally  f^om  disease.  Cholera 
occurred  in  a  severe  ana  fatal  form  at  some  villages,  about  eighty  miles  to  the 
N  £.  of  Calcutta.  I  was  informed,  by  a  gentleman  residing  at  Ballygunge, 
that  the  adjacent  village  of  Chakoley,  had  contained  little  more  than  100  in- 
habitants, of  whom  82  were  known  to  have  died  of  cholera, within  a  few  days 
ef  the  time  when  I  passed  the  place  on  the  11th  April.  And  I  was  then 
told,  that  the  inhabitants  of  the  neighbouring  villages,  were  at  the  time  suf- 
hxiDg  from  Cholera,  which  was  remarkable  for  the  total  absence  of  spasms. 
It  was  stated  that  many  of  the  sufferers  were,  without  any  previous  illness, 
seized  with  a  vomiting,  and,  after  being  purged  once  or  twice,  died  in  the 
course  of  half  an  hour  after  the  attack. 

During  the  existence  of  widely  spreading  epidemics,  unusual  mortality 
among  animals,  has  been  considered  a  collateral  proof  of  a  contaminated  at- 
mosphere. Although  I  have  not  been  able  to  ascertain  that  any  general 
mortality  occurred  among  animals,  like  the  epizootics  that  have  occasional- 
ly accompanied  epidemic  disease  in  the  north  of  Europe,  it  may  be  worthy 
of  record,  that  the  year  1824  was  remarkably  fatal  to  a<^s  in  the  vicinity 
of  Calcutta. — the  sickness  among  those  animals  commencing  in  August. 
They  were  seized  with  loss  of  appetite,  excessive  thirst,  violent  action  of  the 
heart,  that  oould  be  seen  a  consiaerable  distance ;  and,  in  some  cases,  there 
was  yellowness  of  the  eyes  and  skin,  with  distension  of  the  belly,  though 
tiie  dog  had  taken  no  food  for  several  days.  These  symptoms  were  follow- 
ed by  a  purging,  which  carried  off  the  animal  in  a  day  or  two,  after  its 
eommencement  On  dissection,  the  stomach  was  found  empty,  the 
spleen,  '*  unnaturally  turgid'*  with  blood,  and  the  liver  streaked  with  dark 
purple  and  black,  various  modes  of  treatmeht  were  tried,  but  found  of  no 
aervice.    In  one  kennel,  10  couples  out  of  12,  died.    One  gentleman  lost  15 

*  Nmnerotis  fiscts  prove  the  hicreased  refractive  power  of  a  hazy  atmosphere  :  at 
fte  moment,  I  recollect  none  more  remarkable  than  the  obeervatioDs  made  in  some 
of  the  mines  in  Sweden,  where  it  has  been  found,  that  on  hazy  days,  a  moderate  aised 
print  could  be  easOy  r«id  at  100  yards  depth,  under  the  shaft  of  a  mine ;  hut  on  days 
of  bright  sunshine,  there  was  difficulty  in  reading  the  same  print  at  the  depth  tf  00 
yards. 


170  INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

out  of  16  doger,  and  another  lost  14  out  of  12.  In  one  pack  of  47  couples^ 
48  couples  died  in  two  mouths ;  in  these  last,  the  disease  commenced  in  the 
heginning  of  Ootoher.  I  am  indehted  for  the  ahove  information  to  the 
kindness  of  two  friends,  who  paid  great  attention  to  this  disease  in  dogs,  and 
were  much  interested  in  the  subject 

The  earliest  cases  of  the  epidemic  of  1824.  that  came  under  my  observation. 
Appeared  on  the  28rd  and  24th  of  May,  a  few  days  after  the  commencement 
of  the  rains.  In  the  course  of  ten  days»  great  numbers  of  persons  were 
ill  of  the  ferer ;  and  I  have  reason  to  believe,  that,  before  the  end  of  June, 
nearly  half  of  the  population  had  been  a£Pected.  Through  July,  the  dis- 
ease continued  unabated ;  indeed,  from  the  4th  to  0th,  as  already  observed, 
the  number  of  attacks  appeared  much  augmented :  and,  although  the  little 
tendency  to  fatal  termination  was  well  ascertained,  it  was  truly  distressing 
to  observe  the  numbers,  either  labouring  under  effects  of  first  attacks,  or 
suffering  from  relapses  nearly  equal  in  severity,  as  well  as  those  who,  though 
free  from  the  more  urgent  febrile  symptoms,  were  from  debility  totally  un- 
able to  follow  their  ordinary  occupations.  Towards  the  latter  end  of  July, 
the  primary  attacks  of  the  disease  were  comparatively  rare,  there  being  few 
only  at  that  time,  who  had  escaped  the  fever.  ******  The 
result  of  my  enquiries  leads  me  to  believe,  that  a  fever,  in  some  respects,  re- 
sembling that  just  described,  prevailed  at  the  same  time  in  some  other  parts 
of  India,  where  the  situation  was  low,  and  in  the  vicinity  of  the  sea,  or  with- 
in the  delta  of  great  rivers ;  but  not  in  central  or  Upper  India,  or  in 
elevated  situations.  No  such  fever  prevailed  generally  ot  Ghazipore, 
Patna,  and  Dinapore  ;  or  even  so  low  down  as  Berhampore.*  The  latter 
place,  being  within  the  low  fiat  district  of  Bengal  Proper,  and  only  ninety 
miles  distant  from  Calcutta,  might  have  been  supposed  to  be  under  the  in- 
fluence of  much  the  same  sort  of  circumstance  as  Calcutta,  with  res- 
pect to  atmospheric  vicissitudes  and  exhalations.  The  inundations  of 
1823,  at  Berhampore,  exceeded  their  usual  extent  at  that  season,  quite 
to  the  same  degree  that  then  occurred  at  other  stations  in  Bengal.  The 
rains  of  1824  did  not  set  in  at  Berhampore,  so  early  as  at  Calcutta.  H.  M.'s 
87th  regiment  had  been  nineteen  months  at  Qhazipore,  when  they  proceed- 
ed from  that  place  on  the  10th  of  June  1824  for  Berhampore,  where  they 
arrived  on  the  27th  of  the  same  month.  The  corps  was  not  attacked 
at  either  of  these  stations  with  any  similar  fever ;  neither  were  the  people 
of  the  bazar,  or  the  native  inhabitants,  generally,  at  either  of  those  places, 
visited  by  such  disease.  However,  I  understand  that  there  were  a  few 
sporadic  cases  of  fever,  at  several  different  stations,  through  the  countqr; 
the  leading  characters  of  which,  were  so  like  the  fever  that. prevailed  in 
Calcutta,  as  to  indicate  the  influence  of  some  widely  extended  and  general 
cause,  modifying  the  nature  of  the  fevers  at  that  season. 

In  the  same  volume  we  have  the  following  account,  by  Dr. 
J.  Mouat^  of  an  epidemic  fever,  which  prevailed  at  Berhampore^ 
in  the  beginning  of  the  year  1825. 

About  the  end  of  March,  or  beginning  of  April,  1825,  a  fever,  possessing 
peculiar  and  marked  characters,  appeared  amongst  the  men,  women,  and 

*  The  statement  is  confirmed  by  a  communication  from  Mr.  Proctor,  Secretary  of 
the  Medical  Board,  and  by  a  very  obliging  note  from  Mr.  Savage,  who,  in  speaunif 
of  Berhampore  and  the  adjacent  city,  Aroorshedabad,  where  he  was  stationed,  says, 
<*  The  rains  of  1824  commenced  here  on  the  12th  of  June.  I  am  not  aware  t£at 
fever  prevailed  amongst  the  natives  here,  in  an  unusual  degree  in  June,  July,  and  A.a- 
gpBt,  There  were  several  cases  corresponding  with  the  Cakutta  fever,  amongst  the 
Europeans  of  the  station." 


HOFUSSIL  SANAXOBT  fiEFORM.  171 

eVildren  of  Her  Majesty's  depot  at  this  station,  whiob  is  now  generally  known 
by  the  name  of  the  epidemic  fever.  The  suddenness  of  its  attack,  the 
ndness  and  watering  of  the  eyes,  the  acute  pain  in  all  the  joints,  rendered 
exenieiatiog  on  the  slightest  touch,  the  scarlet  or  crimson  efflorescence  on 
the  surface,  its  ephemeral  duration,  its  not  requiring  blood-letting,  &c^  its 
•ptring  neither  age,  sex,  nor  habit  of  body,  its  seizing  the  acclimated,  as 
▼e|l  as  those  recently  arrived,  stamp  it  at  once  a  different  disease  from  the 
femittent,  or  endemic,  fever  of  lower  India.  In  March,  we  had  six,  in 
J^piil,  nineteen,  in  May,  twenty-one,  and  in  June  sixty-six  oases,  viz.,  five 
men,  twenty-six  women  and  forty-one  children,  beiug  a  total  of  112  severe 
cases  requuing  treatment  in  hospital.  *  *  «  ^i^  «  *  In  July,  it 
became  somewhat  less  prevalent  amongst  the  women  and  children  of  the 
depot,  decreasing  in  August,  and  entirely  disappearing  in  September  1825. 
Uy  inability  to  consult  the  records  of  the  Berhampore  hospital  at  present 
prBTents  me  giving  the  precise  numbers  of  patients  treated,  subsequent 
to  the  date  of  my  former  report ;  and  my  quitting  the  station  in  August 
precludes  my  entering  into  minute  details.  In  no  way,  however,  did  the 
efairaetersof  the  disease  change  in  the  depdt ;  though,  in  Her  Majesty's  Slst 
regiment,  some  little  variation  was  observed,  which  I  shall  briefly  notice. 
The  left  wing  of  that  corps  (recently  landed  from  England)  arrived  at 
Berhampore  in  the  first  weeK  of  July  1825 ;  and,  in  a  few  days,  the  epidemic 
appeared  amongst  them.  Mr.  White,  the  surgeon,  was  one  of  the  first 
attacked,  and  with  singular  severity ;  so  much  so,  that  for  the  greater  part 
of  the  month,  his  duties  devolved  on  myself.  In  the  3ist  regiment,  out  of 
eighteen  officers,  two  only  escaped  this  epidemic ;  and  amongst  the  men, 
it  was  ;alike  prevalent  and  severe.  In  them,  bleeding  was  often  found 
lervioeable — referable,  perhaps,  to  that  high  inflammatory  diathesis,  so 
cbaracteristic  of  all  the  diseases  incident  to  new  comers.  Catarrhal  and 
pneumonic  symptoms  were  very  prevalent,  owing,  no  doubt,  to  their  being 
yooog  men,  or  recruits  at  an  age  peculiarly  predisposing  to  pulmonarv 
affections.  The  disease,  in  every  respect,  appeared  the  same  ;— modified, 
probably,  from  their  being  unseasoned,  and  not  having  been  in  the  country 
more  than  two  or  three  months. 

Note  hy  the  Secretary. — The  epidemic,  described  by  Dr.  Mouat,  was  not 
limited  to  the  station  of  Berhampore,  but  visited  many  other  places  on  the 
baoks  of  the  river,  during  the  rains  of  1825.    It  was  particularly  severe 
in  the  large  and  populous  towns  of  Patna,  Benares,  and  Ghunarghur. 
At  the  last  place  and  its  immediate  vicinity,  not  fewer  than  10.000  natives 
ire  stated  to  have  suffered  from  the  disease  at  one  period.    Mr.  Robinson, 
saperintending  surgeon  of  the  district,  in  his  communications  to  the 
Medical  Board,  thus  described  the  fever.     "  Within  the  last  six  weeks  or 
Biore,  (his  letter  is  dated   18th   August  1825)  an  epidemic  fever  of  a 
rheumatic    character  has  prevailed  generally,  from    Buxar  to   Benares, 
Cbnnar,  and  Mirzapore,  at  which  places,  as  well  as  this  station  (Ghazipore) 
hardly  a  persou  of  any  age  or  sex,  whether  European  or  native,  has 
escaped.    It  has  generally  commenced  with  severe  pain  in  the  loins,  wrists, 
snd  ancles,  unusual  drowsiness,  and  headache,    it  seldom  continued  be- 
yond four  days,  but  has  been  followed  universally,  by  great  prostration  of 
strength.     It  usually  gives  way  to  purgatives  and  emetics,  frequently  re- 
peated ;  and,  in  a  variety  of  instances,  warm  bathing  has  proved  of  essen- 
tial benefit.    There  has  been,  in  many  cases,  an  accumulation  of  bile. 
In  several,  the  head  has  been  much  affected ;  and  in  such,  where  the  habit 
was  full,  early  and  copious  depletion  with  the  lancet  has  been  followed  by 
the  best' effects.  It  first  commenced  at  Buxar,  and  has  been  since  gradually 
advancing  up  the  river  to  the  other  stations  on  its  banks.    It  appears  to 


172  INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

be  confined  entirely,  to  the  course  of  the  river,  as  I  do  not  hear  that  thd 
population  of  the  towns  and  villages  inland  hare  sufifored  more  than  usual. 
Numbers  of  the  soldiers  of  the  European  regiment,  at  this  station,  have 
been  attacked  ;  and  from  fifteen  to  twenty-six  are  daily  coming  into  hos- 
pital.   The  whole  regiment,  I  imagine,  will  feel  its  influence. 

It  would  thus  appear  that  an  ephemeral  fever  existed  in 
the  epidemic  form  in  1824-25,  simultaneously  appearing  in 
Burmah,  Calcutta  and  Guzerat,  and  progressing  northwards 
at  an  uncertain  rate,  eventually  extending  to  Mirzapore  and 
Chunar,  after  a  lapse  of  twelve  months  from  its  first  appearance. 
According  to  Dr.  Mouat,  it  only  arrived  at  Berhampore  nine 
months  after  its  prevalence  in  Calcutta ;  but  he  does  not 
specify,  whether  his  regiment  had  recently  come.  If  so,  the 
disease  might  have  existed  at  Berhampore  in  the  previous 
year,  when  Calcutta  was  af&icted. 

Its  meteorological  relations  are  vagUie.  The  quantity  of 
rain  and  the  temperature  of  Calcutta  seem  to  have  differed 
slightly  from  the  previous  year,  excepting  that  the  heat  was  of 
a  much  more  oppressive  character,  and  the  rain  fell  in  large 
quantities,  combined  with  an  excess  of  electricity.  We  are 
unfortunate  in  possessing  no  record  of  the  weather,  in  the 
other  stations  which  it  attacked,  or  any  further  statement  of 
the  extent  of  its  ravages. 

We  now  hear  no  more  of  epidemics  (always  excepting  the 
Cholera,  which  prevailed  annually)  until  June  1828,  when  a 
severe  Bronchitic  Fever,  almost  entirely  limited  to  children, 
and  proving  very  fatal  amongst  them,  was  prevalent  in  lower 
Bengal  Dr.  Aaam  writes  as  follows,  in  the  4th  volume  of  the 
"  Transactions  :** — 

The  recent  occurrence  of  an  epidemic  fehrile  affection  among  children 
having  attracted  a  oonsiderahle  share  of   my  attention,  1  have  drawn  up 
a  brief  account  of  the  disease,  which  I  now  present  to  the  Society,  chiefly 
in  the  hope,  that  it  may  induce  other  members  to  contribute  their  observa- 
tions on  the  same  subject.    ******    As  far  as  my  own  experience  goe8» 
not  one  child,  out  of  100,   under  four  years  of  age,  has  escaped  the  attack. 
Although  in  different  individuals,  exhioiting  various  degrees  of  severity,  it 
has  naturally  engaged  in  some  a  much  greater  share  of  attention  than  in 
others ;  yet  the  general  character  of  the  disease,  as  will  appear  in  the 
sequel,  has  been  the  same  in  all.  *  4c  ^le  ♦  ^k  *  Id  place  of  an  epidemic  bronchi- 
tic  fever,  affecting  infants  and  young  children,  as  I   have  designated  it» 
perhaps,  it  may,  with  more  propriety,  be  termed  an  epidemic  fever,  with 
determination  to  the  mucous  membrane  of  the  bronchiie.    The  phrase, 
Bronchitis,  is  too  specific,  and,  as  implying  inflammation,  appears  objeetiou- 
able ;  for  of  the  actual  presence  of  this  condition  of  the  local  structures,  1 
am  by  no  means  certain.    ******  This  epidemic,  I  find  from  inquiries 
since  made,  was  not  confined  to  the  city  and  suburbs  of  Calcutta,  but  ex- 
tended to  many  stations  in  Lower  Bengal.    It  prevailed  at  Ohinsurab, 
Burdwan,  and  Bauleah ;  and  cases  of  it  were  met  with  as  high  as  Maldah. 
At  Burdwan,  Mr.  Coulter,  the  resident  surgeon  of  the  station,  states,  that 


MOFUSSIL   SANATOKY   REFOKM.  173 

"almost  every  European  child  was  attacked  with  it;  in  some  attended  with  very 
high  fever,  which  seldom  lasted  above  twenty-four  hours.'*  And  he  adds,  what 
dia  not  appear  to  have  occurred  here,  **  that  the  native  children  too, 
suffered  considerably ;  and  that  the  adult  natives  of  the  district  had  fevers 
simil&r  to  that  of  the  children,  with  the  difference,  that  in  the  former  it  was 
K^oompanied  by  a  troublesome  ophthalmia ;  but  though  the  sickness  was 
great,  the  casualties  were  comparatively  few." 

Dr.  Macpherson  of  Bauleah  says  of  this  fever : — 

No  case  of  the  epidemic,  which  proved  so  fatal  to  children  from  the  age  of 
six  mouths  to  a  year  and  a  half,  during  last  rains,  occurred  at  this  station)^ 
till  the  middle  of  August,  where  a  fine,  stout,  healthy  little  girl,  nearly  nine 
months  old.  was  attacked,  and  carried  off,  after  fifteen  hours'  suffering,  from 
the  time  the  symptoms  became  urgent.  Another  fine  child,  six  months 
of  age,  was  seized  with  the  disease,  ten  miles  from  this  place,  about 
the  latter  end  of  September,  which  proved  fatal  in  ten  hours,  from 
the  period  that  feverish  and  other  untoward  symptoms  first  made  their 
appearance  All  the  other  children  of  the  station,  and  several  in  the 
vicinity,  suffered  attacks  during  the  month  of  September  ;  but  (with  one 
exception)  all  of  them  were  upwards  oi  two  years  of  age  ;  and  the  active 
treatment,  that  was  had  recourse  to  from  the  commencement,  had  fortunate- 
ly the  effect  of  checking  and  ultimately  removing,  all  dangerous  symptoms, 
although  in  every  case,  the  little  patients  were  sadly  reduced,  and  did  not 
regain  their  health  and  flesh  for  several  months.  ****** 
1  am  totally  at  a  loss  to  assign  any  cause  for  the  prevalence  of  this  disease. 
There  was,  however,  one  thing  remarkable  in  the  weather,  which.  I  think, 
worthy  of  notice.  The  wind,  during  the  rainy  months  in  Bengal,  blows 
almost  invariably  from  the  east  or  south  east;  but  during  August  and 
September  laet  year,  it  was  generally  southerly  or  easterly,  with  hot  sultry 
days  and  strong  gales  at  night. 

Commentiiig  upon  this^  Dr.  Adam  again  says : — 

This  fever,  which  occurred  at  fiauleah,  so  accurately  described  by  Mr. 
MePherson ,  will  at  once  be  recognized  as  corresponding  in  almost  every 
feature  with  the  Calcutta  epidemic.  Although  in  point  of  time,  it  occurred 
some  weeks  later,  yet  i  cannot  entertain  a  doubt  of  their  identity.  How  far 
the  disease  was  communicable  by  contagion,  I  am  at  a  loss  to  say.  From 
my  own  experience,  I  should  be  inclined  to  doubt  this  conclusion.  That 
it  owed  its  origin  to  some  very  general  cause,  acting  on  the  tender  Euro- 
pean firame,  appear  obvious  from  the  whole  history  of  the  malady.  No  native 
children,  that  I  am  aware  of,  laboured  in  a  serious  degree  under  a  similar 
aflTeetion.  There  may  have  been  instances  of  catarrh  at  the  time,  but  the 
subsequent  fever  was  wanting ;  and  the  general  fatal  result  was  not  observed 
to  occur  in  the  latter  class.  We  know,  it  is  true,  but  little  of  the  state 
of  health  of  the  native  population  under  ordinary  circumstances  ;  but, 
when  sickness  presents  itself  in  an  epidemic  form,  and  more  especially, 
where  the  consequences  of  this  are,  in  many  cases,  fatal ,  the  existence 
o(  the  disease  is  speedily  communicated  to  the  Eiiropean  community. 
Compared  then  with  the  latter,  the  natives  suffer  little  or  nothing  from 
the  visitation  in  question  ;  and,  in  considering  the  causes  of  the  malady, 
we  must  always  bear  in  mind  this  remarkable  disposition.  Among 
Kuropean  children,  very  few  escaped — not  one  out  of  a  hundred,  as 
stated  at  the  commencement  of  the  paper.  The  proportion  of  deaths 
was  likewise  very  great,  as  will  appear  from  the    following  statement 

*  Bauleah. 


>• 
If 
If 


174  INDIAN  £PID£MICS  AND 

of  the  number  of  children  and  infants  interred  in  the  Park -street  Buiy- 
ing  Ground,  for  the  months  during  which  the  disease  prevailed  in  1828, 
compared  with  the  three  preceding  years.  The  subjoined  extracts  from  the 
obituary  list,  published  in  the  Government  Gazette,  for  the  same  period, 
will  furnish  a  further  confirmation  of  the  fact. 

Number  of  interments  of  young  children  and  infants  in  the  Park-street 
Burying  Ground,  during  the  months  of  June,  July  and  August,  for  four 
years,  or  from  1825  to  1828  inclusive. 

June,  July  and  August  1825  25  casualties. 

Ditto  Ditto      Ditto  1826  23 

Ditto  Ditto      Ditto  1827  21 

Ditto  Ditto      Ditto  1828  49 

Extracts  from  the  obituary  list  of  the  Government  Gazette,  shewing  the 
number  of  casualties,  during  the  above  period,  in  children,  under  four  years 
of  age. 

1825.         1826.  1827.  1828. 

June.. « 9                7  6  4 

July   : 3                .3  11  31 

August  15                 3  9  24 

Total 27  18  26  59 

It  is  peculiar  to  the  epidemic  now  described,  that  it  should  occur  as  such, 
in  subjects  of  tender  years  and  be  exclusively  confined  to  them.  In  the 
history  of  Indian  disease,  so  far  as  I  am  acquainted,  we  have  no  precedent 
to  compare  with  it.  The  exanthemata  are  occasionally  prevalent  among  all 
classes;  but  a  fever  so  marked  by  local  determination,  and  very  fatal  issue, 
must  be  held,  notonly  novel  in  this  country,  but  rare,  so  far  as  put  on  record, 
even  in  Europe.  From  whatever  cause  it  originated,  the  disease  has  pro?ed  too 
severe  in  its  consequences,  by  depriving  many  a  fond  parent  of  their  beloved 
ofibprinff,  to  be  overlooked ;  and,  I  trust,  the  plain  out  faithful  relation  I 
have  endeavoured  to  give  of  its  progress  and  more  striking  characteristics,  may 
prepare  us  hereafter  to  combat  it  with  greater  success,  should  we  be  doomed 
to  witness  another  visitation  of  the  calamity.  There  is  little  doubt,  had  the 
real  nature  of  the  affection  been  early  suspected,  and  active  measures  resorted 
to  by  way  of  precaution,  that  in  many  instances,  children  would  have 
suffered  only  in  a  slight  degree,  who  were  eventually  carried  off  by  it." 

Here  again  the  absence  of  meteorological  record^  for  any  other 
station  than  Calcutta,  forbids  generalization.  The  constitution 
of  the  year  was  remarkable  in  throwing  the  chief  weight  of 
disease  upon  young  children,  and  in  selecting  the  pulmonary 
organs  as  its  point  of  attack.  Maldah  was,  most  probably, 
not  the  limit  of  its  diffusion ;  but  we  find  no  data  from  which 
to  trace  it  to  other  stations.  Its  rate  of  progress  would  appear 
to  have  been  much  more  rapid  than  that  of  the  fever  of 
1824-25,  which  occupied  nine  months  in  reaching  Berhampore, 
whilst  the  present  raged  in  Bauleah,  a  place  equally  distant 
from  the  capital,  after  the  lapse  of  six  weeks. 

In  1829,  we  are  told  of  a  fever  which  prevailed  extensively 
in  the  Mirut  and  Sirhind  division  of  the  army,  thus  described 
by  the  Medical  Board : — 

It    appears  by  Mr.  Langstaff*6  reports,  and  a  meteorological  register 


MOFUSSIL   SANATOBT   B£FOBM.  175 

bptafc  Mtrut,  that  the  early  rains  of  the  year  1829,  were  in  that  district 
uoasaal  in  frequency  and  quantity,  but  ceased  prematurely.  The  dry 
period,  which  followed,  was  remarKable  for  extremely  hot  and  oppressive 
days;  while  there  was  an  equally  notable  decrease  of  the  temperature  of 
the  night.  September  is  reported  as  a  dry  and  unseasonable  month,  dur- 
ing which,  an  epidemic  fever  prevailed  in  the  district  of  Hurrianah,  and  at 
Delhi,  spreading  from  thence  on  the  opposite  bank  of  the  Jumnab,  in  a  di- 
reetion,  corresponding  with  the  course  of  the  existing  winds.  This  fever 
commenced,  before  there  was  any  abatement  of  the  rains,  and  assumed  for 
the  most  part  the  bilious  remittent  form ;  resembling,  in  severe  cases,  the 
worst  type  of  jungle  fever,  while  milder  cases  became  intermittents.  Eu- 
ropeans and  natives  appeared  equally  liable  to  the  disease ;  and  it  was  ob- 
served at  Mirut,  that  ofthe  former,  those  men  suffered  most  from  the  disease 
who  had  been  the  longest  resident  in  India.  A  bilious  tinge  was  observable  in 
the  majority ;  and,  in  many,  this  symptom  existed  to  a  great  degree.  The  latter 
stage  of  the  disease  was  attended  by  a  remarkable  and  protracted  debility, 
dfjected  aspect,  and  despondency  of  mind.  The  greater  number  of  the 
patients  lingered  through  a  tardy  convalescence ;  and  the  ratio  of  mortality 
was  very  small. 

Dr.  A.  Murray*8  report  contains  a  statement  of  the  fever,  which  appear- 
ed in  the  Sirhind  division  of  the  army.  The  disease  commenced  at  Han- 
si.  about  the  20th  April  1829,  and  prevailed  very  extensively,  but  in  a 
mild  form  ;  the  sickness  decreased  much  in  June,  and  from  the  20th,  that 
station  was  considered  healthy,  until  the  middle  of  July  ;  soon  after  which, 
there  was  great  increase  of  disease;  and  all  classes  of  persons  appeared  to 
suffer  equally — the  European  officers  and  their  domestics  in  the  same 
ratio  as  the  native  troops.  Very  few  fatal  cases  occurred  generally.  In  the 
15th  N.  1.,  above  400  cases  of  fever  were  admitted,  and  only  one  fatal  case 
had  occurred,  op  to  the  end  of  July.  Two  companies  of  the  37th  N.  I.  were 
sent  from  Kumdl  to  Hansi  early  in  July ;  and  at  the  end  of  the  month, 
this  small  detachment  had  thirty-two  sepoys  in  hospital.  The  disease 
was  more  severe  among  the  native  inhabitants  of  Hansi;  and  from  want  of 
prompt  medical  aid,  it  proved  more  fatal.  The  nature  of  the  fever  at  Hansi 
IS  reported  by  Dr.  Murray  to  have  resembled  that  above  mentioned  by 
Mr.  Langstaff,  as  having  prevailed  at  Mirut ;  and  the  conyalescence  was 
just  as  tardy,  leaving  the  constitution  equally  impaired.  The  prevalence 
of  fever  at  Hansi  was  ascribed  to  some  small  tanks  situated  between  the 
town  and  cantonment,  and  to  a  bad  state  of  the  drains.  The  disease  was 
not  supposed  to  be  influenced  by  the  canal,  which  passes  through  that 
district 

These  accounts  make  it  quite  clear^  that  the  fever  must  have 
been  due  to  causes^  common  to  the  two  divisions  of  the  army : 
but  what  these  were^  we  are  unfortunately  not  in  a  position  to 
state. 

The  sixth  volume  contains  a  very  interesting  communication 
from  Dr.  Ward^  on  the  Epidemic  Catarrh,  which  prevailed  at 
Penang,  in  July  and  August  1831.     He  says  : — 

"  The  importance  of  the  history  of  Epidemic  maladies  generally,  will,  I 
hope,  be  a  sufficient  excuse  for  my  obtruding  on  the  notice  of  the  Society,  a 
few  remarks  on  one,  which  has  prevailed  extensively  in  this  island,  among 
the  shipping  in  the  roads,  and  on  the  opposite  coasts  of  province  Wellesley, 
during  the  past  and  present  months.  The  disease  appeared  in  the  form  of 
severe  catarrh,  attacking  suddenly,— in  many  cases,  with  rigor.    The  usual 


176  INDIAN   EPIDEMICS  AND 

symptoms  were  ardent  fever ;  great  languor ;  sudden  prostration  of 
strength ;  headache,  often  violent ;  with  heaviness  over  the  eyebrows ; 
severe  muscular  pains  over  the  body,  but  more  especially  in  the  lower  ex- 
tremities; frequently  nausea,  and  sometimes  vomiting;  harassing  and 
constant  cough,  at  first  unattended  with  expectoration — accompanied  some- 
times with  pains  in  the  chest ;  sore-throat,  producing  diflBculty  of  swal- 
lowing ;  slight  inflammation  of  the  eyes ;  increased  flow  of  tears ;  sneez- 
ing, and  copious  discharge  of  thin  acrid  mucus  from  the  nostrils,  n^  *  t 
*  *  *  The  exact  number  of  sufierers  from  this  Epidemic, in  the  island  of 
Penang  and  province  Wellesley,  could  not  be  ascertained.  Few  of  the  in- 
habitants, however,  escaped  an  attack  of  it,  more  or  less  severe.  It  affected 
at  once  whole  families ;  it  attacked  young  and  old,  male  and  female,  of  all 
tribes  indiscriminately ;  several  shops  were  completely  deserted  during  il» 
continuance,  and  many  of  the  European  part  of  the  population  were  put 
to  considerable  inconvenience  by  the  indisposition  of  their  whole  estib- 
blishment  of  servants.  No  circumstance  occurred,  during  the  progress  of 
the  malady,  to  induce  the  belief  of  its  being  contagious.  When  it  attack- 
ed a  house,  the  individual  members  were  affected  about  the  same  period. 
In  some  of  these,  febrile  symptoms  ran  high  ;  in  many,  the  disease  shewed 
itself  merely  in  the  form  of  a  slight  cold,  or  common  catarrh  ;  the  feverish 
feelings  being  either  so  very  slight,  or  of  so  short  a  continuance,  as  not 
to  interfere  with  the  patient's  usual  occupation.  During  the  continuance 
of  the  Epidemic,  it  was  remarked,  that  horses  were  very  subject  to  cold ; 
and  that  several  cases  of  glanders  occurred.     •••••• 

In  the  hospital  of  the  46th  Regiment  N.  I.,  sixty  cases  of  the  prevailing 
Epidemic  were  admitted  between  the  17th  of  July  and  I2th  of  August 
Independently  of  these,  however,  many  were  attacked  with  the  slighter 
form  of  the  disease,  and  did  not  think  it  necessary  to  report  themselves 
sick.  The  average  duration  of  the  disease,  in  those  who  were  treated  in 
hospital,  were  5}  days.  All  were  discharged  cured.  ^s  «  *  *  4e  s^ 
His  M.  ship  Wolf  came  into  harbour,  from  a  cruise,  on  the  14th 
of  August ;  and,  between  that  date  and  the  2l8t,  upwards  of  eighty  men 
and  officers — nearly  two  thirds  of  the  crew — were  seized  with  the  Epi- 
demic in  a  violent  form.  All  recovered  rapidly,  except  two,  in  whom  the 
disease  was  most  severe  ;  and  they  have  been  since  invalided. 

The  disease  made  its  first  appearance  here  about  the  I5th  July.  The 
month  of  June  had  been  unpreoedentedly  dry  ;  scarcely  a  drop  of  rain  fell 
from  the  3rd  to  the  25th.  The  number  of  rainy  days  was  nine;  and  the 
quantity  by  the  Pluviometer  was  found  io  be  7.05  inches.  Between  the  first 
and  the  15th  of  July,  there  were  three  rainy  days,  in  which  only  1.05 
inches  fell.  During  both  months,  the  hot,  sultry,  unpleasant,  and  unheal- 
thy S.  E.  wind  had  been  blowing  uninterruptedly.  The  thermometer  rose 
generally  to  89''  and  90*  in  the  middle  of  the  day,  and  ranged  from  7^ 
to  82*  in  the  mornings  and  evenings.  The  15th,  16th  and  17th  of  July 
were  rainy ;  and,  during  those  three  days,  4.25  inches  of  rain  fell,  producing 
sudden  coolness  of  the  atmosphere.  From  the  18th  of  July  to  the  11th  of 
August,  2.25  inches  of  rain  fell  on  seven  separate  days :  and,  during  the  whole 
of  this  period,  the  southern  wind  continuea  to  blow.  On  the  10th  of  August* 
the  wind  changed  to  the  N.  and  N.  W ;  heavy  £alls  of  rain  took  place  on  that 
and  on  the  two  subsequent  days ;  and  the  disease  began  to  disappear.  On 
Che  14th,  the  wind  again  became  southerly,  but  occasionally  blew  from  the 
K.  W.  during  the  day.  On  that  night,  as  already  noticed,  H.  M.'s  ship 
Wolf  axrived  in  harbour;  and  her  crew  were  attacked  with  the  disease.  In 
two  or  three  days  after,  the  wind  continued  to  blow  steadily  from  the  W. 
or  N.  W. ;  a  small  quantity  of  rain  foil  every  day  after  the  2Sid,  and 


MOFUSSIL  SANATORY  REFORM.  177 

BO  further  attack  was  noticed  in  the  town  or  surrounding  country. 
t  *  t  The  following  account  of  the  Epidemic,  as  it  occurred  iu 
Java,  communicated  to  the  editor  hy  a  oorreepondent  at  Sourabaya,  I 
have  tianelated  firom  the  Jawuehs  Oourant  of  the  19th  of  May,  1831 : — 

"  Sourabaya,  May  ISth,  1831. 
*'8iB,— There  has  lately  preTailed  in  this  island  and  its  dependencies  a 
nekneBB,  which,  as  I  have  heard,  has  spread  uniyersally  here,  and  has  extend- 
«1  to  Samarang  and  Bezorki.  As  the  subject  may  be  interesting  to  you,  I 
kre  thought  it  proper  to  communicate  the  observations  and  inquiries  I 
liave  made  respecting  it :  more  particularly,  as  the  disease  first  shewed  itself 
in  Uiis  place.  In  the  latter  end  of  the  month  of  March  last,  news  came 
from  Orissee,  that  the  natives  there  were  so  ill,  that  their  daily  occupations 
vere  witii  difficulty  carried  on.  Not  long  after,  in  the  beginning  of  April, 
it  was  discovered  m  Sourabaya,  and  attacked  indiscriminately  every  family, 
European  as  well  as  native,  both  in  the  cit^  and  suburbs ;  and  all  the 
flhipping  in  the  harbour  were  affected  with  it,  except  the  crew  of  H.  M/s 
eorrette  PolkuB,  which  moved  out  further  from^  shore.  In  the  middle  of 
Apiil,  the  natives  of  the  interior  of  the  districts  of  Sourabaya,  Bancalhang, 
PUDakassan,  and  Sumanass,  were  seized  with  the  disease,  which  continued 
toprovail  until  the  middle  of  May.  No  place  escaped  its  attacks,  even  the 
people  of  the  Mountain  of  Tinger,  situated  in  the  district  of  Passarooang, 
vera  visited  by  it  Luckily,  however,  this  sickness,  as  I  have  understood, 
ianot  very  dangerous.  In  this  presidency,  in  the  department  of  Sourabaya, 
vbare  there  is  a  population  of  311,192  souls,  48,217  persons  were  attack 
ed  and  103  died.  In  the  department  of  Orissee,  with  a  population  of 
223.626,  there  were  52,628  patients,  of  whom  only  8  fell  victims  to  it 

"The  observations,  which  I  have  made  on  the  barometer,  from  the  com- 
neneement  of  the  Epidemic,  up  to  this  day,  have  shewn  nothing  particular ; 
for  it  has  stood  generally  between  29.8  and  30-2 ;  whilst  the  thermometer 
of  Fahrenheit,  in  the  beginning  of  April,  stood  very  high,  particularly  at 
nid-day,  when  it  rose  to  90*.  In  the  morning  it  stood  at  about  83*  or  84*. 
The  weather,  in  tl^e  end  of  March  and  beginning  of  April,  was  diy  and  clear, 
without  wind ;  but  in  the  evenings,  the  air  became  very  damp.  After  the 
rains  fell,  the  heat  decreased :  and  I  have  seen  the  thermometer  at  Sim- 
pang,  in  the  mornings  generally,  at  79°,  and  at  mid-day,  at  84°.  The  tem- 
perature of  this  place  differs  a  little  from  that  of  the  town  however.  The 
daily  falls  of  rain  and  the  easterly  winds  produced  a  pleasant  change  in 
the  we^er,  and  the  sickness  afterwards  visibly  decreased,  so  that  now, 
I  think,  the  cause  has  ceased  here  altogether." 

I  have  not  heard  of  this  epidemic  having  prevailed  at  Batavia,  or  any 
station  on  the  northern  part  of  Java.  It  appeared  in  Singapore,  about  the 
niddle  of  June.  The  following  meagre  notice  of  its  existence  in  that 
settlement  is  extracted  from  the  Singapore  Ohroniele  of  the  dOth  of  that 
month:  "We  regret  to  state,  that  an  Epidemic  sickness  prevails  throughout 
the  settlement ;  its  attack,  though  not  confined  to  natives,  extends  very 
generally  amongst  them.  It  is  not  however,  accompanied  with  any  danger- 
ous flymptoms,  being  merely  a  feverish  sickness,  attended  with  a  cold  and 
eoogb.  like  similar  distempers,  we  trust  it  will  not  be  long  before  it  makes 
lis  disappearance  from  amongst  us,  and  the  settlement  be  restored  to  its 
wonted  general  health."  From  the  above  account  and  from  private  in- 
formation, we  learn  that  the  symptoms  and  progress  at  Singapore  were  the 
same  as  noticed  in  this  island.  There  too,  the  southerly  winds  had  pre- 
vailed ;  and  the  disease  disappeared  on  the  falling  of  the  rains.  Ninety 
sepojs,  cot  of  about  300,  were  admitted  with  it  into  the  military  hospital. 
No  death  occurred  among  them,  and  the  treatment  was  nearly  the  same  as 
that  adopted  here. 


178  INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

The  Epidemic  reached  Malacca  about  the  end  of  June ;  and  there  also 
tpread  extensively  among  the  inhabitants,  and  exhibited  the  same  symptoms. 
It  also  disappeared  on  a  change  of  weather  taking  place  there.  As  has 
been  already  stated,  it  visited  this  settlement  towards  toe  middle  of  July. 

With  the  imperfect  data  before  us,  it  is  Impossible  to  determine,  at  present, 
where  the  disease  originated.  It  can  hardly  be  doubted,  however,  tnat  the 
cause  was  one  of  a  very  general  nature ;  and  that  the  disease,  as  it  appeared 
here,  was  produced  hj  the  same  peculiar  state  of  atmosphere,  whatever  it 
was,  which  excited  it  in  the  eastern  part  of  Java,  it  is  scarcely  poasi' 
ble,  that  the  occurrence  of  it  in  these  different  places,  remote  oertaiulj, 
but  following  at  regular  intervals  the  course  of  the  prevailing  winds  at  the 
period,  oould  have  been  a  mere  coincidence.  The  distance  from  Singapore,  to 
Samarang,  is  by  the  map  about  600  geographical  miles  in  a  S.  £.  directton, 
with  the  large  islands  of  Billiton,  Banka  and  Lintin  between  them.    It  is 

Erobable,  though  1  have  had  no  means  of  ascertaining  the  fact  that  it  miy 
ave  visited  these  places  in  its  progress  to  the  northward.  We  conclude, 
that  the  peculiar  morbific  state  of  the  atmosphere  was  conveyed  by  the  8.  £. 
wind  to  the  various  places  attacked  by  the  disease  in  question  :  and  this 
opinion  will  not  appear  extraordinary,  when  we  remember,  that  epidemie 
catarrhs  of  a  similar  nature  have  extended  from  Europe  across  the 
Atlantic  to  America.  The  supposed  immunity  of  Batavia  is  thua  easily 
explained,  as  from  its  situation  at  the  west  end  of  Java,  it  is  removed  from 
the  direct  influence  of  the  8.  £.  wind.  Presuming,  that  the  opinion  above 
expressed  is  correct,  the  disease  is  supposed  to  have  taken  two  months  to 
reach  from  Java  to  Singapore,  and  1^  more  to  extend  from  the  latter  place 
to  this  island.  In  all  these  respects,  it  will  be  seen  to  resemble  the  innueo- 
zas,  which  have  appeared  at  various  times  in  Europe — in  its  symptoms,  more 
particularly,  the  violence  of  the  fever,  the  great  debility,  its  short  duration, 
and  comparative  safety;  in  its  extent,  and  in  its  rapid  progress  over  immense 
tracts  of  country.  Its  origin  is  involved  in  the  same  doubt  and  difficulty." 

This  would  appear  to  have  been  the  influenzajBO  well  known 
in  the  present  day^  in  regard  to  the  sufferings  it  entails ;  but  of 
the  law  of  whicn  we  are  just  as  ignorant,  as  when,  twent7 
years  ago.  Dr.  Ward  expressed  a  hope  to  see  the  subject 
studied. 

His  own  b  no  unimportant  contribution  to  the  philosophy 
of  Epidemics.  It  clearly  marks  the  rate  of  progress,  and,  in 
some  measure,  the  extent  of  diffusion  of  the  disease.  The 
month  of  April  appears  to  have  seen  its  commencement  ui 
Sourabaya,  on  the  north-east  coast  of  Java,  where  it  attacked 
about  a  sixth  part  of  the  population,  destroying  but  very  few. 
It  appeared  at  Singapore  m  tiie  be^nning,  and  in  Malacca  at  the 
end  of  June,  whilst  JPenang  first  felt  its  effect  in  the  middle  of 
July.  It  seemed  to  be  carried  by  the  south-east  wind,  as 
shewn  by  its  avoidance  of  Java,  which  lay  north-west  of  its 
course.    On  all  occasions,  an  elevated  temperature  preceded  it* 

In  1832,  we  are  informed  by  Mr.  BosweU,  that  the  same  island 
was  visited  by  a  very  destructive  fever  during  the  months  of 
June,  July,  and  August.  April  of  the  same  year,  was  marired 
by  the  appearance  of  a  mild  Epidemic  fever,  at  Indore,  and 


r 


MOFUSSIL  SANATOnY  BEFORM.  179 

Other  parts  of  upper  India.    The  report  of  Mr.  Ludlow  is  as 

follows : — 

The  disease  commenced  with  pyrexia,  ^accompanied  by  pain  and  a  sense 
of  ooQStriction  across  the  chest,  which  was  followed  by  slight  superficial 
inflammation  of  tiie  throat  Aa  the  febrile  symptoms  subsided,  a  painful 
teodemess  of  the  trachea,  attended  by  cough  and  hoarseness,  supervened. 

It  is  mentioned,  that,  at  Indoro,  scarcely  an  inhabitant  of  the  city  escaped 

tbe  disease.    At  Mhow  it  first  attacked  the  natiyes  in  the  Sudder  Bazar  in 

ooniiderable  numbers,  and  some  deaths  are  reported  to  haye  happened. 

It  ifterwards  spread  among  the  officers  and  eerrants.  At  a  time  when  seventy 

or  eighty  men  of  the  05U>  regiment  were  in  hospital,  in  consequence  of  the 

Epidemic,  not  more  than  a  case  or  two  occurred  in  the  7th  Cavalry, 

ilthough  both  corps  had  lately  arrived  at  the  station.  •••*** 

Tbe  disease  disappeared  about  the  end  of  the  month :  and,  although  it 

nsaaUy  left  the  patienta  in  a  state  of  great  debility,  no  other  bad  effects 

vera  stated  to  have  arisen  from  it,  nor  were  there  any  fatal  terminations, 

expspt  a  few  patients  who  were  reported  to  have  died  in  the  bazar.     The 

•pidemie  was  asoiibed  to  the  state  of  ^e  atmosphere.    Immediately  before 

itsppeaied,  the  weather  had  been  sultry  and  oalm  :  the  atmosphere  heavy 

in  ibe  day,  and  at  night,  chilly  breezes  from  the  N.  E.  had  been  frequent. 

Mr.  Ludlow  observes  that  the  previous  cold  season  had  been  remarkable  on 

Meount  of  the  unusual  quantity  of  rain,  which  fell  throughout  the  northern 

ftnd  western  provinces  of  Bengal.    At  tiiat  time,  salivation  was  frequently 

observed  to  arise  after  the  use  of  a  very  small  quantity  of  mercury.    And 

obolera  of  a  severe  and  fatal  kind  appeared  in  the  rainy  season,  among  the 

Earopean  ArtQlery,  but  was  evidently  often  the  consequence  of  drunkenness. 

Vaeeination  was  singularly  successful  in  that  part  of  the  country,  this 

jwr;  whereas  in  IS&i  (a  remarkably  dry  season,)  of  fiftv  or  sixty  vacoi* 

nttioDS,  only  one  child  had  the  true  vaccine  pustule;  but  many  had  a 

spurious  pustule,  sometimes  accompanied  by  slight  eruptions  on  other  parts 

of  tbe  body. 

The  same  Cfudemic  was  reported  to  the  Medical  Boards  by 
Sapennt&tidiiig  Surgeon  Playfair^  of  the  Meerut  DivisioiL. 

His  report  contained  a  brief  notice  of  an  epidemic,  which  appeared  at 
lifaernt  about  the  same  time  (7th  of  April),  and  which,  in  character  and  in- 
tensity, very  much  resembled  that  which  is  above  stated,  to  have  occurred 
in  Mr.  Ludlow's  division.  In  the  course  of  ten  days,  it  affected  upwards  of 
200  men  of  H.  M.'s  26th  foot.  The  same  epidemic  appeared  at  Bareilly, 
fod  in  other  parts  of  Mr.  Play  fair's  division,  early  in  April;,  but  in  no  one 
instaooe,  either  here,  or  at  Meerut,  did  it  prove  fatal. 

This  malady^  according  to  Mr.  Ludlow^  would  seem  to  have 
been  preceded  by  unusualatmospheric  phenomena:  but,  as  usual, 
the  mferences  dntwn  from  the  weather  are  vague  in  the  extreme, 
from  the  absence  of  a  strict  and  tmiversaf  system  of  recoid 
of  natural  phenomena^  without  which  we  may  go  on  blunder- 
ing in  the  oark  from  year  to  year  without  the  slightest  approx- 
imation to  tbe  truth. 

^  Whilst  fever  was  prevalent  in  the  north-west.  Measles  were 
nfe  in  Calcutta,  as  reported  by  Dr.  Corbyn. 

Rubeola  was  very  prevalent  at  Calcutta,  and  the  vicinity,  in  March, 
April,  and  May,  1832 ;  and  numerous  cases  of  variolMd  disease,  as  well  as 


180  INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

some  fatal  cases  of  confluent  small  pox,  occurred  at  the  same  Ume.  While 
these  diseases  were  rife  in  this  neighhonrhood,  other  complaints  appeared 
to  he,  for  the  time,  in  some  measure  superseded.  The  oases  of  measles,  which 
came  under  the  author's  ohserration,  were,  in  general,  severe;  the  pyrexia 
ardent,  and  the  cough  very  distressing ;  but  the  disease  does  not  appear  to 
have  heen  very  fatal. 

About  March  of  this  year.  Small  Pox  be^n  to  show  itself 
in  an  epidemic  fonn  in  Calcutta,  and  contmued  slowly  pro- 
gressing in  fatality,  until  December;  from  which  time,  the  deaths 
averaged  about  500  a  month  until  the  June  following,  con- 
stituting a  total  mortality  of  .2,814  during  the  sixteen  months. 

Offering  a  marked  difference  to  the  Epidemics,  which  have 
already  come  before  us,  this  one  attained  its  greatest  virulence 
in  the  coldest  month,  and  dated  its  decline  from  the  conmience- 
ment  of  the  "  rains." 

We  hear  nothing  of  the  prevalence  of  the  disease  in  other 
parts  of  India:  but  this  may  arise,  rather  from  the  absence 
of  records,  than  from  its  non-existence. 

During  the  rains  of  the  year  1833,  a  very  severe  form  of 
remittent  fever  prevailed  epidemically  in  Calcutta^  thus  des- 
cribed by  Mr.  Twining : — 

An  unusaally  oppressive  [hot  season,  more  particularly  during  the 
months  of  April  and  May,  was  productive,  at  that  time,  of  no  remarkahle 
increase  of  sickness  in  Calcutta.  There  yere,  however,  several  cases  of  deter- 
mination of  hlood  to  the  head,  threatening  apoplexy,  hut  unconnected  with 
fever ; — thev  were  ascrihed  to  the  high  temperature,  and  extremely  oppres- 
sive state  of  the  atmosphere.  A  oonsiderahle  number  of  cases  of  catarrhal 
fever  then  occurred  in  adults,  in  which,  affections  of  the  mucous  membrane 
of  the  throat  were  severe,  occasioning  much  hoarseness,  and  in  some  cases, 
suppression  of  the  voice ;  there  was  also  pain  and  stiffness  in  the  muscles  of 
the  neck,  with  some  oppression  at  the  chest;  and  several  of  these  patients 
had  a  red  efiBlorescence  over  the  whole  skin,  on  the  2nd  and  8rd  day  of  the 
fever.  *«««*«  From  ahout  the  middle  of  July  to  the  end  of 
October,  a  different  form  of  fever  prevailed ;  and  we  had  most  ample  oppor- 
tunities of  observing  the  remittent  fever  of  Bengal,  in  a  greater  number  of 
oases,  and  with  its  peculiar  characters,  more  exquisitely  marked,  than  I 
have  seen  it  for  many  years  past.  This  fever,  at  its  accession,  Taried 
much ;  some  degree  of  rigor  occurred  once  at  an  early  period  of  the  disease, 
in  a  considerable  number  of  patients ;  in  many  cases,  the  attack  was 
sudden ;  and,  on  the  first  and  second  daj  of  a  patient's  illness,  there  was 
no  doubt  of  the  dangerous  character  of  his  complaint  Excessive  reaction 
appeared  at  the  commencement  of  the  paroxysm,  with  very  great  deter- 
mination to  the  brain ;  the  eyes  became  blood-shot,  the  forehead  hot,  and 
the  countenance  swollen.  The  exacerbation  generally  began  before  nine 
o'clock  A.  M.,  reached  its  acme  soon  after  12,  and  was  then  followed 
by  a  corresponding  prostration  of  vital  power ;  with  profuse  perspiration, 
coldness  or  surface,  and  rapid  weak  pulse :  the  colaness  in  some  cases 
went  on  increasing,  and  terminated  in  death  *•••••!  ba^s 
omitted  speaking  of  the  causes,  to  which  the  fevers  of  1838  could  be 
attributed ;  wishing,  that  the  series  of  diseases,  which  we  had  occasion  to 
observe,  should  be  first  described,  and  the  periods  stated  on  which  thej 


MOFUSSIL   SANATORY   BEFOltM.  181 

feepeeitvelY  occurred.  There  appe&rs  very  little  reason  to  doubt,  that  the 
increase  of  sickness,  and  the  orevailing  diseases  at  Calcutta  and  its  vicinity 
in  1833,  were  much  influenced  by  the  unusually  high  temperature  of  the 
hot  seaaoti,  and  the  inundation  which  occurred  between  this  place  and 
the  sea,  at  the  time  of  the  gale  on  the  22nd  May,  whereby  numbers  of 
the  inhabitants  and  cattle  were  destroyed,  the  cultivation  ruined,  and  ex- 
tensive districts  rendered  unhealthy.  The  influence  of  these  causes  was 
slow  in  reaching  the  inhabitants  of  Calcutta :  but  those  persons,  who  were 
exposed  to  the  distress,  incidental  to  the  gale  and  inunaation  at  Diamond 
Harbour,  came  to  the  hospital  in  a  few  days  after  its  occurrence;  and  I  belieye, 
almost  all  those,  who  were  stationed  within  the  range  of  that  inundation, 
saffered  early  and  severely,  A  succession  of  patients  from  the  ships  that 
had  been  exposed,  or  wrecked  in  the  course  of  the  gale,  crowded 
the  wards  ot  our  hospital  for  many  months.  When  the  rainy 
season  came  on,  the  gradual  approach  of  the  formidable  remittent 
fever,  among  the  inhabitants  of  the  neighbouring  villages,  gave  warning 
of  what  was  about  to  happen  in  this  city.  It  is  needless  to  relate  at 
this  day  the  alarming  extent  of  the  sickness  which  prevailed  in  July  and 
August  last ;  it  is  too  well  remembered  by  every  one. 

Besides,  the  causes  of  disease,  arising  from  malaria,  and  generated  by  the 
inundation  and  high  temperature,  natives  were  exposed  to  the  evils  of 
famine  in  these  districts,  where  the  cultivation  was  destroyed  :  and  they 
also  suffered  from  want  of  good  fresh  water,  as  their  tanks  were  overflowed 
and  filled  from  the  sea,  the  water  being  rendered  brackish  and  unwholesome, 
within  the  range  of  the  inundaticm,  for  the  whole  year.  The  effects  of  a 
contaminated  atmosphere,  and  the  influence  of  general  causes  of  disease, 
were  strongly  manifested  bv  the  manner,  in  which  fever  spread  among  the 
mora  wealthy  natives  in  Calcutta  and  its  vicinity.  The  number  of  young 
persons  in  this  class  of  inhabitants,  particularly  those  between  eighteen  and 
thirty  years  of  age,  who  suffered  from  the  prevailing  fevers,  was  very 
zemaikable. 

At  the  commencement  of  1833,  Bangalore  appears  to  have 
been  yisited  by  a  severe  epidemic  catarrh,  for  the  following 
aooount  of  which  we  are  indebted  to  the  pen  of  the  late  Dr; 
Monat; 

Towards  the  end  of  December,  a  severe  catarrhal  fever,  or  influenza, 
as  it  was  designated,  appeared  in  the  native  corps  at  this  station,  and 
fintinthed5th  Native  Infantry,  which,  in  January  1888,  affected  very 
extensively  the  men,  women,  children  and  followers  of  the  13th  Dragoons  ;■ 
as  also  H.  M's.  62nd  regiment,  as  well  as  most  of  the  European  residents, 
their  families  and  domestics  in  the  cantonment.  It  remitted,  or  entirely 
ceased,  in  February,  when  cholera  prevailed  in  the  bazars  amongst  the 
natives,  and  broke  out  in  March,  amongst  the  Europeans  of  the  18th  Dra- 
goons, and  H.  M/s  89th  regiment,  which  had  arrived  in  February,  and 
leplaoed  the  62nd  foot  ;  so  that  the  observations  made  in  the  last 
year's  report,  were  premature ;  and  the  unusual,  continued  and  protracted 
drought  had,  at  length,  been  attended  by  an  extraordinary  degree  of  sickness 
for  Bangalore.  Therefore,  that  which  had  been  considered  a  deviation  from 
the  ordinary  results  of  such  aJtered  seasons,  has,  nevertheless,  turned  out 
another  instanoe  of  the  strong  influence,  with  which  the  physical  circum- 
stances, with  which  we  are  surrounded,  modify  the  phenomena  of  animal 
existenee,  and  predispose  to  those  epidemical  visitations,  so  destructive  to 
health  and  life.    Here  follows  a  return  of  admiseions,  discbarges  and  deaths, 


182 


INDIAN   EPIDEMICS  AND 


with  the  Epidemic  catarrhal  fever,  in  H.  M.'s  iSth  Dragoons,  from  27tb 
December  1832,  to  19th  February,  1888. 


Total    ad- 
mitted,  or 
treated. 

Cnred. 

Died. 

Remarks. 

Men  of  the  regiment 

Women  ditto ••... 

120 
17 

109 
95 

120 
17 

108 
95 

0 
0 

1 
0 

(Died  on  the  thvdday  after 
<    admission,  with  anoppres- 
(    sion  of  the  chest. 

Children  ditto  

FoUowen  ditto 

Total.. 

341 

340 

1 

The  various  phenomena  attendant  on  the  former  disease,  were  curious 
and  interesting  ;  but  to  draw  conclusions,  or  to  generalize  extensively  on 
those  circumstances,  would  lead  to  a  labyrinth,  at  best  of  ingenious  oonjeo- 
ture,  and,  it  may  be  of  palpable  contradictions.    That  its  source  was  general 
and  extensive,  would  appear  by  its  attacking  all  classes,  sparing  neither  age, 
sex  nor  constitution,  and  extending  from  the  extreme  of  the  Horse  Artillery 
lines,  to  the  fort  at  Bangalore :  yet  even  here  it  had  its  anomalies,  by  affecting 
the  native  Horse  Artillery,  and  entirely  exempting  the  European  Foot  Artil- 
lery, about  one  hundred  persons.    It  appeared  in  the  85th  Native  Infantry, 
and  then  in  the  other  native  corps;  in  U.  M.'s  13th  Dragoons  and  H. 
M.'s  62ud  Foot,  and  their  families  and  native  followers;  among  several  of  the 
officers  resident  in  the  cantonment,  as  well  as  their  families,  and  most  of 
their  servants  or  followers.    The  weather  about  this  period  was  verv  try- 
ing to  the  frame ;  the  sun  extremely  hot  and  powerral ;  the  air  cool,  and 
even  chilly ;  the  nights  particularly  raw  and  cold,  and  the  mornings  foggy, 
with  very  strong   north-easterly  winds.     As  the  weather  changed,  the 
disease  gradually  disappeared.    Here,  however,  we  come  to  no  satisfactory 
conclusion,  as  m  every  climate,  and  in  all  states  of  the  atmosphere,  we 
see  epidemic  disease ;  and  here  the  influence,  though  general  and  extensive, 
was  local :  for  the  malady  was  confined  to  certain  corps.    Many  ourions 
facts  lead  to  a  supposition,  that  it  was  infectious: — but  again,  the  facts 
were  so  numerous  to  over-rule  such  a  conclusion,  that  we  incline  to  the 
epidemic  origin  of  the  disease  from  atmospheric  influence,  as  the  mostsatia- 
factory,  or  least  contradictory,  explanation.     In  whatever  way  propagated^ 
however  induced,  whence  arising,  or  bow  contracted,  it  was  a  curious  fact, 
that  almost  all  our  men  imputed  its  invasion  to  cold,  generally  caught, 
whilst  asleep  at  night. 

The  same  year  was  painfully  distinguished  at  Bangalore,  by 
its  being  the  first,  in  which  cholera  appeared  epidemicidlj 
amongst  European  troops.  Speaking  of  it.  Dr.  Mouat  again 
says : — 

No  fewer  than  202  men  of  the  13th  Dragoons  have  been  admitted  with 
cholera  during  the  last  twelve  months.    •    ♦    •    •     •    •    xhe 


MOFUSSIL   SANATORY   REFORM.  183 

eooflequentlyi  appeared  in  February — ^tbe  first  case  on  the  15tb  of  that 
month;  but  it  was  not  prevalent  till  March,  though  it  continued  all  Apiil 
and  May,  with  a  few  cases  in  June,  when  it  lost  its  epideroio  character ; 
and  the  subsequent  seizures  might  be  considered  sporadic,  such  as  we  see 
at  all  seasons,  and  in  every  situation  in  India. 

This  relation  between  Influenza  and  Cholera  has  been  remark- 
ed in  Europe ;  and  the  fact  of  Cholera  having,  on  this  occasion, 
made  its  first  appearance  at  Bangalore  renders  the  coincidence 
more  striking.  The  troops  at  Nussirabad  presented,  in  October, 
1833,  the  painful  spectacle  of  an  Epidemic  attack  of  scurvy, 
which  increased  rapidly  in  November,  December,  and  up  to 
January  1834,  when  it  began  to  decline.  It  had  prevailea  ex- 
tenfflyeiy  fourteen  years  previously  in  the  same  cantonment. 
The  commencement  of  the  disease  was  preceded  by  a  deficiency 
of  gnun  and  ghee  amongst  the  men,  owing  to  high  prices.  The 
most  extraoroonary  feature  of  this  epidemic,  however,  was  the 
impunity  from  the  disease  enjoyed  by  the  regimental  and  town 
bazars,  urns  dwelt  on  by  Dr.  McNab : — 

Tbe  eironmstance  is  not  easily  accounted  for.  There  are  n\imbers  of 
poor  miserable  creatures,  not  only  badly  fed  but  destitute  of  tbe  most  or- 
dinaxy  comforts,  which  sepoys  of  the  most  precarious  habits  certainly  pos* 
tosB,  Why  then  should  those,  and  such  as  those,  half  famished  wretches, 
btre  enjoyed  this  singular  immunity,  whilst  men,  who  were  even  noted  as 
loTen  of  good  cheer  among  their  fellow  soldiers,  suffered,  many  of  tbem, 
vBiy  ssTere  attacks  ?  The  Sudder  fiazar  is  situated  midway  betwixt  tbe 
lines  of  the  17th  Regiment,  half  a  mile  in  rear  of  it,  and  tbe  lines  of  the 
otber  three  Infantry  Begiments,  about  the  same  distance  in  front.  Tet  what 
codd  hare  protected  this  well  peopled  spot  from  the  malignant  influences, 
vbieb  so  unsparingly  Tisitea  its  Teiy  vicinity  ?  A  magic  circle  must 
lure  sorely  encompassed  it  The  case  was  exactly  tbe  same  with  the  regi- 
mental bazars :  I  do  not  believe  that  a  single  case  of  scurvy  occurred  in  any 
of  them.   A  few,  and  but  a  few,  of  the  camp-followers  shewed  symptoms. 

In  Beawr,  a  station  about  thirty  miles  from  Nussirabad,  the 
aune  disease  made  its  appearance  in  March  1833,  but  milder 
in  its  character*  We  are  told  however  that  '*  there  was 
Bcarceb^  a  m^n  in  the  corps,  who  had  not  spungy  and  painful 
gnms.*^ 

Dr.  Stewart  mentions  that  a  fever  prevailed  at  Howrah  in  June  and 
July  1834,  so  ttniversally  diffused,  that  it  attacked  '*  in  turns  all  tbe  Profes- 
wn  of  Bishop's  Oollege,with  their  families,  students,  and  servants,  in  such 
sort,  that  it  was  at  length  resolved  to  break  up  tbe  establishment  entirely 
kr  two  months, 

1836  will  always  be  remarkable  in  relation  to  Indian 
Epidemics,  as  the  year,  which  witnessed  the  irruption  or  break- 
mg  out  of  the  Pali  p^gue;  for  it  is  hard  to  say  whether  it  was 
imported,  or  arose  spontaneously.  Mr.  Superintending  Surgeon 
Panton  writes  thus  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Medical  Board ; 

Sn,— Having  requested  Mr.  Maclean  on  the  dOth  ultimo,  to  forward  to  me 


184  INDIAN    EPIDEMICS  AND 

whatever  authentic  intelligence  he  could  ohtain,  regarding  the  aickness  at 
Pali;  I  have  the  honour  to  transmit,  for  the  information  of  the  Medical  Board, 
a  copy  of  his  letter,  dated  the  16th ,  in  which  the  disease  is  described,  as  he 
witnessed  it  in  numerous  instances.  The  following  are  the  symptoms  and 
course  of  it,  which  resemble  the  mild  variety  of  plague. 

It  begins  suddenly  with  a  slight  rigor,  or  cold  shivering,  nausea,  pain  in 
the  head  and  loins,  followed  soon  by  hot,  dry  skin,  small  and  very  frequent 
pulse,  132  to  150  ;  considerable  thirst  Eyes  heavv,  hazy,  and  often  blood- 
shot ;  countenance  expressive  of  much  anxiety  ana  anguish  ;  tongue  cover- 
ed with  a  white,  yellowish,  or  brown  fur.  Buboes  in  the  groins,  armpits,  or 
neck,  appear  sometimes  simultaneously  with  the  fever,  but  commonly  in 
the  course  of  the  first  or  second  day — respiration  easy,  excepting  in  cases 
connected  with  a  pulmonic  affection.  A  remission  of  the  fever,  of  longer 
or  shorter  duration,  according  to  the  mildness  or  severity  of  the  disease, 
ensues  towards  the  morning.  Death  occurs  on  the  second  day  ;  in  a  greater 
number  on  the  third  ;  but  rarely  later  than  the  fourth  day.  Two  thirds  of 
the  number,  attacked  with  the  disease,  are  supposed  to  have  died.  In  the 
greater  number,  the  buboes  do  not  suppurate  :  in  some  oases  they  increase 
rapidly  in  size,  suppurate,  and  discharge  pus.  Increase  of  size  in  them  with- 
out suppuration,  is  remarked  as  being  favourable ;  they  disappear  gradually 
in  persons  who  recover.  *  *  ♦  ♦  >k  *  It  is  limited  to  the  towns,  in 
which  communication  with  the  sick  has  been  held :  villages,  a  kos  only 
from  Pali,  continued  free  from  it. 

Assistant  Surgeon  Maclean,  who  was  deputed  to  investigate 
it,  writes  thus  to  the  Superintending  Surgeon : — 

In  my  former  communications  to  you  on  this  subject,  I  mentioned  on 
the  authority  of  native  reports,  which  I  have  since  found,  by  personal  in- 
vestigation on  the  spot,  to  have  been,  in  the  main,  correct,  that  the  disease 
in  question,  first  appeared  among  the  ckippoi,  or  cloth-printers  of  Pali ;  and 
that  it  subsequently  attacked  all  other  classes  and  castes  of  the  inhabitants. 
In  the  course  of  five  or  six  weeks,  from  its  appearance,  the  disease  having 
committed  great  ravages,  and  the  daily  mortality  being  still  on  the  increase, 
all  ranks  of  the  townspeople  became  so  muoh  alarmed,  that  they  began,  in 
considerable  numbers,  to  aoandon  alike  their  homes,  occupations,  and  pro- 
perty, and  to  seek  refuge  in  Jaudpur,  Sujit,  Eairwah,   and  other  towns  and 
villages  within  a  circle  of  from  twenty  to  thirty  miles  around  Pali.     ♦    ♦ 
*    *    *    *    Of  the  thousands  of  persons,  who  quitted  Pali  five  or  six  weeks 
ago,  some  were  at  the  time  labouring  under  disease,  others  fell  sick  on  the 
road,  or  immediately  after  they  had  reached  their  destined  places  of  refuge. 
For  a  short  time  after  their  arrival  in  the  various  towns,  in  which  they  bad 
taken  up  their  temporary  abode,  the  sickness,  which  they  had  brought  in 
their  train,  adhered  to  the  refugees,  without  attacking  the  inhabitants  of 
those  towns.    But  this  state  of  things  did  not  long  continue.    The  daases, 
with  which  the  refugees  had  the  most  intimate  communication  {baniifa$  for 
instance)    speedily  began  to  feel  the  effects  of  the  Pali  scourge:  and 
now  there  is  not  a  town  or  village,  to  which  the  refugees  resorted  in  any  con- 
siderable numbers,  which  is  not  become  a  fresh  focus  of  contagion,  and  in 
which  the  original  malady  does  not  rage  with  fearful  vigour.    *****  * 
I  had  no  means  of  ascertaining  very  exactly  the  rate  of  mortality  from 
the  Pali  disease.    It  is  certainly  less  considerable  than  I  had  been  led  to 
believe  from  the  reports  made  to  me  by  natives  previously  to  my  visit ; 
still  it  is  fearfully  great— probably  not  less  than  two  thirds  of  those  attacked. 
The  total  number  of  persons,  who  have  fallen  victims  to  it  in  Pali,  cannot  yet 
be  correctly  known.    The  Hakim,  with  whom  I  had  several  conversations 


MOFUSSIL  SANATORY  BEFOBM.  185 

OD  tbe  subject,  eetimated  them  at  five  or  six  tbousands.    This  is  probably 
beyond  the  truth  :  buti  cannot  doubt,  that  about  four  thousand  have  actually 
died.    The  Ghippabs  originally  amounted  to  between  four  or  five  hundred 
hmnes,  or  families — ^probably   two    thousand   individuals  of  both  sexes 
and  all  ages.     Of  this  numbcor  eix  hundred  and  sixty-five  hftve  died. 
Soppodog  the  population    of  Pali    to    have  been    nearly  15,000,  and 
Ihat  it  suffered  in  like  proportion  with  the  Ghippabs,  the  result   would 
be  a  mortality  to  the  extent  of  more  than  the  number  I  have  stated  above. 
«  t   *    •    «    «     JX  i^  certainly  a  disease  hitherto  unknown  in  this 
coantry.    It  is  also  almost  unprecedentedly  fatal.    That  it  is  contagious, 
appears  to  me  to  be  proved  by  the  whole  history  of  its  progress,  since  it 
first  appeared  among  the  Ghippabs  of  Pali  three  months  ago.    Had  it  con- 
fined itB  ravages  to  rali  alone,  or  had  it  been  common,  or  even  known  in 
the  other  towns,  in  which  it  has  since  appeared,  before  tbe  Pali  people  took 
refbge  in  them,  it  might  have  been  supposed  to  be  a  malignant  fever, 
depending  on  local  causes  for  its  origin  and  continued  existence.    But 
when  we  see  it  starting  up  in  every  town,  to  which  these  persons  fled,  some 
of  them  actually  lal)ouring  under  the  disease,  some  but  just  recovered  from 
it,  and  some  with  the  germ  of  malady  still  inert  in  their  veins,  the  convic- 
tion, that  it  is  contagious,  is  irresistible.    It  is  evident,  however,  that  the 
ttaosphere  of  contagion  is  extremely  confined.    I  believe  a  person  might, 
with  imptinity,  enter,  nay,  live,  in  those  towns,  in  irhieli  many  hundreds  of 
ih$  infaabitei!^  are  now  ktbouriag  under  the  disease,  provided  he  was  careful 
to  avoid  personal  contact  with  Uie  sick,  and  visiting  them  in  the  small 
close  ehambers  in  which  thev  lodged.    I  myself  spent   hours,   in  the 
middle  of  the  bazar,  surrounded  by  the  sick,  entered  some  of  their  houses, 
timehed  and  exftoiined  their  bodies  as  freely  as  if  they  had  been  affisoted  with 
uy  eommoQ  di0ea«e  ;  and  iiotr,  after  an  interval  of  five  or  six  days,  during 
vfaioh  I  have  undeivone  considerable  bodily  fatigue,  I  feel  perfectly  secure 
from  any  attack,    ft  is  not  a  little  remarkable,  and  still  further  tends  to 
eitablish  the  contagious  nature  of  the  disease,  that  in  the  smaller  villages 
of  tiie immeduste neighbourhood  of  Sujit,  no  ease  of  the  "ffatU H mdndage" 
as  it  is  called,  had  occurred,  so  far  as  I  could  learn  on  minute  inquiry. 
In  regard  to  the  origin  of  this  disease,  I  have  nothing  to  offer  beyond  coniec- 
tore.    Was  it  generated  in  Pali  by  the  noxious  exhalations  from  the  low 
>wampy  edges  of  the^'^,  or  tank,  immediately  to  the  eastward  of  the  town — 
or  by  the  want  of  ventilation  and  cleanliness*  in  its  narrow,  irregular 
bazars  and  allej^s  ?  Or  was  thepestilential  contagion  brought  in  tiie  bales  of 
doib  imported  into  Pali  from  Bhaonagar,  Surat,  ftc,  and  of  which  the  Chip- 

2h8  (among  whom  the  complaint  first  began)  are  the  principal  purchasers  ? 
est  of  the  olotb  so  imported  is  English :  but  it  is  possible,  that  some  coarser 
kind  of  it,  or  perhaps  suk,  may  be  the  produce  of  plague  countries,  and  may 
have  been  brought  direct  to  Pali  from  the  coast  without  being  opened — the 
sales  having  been  efiected  by  musters.  The  Ghippabs  call  all  the  cloth  ooming 
from  the  coBBt  foreign ;  and  know  nothing  of  the  particular  countries  from 
whence  the  different  kinds  are  brought.  The  aosence  fiK>m  Pali  of  the 
Sets,  who  import  the  cloth  for  the  use  of  the  Ghippabs,  prevented  me  from 
acquiring  correct  information  regarding  the  various  countries  from  which 
they  denved  it 

We  regard  thk,  in  every  respect,  as  the  most  remarkable  Epi- 
denuc,  whicli  ever  threatened  to  desolate  India,  whether  viewed 
in  regard  to  its  ori^,  progress  and  termination,  or  to  the  unique 
fiu^  of  its  never  having  been  known  here  previously,  or  since — 
unlefis  indeed  the  Mahamurriof  Gurhwal  be  considercKl  an  excep* 

A  A 


186  INDIAN  EPIDEHGS  AND 

tioiL    We  much  regret  that  more  extenaiye  data  are  wantii^  to 
enable  ub  to  examine  it  in  all  its  relations. 

Towards  the  close  of  the  same  year,  an  epidemic  remittent 
occurred  at  Bareilly,  thus  described  by  Mr*  Guthrie  ; 

It  is  iQported  that,  about  the  year  1813,  daring  the  Medical  charge  of  Mr. 
Eyans,  a  similar  fever  preyailed,  saorificing  800  victimB,  re-appearing  under 
Mr.  Brown  in  1818,  causing  great  mortolitv  from  July  to  September; 
which  also  paid  a  passing  visit,  under  Mr.  Rhoaes  in  1834,  of  only  a  few  days, 
destroying  eighteen  convicts.  Itis  evident  how  very  useful  to  us  it  would  have 
been  to  have  referred  back  to  records  concerning  these :  and  it  is  therefore, 
on  this  account  chiefly,  that  I  am  now  induced  to  draw  the  following  imper 
feet  sketch.  ******  The  following  will  give  an  idea  of  toe  mor- 
tality among  the  Bareilly  prisoners :  and  it  has  been  equally  severe  among 
4hoee  from  Filibhit  :«— 

In  October      i8S6»      10    died  out  of       90    siok. 
^,  November     „         16       ditto  129     „ 

„  December      „         26       ditto  161     „ 

„  January      1837,      82       ditto  195     „ 

„  February      „         24       ditto  245     „ 

An  Epidemic  congestive  fever  was  very  &tal  in  December 
amongst  the  convicts  labouring  on  the  Ghreat  Trunk  Boad  near 
MynpiirL 

1837  was  distinguished  by  an  Epidemic  attack  of  Small  Pox 
in  Calcutta^  which  commencing  in  March,  diminishing  in  Au- 
gust,  and  acquiring  greater  intensity  in  December,  destroyed, 
before  June  of  the  rollowing  year,  1,548  lives. 

Although  excluding  Cholera  generally  from  our  condderation 
on  accoimt  of  its  yearly  presence,  we  may  remark  that,  in 
1840,  it  appeared  in  a  very  severe  form  at  Malacca,  where  its 
vifflts  are  uncommon.    Dr.  Ozley  says : — 

Our  usual  uniform  salubrity  has,  however,  been  interrupted  during  the 
past  year,  by  the  visitation  of  an  Epidemic  Cholera,  which  made  ita  appear- 
ance amongst  us,  about  the  end  of  the  month  of  October.  This  so  reason- 
ably dreaded  scourge,  from  its  unexpected  and  unwonted  presence,  created  a 
degree  of  alarm  and  depression  upon  the  minds  of  the  inhabitants  of  this 
settlement,  not  altogether  without  foundation,  but  certainly  much  greater 
than  the  actual  ravages  of  the  disease  authorized,  or  would,  in  places  sub- 
ject to  its  invasion,  have  produced ;  for,  from  all  I  can  learn  from  careful  in- 
qnify,  out  of  a  population  of  about  14,000,  including  town,  and  suburbs, 
not  more  than  sevenQr  or  eighty  have  fallen  victims,  from  its  first  break- 
ing out  to  the  present  time  of  writing,  *  *  *  *  *  *  Nothing 
remarkable  occurred  in  the  heathfulness  of  the  settlement,  until  about 
the  month  of  July,  when  an  epizootic  disease  broke  out  amongst  the 
swine.  During  this  and  ths  following  month,  it  is  calculated  that  upwards 
of  two  thousand  nigs  (within  the  precincts  of  the  town.)  fell  viodma 
to  this  unheard  of  oisease.  Animals,  apparently  quite  well  in  the  eveningt 
were  dead  ere  morning ;  the  symptoms  appeared  to  be  of  a  twofold  nature  ; 
many  died  of  a  sort  of  dysentery,  generally  fatal  on  the  8rd  day.  *  *  ^  * 
*  •  ^  This  food  (Pork)  appears,  however,  to  have  been  consumed  with 
impunity  for  some  time;  for  the  first  case  of  the  Epidemic,  which  oocurred, 
happened  towards  the  lafter  end  of  October,  and  excited  but  litUe  apprehen- 


UOFUSSIL  SANATOBT  BEFOBM.  1&7 

nm.  Tb«  violence  of  the  diseaee  fell  at  first  upon  the  Obinese,  who  are  the 
gnttest  oonsnmere  of  Pork.    ••••••    A  number  of  Chinese 

toits,  loaded  with  an  inferior  sort  of  rioe,oame  into  the  harbour,  and  dispos- 
•d  of  their  grain,  bringing  intelligence  at  the  same  time,  that  several  viUd- 
$m  on  the  coast,  from  whence  they  came,  had  been  quite  depojndated  by 
the  rsYages  of  cholera.    ••••••     Although  all  classes  have 

suffered  more  or  less  from  the  visitation  of  the  Cholera,  it  is  somewhat 
aogplar  that  the  troopS)  who  live  in  the  centre  of  the  town,  surrounded  on 
all  sides  by  the  disease,  have  as  yet  been  entirely  exempt  from  its  invasion* 
fioC  ft  single  case  havinff  occurred  amongst  them ;. whilst  the  convicts,  living 
within  a  few  yards  of  tne  Sepoy  lines,  have  had  thirteen  attacked,  out  of 
182,  who  reside  in  the  lines. 

In  most  remarkable  coinddenoe  with  this  attack  was  the 
Epizootic,  which  was  clearly  due  to  a  common  cause. 

1843  was  destined  to  witness  the  recurrence  of  Small  Pox  in 
Calcutta.  It  conunenced  in  November  of  that  year,  and  termi- 
nated in  August  of  the  following  one,  duiinjg  which  time  2,949' 
liyes  were  sacrificed,  raisine  the  mortality  of  the  city  much  be- 
jomd  its  average.  During  its  prevalence  in  the  capital,  we  are 
informed  by  Dr.  Stewart  that : — 

Among  the  European  and  Native  Troops  at  Dum-Dum,  not  a  single 
MSB  htB  appeared ;  and  at  Barrackpore  only  four  cases,  all  in  one  regiment, 
the  8th  N.  I.,  in  April  and  May.  At  HowraSi,  I  am  told  by  Dr.  Maopherson,. 
that  the  disease  aid  not  show  itself  previous  to  February  ;  and  not  more 
thin  twelve  or  fourteen  cases  altogether  came  under  his  observation,  in  that 
popolous  district. 

It  can  scarcdy  be  believed  that  so  contagious  a  disease  would 
Emit  its  diffiision  to  Calcutta:  but  owing  to  defidency  of  record,, 
we  are  unable  to  aSbrd  information  in  regard  to  any  other  parts 
of  India. 

Similar  to  all  the  other  Epidemics,  which  have  preceded  it,  its 
meteorological  rektions  are  obscure.  Dr.  Stewart's  views,  on 
tlus  subject,  are  thus  expressed  : — 

Like  many  others,  I  have  sought  to  trace  some^  eonneotion  between 
the  oonise  of  the  various  Epidemics  of  Bengal,  and  the  oonstitation  of  the 
itmosphere  at  the  time,  in  particular  years,  and  during  particular  seasons 
of  deviation.  But,  though  I  believe  the  law  of  vicarious  epidbmy  to  be 
foOj  established,  and  the  above  sequence  of  diseases  to  be  the  common 
one  in  Calcutta,  I  do  not  feel  warranted  in  deduoinff  any  definite  conda- 
lions  from  my  own  scanty  observations,  with  regara  to  the  special  influ- 
ence upon  such  diseases  exercised  by  the  varying  hygrometnc,  electrical, 
tad  tbermometrio  states  of  the  atmosphere.  It  is,  however,  now  well  ascer- 
tiined  that  the  elements  of  heat  and  moisture  in  the  atmosphere  are  in- 
eompatible  with  the  presence  of  any  of  the  exanthemata,  in  an  active  state 
in  Bengal :  and^  with  reference  to  vaccination,  the  conclusions  are  obvious. 
Astotheoocasional  sporadic  cases,  or  even  general  explosions  of  Gholera, 
vhieh  occur  every  now  and  then,  in  connection  with  a  oad  harvest,  stormy 
weather,  and  a  high  price  of  rice,  or  some  unusual  but  remarkable  devia- 
tion from  the  ordinary  course  of  the  season,  no  legitimate  inferences  can^ 
U  dnwn  from  these. 


188  INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

One  other  obseryation,  I  think  I  am  iuBtifled  in  advancing,  without 
pretending  to  maintain  its  accuracy,  beyond  the  field  of  my  own  experience, 
which  is,  that  the  particular  constitution  of  the  atmosphere,  which,  during 
the  prevalence  of  Epidemic  Small  Pox  in  auv  season,  determines  the  type  and 
character  of  that  oisease  in  respect  of  virulence  and  malignancy,  exercises 
considerable  influence  also  upon  that  of  the  Epidemic,  which  succeeds  or 
replaces  it 

It  is  well  worthy  of  remark  that,  towards  the  middle  of  May  1844,  when 
the  Small  Pox  was  declining.  Cholera  made  its  appearance  with  unusual 
severity,  marked  with  features  of  putresoenoy,  such  as  have  been  seldom 
witnessed  in  India. 

We  havej  on  eeveral  occasions^  already  noticed  the  prevalence 
of  Epizootic  disease  simultaneously  with  Epidemics.  l%is  was  re- 
markably the  case  in  the  present  mstance.  The  following  table, 
from  Dr.  Stewart's  Seport^in  1843-44,  shows  the  intensity  of  the 
disease  to  have  closely  approximated  to  Small  Pox^  as  regards 

season. 

TABLE  F. 

Shewing  the  number  of  cattle,  said  to  have  died  of  Mattah,  within  the 
town  of  Galcutta,  from  1st  September  184S  to  1st  June  1844. — Thannadar's 
Beports. 

September 83        February 543 

October 19        March 126 

November ^ 125        April  U 

December  429        May « 19 

January 934 

This  mortality  extended  to  the  feathered  race.  Fowls  and 
pigeons  died  in  great  numbers,  dozens  being  taken  out  of  their 
yi^8  and  holes  every  morning.  Hie  only  visible  marks  of  di- 
sease were  swelling  and  redness  round  the  eyes.  Suoh  a  ma- 
lady is  not  uncommon  in  Bengal,  as  all,  who  keep  fium  yards,  can 
testify.  It  seldom,  however,  reaches  to  the  extent  we  hear  of 
on  tbls  occasion. 

Dr.  Stewart  has  most  industriously  investigated  the  Epi- 
zootic referred  to,  and  well  deserves  the  thanks  of  every 
student  of  Epidemic  influences.  Subsequent  to  1844,  nu- 
merous and  &tal  febrile  Epidemics  occurred  to  our  armies 
in  Scinde  and  the  Punjab,  which,  could  the  circumstanoes 
antecedent  to  and  attendant  upon  them  be  accurately  in- 
vestigated, would,  we  doubt  not,  be  found  in  a  great  mea- 
sure to  have  depended  upon  the  unhealthy  condition  of  the 
towns  and  stations,  necessarily  contingent  upon  our  recent 
occupation  of  the  country.  It  would  appear,  however, 
from  the  accounts  which  we  constantly  receive  of  the  insalu- 
brity of  certain  stations  in  the  Punjab,  coupled  with  statements 
of  imperfect  drainage,  and  the  most  reckless  disregard  of  irre- 
guhnties  of  surface,  caused  by  deporting  clay  for  brick-makiDg, 


HOFUSfllL  SANATORY  B£FO&M.  189 

that  no  systematic  measures  have  vet  been  taken  to  remedy 
the  evil^  out  that  our  soldiers  are  left  to  perish^  with  a  blind 
reliance  on  &te. 

We  now  arrive  at  a  most  remarkable  disease,  the  Maha- 
mturi,  or  plague  of  Ghirhwal,  which,  although  known  to 
have  existed  ^r  some  years,  was  never  investigated,  until  its 
lavages,  in  the  rains  of  1849,  induced  Mr*  Strachey,  the  semor 
aadstant  commissioner  of  the  district,  to  make  a  special  report 
to  the  authorities,  through  whom  the  circumstance  was  brought 
to  the  notice  of  the  Memcal  Board.  Dr.  Benny  was,  in  conse- 
quence, deputed  to  investigate  its  character  ; — a  task,  which  the 
publication  at  the  head  of  our  article  proves  to  have  been 
ccmducted  with  a  skill  and  courage,  honourable  to  his  service 
and  himself.    We  learn  from  his  notes  that : — 

This  remarkable  and  very  formidable  distemper  first  broke  out  in  the 
district  of  Gurhwal,  in  tbe  provinoe  of  Kamaon,  in  the  year  1828:  and  a 
ptiticiilar  fact,  arising  out  of  tbe  annual  religious  obserrances  of  tbe  Hin- 
aos,  serres  to  fix  tbis  as  tbe  exact  time.  Tbe  disease  is  not  mentioned  in 
Frasei^s  tour  in  the  Himalayas,  in  1820,  and  may  be  presumed  to  have  been 
then  unknown  in  tiie  district  It  has  since  prevailed  endemiodly  in  some 
part  or  other  of  Ghirhwal,  and  has  occasionally  raged  with  great  yiolence, 
apparently  as  an  Epidemic. 

Its  most  remarkable  appearances  have  been  as  follows : — It  began  near 

Kedamath,  in  the  snowy  range,  and  for  some  years  confined  its  ravages  to 

Fagnnnahs  Nagpore  and  Budban,  which  form  the  subject  of  the  first  report 

upon  it,  in  1884  and  1835.  In  the  latter  Pergunnah,  it  again  prevailed  in  1837, 

along  the  higher  parts  of  tbe  Pindar.  In  1846-47,  the  Mahamurri  found  its 

vav  to  the  sources  of  the  Banigunga  in  Putti-sobhi,  and  devastated  the 

▼Dlage  of  Sarkote,  elevated  about  7,000  feet,  on  a  high  easterly  spur  of  the 

great  mountain  Duduke  Tali  (10,300  feet  above  the  sea).   At  the  same  time 

a  village  in  Kumaon  proper,  near  the  source  of  the  Hosilla  in  Putti  Borake 

Bao,  was  visited.    In  1847,  a  village,  within  fifteen  miles  of  Almorah  west, 

ntoated  among  the  pine  forests  of  the  Secabi  Devi  range,  was  attacked. 

At  tbe  latter  end  of  1848,  a  few  villages  in  Pergunnah  Danpore,  along 

the  line  of  tbe  river  Pindar,  were  thiraatened  with  the  disease ;  but  tbe 

alarm  subsided.     On  the  whole,  the  year  1848  and  part  of  1849  may 

be  said  to  have  been  remarkably  free  from  the  Mahamurri,  throughout 

tbe  nrovinoe.    During  the  rainy  season  of  1849,  it  broke  out  with  great 

Tinuence  in  Patti  of  Ghuprakote ;  and,  although  the  disease  did  not  spread 

through  tbe  country,  it  proved  veiy  fatal  in  particular  villages,  such  as  Murhari 

and  DudolL    A  rumour  has  gone  out,  that  the  Mahamurri  appeared  at  the 

last  annual  fair  at  Bagesur;  but  tbe  occurrence  is  uncertain ;  and,  from  very 

[MTtieDlar  enquiries  made,  the  presumption  is,  that  it  has  never  reached  that 

side  of  Almorah.    ••••••    The  Mahamurri  is  a  malignant  fever, 

of  a  typhous  character,  accompanied  by  external  glandular  tumours,  very 
lata],  and  generally  proving  rapidly  so  in  three  or  four  days ;   it  appears  to 
be  izifectious,  and  is  believed  not  to  be  contagious.  ••••••  The 

external  swellings,  suddenlv  rising,  indolent,  and  not  very  painful,  are  the 
most  charaeteiistic  proofs  of  the  malady.  Glandular  swellings,  in  various 
parts  of  tbe  body,  the  groin,  axilla,  neck,  and  even  in  the  legs,  are  described 
as  occurring  :  but,  in  the  cases  witnessed  recently,  as  well  as  those  of  the 
few,  who  had  survived  an  attack,  the  tumours,  or  buboes,  if  tboy  can  be  so 


190  INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

ealled  in  that  state  of  incomplete  inflammation  and  suppuration,  were  onFyi 
in  the  g^oin — a  long  diffused  tumefaction  with  an  enlarged  gland  in  the 
centre,  of  the  size  of  a  nut    They  are  looked  upon,  hy  the  natives  as  the 
most  deadly  sign  of  the  distemper,  and  are  really  to  be  considered  an  un- 
favourable prognostic.    ♦•••••    The  most  remarkable  circum- 
stance in  the  disease  is  the  mild  nature  of  the  entire  symptoms,  under  so* 
rapid  a  termination; — little  febrile  or  other  constitutional  excitement  present- 
ing itself,  where  death  was  certain  in  twenty-four  or  thirty-six  hours. 
Such  trifling  derangement  of  the  functions  of  health  would  be  a  startling  and 
unacoountaole  anomaly,  and  not  to  be  reconciled  with  the  speedy  fatal 
result,  had  not  the  same  thing  been  observed  in  other  Epidemics  in  India,  and 
even  in  the  plague  itself.    ••••••    The  origin  of  Mabamurri 

is  very  obscure,  in  the  primary  causes  of  its  arising  in  Nagpore  and  Budhan. 
The  history  of  the  pestilence  in  these  Pergunnahs  is  still  a  desideratum ; 
nor  can  it  be  attempted,  in  the  short  experience  lately  gained,  to  clear  up 
the  uncertainty  that  hangs  over  it.    The  disease  is  considered  to  arise  from 
local  causes :  and,  according  to  what  is  known  of  the  fevers  of  hilly  coun* 
tries  in  all  parts  of  the  world,  it  takes  on  a  typhoid  form ;  when  again 
thecourseof  the  seasons,  or  the  state  of  the  atmosphere,  or  other  concomitant 
auxiliaries,  are  favourable  to  the  propagation  of  the  infecting  miasm,  the 
disorder  spreads  more  generally;  and,  strictly  in  accordance  with  the  cha- 
racters of  other  epidemics,  its  attacks  are  uncertain  and  capricious,  des- 
troying, perhaps,    one  or  more  villages,  while  others  not  far  off  escape 
entirely;  it  has  shewn  also  the  usual  Epidemic  periods  of  commencement, 
violence,  and  decline.    The  exact  seasons  of  its  invasions  are  not  fully 
ascertained ;  but,  in  the  past  year,  it  appears  to  have  broken  out  during 
the  rainy  season,  or  towards  the  close  of  it ;  to  have  continued  with  mora 
or  less  virulence,  till  the  end  of  December  1849 ;  to  have  re-appeared  in 
another  direction  in  March  or  April ;  and  to  have  abated  generally  over  the 
country  in  May  1850.    If  we  are  without  the  knowledge  of  the  primaiy 
source  of  typhus,  we  have  at  least  all  the  conditions,  acting  upon  a  great 
part  of  the  population  of  Gurhwal,  to  which  is  rationally  attributed  the 
rise  of  such  diseases  in  other  countries ;  these  are,  to  use  simple  terms, 
poverty,  filth,  and  bad  food,  or  starvation;  and,  if  we  examine  these  extremes 
more   minutely,  we  shall  find  under  each    head  sufficient  predisposing 
causes  for  a  general  susceptibility  to  the  putrid  diseases  in  question ;  and 
the  very  slow  improvement,  in  these  respects,  may  also  go  far  to  clear  up 
the  extraordinary  fact  of  so  fatal  a  sickness  having  prevailed  over  a  district 
for  so  many  years.    The  poverty  and  consequent  privations  are  understood' 
to  extend  chiefly  over  Hbe  Northern  Pergunnahs,  situated  near  the  snowy 
ranges,  where  the  Mabamurri  first  appeared.    The  filth  is  every  where — in 
their  villi^es.  their  houses,  and  their  persons.    It  destroys  the  otherwise 
pure  quality  of  the  air,  and  maintains  ever  round  the  inhabitants  that  con- 
taminated atmosphere,  so  favourable  to  the  condensation  of  infectious  emana- 
tions.   Their  dwellings  are  generally  low  and  ill-ventilated,  exoept  through 
their  bad  construction ;  and  the  advantage,  to  the  natives  in  other  parts  of 
India,  of  living  in  the  open  air  is  lost  to  the  villagers  of  Qurhwal,  from  the 
necessity  of  their  crowding  together  for  mutual  warmth  and  shelter  a^^ainst 
the  inclemency  of  the  weather.    The  food  of  the  majority  is  bad  and  insuf- 
ficient   In  the  Northern  parts,  wheat  does  not  grow;  and,  even  where  it 
does,  the  general  food  consists  of  the  small  grains — a  poor  diet,  and  not 
nourishing  enough  for  a  cold  and  moist  climate.    •••••• 

This  is  also  the  strongest  instance,  obtained  on  the  spot,  of  the  extreme 
virulence  of  this  disease,  as  it  prevailed  last  year,  showing  the  frightful 
number  of  eighty-eight  per  cent,  attacked,  and  ttie  same  proportion  proving 


M07U8SIL  SAKATOBT  BEFOBM.  191 

fktaL   It  does  not  appear  to  hare  been  so  destraotive  in  other  places,  where 
the  inbabitants  scattered  themselves.    •••••• 

Mabamnrri  han  prevailed  in  temperatares,  beyond  which,  it  is  known,  that 
the  plague  is  destroyed  or  suspended  in  Europe  and  Africa.    The  limit  of 
ftotiTity  for  it  is  very  small ;  Good*  quoting  from  Sir  Gilbert  Blane,  names 
the  extremes  60*  and  80° ;  Goplandf  gives  lower  numbers,  fixing  the  scale 
from  35°  to  75*.    Now  Mahamurri  hitherto  has  appeared  mostly  in  the 
villages,  near  to  the  snowy  ranges :  and  one  spot  has  been  named,  as  high 
as  10,000  feet  above  the  sea,  which  elevation  must  give  a  constant  tempera- 
ture low  enough  to  check  the  plague ;  whereas  the  report  is,  that  Maha- 
mturi  has  been  as  virulent  in  such  a  climate  as  elsewhere.   It  may  be  freely 
lotted,  that,  at  such  an  elevation,  woollen  clothing,  if  not  openly  exposed 
to  the  air  and  sun,  might  retain  and  communicate  the  virus  of  conta- 
gion, although  it  fails  to  do  so  in  Egypt,  in  the  healthy  season  ;  but  it  is 
more  likely  that  the  crowding  together  in  houses,  forced  on  the  inhabitants 
b^  their  poverty  and  the  extreme  cold,  would  give  virulence  to  an  infectious 
^iMtee,  even  at  such  a  temperature.    Again  we  have  seen  that  Mahamurri 
isay  exist,  in  its  perfect  malignity  at  heats,  above  the  extreme  range  men- 
tioned.  At  Bhnngdar,  on  the  17th  May,  the  thermometer,  in  the  shade,  stood 
at  8S°  maximum  in  the  day;  the   place  is  on  a  detached  hill  above 
the  stream,  and  freely  open  on  all  sides ;  at  Mason,  or  rather  at  My- 
eoller  near  it,  where  Mahamurri  occurred,  situated  on  the  same  stream 
and  higher  up,  but  in  a  close  confined  glen,  it  may  be  affirmed  that  the  beat 
was  muoh  greater,  even  a  month  earlier.  At  Deghat,  about  ten  miles  lower, 
on  the  same  stream,  in  a  tent  nearly  level  with  the  bank,  the  maximum 
thermometer,  on  the  19th  Mav,  was  95^  at  three  p.  h.J     ••••••. 

The  mortality  from  the  Mahamurri  is  very  great,  not  so  muoh  in  actual 
nunbers,  as  relatively  to  the  small  amount  of  population.  The  recent  mor- 
^ty  has  been  estimated  by  the  civil  authorities  to  be  probably  25  per  cent 
^  the  total  population.  Becent  enquiries  would  show  it  to  have  been 
^en  greater ;  but  the  statistical  details  are  most  defective.  In  certain  places 
the  destruction  has  been  very  great,  of  which  an  example  has  been  given,  of 
f^orteen  deaths  out  of  sixteen  people  in  one  place.  In  the  village  of  Sarkote, 
in  1846-47,  if  the  reports  of  the  inhabitants  are  to  be  trusted,  out  of  a 
population  of  sixty-five  in  all,  forty-three  died,  two  only  recovered,  and 
twenty  escaped  without  infection.  The  strong  proof  of  the  fatal  nature  of 
the  disease  is  the  small  number  who  recover ;  and  upon  this  criterion,  the 
Mahamurri  might  be  named  the  most  pestilent  disease  known.  It  seems, 
however,  that  -on  this  point,  exaggeration  has  probably  been  made ;  and 
this  bnmoh  of  the  question  needs  further  examination.  Two  men  only 
were  reported  as  survivors  of  this  last  Epidemic  of  1849-50.  One  was 
hroQght  to  me»  an  ii^abitant  of  Mahamurri ;  the  other  was  heard  of  at 

^  Qoe^M  ShiO^  of  Medidne.    London.  1825.    AnHurada  Pestis. 

t  Copkm^TM  JHcUimary,    London.  Pestis  Septica. 

t  The  following  ranges  of  temperature,  hi  several  localities  in  Komaoiiy  have  been 
eeatriboted  by  J.  H.  BaXteUf  Esq^  Commissioner  of  the  province.  The  mean  temper- 
atere  of  I>Qdaoli  will  be  abont  6r,  and  of  Mnhrari  (exactly  the  same  elevatiou  as 
Ramaon)  about  50^  or  60^.  The  extremes  85^  and  80^  may  be  assumed  for  the  great- 
er part  of  inkabited  Chnpmkote ;  the  thermometer  falls  to  25^  sometimea,  and  fliay, 
peniape,  rise  to  90^,  but  the  lattermost  be  very  rare,  even  in  the  lovrest  part  of  Chup- 
nkoto,  Lobba^  andChandpore.  At  Almora,  the  thermometer  has  been  seen  at  91°  m  a 
western  verandah  bx  June,  and  82^  at  the  $ctme  Ume  in  a  northern,  while  inside  the 
boose  it  has  been  TT'.  The  extremes  this  year  in  the  ont-of-doors  shade  at  Nainee  Tal 
hare  been  19*  and  Sff*  (St  Loo^  north  side  of  the  Tal).  In  the  hills  the  thermometer 
has  been  obeerved  at  100"  in  a  tent»  and  88^  in  a  grass  hot  on  the  same  spot 


192  IITDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

B^rgaon ;  tvo  more  men  were  brought  to  me,  etid  to  be  the  only  survivon 
of  the  Epidemic  that  raged  at  Sarkote,  in  1840-47 ;  no  othere  were  to  be 
foond,  as  it  was  affirmed,  in  the  large  tract  of  country  gone  over  and 
examined.  «  «  «  *  *  * 

The  same  paragraph  farther  notices  a  enrions  fact,  fally  belicYed  in  by 
the  natives,  up  to  the  preeent  time,  "  that  every  where  it  appears  fiist  to 
have  attacked  the  rate,  and  then  the  men." 

Mo  other  animals  have  been  observed  to  be  affMsted  in  the  aime 
manner,  or  by  the  Epidemic,  generally ;  and  this  belisf  in  the  deetmetion 
of  the  rate  is  so  universal,  and  so  confidently  asserted,  that  it  is  diffi- 
cult to  withhold  giving  credence  to  the  fact        *     «      i»      4b      ♦     * 

Several  authors  have,  at  various  times,  propounded,  as  the  cansss  of  Epi- 
demics in  India,  different  terrestrial  influences  affecting  the  several  districts 
ooncemed ;  and,  in  regard  to  these,  it  may  suffice  to  say,  that  by  the  future 
enquirer  may  be  found  in  Gurhwal  all  the  sources  of  such  infiueneei. 
Malaria  is  nfe  in  every  valley  and  ravine  r  the  rapid  geologic  changes,  so 
conspicuous  on  the  surface  of  these  hills,  leave  it  to  be  inferred  that  the 
same,  or  other  chemical  actions,  are  going  on  internally,  and  may  give  rise 
to  morbific  nrodnote;  terrestrial  electricity,  assigned  as  a  cause  in  southern 
India,  may  be  elicited  by  these  changes  or  by  other  agency;  volcanic  sir, 
proposed  as  the  origin  of  sidcness  in  Scinde,  cannot  be  wanting ;  for,  though 
no  active  volcanoe  exist,  there  occur  ftequent  earthquakes*  to  fac^tate 
the  discharge  of  volcanic  exhalations.  But  upon  all  these  subjects,  dis- 
cussion is  avoided ;  the  materials  are  deficient,  even  if  there  were  frit  the 
inclination  and  ability  to  pursue  it.  The  object  of  the  present  investigation 
has  been  entirely  practical ;  and  it  may  be  left  to  those,  who  oome  after,  to  put 
forward  theoretie  opinions  upon  this  disease.       •••••• 

Fourteen  died  at  a  place  in  the  forest,  half  a  mile  (Mr  more  from  Dudde- 
li,  called  by  two  names,  Khoror  G^mindeal,  and  reaiecting  which  I  had  the 
best  descriution,  yet  given  to  me,  of  the  career  of  the  sickness.  Here  ware 
only  two  houses,  or  long  low  hute,  occupied  by  two  separate  fiunilies,  con- 
neoted  with  each  other,  the  heads  being  two  brothers  (composed  of  sixteen 
souls  in  all,  old  and  young) ;  and  the  present  instance  exemplifies  their 
crowded  mode  of  living;  for  these  two  hute  bad  to  contain,  besides  sixteen 
individuals,  thirty  head  of* cattle,  large  and  small,  at  the  worst  sea- 
son of  the  year.  In  these  two  huts,  the  Mahamurri  commenced  about 
ten  or  eleven  months  ago,  corresponding  to  the  time  it  appeared  in 
Duddoli,  and  the  full  circuit  of  the  disease  was  here  better  seem  than  on 
any  other  occasion  brought  to  notice;  for  in  general,  the  healthy  or  un- 
atteoked  fly  to  the  near  hills  or  foresto,  leaving  the  tick  to  their  fate ;  bat 
at  this  place,  the  sixteen  residente  kept  together,  till  fourteen  died,  and  one 
adult  only,  a  man  of  about  thirty  years  of  age  or  more,  with  his  female  child 
of  six  years  old,  survived.  *••••* 

All  the  natives  agree  hitherto,  that  there  has  been  no  particular  disorder 
or  mortelity  among  their  cattle,  but  tbej  universally  agree  that  the  Maha- 
murri ia  preceded  or  accompanied  by  a  great  mortality  among  the  rate 
in  their  houses. 

It  would  thus  appear  that  the  Mahamurri  ia  doeely  akin 
to  the  Pali  plague,  ^rpviouslj  described.  The  latter,  however, 
broke  out  in  a  district,  betwe^i  two  and  three-hundred  miloB 
distant,  in  the  year  1836,  and,  having  existed  for  some  months^ 

*  Two  earthquakes  were  felt  this  year,  1850^  generally  over  the  province  of 
Kumaon— one  on  the  IGth  April,  the  otner  on  the  19th  May. 


MOFUSSIL  SANATOBT  BEFOKM.  193 

sever  re-wpeared :  whilst  the  former^  it  is  particularly  stated, 
was  never  imown  until  1823^  since  v^hich  time  it  has  occurred 
more  or  less  every  year^  up  to  the  present,  and,  according  to  Mr, 
Batten,  Commissioner  of  Kumaon,  is  yearly  progressing  towards 
theiJaina 

What  a  boundless  field  of  interest  does  this  strange  malady 
present  to  us,  not  unaccompanied  by  the  exciting  impression 
that  it  may,  one  day,  leave  its  fastnesses  in  the  hills,  and  roU 
down  a  torrent  of  death  and  desolation  on  the  plains  of  India! 

It  will  be  observed,  that  Dr.  Renny  lays  much  stress  upon 
(he  dirt  €mdJiUh  abounding  in  its  habitats^  affording  another  argu- 
ment, if  such  were  necessary,  for  the  urgency  of  some  univer- 
sal system  of  Sanatory  Reform. 

Thankful  as  we  are,  for  the  statesman-like  appreciation  of 
death  and  danger  to  the  population  and  of  the  needs  of  science, 
which  has  secured  us  this  able  report  of  Dr.  Kenny's,  we  can- 
not forbear  calling  the  reader's  attention  to  the  fact,  that  this 
dire  plague,  which  seems  to  steel  the  heart  of  man  against  his 
brother,  and  to  make  the  mother  loath  and  leave  her  child — thus 
degrading  reason  below  the  instinct  of  the  brute — ^has  raged 
for  nearly  thirty  years,  without  exciting  any  further  activity, 
than  a  request,  in  1836,  to  the  revenue  officers  of  the  affected 
district  to  report  upon  it,  with  one  of  whose  replies  is  en- 
closed a  letter  from  a  medical  officer  (Dr.  Bell),  stating  all  he 
knew  on  the  subject — from  hearsay  I   Never  was  a  circumstance 
so  iilostrative  of  the  absolute  necessity  of  some  systematically 
conducted  Pathological  survey  of  India,  such  as  is  suggested  by 
Mr,  Bedford,  and  of  which,  we  shall  presently  speak.     How 
much  time  would  have  been  suffered  to  elapse,  before  a  search- 
ing inquiry  was  instituted,  [had  this  Epidemic  taken  the  moral 
form  of  a  refusal  to  pay  revenue  ?  and  yet  the  cases  are  not 
widely  different     The  latter  would  have  been  loss  in  pocket  to 
the  State  ;  the  former  loss  of  life  to  the  ryot 

The  last  Epidemic  to  be  noticed  is  one,  to  the  fiitality  and 
distress  occasioned  by  which,  we  have  (many  of  us)  had  the  op- 
portunity of  testifying.  In  November  1849,  after  the  lapse  of 
ire  years  from  the  previous  attack,  Calcutta  was  visited  by 
Small  Pox,  which,  before  June  1850,  had  destroyed  6,100  lives, 
although,  in  the  intervening  period,  the  annual  mortality  from 
the  same  disease  did  not  average  above  thirty*  The  advent  of 
such  a  pestilence  spread,  as  may  naturally  be  supposed,  dismay 
in  all  directions,  and  gave  rise  to  an  order  from  Government 
to  form  a  Commis^on  for  the  purpose  of  investigating  its  char- 
acter, and  devising  measures  calculated  to  prevent  its  recurrence* 
The  discussion  of  the  able  Beport,  which  resulted,  must  be  defer* 

B  B 


194  INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

red  until  a  future  occasion^  where  it  can  be  considered  in  its 
whole  bearings.  We  may  remark,  howeyer,  that  interesting  as 
the  document  is,  and  replete  with  sanatory  suggestions  of  the 
highest  value,  we  would  willingly  have  recdiyed  further  infor- 
mation regarding  the  spread  of  the  disease.  Did  it  arise  in  Cal- 
cutta, or  was  it  imported,  and  attain  such  yirulence,  as  it  dis- 
played, from  a  crowded  population,  surrounded  by  unsanatorj 
circumstances?  Did  it  extend  to  neighbouring  towns  and  sta- 
tions? If  so,  at  what  rate  of  progress,  and  where  diditsiayages 
cease  ?  Was  there  any  coincident  Epizootic  ?  Such  knowledge 
is  essential  to  the  true  understanding  of  an  Epidemic ;  but  such 
unfortunately  is  denied  us,  even  regarding  a  disease  of  so  recent 
a  date. 

Such  is  an  imperfect  sketch  of  the  pestilences,  which  have 
afflicted  India  during  the  last  five  and  twenty  years,  as  fiur  as 
the  Transactions  and  Small  Pox  Reports  enable  us  to  note  them. 
Others  may  have  occurred,  either  simultaneously,  or  at  earlier 
periods ;  but  no  record  of  their  existence  is  attainable. 

Having  thus,  we  trust,  impressed  upon  our  readers  the  mat 
and  prepiant  fact,  that,  besides  the  large  amount  of  iUness 
invariably  present  in  our  population,  as  a  consequence  of  ever 
present  climatic  peculiarities  and  defidency  of  the  sanatory 
arrangements,  which  we  shall  hereafter  proceed  to  discuss,  there 
happen,  at  undetermined  intervals,  fresh  and  intense  accessions 
of  disease,  leaving  very  few  unscathed — ^it  only  remains  for  us  to 
take  into  consideration  the  best  mode  of  applying  our  know- 
ledge to  the  great  purpose  of  Sanatory  Beform. 

Our  observations  are  chiefly  intended  to  apply  to  the  Mofos- 
sil,  in  as  much  as  the  metropolis  rejoices  in  distinct  and  sepa- 
rate le^slative  enactments  for  its  own  especial  benefit;  but 
their  spirit  will  be  as  applicable  to  the  one  as  the  other. 

The  health  of  communities,  whether  viewed  as  a  nation,  or  as 
the  population  of  a  single  town,  is  determined  by 

1.  Ordinary,  and  in  a  great  measure,  unalterable  atmospheric 
peculiarities,  constituting  climate. 

2.  B^  the  occasional  visitation  of  diseases,  different  firom, 
or  exhibiting^  a  largely  increased  intensity  over,  those  usually 
prevalent.  This  class  has,  owing  to  its  wide  diffusion,  ol>- 
tained  the  designation  of  Epidemics.  There  can  he  little 
question  that  a  perfect  understanding  of  the  laws,  which  re- 
gulate their  course  and  govern  their  intensity,  would  enaUe 
us  to  lessen  the  mortality  which  now  attends  them.  How  ia 
this  to  be  attained  ?  Not  by  a  vame  and  desultory  system  of 
observation  and  chance  record,  such  as  we  have  had  to  deplore 
throughout  our  sketch,  but  by  a  regular  and   settied   plan. 


HOFUSSIL   SANATORY  BEFOBM.  195 

superintended  by  a  responsible  officer,  such  as  is  recommended 
by  Mr.  Bedford,  in  the  pamphlet  at  the  head  of  the  article.  He 
says,  **  Thus  in  recording  the  progress  of  an  Epidemic  attack  of 
Small  Pox,  or  Cholera,  it  would  be  essential  for  the  Deputy 
B^istrar  to  ascertain  the  place  and  date  of  its  commencement, 
the  extent  of  its  deviations,  its  rate  of  progress  from  one  zillah, 
or,  if  possible,  one  village  to  another,  its  attendant  meteorologi- 
ttl  phen(»nena,  its  mortality,  its  peculiar  habitats,  its  modifica- 
tioos  in  different  latitudes  or  altitudes,  its  concomitant  Epizootic 
<iiseue,if  any,andthedisea8e8of  plants,  which  may  aco(»npany  it" 

3.  By  hereditary  or  personal  taint,  in.  which  unhappy 
ciicumstances  but  little  improvement  can  be  hoped  for. 

4.  By  non-obedience  to  the  phvsiological  laws  governing 
private  healdi,  a  disr^ard  of  which  will  always  have  a  large 
inflQence  upon  the  existing  character  of  disease. 

5.  By  non-obedience  to  the  laws  which  govern  public 
lytilth  a  matter  of  enormous  moment,  when  we  see  by  unexcep- 
tknable  evidence,  the  waste  of  life  hitherto  attendant  upon  their 
bemg  ignored  ;  and  of  grave  interest  to  a  country  like  India,  the 
Govenmient  of  which  is  directly  responsible  for  the  lives  and 
jiealth  of  500,000  human  beings,  who  are  either  bearing  arms 
in  its  defence,  or  incarcerated  in    its   Jails.     Nor  does  the 

X ability  end  here, 
central  and  local  authorities  are,  of  necessity,  so  despotic, 
ud  car  Indian  fellow-countrymen  so  ignorant  of  the  demands  of 
public  health,  and  so  disinclined  by  nature  and  relative  position 
to  make  the  first  move  in  any  great  system  of  reform,  that  they 
become  the  absolute  arbiters  of  life  and  death  to  100,000,000 
of  mankind,  and  between  them  must  be  shared  the  imputation 
of  eveiy  life^  which  is  sacrificed  unnecessarily. 

The  Supreme  Council  has  done  its  best  to  fiusilitate  the 
Sinatoiy  fleform,  for  which  we  plead,  by  an  Act  to  be  subse- 
quently examined:  but  the  Government  must  render  this 
eflective  by  appointing  an  Inspector  General  of  Health,  to  see 
that  its  provisions  are  carried  out.  If  this  be  neglected,  the 
Act  in  question  may  be  viewed  as  consigned  to  the  safe 
keeping  of  the  Government  Grazette,  from  which  it  will  never 
emeige.  The  cause  of  this  apathy  to  a  subject  of  such  deep 
importAce  is  to  be  found  in  the  fact,  that  a  conviction  of  the 
stnct  relation  between  unsanatory  conditions  and  certain  forms 
of  disease  is  not  yet  brought  home  to  those,  who  have  the 
power  to  aid  in  the  great  movement  which  we  advocate. 

Throughout  the  extracts  we  have  given,  the  writers^  on  Epi- 
demic diseases  have  chiefly  dwelt  on  their  meteorological  rcla- 


^ 


196  INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

tions.      The  atmospheric  constitution  of  the  seasons  play?, 
doubtless,  a  very  important  part  in  their  development:  bat 
there  cannot  be  a  doubt  that  narrow  and  impure  streets,  imper- 
fect drains,  swamps  and  dirty  tanks,  with  various  other  municipal 
evils,  hereafter  to  be  mentioned,  modify,  in  no  inconsiderable  de- 
gree, the  character  of  the  disease.    Endemics,  such  as  Intermit- 
tent and  Remittent  Fevers,  with  which  we  may  combine  Cholera, 
as  being  at  present  naturalized  in  this  country,  are  due,  we  con- 
scientiously believe,  almost  entirely  to  the  defective  sanatory 
state  of  the  rural  districts.     Those,  who  have  lived  in  the  vi- 
cinity of  the  Cambridgeshire  or  Lincolnshire  fens,  must  know 
by  tradition,  how  Intermittent  Fever  once  prevailed;  and  how, 
by  drainage  and  cultivation,  the  health  of  the  district  has  im- 
proved, so  that  an  instance  of  that  malady  is  now  run  after  as  a 
wonder.    Bengal  mav  be  regarded  as  one  huge  marsh,  abound- 
ing with  mahma,  poisoning  quickly,  as  in  cases  of  S^emittent, 
or  slowly,  as  in  Intermittent  Fever,  all  the  residents  within  its 
bounds,  who  are  unfortified  by  good  dwellings.  We  would  that,for 
a  single  hour,  some  tutelary  genius  of  the  land  could  endow  with 
physical  consistency  the  noxious  exhalations,  hourly  rising  from 
each  stagnant  ditch,  each  dirty  tank,  and  festering  hole,  within 
the  limits  of  a  single  town : — ^we  would,  that  our  perceptioDs 
mi^ht  be  so  increased,  that  the  insidious  vapour  comd  be  made 
visible  to  our  corporeal  eye,  wreathing  itself  in  fatal   eddies 
found  the  sleeping  peasant,  entering  with  the  air  he  breathes, 
vitiating  his  blood,  and  heating  it  to  feverish  paroxysm,  then 
circling  to  his  spleen,  which  becomes  its  abiding  place,  until  driv- 
en out  by  death  I    We  would  that,  for  a  single  hour,  this,  which 
occurs  invisibly  with  each  succeeding  minute,  could  be  seen  and 
noted : — ^then  would  the  beholder  be  truly  horror  struck,  and 
devote  each  after  moment  of  existence  to  the  task  of  removing 
the  causes  of  such  dire  distress ; — and  this  effort  would  constitute 
Sanatory  Reform.    What  says  Dr.  Stewart  of  evil  municipal 
arrangement,  as  affecting  Small  Pox  ? 

It  is  foreign  to  my  preseat  objeot,  to  describe  minutely  the  well  known 
evil  effects  on  public  health,  produced  throughout  the  whole  natiye  town, 
and  to  a  frightful  extent  in  certain  Thannas,  by  the  original  defects  and 
errors  in  the  plan  of  the  city,  the  distortion,  the  malposition  and  mis-direc- 
tion of  its  principal  thoroughfares,  the  narrowness  ana  coufinement^nd  con- 
sequent bad  ventilation  of  its  lanes  and  gullies,  the  bad  constnAton  and 
faulty  arrangement  of  its  dwelling  houses,  the  smallnees  of  the  sleeping 
apartments,  the  perpetual  dirty  and  damp  state  of  the  court  yards,  the 
crowded  condition  of  the  inmates,  the  disgusting  stench  from  the  public 
cesses  and  privies,  the  stagnation  of  tanks,  drains  and  sewers,  the  scanti- 
ness and  badness  of  the  water  supplied  for  domestic  uses,  ftc.,  &o.  All 
those  matters  have  been  often  pointed  out  and  lamented,  talked  of  for  a 


MOFUSSIL  8AKAT0RT  REFORM.  197 

time,  forgotten,  and  re^discuased  on  the  recurrence  of  some  sweeping 
pestilence,  to  be  aj^ain  consigned  to  temporary  obliyion.  The  attempt  to 
remedy  tbem  seems  to  be  abandoned  as  too  arduous  and  almost  hopeless. 
The  origin  of  all  these  evils,  their  number  and  extent,  with  descriptions 
of  their  actual  effects,  and  plans  for  their  removal  or  amelioration,  have,  from 
time  immemorial,  engaged  the  consideration  of  individuals  and  of  Govern- 
ments;  and  are  they  not  all  fully  chronicled  in  faithful  and  filthy  detail, 
in  the  recently  printed  Report  of  the  Municipal  Committee,  and  in  the  ample 
pages  of  its  voluminous  appendix  ?  Sufficient  information  on  the  subject, 
ler  general  readers,  will  be  found  in  the  able  exposition  of  their  results  on 
eivie  health,  contained  in  Mr.  J.  R.  Martinis  "  Tonof^raphical  Memoir  of 
Cmloutta."  His  predictions,  founded  on  close  and  long  observation  of  the 
devastating  mortality,  caused  amid  the  dense  population  of  Bengal  "  rice 
eaters"  by  the  combination  of  such  natural  and  artificial  elements  of 
disease,  as  the  climate  and  town  of  Calcutta  present,  have  been  abun- 
dantly verified  during  the  late  Epidemic,  and  have  made  it  sufficiently  easy 
to  point  out  those  districts  and  Thannabs,  where  pestilence  would  surely  be 
found  most  rife»  and  death's  harvest  greatest. 

Out  illustration  has  been  limited  to  Fever :  but  Dysentery  and 
Rheumatism  have  been^  with  great  show  of  truths  assigned  to  the 
same  cause.  The  most  recent  researches  too  on  Cholera 
tend  to  prove  its  close  connection  with  miasma  and  malaria.  On 
the  subject  of  this  mutual  relation^  Dr.  Mackinnon^  in  the  Trans- 
actions^ VoL  VL  says : — 

The  year  1881  was  remarkable  for  a  degree  of  sickness  and  mortality, 
beyond  what  had  been  observed  in  Tirhil^t  for  many  years.  There  were  many 
deaths  from  cholera  in  June,  July  and  August ;  and  remittent  fevers  prevailed 
and  proved  very  fatal  during  the  months  of  September,  October,  Novem- 
ber, and  December.  The  most  fatal  forms  of  cholera  were  observed  in 
mtikealthy  and  low  situations ;  and  it  was  very  destructive  after  several 
heavy  falls  of  rain  about  the  middle  of  June.  Some  villages  are  stated 
to  have  been  literally  depopulated.  It  was  observed  that  the  quantity  of 
stagnant  water  was  greater  than  usual,  in  the  district  during  this  season. 

This  is  strong  evidence  from  so  acute  an  observer  as  Dr. 
Mackinnon.  Dr.  Banken,  in  a  paper  on  Public  Healthy  says,  that, 
in  his  work  on  Central  India,  Sir  Jolm  Malcolm  states,  ^'  Cho- 
lera Morbus  to  have  been  always  endemic  in  certain  jungly 
parts  of  Mai  wa."  He  continues  '^  the  same  is  related  of  a  mardiy 
tract  near  Chittagong,  in  the  Bengal  report  on  that  disease  ; 
what  have  these  places  in  common  out  Malaria  7*  Again  Dr. 
Har£e,  in  a  paper  on  the  medical  topography  of  Udipore, 
writes  thus : — 

I  have  here  taken  it  for  granted,  that  Cholera  is  produced  by  malaria ; 
and  though,  some  may,  perhaps,  feel  disposed  to  dispute  this  point,  I  suspect 
that  any  apparent  difference  of  opinion,  which  may  exist  in  reference  to  this 
question,  will  be  found  to  be  more  in  words,  than  in  reality.  ****** 
That  Cholera  is  produced  by  some  such  cause,  all  who  are  acquainted  with 
its  history  must,  I  think,  allow ;  and  the  peculiarly  capricious  course,  which 
this  disease  sometimes  follows — sometimes  attacking  those  on  the  one  side 
of  a  river,  sometimes  those  on  another,  sometimes  raging  round  particular 


198  INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

spots,  while  the  inhabitants  of  these  spots  esoi^^e  entirely— olearly  indi- 
cate that  the  generation  of  the  poison,  which  causes  this  disease,  is  local, 
•and  that  it  depends  more  upon  a  peculiar  state  of  the  soil,  &a,  than  on  the 
state  of  the  atmosphere.  This  doctrine,  first  promulgated  by  Sydenham, 
has  found  many  opponents :  and  it  is  only  of  late  years  that  it  has  met  with 
that  support,  which  it  certainly  deserves. 

I  am  not  prepared  to  prove,  that  it  is  exactly  the  same  poison,  which  pro- 
duces both  fever  and  cholera ;  but  I  apply  the  term  malaria  to  the  cause  of 
both — intending  by  that  term,  to  express  that  the  substance,  which  occasions 
all  diseases  of  this  nature,  is  produced  by  certain  oombinations  of  looid  cir- 
cumstances in  peculiar  situations ;  and  that,  whether  there  be  only  one  or 
more  substances  capable  of  producing  the  same  or  similar  effects,  our  know- 
ledge of  the  subject  does  not  entitle  us  to  say. 

Speaking  of  the  origin  of  Cholera  in  1831-32^  we  find  from 
the  Report  of  the  Metropolitan  Commission  that : — 

"  In  Moscow,  the  place  in  which  it  nrincipally  prevailed,  and  was  most 
mortal,  was  a  low  quarter,  surrounded  by  a  bed  of  the  river  Mnskwa ;  at 
Breslaw  it  first  attacked  and  principally  ravaged  that  part  of  the  town, 
which  is  low  and  marshy,  and  which  is  the  constant  seat  of  intermittent 
fever. 

The  foregoing  extracts  YfUl,  we  trusty  go  far  to  prove  it  high- 
ly probable,  that  Malaria  is  the  common  parent  of  Fever  and 
Cholera.  Such  a  view  derives  additional  force  from  the  circum- 
stance of  the  latter  disease  clinging  to  and  revisiting  certain 
localities.  The  most  recent  and  striking  observations  on  the 
subject  are  those  of  the  Board  of  Healui,  whose  Report  heads 
our  article. 

As  was  anticipated  and  predicted,  Cholera,  during  its  recent  visitation, 
returned  to  the  same  countries,  and  the  same  cities  and  towns,  and  even  the 
same  streets,  houses,  and  rooms,  which  it  ravaged  in  1832.  It  is  true,  that  many 
places  have  been  attacked  in  the  recent,  which  escaped  in  the  former,  Epide- 
mic :  but  very  few,  indeed,  that  suffered  then,  have  escaped  now,  except  in 
some  few  instances,  in  which  sanatory  measures  had,  in  the  meantime,  oeen 
effected.  In  some  instances  it  had  re-appeared  on  the  very  spot,  in  which 
it  first  broke  out  sixteen  years  ago.  The  first  case,  that  occurred  in  the 
town  of  Leith,  in  1848,  took  place  in  the  same  house,  and  within  a  few  feet 
of  the  very  spot,  from  whence  the  Epidemic  of  1832  commenced  its  course. 
On  its  reappearance  in  the  town  of  Follockshaws,  It  snatched  its  first  victim 
from  the  same  room,  and  the  very  bed,  in  which  it  broke  out  in  1882.  Its 
first  appearance  in  Bermondsey  was  close  to  the  same  ditch,  in  which  the 
earliest  fatal  cases  occurred  in  1832.  At  Oxford,  in  1839  as  in  1832,  the  first 
case  occurred  in  the  county  jail.  This  return  to  its  former  haunts  has  been 
observed  in  several  other  places ;  and  the  experience  abroad  has  been 
similar.  -  At  Groningen,  in  Holland,  the  disease,  in  1832,  attacked,  in  the 
better  part  of  the  city,  only  two  houses ;  and  the  Epidemic  broke  out  in. 
these  two  identical' houses,  in  the  visitation  of  1848. 

In  numerous  instances,  medical  officers,  who  have  attended  to  the  con- 
ditions, which  influence  its  localization,  have  pointed  out,  before  its  return, 
the  particular  courts  and  houses,  which  it  would  attack.  *'  Before  Cholera 
appeared  in  the  district,"  says  the  medical  officer  of  the  Whitecbapel  Union, 
speaking  of  the  small  court  in  the  hamlet,  "  I  predicted  that  this  would 


MOFUSSIL  SANATORY  REFORM.  199 

be  one  of  its  strongholds."  18  cases  oocurred  in  it.  Before  Cholera  ap- 
peared in  the  district,  the  medical  offioer  of  Uxbridge  stated,  that,  if  it 
should  visit  that  town,  it  would  be  certain  to  break  out  in  a  particular 
house,  to  the  dangerous  condition  of  which  he  called  the  attention  of  the 
local  authorities.  The  first  cases,  that  occurred,  broke  Out  in  that  identical 
house.  In  a  place  called  Swain's  lane,  in  the  healthy  village  of  Highgate, 
near  London,  there  is  a  spot,  where  the  medical  officer  felt  so  confident  that 
the  disease  would  make  its  appearance,  that  he  repeatedly  represented  to 
the  authorities,  the  danger  of  allowing  the  place  to  remain  in  its  existing 
condition — but  in  vain.  In  two  houses,  on  this  spot,  six  attacks  and  four 
deaths  took  place ;  yet  there  was  no  other  appearance  of  the  disease 
during  the  whole  Epidemic  in  any  other  part  of  the  village,  containing 
8,000  inhabitants. 

Before  the  appearanee  of  the  disease  in  this  country,  we  warned  the  lo- 
cal authorities,  that  the  seats  of  the  approaching  pestilence  in  their  respec- 
tive districts,  would  be  the  usual  haunts  of  other  epidemics.  Our  conviction 
was  founded  on  evidence,  to  which  recent  experience  has  added  a  degree 
of  force,  that  may  be  judged  of  by  the  following  examples. 

In  the  year  1888,  a  report  was  presented  to  the  Poor  Law  Commissioners, 
describing  certain  localities  in  Bethnal  Green,  in  which  typhus  was  then,  or 
recently  had  been,  so  prevalent,  that  it  had  attacked,  in  some  streets,  every 
house,  and  in  some  houses  every  room.  From  that  time  to  the  present, 
these  localities  have  been  the  special  seats  of  fever,  and  of  every  other 
Epidemio,  that  has  chanced  to  be  prevalent.  From  Dr.  Gavin's  careful  and 
painfully  descriptive  report  on  the  recent  progress  of  cholera  in  this  dis- 
trict, it  appears  that  in  one  of  these  places  (Old  Nichol  street,)  in  twenty- 
three  bousep,  fifty  persons  were  attacked  with  cholera,  of  whom  thirty-three 
died — three  deaths  having  taken  place  in  one  house,  and  four  in  another — 
the  viutors  finding  besides,  nine  cases  approaching  to  cholera,  and  ]  97  cases 
of  diarrhoBa,    In  a  neighbouring  street,  CoUingwood'Street,  six  deaths  took 

{>lace  in  one  house.  Taking  together  ninety-nine  houses  in  this  immediate 
oeality,  the  deaths  from  cholera  amounted  to  the  enormous  number  of  147  ; 
being  in  the  ratio  of  1}  deaths  to  each  house.  In  Beckford-row,  in  the  same 
district,  consisting  of  sixteen  houses,  there  oocurred,  in  the  year  preceding 
the  outbreak  of  cholera,  twenty-three  cases  of  fever  and  one  of  erysipelas  : 
and,  on  the  outbreak  of  cholera,  eight  persons  perished  of  this  disease, 
and  two  others  of  diarrhoea.  In  one  court,  in  Rosemary  lane,  Whitechapel, 
notorious  for  the  number  of  fever  cases  constantly  prevalent  there,  out  of 
sixty  inhabitants,  there  occurred  thirteen  cases  of  cholera;  that  is  twenty- 
oneper  cent  of  the  whole  of  the  population.  In  a  place  called  the  Potteries, 
at  Kensington,  where  the  causes  of  disease  are  so  concentrated  and  intense, 
that  during  the  three  years,  ending  December  31,  1848,  there  occurred 
sevens-eight  deaths  out  of  a  population  of  1,000,  the  average  age  of  all 
who  died  being  under  twelve  years,  and  where,  in  the  last  year,  the  medical 
officer  attended  thirty-two  cases  of  fever,  twenty-one  persons  perished  of 
cholera.  These  deaths  took  place  in  the  same  streets,  houses,  and  rooms, 
which  had  been  again  and  again  visited  by  fever;  and  the  medical  officer 
pointed  out  rooms,  where  some  of  these  poor  people  had  recovered  from 
lever  in  the  spring,  to  fall  victims  to  cholera  in  the  summer. 

Dr.  liGlroy  says : — 

From  an  instructive  report,  published  two  years  ago.  by  Dr.  Cookworthy, 
the  senior  physician  of  the  public  dispensary  at  Plymouth,  presenting  a 
topographical  account  of  upwards  of  2,000  cases  of  fever,  whiou  had  occur 

'  in  that  town,  I  find  that  the  two  localities,  that  stood  highest  on  the 


200  INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

list,  were  Tower-street,  where,  in  1832,  the  cholera  raged  with  the  greatest 
violence,  and  Stone  house-lane,  which  was  so  severely  visited  last  summer. 

Mr.  Noble  of  Manchester^  says : — 

The  great  hulk  of  cholera  cases,  that  have  arisen  in  my  district,  hare 
been  in  localities  distinguished  as  the  Jiabitat  of  fever. 

Much  evidence  to  the  same  effect  has  been  recorded,  by  our  superintend- 
ing inspectors  in  their  preliminary  inquiries  into  the  condition  of  towns, 
petitioning  for  the  application  of  the  Public  Healdi  Act.  Thus,  Mr.  Ranger, 
in  giving  an  account  of  Barnard  Castle,  among  other  instances,  states 
the  following ; — there  is  one  particular  house  in  Galgate,  notorious  for 
its  unhealthiness ;  whenever  tvphus  is  in  the  town,  it  always  prevails 
in  this  house ;  in  three  years,  there  have  been  nine  deaths  in  four  rooms. 
There  is  always  an  accumulation  of  filth  in  the  cellar,  which  the  occupiers 
are  in  the  habit  of  removing,  from  time  to  time,  in  pails.  In  this  house, 
there  occurred  Uiree  cases  of  cholera,  all  of  which  proved  fatal  within 
twenty-four  hours. 

In  Swinburne's,  alias  Peart's,  yard,  containing  eleven  houses,  occupied  by 
thirty -five  inhabitants,  there  beinff  to  the  houses  no  outlets  at  the  back,  and 
but  one  privy  for  the  use  of  all  the  occupiers,  fifteen  persons  died  of 
Cholera.  Mr.  W.  C.  Hussel,  medical  officer  of  the  Doncaster  Union,  states 
that  cholera,  typhus,  scarlet  fever,  measles,  hooping«ough,  erysipelas,  and 
remittent  fever,  all  prevailed  in  the  same  localities. 

"  In  Whippingham,  the  cases  of  cholera  and  diarrbcea,  which  occurred, 
were  all  in  the  fever  localities." 

Such  evidence  can  hardly  leave  a  doubt  upon  the  mind  that  the 
Cholera  and  Fever  tracks  are  identical  If  this  be  once  assured, 
we  may  safely  look  forward  to  the  day,  when  both  shall  dis- 
appear before  scientific  skill,  and  India  be  rid  of  the  two  fell- 
est  scourges,  that  ever  walked  the  earth.  But  why  should  we 
hesitate  uncertain  upon  the  threshold  ?  The  question  of  their 
connection  might  be  settled  in  twelve  months  by  a  mapping  out 
of  the  localities  affected  by  them,  as  recommended  by  Mr. 
Bedford.  If  the  results  on  trial  prove  confirmatory  of  the 
theory.  Cholera  will  be  brought  into  the  category  of  preventable 
diseases  : — or,  putting  aside  the  universality  of  the  opinion  that 
Intermittent  Fever  is  due  to  removable  causes,  we  have 
philosophical  proof  afforded  by  Dr.  Dempster,  that  Spleen  dis- 
ease (an  undeniable  consequence  of  Intermittent  Fever)  exists 
in  an  intensitv,  directly  proportional  to  the  vicinity  of  tracts 
of  malarious  character.  If  therefore  Fever  be  clearly  traced  to 
certain  unsanatory  conditions  of  the  soil,  and  Cholera  be  shown 
invariably  to  select  the  same  localities  only,  we  may  safely  re- 
gard the  latter  as  a  disease  susceptible  of  annihilation.  We 
cannot  claim  the  same  companionship  for  Small  Pox,  which 
seems  far  more  erratic  in  its  course,  varying  with  each  Epidemic 
attack ;  but  we  may  conclude,  on  Dr.  Stewart's  authority,  that 
dirt,  imperfect  [drainage,  and  over  crowding,  play  an  important 
part  in  its  development  and  dissemination. 


MOFUSSIL  SAKATOBT  REFOEM.  201 

The  advantage  of  a  different  state  of  things  is  admirably 
demonstrated  by  the  condition  of  Fort  William^  during  the 
Epidemic  of  1849. 

The  very  remarkable  healthiness  of  the  native  troops  and  residents 
m  the  Garrison  of  Fort  William,  during  the  past  eighteen  months,  while 
Boall  pox  was  decimating  the  surrounding  population,  is  attributed  by  Dr. 
Montgomerie  (Appendix  page  xlvii. )  mainly  to  th«  exclusion  of  ul  the 
known  sources  and  carriers  of  contagion,  by  means  of  the  admirable  system 
of  drainage  and  sewerage,  now  effectively  adopted  within  and  around  the 
Wills  of  the  Fort,  the  strict  enforcement  ot  perfect  cleanliness,  and  a 
free  ventilation  of  the  Barracks.  It  has  also  oeen  greatly  owii\g  to  the 
eireful  avoidance  by  the  soldiers  themselves,  of  all  unnecessary  int9roour8o 
with  ^e  towns  people,  and  to  their  confining  themselves  entirely  for  the  sup- 
ply of  their  wants  to  the  well  kept,  and  well  superintended  military  market 
place,  called  Gooly  Bazar,  in  the  neighbourhooa  of  the  Fort,  which,  in  oou- 
aequence  doubtless  of  its  excellent  regulations,  has  been  almost  entirely  free 
from  the  small  pox  this  year,  as  on  a  former  occasion.  To  the  same  causes, 
andonbtedly,  and  to  the  general  high  discipline  of  that  fine  corps,  H.  M.'s 
70th  Regiment  in  respect  of  cleanliness  of  person  and  healthful  exercise 
iD  the  open  air,  must  be  in  a  great  measure  ascribed  the  almost  entire 
exemption  from  small  pox  of  this  corps,  which  has  garrisoned  Fort  William 
during  the  whole  of  the  past  year ;  though  to  the  inestimable  protection 
and  modifying  power  of  vaccination  is  owing  the  fact,  that  but  one  casualty 
from  the  disease  has  occurred  in  the  regiment,  mustering,  as  it  does,  1,168 
indiriduals,  including  wom^  and  children. 

Could  we  but  hope^  by  one  well  regulated  system^  to  abolish 
omultaneously  those  fell  scourges  of  the  Indian  race,  what  a 
Tictory  would  be  ours  I  Fever  prostrates  its  victims  day  by  day, 
with  slow  deliberation.  Cholera  gives  little  time  for  thought; 
and  thence  the  horror  of  its  sway. 

Have  any  of  our  readers  ever  seen  an  Indian  town  stricken  with 
this  plague  ?  Have  they  left  the  broad  highways,  and  visited 
the  huts  amid  the  jungle,  where  mothers  lay  dying,  with  a  child 
breathing  its  last  cold  gasp  on  either  arm,  whilst  other  (9ufierers 
implore  their  aid  in  all  directions  ?  Have  they  been  mingled 
up  with  crowds  of  pilgrims,  hurrying  from  the  Ganges,  whose 
tnul,  along  a  road  of  thirty  miles,  was  formed  by  dead  and  dy- 
mg  fellow  creatures?  Such  scenes  are  not  the  occurrences  of  a 
century,  borne  aloft  upon  the  wings  of  history  to  be  viewed  by 
afiter  ages  in  quailing  awe,  but  facts  of  every  day's  existence 
in  Benral,  and  cognizant  by  all  men  from  the  day  of  their  arri- 
val in  Vie  country,  until,  at  last,  their  occurrence  is  regarded  ajs 
a  matter  of  course,  and  no  steps  taken  to  effect  improvement. 
And  what  has  been  done  to  relieve  this  mass  of  human  ill  ? 
What  commissions  have  been  formed  for  its  investigation  ? 
What  rewards  have  been  offered  for  a  remedy  ?  What  state 
honours  have  been  promised  to  the  man  who  should  stay  the 
sword  of  the  Destroying  Ajigel  ?  Not  one  of  all  these.  With  the 

c  c 


202  INDIAN   EPIDEMICS  AND 

exception  of  some  special  reports,  in  reply  to  a  circular  of  the 
Medical  Board,  from  local  omcers,  we  have  folded  our  hands  in 
meek  complacency,  hoping  for  impunity  for  ourselves  and  those 
dear  to  us.  The  battle  cry  annoimcing  an  enemy's  attack,  the 
bells  in  ringing  out  the  near  approach  of  fire,  would  rouse  each 
heart  to  supernuman  effort ;  out  disease,  armed  with  tenfold 
powers  of  destruction,  is  quietly  awaited  in  an  easy  chair,  and 
scarcely  an  arm  is  raised  against  it. 

Oh,  for  a  tongue  of  Demosthenic  power,  or  a  pen  flowing  with 
fiery  eloquence,  to  prove  the  truth  of  all  tliat  we  have  so  feebly 
urged  I  We  trust, however, that  the  evidence,  which  we  shall  now 
adduce  in  connection  with  our  detailed  proposition  for  reform, 
will  force  its  way  to  everlasting  remembrance  and  conviction. 
The  great  end  and  aim  of  Sanatory  Reform  is  the  economy  of 
life  and  healtL  Before  this  expression  can  be  understood,  we 
must  lay  down  a  standard  of  inevitable  vital  expenditure,  all 
excess  above  which  must  constitute  waste.  Two  per  cent  per 
annum  is  the  standard  set  up  in  England  ;  and  the  fraction  in 
excess,  which  obtains  in  the  total  mortality  of  the  United  King- 
dom, gives  an  annual  waste  of  about  60,000  lives  : — that  is  to 
say,  this  large  number  of  deaths  occurs  annually  from  diseases 
due  to  imperfect  sanatory  conditions.  But  the  suffering  does 
not  end  here :  for  every  death  from  preventable  diseases,  there 
are,  we  are  assured,  on  the  most  moderate  calculation,  tw^ity 
attacks  of  nokness.  This  calculation  alone  affords  1,200,000 
annual  cases  of  disease,  which  never  should  have  occurred. 
Whether  this  golden  standard  of  mortality  can  ever  be  reached 
in  India,  it  would  be  premature  to  gu^  Judging  by  the  very 
imperfect  data  we  possess,  an  annual  decrement  of  5  per  cent, 
is  what  obtains  amongst  the  free  population  surrounding  ns. 
But  we  can  at  least  try  for  it 

On  such  a  subject  as  life  and  health,  prolixity  may  wdl  be 
pardoned :  but  having  glanced  at  the  history  of  Epidemics,  and 
cursorily  examined  them  in  their  meteorolo^cal  and  municipal 
relations,  the  task  devolves  upon  us  of  inquiring  into  the  health 
and  economy  of  Indian  towns — an  almost  imbroken  subject. 
Effi>rts  have  now  and  then  been  made,  it  is  true,  by  active  magis- 
trates to  cut  away  the  jungle,  repair  the  roads,  and  cleanse  the 
principal  streets;  but  although  the  highways,  as  an  exceptional 
case,  are  looked  after,  we  venture  to  assert  that  the  bye-waya 
are  a  mass  of  reeking  filth,  the  untouched  legacv  of  a  tnousand 
years  of  sanatory  neglect  How  powerAil  for  evil  such  a  state  of 
things  must  be,  and  how  it  may  be  remedied,  we  proceed  to 
shew. 

Sanatory  Reform  in  its  most  extended  sense  embraces  a 


MOFUSSIL  SANATORY  REFOBM.  203 

coDBideration  of  every  Hj^^nic  measure,  includii^  vaccina-' 
tion:  but  the  latter  is  so  vast  a  subject,  that  we  must  leave  it 
for  fxiture  coDsideration,  limiting  oursdves  at  present  to  muni- 
dpfd  matters. 

BoADS  AND  Sttreetb  form  the  keystone  of  municipal  improve-^ 
ment  and  Sanatory  Reform  ;  but  let  those,  who  have  taken  the 
trouble  to  investigate  the  interior  of  an  Indian  town,  say  in 
what  condition  thev  are  to  be  foimd  during  the  rains.  Of  a 
most  insa£Scient  width,  twisting  in  all  directions,  ranging  from 
tvrelve  to  twenty  feet  in  breadth,  and  composed  soldy  of  the 
natural  soil,  they  become,  after  a  heavy  fidl  of  rain,  one  sheet 
of  tenacious  mud,  which,  from  the  imperfect  ventilation,  dries 
Imt  dowly.  In  some  of  the  most  neglected  towns,  ruts  six 
inches  cnr  a  foot  in  depth  will  oceanoimlv  present  themselves 
by  way  of  variety,  bo  much  for  the  rams.  The  hot  season 
Bcaicely  improves  them  ;  for  what  was  mud  now  becomes  dust, 
which,  obedient  to  everjr  puff  of  wind,  flies  about  in  all  direc^ 
tions,  blinding  the  residents,  and  constituting  a  considerable 
source  of  annoyance  to  anv  stranger,  who  may  wander  by. 
In  cases,  such  as  we  describe,  metolling  should  be  universaL 
Every  road  within  the  town  limits  should  be  so  repaired  at 
once:  the  result  might  appear  rather  a  municipal  than  a  sana* 
toiy  gain ;  but  such  is  not  the  case.  The  advantage  would  be 
of  a  united  kind.  Ma^strates  and  civil  surgeons,  the  natural 
guardians  of  public  health,  would  be  enabled  easily  to  penetrate 
mto  nooks  and  comers,  which  are  now  unknown  to  theuL  Dirt 
would  thus  be  seen  ;  and  all  the  abomination,  concealed  by  nar* 
row  and  impassable  roadways,  brought  to  light. 

The  rights  of  property  are  sacred  up  to  a  certain  point :  but 
ss  the  few  must  concede  their  wishes  to  the  welfare  of  the 
nmny,  advantage  should  be  taken  of  fires  to  widen  and  make 
Btnight  the  streets.  No  main  road  of  a  town  should  be  less 
than  fifty  feet  in  width,  from  house  to  house.  This  generally 
constitutes  the  principal  bazar,  and,  in  commercial  districts,, 
is  traversed  every  hour  of  the  day  by  hackeries,  bearing  bales 
of  cotton  and  other  bulky  goods,  which  are  subsequently 
deposited  before  the  merchant's  door.  Natural  ventilation  from 
the  prevailing  winds  can  only  be  attained  in  full  perfection  by 
a  system  of  straight  lines :  and  full  access  of  the  breeze,  so  merci- 
fully given  to  Bei^l,  is  essential,  be  it  remembered,  to  health. 
In  Europe,  a  very  little  modicum  of  wind  may  well  suffice :  but 
here,  where  stagnation  of  the  air  is  almost  equivalent  to  putre- 
faction, every  fieusility  for  its  free  passage  is  demanded. 

Hou8£  Numbering. — In  a  sanatory,  no  less  in  than  a  social, 
point  of  view,  a  visible  enumeration  of  all  houses  within  the  limit 


204  INDIAN  £FID£MICS  AND 

of  town  muhuUas  is  essential.  Without  some  sudi  positive  index 
to  locality^  investigation  intothecontagiousproperty  of  Epidemics 
is  impossible :  nor  can  we  project  the  Fever^  Cholera^and  Malaria 
maps,  which  have  been  suggested  by  Mr.  Bedford.  Such  a  system 
of  house  numbering  would  afford  no  mean  aid  to  civilization,  by 
facilitating  postal  aelivery :  and  this  is  a  matter  of  no  small  mo- 
menty  at  a  time  when  Government  meditates  the  sacrificeof  a  part 
of  its  revenue,  in  the  hope  of  stimulating  correspondence.  We 
should  like  to  obtain  an  accurate  return  of  the  number  of  letters 
*'  not  delivered,"  or  of  the  hours  wasted  in  search  by  new  delivery 
peons,  in  any  given  time,  during  a  single  month,  from  the  ad- 
dressee of  letters  not  being  known.  Add  to  this  the  length  of 
time  occupied  in  the  search  for  individuals ;  — and  ample  proof 
will  be  afforded  of  the  necessity  of  house  numbers,  in  case  of 
its  adoption,  however,  we  would  enter  a  caveat  against  the  prac- 
tice of  Cossitollah,  where  every  man,  who  changes  his  residence, 
carries  his  number  with  him ;  and  thus  the  anxious  seeker  for 
some  particular  tradesman,  instead  of  finding  the  house  numbered 
by  the  authentical  progression  likely  to  facilitate  his  search,  is 
wearied  out  of  his  seven  senses,  if  he  have  so  many,  by  sixes 
being  jumbled  up  with  ones,  and  tens  with  forties,  in  the  most 
distracting  way.  Indeed,  if  we  mistake  not,  the  meditative  tra- 
veller will  even  now  find  one  house,  whose  owner,  being  evi- 
dently in  a  state  of  hi^h  perplexity  as  to  his  legitimate  ^'  be- 
longings," and  vacillating  between  a  five  and  nine,  has  compro- 
mised the  matter  with  his  conscience  and  his  customers^  by  in- 
serting one  within  the  loop  of  the  other. 

We  know  not  to  whom  the  department  of  house  "  numbers" 
in  Calcutta  may  belong ;  but  we  do  know  that  such  a  state  of 
things  would  be  a  disgrace  to  the  humblest  village  in  England. 

Houses. — Of  Houses,  we  have  on  this  occasion  but  little  to 
say.  Their  consideration  belongs  to  private  Hygiene :  but  we 
may  remark  that  much  good,  even  in  a  public  sense,  would  be 
effected  by  increasing  their  means  of  ventilation.  In  many 
houses,  as  at  present  built,  the  doors  and  windows  are  all  on 
one  side,  whilst  the  opposite  exhibits  no  aperture  for  the  pas^ 
sage  of  air. 

X)bainb. — Of  all  circumstances  determining  disease,  few  are 
more  powerful  than  ill  constructed  and  imperfect  drains,  whether 
viewed  as  conduits  for  the  natural  rain  fall,  or  as  means  of  re- 
moving fluids,  impregnated  with  animal  and  vegetable  matter. 
We  turn  to  what  our  most  recent  authority,  the  Beport  of  the 
General  Board  of  Health,  says  on  the  subject ; — 

The  object  of  effioient  drainage  work  is  two-fold  ;  first,  the  removal  of  de- 
composiDg  matter  in  suspension  in  water ;  and  secondly,  the  removal  of  sur- 


MOFU8SIL   SANATORY   BEFOBH.  205 

plos  moistore.  Bat  ample  experience  baa  preyed  that  drainaf^,  empirically 
eondueted,  in  the  hands  of  thoee  who  have  given  no  special  attention  to  the 
8objeot,  increases  the  evil  intended  to  be  obviated,  by  extending  the  noxious 
eTaporating  sarfaoe,  or  by  shifting  the  decomposing  matter  from  one  place 
to  another.  The  superintendiog  inspectors,  in  their  reports  on  the  various 
towns  they  have  examined,  concur  in  stating  that  the  force  of  fever  and 
of  cholera  in  general  falls  on  those  localities  which  are  without  drainage, 
or  in  which  the  drainage,  that  has  been  attempted,  has  been  so  unskilfully 
performed,  as  to  have  increased  the  evil.  Dr.  Sutherland  and  Dr.  Clark  give 
a  remarkable  example  of  this  in  their  reports  on  Bristol.  Dr.  Sutherland,  in 
describing  the  condition  of  certain  courts,  covering  a  piece  of  land,  fifty - 
six  yards  in  length  by  thirty  seven  yards  in  breadth,  and  containing  sixty- 
aix  owellings,  in  which  there  occurred  forty-four  deaths  from  cholera,  says  :— 
**  A  more  deplorable  event,  perhaps,  never  occurred  than  these 
tables  describe.  A  very  slight  consideration  of  the  whole  circumstances 
is,  in  my  opinion,  sufficient  to  prove  that  this  great  sacrifice  of  hu- 
man life  was  occasioned  by  ignorance,  or  negligence,  as  flagrant  as 
any  which,  from  time  to  time,  gives  rise  to  railway,  or  other,  accidents.  A 
glance  at  the  plan  will  show  that  something  like  sanatory  improvements 
had  actually  been  contemplated  ;  and  no  doubt,  it  was  believed,  that  the 
object  would  be  attained,  if  only  a  sufficient  number  of  drains  and  privies 
were  eonstructed.  Like  every  other  step  taken  in  a  false  direction,  the  so- 
called  improvements  increased  the  evil  they  were  intended  to  mitigate,  and, 
with  the  other  circumstances  above  detailed,  caused  the  untimely  death  of 
many  innocent  persons." 

The  evidence  of  Dr.  Rigby,  physician  to  the  General  Lying- 
in-Hospital,  York-road,  Lambeth,  before  the  Health  of  Towns 
Commission,  is  very  interesting,  and  conclusive  as  to  the  impor- 
tance, both  of  drainage  and  ventilation.  Puerperal  fever  is  shown 
in  the  clearest  manner  to  have  been  connected  with  neglect  of 
these  important  measures,  and  to  have  been  removed  by  their 
enforcement. 

"  I  am  at  this  moment,"  says  Dr.  Bigby,  "  attending  a  lady  in  confine- 
ment (in  the  Mair-le-bow  district),  whom  I  have,  with  some  difficulty,  rescued 
from  an  attack  of  puerperal  fever,  which  threatened  to  assume  the  malig- 
nant form.  On  being  summoned  to  her  when  in  labour,  I  was  struck  with 
the  offensive  drain  effluvia,  which  not  only  pervaded  the  lower  parts  of  the 
honse,  but  rose  perceptibly  from  the  area,  as  I  stood  at  the  hall  door  ;  and 
I  cannot  help  attributing  this  attack  coming  on,  under  all  the  possible 
circumstances  of  wealth  and  station,  to  the  deleterious  influence  to  which  I 
have  just  alluded." 

Dr.  Emerson,  in  his  Medical  Statistics  of  Philadelphia, 
writes: — 

Fever,  in  some  of  its  forms,  is  almost  universal  among  the  inhabitants 
of  the  undrained  and  unpaved  outskirts;  but  of  rare  occurrence  in  the 
central  parts,  which  are  well  paved  and  drained.  By  far  the  greatest  pro- 
portion of  the  annual  sickness  and  mortality  of  an  ordinary  season  is  furnish- 
ed by  the  narrow  and  confined  alleys  and  courts,  existing  in  various  parts  of 
the  town  The  diflerence,  though  sufficiently  obvious  in  adults,  is  most 
lamentably  conspicuous  among  children.  Deaths  from  cholera  are  rare  in 
hoaaes  with  large  and  well  aired  apartments;  the  influence  of  meagre  and 
unwholesome  food  and  immoderate  indulgence  in  strong  liquors,  though 


206  INDIAN   EPIDEMICS   AND 

usually  mentioned  as  the  ohlef  eauaes  of  the  exoeeaiTe  mortalily  of  the  la- 
bouring olasses,  are  insignifieant,  when  compared  to  that  of  breathing  air 
that  has  been  previously  expired,  and  which,  moreoyer,  is  commonly  charged 
with  animal  and  vegetable  effluvia. 

Dr.  Amott's  views  on  Fever,  and  the  conditionB  bv  which  it  is 
accompanied  and  produced,  are  embodied  in  the  foUowing  pas- 
sage:— 

Our  inquiries  nve  ub  the  conviction  that  the  immediate  and  chief  oanae 
of  many  of  the  diseases,  which  impair  the  bodily  and  mental  health  of  the 
people,  and  bring  a  considerable  portion  prematurely  to  the  grave,  is  the 
poison  of  atmospheric  impurity,  arising  from  the  accumulation,  in  and 
round  their  dwellings,  of  the  decomposing  remnants  of  the  substances  used 
for  food  and  in  the  arts,  and  of  the  impurities  given  out  from  their  own 
bodies. 

Mr.  Chadwick  affords  us  some  curious  comparative  tables, 
shewing  the  high  rate  of  mortality,  which  obtains  in  undrained, 
as  compared  with  drained,  districts. 

After  such  evidence,  no  doubt  can  remain  as  to  the  urgent 
necessity  of  removing  all  superfluous  moisture  and  putrescent 
fluid  from  the  soil.  What  attempt  has  yet  been  made  to  secure 
this  desideratum?  Boad-sides  have  been  flanked  with  ditches, 
not  for  drainage^  but  as  the  consequence  of  removing  earth  for  the 
formation  and  repair  of  roads.  Every  here  and  there  they  come 
to  a  dead  stop,  firom  having  been  built  into,  or  dammed  up  with 
a  bridge  of  solid  earth-work.  Such  are  the  suburban  roads — 
but  surely  we  shall  find  improvement  on  inspecting  the  bazar, 
the  principal  street  Yes,  good  reader,  if  fortune  has  placed  you 
in  a  go-ahead  conununity ,  you  will,  on  walking  down  the  Regent- 
street  of  the  locality,  find,  perchance,  every  uiird  or  fourth  diop 
fronted  by  a  neat  square  pucka  open  drain,  some  six  inches  in 
width  by  four  in  depth.  The  next  door  neighbour  has  the  same, 
with  the  simple  difference  of  its  being  covered  in  throughout. 
Next  to  him  is  agun  a  proprietor,  too  poor  or  too  indifferent  to  in* 
cur  such  an  expence,  and  before  whose  house  the  washing  of  his 
own  and  lus  neighbour's  spreads  out  and  stagnates  into  a  minia* 
ture  pool,  checkingthe  watercirculation  of  the  street,  and  spread- 
ingupon  the  road  in  heavy  rain,  thus  soaking  into  and  destroy- 
ing its  level  Each  man  builds  according  to  his  fancy.  We 
lately  paused,  during  our  morning  tour  of  mspection,  to  admire 
a  new  and  well  made  pucka  dram :  when  on  viewing  it  more 
closely,  pur  first  emotion  of  delight  was  changed  to  sanatory 
consternation,  on  finding  it  buili  up  at  both  ends  I  it  thus  appears, 
that  the  drainage  of  our  Mofussil  towns,  although  a  prunary 
element  of  healui,  is  effected  in  the  roughest  and  most  unscien- 
tific way.  Continuity  is  uncared  for,  levels  eschewed,  and 
regular  curves  repudiated.     In  such  a  state  of  thmgs,  stagnation 


MOFUSSIL  SANATORY  REFORM.  207 

of  water  and  the  collection  of  deoompoeinff  animal  and  v^eta- 
ble  matter  must  ensue — with  what  result^  let  the  authorities^  we 
hare  quoted,  bear  witness. 

In  towns  upon  the  river  side,  a  system  of  drainage  might  be 
iostituted  with  little  difficulty :  whilst,  for  those  inland,  a  chain 
of  veil  kept  tanks,  placed  at  short  distances,  would  answer 
the  same  purpose. 

Every  principal  road  and  street  should  be  flanked  on  either 
ade,by  an  open  semi-circular  pucka  drain,  eight  inches,  or  a  foot, 
in  diameter,  DV  six  in  depth.  We  say  an  open  drain,  because  a 
dosed  one,  such  as  we  often  see,  becomes  a  receptacle  of  filth  and 
dirt  It  would  be  hopeless  to  attempt  *^  a  fall,"  in  towns 
atnated  on  the  dead  level  of  Bengal :  but  the  same  object  might 
be  attained  through  the  agency  of  public  sweepers.  Even  where 
drains  exist,  they  are  built,  as  we  have  said,  in  defiance  of  regu* 
larity  and  system.  This  must  be  altered  ;  and  the  whole  should 
be  armnged  by  the  local  authorities  in  strict  conformity  with 
adentific  principles. 

Tanks. — ^Bengal  is  a  land  of  tanks  ;  and  every  town  is  an 
exaggerated  epitome  of  the  country.  It  would  be  difficult  to 
state  the  comparative  area  of  land  and  water  in  Indian  cities ;  but 
we  shall  hardly  err  in  roughly  estimating  it  as  avera^ng  twelve 
to  one.  This  large  supply  of  the  pure  element  has  arisen 
out  of  the  demand  natund  to  a  warm  climate,  which  has  induced 
wealthy  and  philanthropic  men  to  dig  receptacles  for  it  To 
form  a  tank,  or  build  a  temple,  secures,  among  the  natives  of 
Hmdtistan,  a  larger  amount  of  respect  and  admiration  than 
can  be  secured  by  any  other  public  work ; — ^and  hence  their  num- 
ber. It  has  unfortunately  happened,  however,  that  the  desire  of 
making  a  name  has  preponderated  over  a  more  deeply  seated 
love  for  poeterity :  and,  as  the  tendency  of  native  societv  is  to 

Eay  more  homage  to  a  man  who  makes  a  tank,  than  to  hmi  who 
eepe  it  in  order,  repidr,  and  cleanliness,  we  have  a  constant  suc- 
ceanon  of  new  ones,  whilst  those,  whose  builders  are  dead,  iall 
into  decavy  dirt  and  filthiness.  A  well  formed  turf-banked  tank, 
filled  with  dean  pui:e  water,  is  an  object  no  less  pleasing  to  the 
eye,  than  grateful  to  the  body :  but  an  irreffular  shaped  hole, 
bounded  by  brolcen  dirty  banks  and  ruined  ghats,  and  covered 
with  a  ooat  of  shmy  duckweed,  is  painful  to  ^e  sight  and  deeply 
injurious  to  health*  Which  of  these  conditions  prevails  in 
Indian  tovms,  we  leave  it  to  Mofussilites  to  telL  Our  own  ex- 
perience dwells  upon  an  array  of  green  stagnant  pools,  out  of 
which  the  neighbouring  residents  bathe  and  drink,  generally 
forming  a  little  bay  of  clean  water  in  one  corner,  by  warding 
off  the  weed  by  bamboo  barriers.     Such  is  the  appearance  of 


208  INDIAN   EPIDEMICS  AND 

the  pure  element  in  the  open  parts  of  towns :  but  if  we  inspect 
the  tanks  in  the  more  seciudea  portions,  we  shall  find  many  in- 
stances of  their  being  fringed  with  Privies,  which  actually  pro- 
ject over  their  surface.  In  some  stations,  during  the  dry  sea- 
son, the  level  of  the  water  falls,  leaving  a  muddy  surface,  rich 
with  decomposing  matter,  thus  assuming  a  similar  character  to 
sewers  in  England.  On  this  subject,  we  find,  from  a  report  of 
one  of  the  English  Registrars  to  the  Health  of  Towns  Com- 
mission, that ; — 

Typhus  is  still  prevalent,  bat  confined  to  one  or  two  districts,  viz.,  a 
row  of  houses  built  back  to  back,  the  lower  floors  below  the  bottom  of  the 
adjoining  canal,  and  the  north  side  of  castle  Foregate,  which  consists  of 
many  lodging  houses,  situated  in  close  passages  and  in  small  squares,  having 
entrances  under  archways,  and  frequently  having  pigsties,  and  open  privies, 
and  heaps  of  ashes,  within  a  few  yards  of  the  doors.  The  cases  of  typhus 
have,  nevertheless,  generally  done  well — only  three  deaths,  having  occunred 
in  this  quarter. 

Lynn  Kegis,  East  Retford,  and  Oapterbury,  furnish  subjects  for  deecrip* 
tion,  in  strict  keeping  with  those  just  adduced. 

Within  a  space  of  100  yards  square,  and  constituting  the  following  pla- 
ces, Ghapel-lane,  North-end  and  yard.  North  Street,  St.  Ann's  Street  and 
fort,  with  a  yard  there,  the  disproportionate  number  of  fifty-seven  of  the 
whole  number  of  187  deaths  from  small  pox  occurred.  Nine  deaths 
out  of  sixteen  in  the  whole  district,  happened  from  convulsions,  in  four  of 
the  places  named,  and  occupying  a  space  scarcely  half  the  size  of  that 
referred  to.  So  in  proportion  to  the  whole  number  of  187  deaths  in  the 
district,  no  fewer  than  nine  occurred  in  the  limits  alluded  to  from  small 
pox. 

New  Oonduit  street  and  South  Glough-lane  are  on  either  side  contiguous 
to  the  fleet  running  by  Purfleet-street ;  and  here  the  greatest  numW  of 
deaths  from  small  pox  occurred.  As  with  the  streets,  so  with  the  yards  ;^ 
nineteen  deaths,  out  of  fifty,  from  small  pox  taking  place  within  them. 

A  large  open  common  sewer  existed  at  the  end  of  Sutton*s-row,  which 
was  most  offensive :  and  it  was  predicted  by  the  medical  gentlemen  of  the 
town,  should  this  fearful  scourge  (cholera)  visit  Retford,  that  this  ill- 
drained,  ill-ventilated,  and  densely  populated  place,  would  prove  its  advent. 
At  length  the  fearful  reality  appeared.  On  the  I9th  of  July  1831,  a  labour- 
er, residing  in  this  locality,  was  attacked  and  died  . 

During  its  five  or  six  weeks'  continuance  in  the  town,  there  were  6ftT 
cases  reported,  of  which  thirteen  died  and  thirty-eight  recovered.  Witk 
one  or  two  exceptions,  the  malady  woe  altogether  confined  to  8utton*s-row. 

We  have  mentioned  that,  at  certain  seasons,  the  fidlinff  of  wa-* 
ter  leaves  a  surface  of  decomposing  mud  exposed.  What  says 
the  Report  of  the  General  Board  of  Health  on  this  head  ? 

While  epidemic  cholera  was  prevailing  in  the  town  of  Cardiff,  in  the 
month  of  June,  1849,  a  sadden  attack  of  the  disease  took  plaoe  in  a  cluster 
of  houses,  about  a  mile  and  a  half  from  the  town,  situated  near  a  canal, 
from  which  the  water  had  been  drawn  off,  leaving  a  large  surface  of  black 
putrescent  mud,  to  the  direct  action  of  a  hot  sun;  and  the  result  was,  that 
very  offensive  effluvia  were  immediately  perceptible.  The  smell  was  com- 
plained of  by  the  inhabitants  of  all  the  adjoining  houses,  and  produced  a 


r 


MOFiTssiL  sanatout  reform.  209 

nrictj  of  symptoms,  yarying  in  intmisity  in  dillbrent  individuals.  There 
were,  in  this  spot,  twenty-two  houses,  three  of  which  were  vacant,  and  tlie 
(oul  populatioft  was  117  souls.  Out  of  the  nineteen  inhabited  houses, 
fifteen  wore  affeoted,  so  that  only  four  escaped.  There  were,  in  all,  forty  - 
eight  esses  of  diarrtKsa,  thirty-three  of  developed  cholera,  and  thirteen 
detths ;  so  that  nearly  one  third  of  the  innabitanta  were  attacked 
vith  eholera.  The  works  of  the  oanal  were  finished  as  expeditiously  as 
poadble,  and  the  water  admitted.  Persons  on  the  spot  statea,  that  the  air 
f«)tparer immediately;  and  the  disease  was  arrested. 

Dr.  Milroy  has  called  attention  to  ^e  effect  of  foul  canals  and  ditches 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  London,  in  predisposing  to  seyere  attacks  of 
ebolenL 

1  have  reason  to  believe,  (he  says)  that  the  seyerity  of  the  disease  in 
ttne  loealittes  in  the  metropolis,  was  attributable  to  their  proximity  to 
eanals  and  basins,  iti  which  the  water  was  nearly  stagnant,  except  when 
it  was  stirred  by  the  passing  of  barges.  One  of  the  most  striking  instances, 
of  this  souroe  of  insalubrity,  which  came  under  my  notice,  was^  what 
OMorred  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Cumberland  baain  of  the  Regent's 
««iulI,  sitoated  about  midway  between  the  Hamnstead  road  and  the  Re- 
gmt's-park.  During  Uie  preyalence  of  the  Epiaemic,  there  was  a  great 
amomit  of  eholera  in  all  the  adjoining  streets — a  much  greater  than  might 
^ve  been  expected,  when  we  consider  that  the  locally  is  generally 
ngtfded  as  salubrious,  being  open,  rather  elevated,  and  W  no  means 
densely  peopled.  The  street,  which  suffered  most  severely,  is  Edward-street, 
on  the  west  side  of  the  basin.  Only  one  side  of  the  street  is  entirely  occu- 
pied with  houses,  the  other  being  but  partially  so.  In  some  of  these  houses, 
tt  many  as  four,  and  even  six  fatal  cases  occurred,  besides  a  very  general 
prevalence  of  diarrbeoa  among  the  residents.  Mr.  Johnson,  the  parochial 
wrgeon  of  this  district  of  St  Pancras,  informed  me,  that  within  a  space  of 
200  feet  in  length,  twenty  fatal  cases  of  cholera  occurred.  Augustus-street, 

00  the  other  or  east  side  of  the  basin,  also  su£fered,  although  much  less 
Mverely  ;  and  two  (if  not  more)  fatal  cases  occurred  on  the  north  side  of 
Cnmberiand  Multot,  the  rears  of  the  houses  there  being  open  to  the  canal. 

1  dod,  also,  that  there  was  a  great  deal  of  choleraic  disease  among  the  men 
who  were  employed  in  the  barges,  and  that  most  of  the  families  living  in 
the  houses  on  the  wharves,  were  more  or  less  affected,  in  some  cases,  with 
Ipeat  seyerity,  «nd  in  one  instance  fatally.     One  woman  informed  me,  that 
she  and  her  family  were  ailing  chiefly  from  bowel  complaints,  during  nearly 
the  whole  season.     Her  house  is  clean  and  well  drained ;  and  the  only 
nason  she  could  imagine  for  the  constantly  recurring  illness  of  herself  and 
children,  was  the  unpleasant  smell  fVom  the  canal.    From  all  accounts  it 
•ppeare,  that  the  water  was  in  a  most  offensive  state,  and,  indeed,  no  better 
than  that  of  a  stagnant  putrid  ditch.    Its  surface  was  entirely  covered  with 
duck  weed,  so  that  it  looked  more  like  a  meadow,  than  the  basin  of  a  oanal ; 
•ad  when  anything  was  thrown  into  it,  streams  of  fostid  gas  came  bubbling 
np.  Mr.  Johnson  assured  me  that  he  has  known  the  men  obliged  to  leave 
their  barges,  in  consequence  of  the  foul  smell,  when  the  water  was  disturbed. 
So  putrid  bad  it  become,  that  not  a  fish  was  to  be  seen  in  the  basin,  although 
it  formerly  teemed  with  them.    When  drawn,  it  was  observed  to  contain 
isyriads  of  insects  and  anipialcuIeD,  and  the  men  were  unwilling  to  use 
it  even  for  boiling  potatoes,  especially,  as  it  was  dark  coloured   and  also 
offoDsive  in  smell  at  the  same  time.     1  have   convorsed   with  several  medi- 
al gentlemen  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  find  that  they  had  long  regarded 
the  state  of    the  canal  as  injurious  to  the  health  of  the  residents  near  it; 
moreover,  they  all  agreed  in  believing  that  the  effluvia  from  it,  tended 

D  D 


210  INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND* 

very  much  to  increase  and  aggravate  the  Epidemic  of  last  season.  So 
strongly  convinced  was  Mr.  Johnson  of  this,  that  be  made  a  forcible  repre- 
sentation to  the  parochial  authorities  of  St.  Pancras  on  the  subject — and 
with  the  good  effect  of  having  the  Directors  of  the  Canal  Company  summon- 
ed before  a  magistrate,  for  the  purpose  of  compelling  them  to  have  the  basin 
cleaned  out  This  was  agreed  to  be  done  ;  but  it  was  judiciously  po8^ 
poned,  until  the  Epidemic  had  ceased,  and  the  weather  bad  become  oool. 
The  quantity  of  mud  removed  was  enormous,  amounting  to  between  two 
and  three  thousand  tons ;  and  there  is  reason  to  believe,  that  nearly  as 
much  was  left  behind,  in  consequence  of  the  inefficient  manner  in  which  the 
process  was  oonducted.  It  was  black  and  foetid,  like  that  from  an  obstruct- 
ed sewer.  No  one  will  wonder  at  this,  when  he  learns  that  the  basin  had 
not  been  cleaned  out  for  25  or  30  years,  and  that  the  water  had  never  been 
renewed  during  the  whole  of  that  period,  while  every  year  it  was  becoming 
more  and  more  offensive  from  the  pollutions  that  were  thrown  into  it 
All  the  people  engaged  on  the  basin  admit,  that  a  great  improvement  has 
been  effeetea  by  what  has  been  done  ;  they  are  now  no  longer  annojed 
with  any  disgusting  smell  from  it,  although  the  re-appearance  of  duck  weed 
on  its  surface  pretty  clearly  shows  how  stagnant  the  water  must  be.  Swarms 
of  small  fish  nave  returned  to  it 

I  find  that  complaints  have  been  made  of  the  exhalations  from  the 
canal,  at  a  considerable  distance  from  the  basin  near  Cumberland  market ; 
but  without  detailing  any  particulars  at  present,  I  shall  merely  nsention 
that  a  good  many  severe  cases  of  cholera  occurred  last  year,  in  James'-street 
and  Grove-street,  Camden  town  ;  and  that,  in  Mr.  Johnson's  opinion,  the 
effluvia  from  two  or  three  small  docks,  where  the  water  of  the  canal  is 
usually  stagnant  and  more  or  less  offensive,  which  are  in  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  the  streets  in  question,  were  not  without  a  most  pernicious  effect 
upon  the  health  of  the  residents. 

The  exhalations  from  the  muddy  banks  or  bottoms  of  ditches  and 
canals  were  observed,  in  many  parts  of  the  countrv,  to  promote  the  deve- 
lopment of  cholera.  I  saw  a  striking  instance  of  this  at  OxftHti.  In  a 
bouse  recently  built  clean,  and  standing  by  itself,  six  persons  were  attack- 
ed, and  four  died  of  the  disease.  There  did  not  appear  to  be  any  cause  of 
insalubrity  within  the  house  ;  but  it  stood  upon  the  verv  edge  of  a  length- 
ened ditch  or  canal,  which  communicated  with  the  river,  but  was  genenlly 
left  nearly  dry,  during  the  summer  months,  and  then  exhaled  an  un- 
pleasant smell.  It  is  quite  a  spot  where  we  should  expect  to  meet  with 
ague-ish  disease. 

Surely  this  is  conclusive  ;  but,  were  more  required,  we  might 
cite  our  own  gainful  experience  to  the  fact  of  the  ii\jurioos 
exhalations  arismg  from  stanant  water  and  putrescent  weed^ 
by  statins,  that  a  family  of  three  heretofore  most  hedthy  chil* 
dren,  well-known  to  and  constantly  seen  by  ourselves,  having 
been  condemned  by  the  paucity  of  houses  to  dwell  in  one 
flanking  such  a  tank,  as  we  have  above  described,  were  simulta- 
neously attacked  early  in  the  last  hot  season,  one  with  Cough,  the 
other  two  with  Fever,  in  the  same  night;  and,  up  to  the  present 
moment,  have  been  labouring  under  a  succession  of  Dysentery, 
DiarrhcBa  and  Fever,  all  of  which  stopped  like  magic,  on  tem- 
porary removal  to  a  well  situated  house,  and  again  made  their 
appearance  on  return  to  the  seat  of  eviL   This  rare  exposure  of 


MOFUSSIL  8AKAT0BY  BEFOBM.  211 

European  children  to  concentrated  malarious  influence  is,  be  it 
remembered,  the  daily  and  hourly  fate  of  thousands  of  our 
natiye  feUow  subjects,  living  in  Indian  towns.  Who  shall 
wonder  that  Dysentery,  Cholera  and  Fever  decimate  the  popu- 
lation? In  some  towns,  as  we  have  said,  the  water  of  tanks  is 
polluted  by  neighbouring  priyies.  What  evil  is  likely  to  follow, 
we  dte  the  Bourd  of  Health  to  prove. 

At  Hamburg,  (says  Mr.  Grainger,)  in  those  streets,  which  immediately 
fiee  the  spot,  where  the  numerous  canals,  that  have  traversed  the  city,  and 
havo  become  loaded  with  the  excreta  of  175,000  people^  concentrate  to  pour 
their  foul  contents  into  the  Elbe,  the  cholera  raged  so  violently,  as  to 
destroy  8.01  per  cent  of  the  inhabitants :  while  residents  near  the  other  and 
purer  parts  of  the  river  suffered  much  less.  The  street  in  Berlin,  distin- 
guished above  all  others  for  its  excessive  mortality,  occupies  on  the  map  of 
thftt  city  preoisely  the  same  spot  as  the  above  locality  at  Hamburgh — being 
in  fact,  placed  just  where  the  numerous  branches  of  the  Spree,  which  go 
off  from  the  river  at  its  entrance  into  the  city,  again  re-enter  it  like  a  huge 
Fleetditch,  after  being  loaded,  as  was  pointed  out  to  me,  with  all  the  filth 
from  the  drains  and  debri$  of  the  houses.  In  the  small  town  of  Ghesham, 
where  a  severe  out-break  of  cholera  took  place  in  1848,  I  found  that  the 
focDS  of  the  disease  was  a  place  called  Waterside,  situated  below  the  town, 
tad  close  to  the  little  river  Chess,  which,  entering  the  place  as  a  sparkling 
stream,  becomes  subsequently  poisoned  by  the  putrid  matters  from  tanner's 
yards,  slaughter  houses,  and  cess  pools. 

stagnant 


low,  possess  the  characteristic  proprieties  of  marsh  water ;  in 
i^ard  to  the  dimger  of  imbibing  which^  again  hear  the  Board 
of  Health  :— 

Observations  of  the  analogous  influence  of  polluted  water  in  producing 
fever,  have  been  made  in  other  oountriss.  Dr.  Boudin,  a  French  writer  on 
medical  geography,  relates  a  marked  example  of  marsh  water  exciting  fever. 

In  July,  1834,  800  soldiers,  all  in  good  health,  embarked  on  the  same 
day, in  three  transports  at  Bona,  and  arrived  together  at  Marseilles;  they 
were  exposed  to  the  same  atmospheric  influences,  and  were,  .with  one  essen- 
tial difference,  supplied  with  the  same  food,  and  subjected  to  the  same 
(Uficipline.  On  Doard  one  of  the  vessels  were  120  soldiers ;  of  these, 
thirteen  died  on  the  passage  from  a  destructive  fever,  and  ninety-eight  more 
vere  taken  to  the  military  hospital  of  the  Lazaretto,  at  Marseilles,  present- 
iDgall  the  pathological  characters  proper  to  marshy  localities  ;  so  that  "  by 
the  ride  of  a  simple  intermittent,  was  seen  a  pernicious  fever.  Here  was  a 
type,  recalling  the  yellow  fever  of  the  Antilles ;  and  there  was  the  cholera 
of  the  Ganges,  with  its  most  terrible  traits.*'  On  an  inquiry  being  instituted, 
it  iras  ascertained,  that  on  board  the  afiected  ship,  the  water  supplied  for 
the  aoldiers,  owing  to  the  haste  of  the  embarkation,  bad  been  taken  from  a 
marshy  place  near  Bona,  whilst  the  crew,  not  one  of  whom  was  attacked, 
vers  provided  with  wholesome  water.  It  further  appeared,  that  the  nine 
soldiers,  who  escaped,  had  purchased  water  of  the  crew,  and  had  oonse- 
quently  not  drunk  the  marshy  water.  Not  a  single  soldier  or  sailor  of  the 
other  two  transports,  who  were  supplied  with  pure  water,  suffered. 

Dr.  Evans^  of  Bedford,  relates  an  equally  definite  instance  :—« 


212  INDIAN  £riD£MICS  AND 

A  fow  years  a^o,  he  was  stayrog  at  YersaiUea  with  hie  lady,  when  they 
both  became  aHected  with  ague,  and,  on  enquiry,  the  foliowiog  iacts  were 
disclosed  : — The  towQ  of  Versailles  is  supplied  with  water  for  domestic 
purposes  from  the  Seiao  at  Marli.  At  the  time  in  qoesiion,  a  large  tank, 
supplying  one  particular  quarter,  was  damaged ;  and  the  mayor,  without 
consulting  the  medical  autboritiea,  profided  a  supply  of  water,  conmstiog 
of  the  surface  dr^nage  of  the  surrounding  countiy,  which  is  of  a  marshy 
character.  The  regular  inhabitants  would  not  use  this  polluted  water ; 
but  Dr.  and  IVlrs.  £vanB,  who  were  at  an  hotel,  drank  of  it  unwillingly; 
and  it  was  also  used  by  a  regiment  of  cavalry.  The  result  was,  that  those, 
who  drank  the  water,  suffered  from  intermittent  ferer  of  so  severe  a  type, 
that  seven  or  eight  of  the  soldiers,  fine  young  men,  died  on  one  day,  Sep- 
tember 1, 1845.  On  a  careful  investigation,  it  was  ascertained,  that  those 
only  of  the  trooos,  who  had  drunk  the  marsh  water,  were  attacked — all  the 
others,  though  oreathing  the  same  atmosphere,  having  escaped,  as  did 
also  the  towfns  people. 

From  these  extracts^  the  result  of  the  most  extensive  inquiiy 
by  some  of  the  most  intelligent  men  in  England^  it  would  ap- 
pear,  that  Intermittent  Fever^  Diarrhoea,  Dysentery  and  Chole- 
ra, are  clearly  traceable,  not  cmly  to  the  imbibition,  but  to  the 
exhalations  arising  from  stagnant  polluted  water. 

How  is  the  remedy  to  be  found  ?• 

In  maintaining  a  perfect  cleanliness  of  the  water  smfitce, 
preserving  the  bsuks  &om  irregularity  and  dirt  by  turfing  them^ 
and  making  a  good  pucka  or  grass  ghaut  on  each  of  me  four 
sides,  varying  from  twelve  to  dxteen  feet  in  width,  and  by  re- 
moving tne  jPrivies.  Tanks,  as  we  have  said,  are  powerful 
for  good  or  evil !  If  clean,  well  kept,  and  full  of  pure  water, 
they  cool  the  surroundii^  air  and  form  a  rarely  mling  source 
of  life's  most  urgent  necessary  to  the  naghbouring  populationL 
If  dirty,  polluted  by  excreta,  covered  with  weed,  and  tnus  per* 
mitted  to  become  a  receptade  for  all  the  neighbouring  fifths, 
they  constitute  a  focus  of  disease.  The  most  practical  mode  of 
repairing  the.  evil,  is  to  consider  every  dirty  tank  *'  a  local  nui- 
sance,'*  and  insist  upon  its  being  kept  dean  by  the  owner,  under 
penalty  of  the  law,  which  has  dearly  provided  the  means  of  deal- 
ing with  such  offences.  Another,but,  perhaps,  less  desirable  plan, 
would  be,  to  deem  the  fcNPmation  of  a  tank  as  strictly  aa  act 
bearii^  upon  the  public  health,  and,  with  this  view,  permitting 
it  only,  on  the  condition  of  its  being  endowed  with  sufficient 
funds  to  keep  it  in  repair.^  Such  a  i^ulation  might,  perhaps, 
act  injuriously  bv  diminishing  the  water  supply  to  tnc 
people :  but  it  would  be  the  most  effectual  methoa  of  putting  a 
stop  to  the  evil  of  which  we  comphiin,  until  magistrates  are  uni- 
formly agreed,  as  to  the  definition  of  a  **  local  Nuisance"  and  pre- 
pared to  punish  its  perpetrators. 

Necessaries. — ^The  filthy  habita  of  the  denizens  of  Indian 
towns  arise  more,  we  believe,  from  the  want  of  means  of  deanli- 


M0FUS6IL  8ANAX0BT   REFORM.  213 

ness,  thAn  any  inherent  partiality  for  dirt.  It  ifl^  however,  suffi- 
cient for  our  purpose,  to  call  attention  to  the  &ct>  so  painfully 
patent  to  all  resiaents  in  this  country,  that  defilement  abounds  in 
every  direction.  It  has  been  often  urged,  with  an  apparent  shew 
of  truth,  that  a  European  in  the  tropics  forgets  tne  use  of  his 
1^  from  failing  to  employ  them ;  out  if  those,  who  taunt 
U8  with  this  fiuUng,  could  experience  but  for  one  day  the 
diagost  and  miflery  of  seeking  to  uOuile  the  morning  air 
on  foot,  whilst  every  br^th  comes  laden  with  pollution, 
thev  would  quickly  retract  their  words.  Not  content 
with  rendering  the  earth  impure,  instances  are  yery  com- 
mon, where  water,  intended  for  the  use  of  people  distant  from 
any  other  supply,  is  rendered  poisonous  by  overhanging  Neces- 
sariesL  The  Board  of  Health  writes  thus  of  the  injuries,  likdy 
to  aocme^  in  consequence  of  such  pollution : — 

During  the  late  Epidemic,  much  Additional  eyidenoe  has  been  elioited, 
proriog  the  influence  of  the  use  of  impure  water,  in  predisposing  to  the 
aiseaae.  There  has  been  scarcely  a  town  in  the  kingdom,  in  which  cholo^ 
ra  baa  been  prevalent,  that  has  not  afforded  some  instance  of  it ;  and.  when 
the  water  baa  been  contaminated  by  the  contents  of  sewers  or  priTiea,  or 
hj  the  drainage  of  graye  yards,  the  seizures  haye  been  more  sudden  and 
▼lolant,  and  Uie  proportion  of  deaths  to  attacks  greater  eyen  than  from 
oTcr  crowding.  ***•♦*  Fiye  houses  in  Windmill- 
S^uaie,  Shore-ditch,  occupied  by  twenty-two  inhabitants,  were  supplied 
with  water  from  a  well,  into  which  surface-refuse  and  the  contents  of  cess- 
pools percolated.  Of  the  inhabitants  of  these  housee,  eleyen,  that  is 
one-baif  of  the  whole  number,  died  of  cholera  within  a  few  days. 

The  first  out-break  of  cholera  in  Botherhithe,  occurred  in  sixteen  houses, 
which  were  supplied  with  water  from  a  well,  that  was  expressly  ascertained 
to  be  contaminated  by  infiltration  from  a  foul  open  ditch,  in  these  six- 
teen bouses,  there  were  twen^  cases  of  cholera ;  and  seyeral  of  the  per- 
■rma,  who  died,  were  decent  mechanics,  and  not  in  destitute  circumstancea 
The  water,  which  supplied  twenty*fiye  houses  in  another  street,  was  taken 
oat  of  a  ditch,  that  receiyed  the  contents  of  privies.  In  these  twenty-five 
houses  there  occurred  fifteen  deaths  from  cholera. 

Bat  the  pollution  of  the  surfiioe  of  the  earth  is  scarcely  less 
imurioos.  The  evidence  afforded  by  the  Board  of  H^th,  on 
this  point  is  again  very  strong: — 

When  an  atmosphere,  oontaminated  by  the  emanations  that  arise  from 
filth,  aoeomnlated  in  and  about  dwellings,  is  respired,  the  noxious  matters 
diBBolyed  or  suspended  in  the  air  are  oarried  directly  into  the  blood.  The 
extant,  to  which  such  malteis  may  poison  the  blood,  may  be  understood  when 
it  is  considered,  that,  in  the  space  of  every  tweaty-u>ur  hours,  an  adult 
penon  brealfaes  thirty^six  hogsheads  of  air ;  that  there  pass,  at  the  aame  time, 
through  the  lungs,  to  be  brought  into  contact  with  this  bulk  of  air,  twenty- 
four  hogsheads  of  blood ;  and  that  tho  velocity  of  the  circulation  is  so 
great,  that  the  whole  mass  of  the  blood  is  carried  round  the  body  in  one 
minute.  4i4e*«4c«Iti8,  therefore,  still  not  unnecessary  to  call 
attention  to  tho  evidcuco,  which  recent  oxpcnence  has  afforded,  with  re- 
ference to  this  subject 


1 


214  INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

Immediately  opposite  Christ  church  work-bouse,  Spitalfields,  belong 
ing  to  the  White  Chapel  Union,  and  only  separated  from  it  by  a  narrow 
lane,  a  few  feet  wide,  there  was,  in  1848,  a  manufactory  of  artificial 
manure,  in  which  bullocks,  blood  and  night  soil  were  desiccated  by  drj 
beat  in  a  kiln,  or  sometimes  by  mere  exposure  of  the  compost  to  the  action 
of  Uie  sun  and  air,  causing  a  most  powerful  stench.  The  work  booM 
contained  about  400  children,  and  a  few  adult  paupers.  WbeneTertbe 
works  were  actively  carried  on,  particularly  when  the  wind  blew  in  the 
direction  of  the  house,  there  were  produced  numerous  cases  of  feyer,  of  an 
intractable  and  typhoid  form ;  a  tendency  to  measles,  small  pox,  and 
other  infantile  diseases ;  and  for  some  time,  a  most  unmanageable  and  fatal 
form  of  apthsB  of  the  mouth,  ending  in  gangrene.  From  this  cauae«  aboTC 
twelve  deaths  took  place  among  the  infanta  in  one  quarter.  In  the  month  of 
December,  1848,  when  cholera  had  already  occurred  in  the  White  Chapel 
Union,  sixty  of  the  children  in  the  work  house  were  suddenly  seized  with 
yiolent  diarrhoea,  early  in  the  morning.  The  proprietor  was  compelled  to 
close  his  establishment,  and  the  children  returned  to  their  ordinary  health. 
Fire  months  afterwards,  the  works  were  recommenced ;  in  a  day  or  two, 
subsequently,  the  wind  blowing  from  the  manufactory,  a  most  powerful 
stench  pervaded  the  work  house ;  in  the  night  following,  forty-five  of  the 
boys,  whose  dormitories  directly  face  the  manufactory,  were  again  suddenly 
seized  with  severe  diarrhosa ;  whilst  the  girls,  whose  dormitories  were  in  a 
more  distant  part,  and  faced  in  another  direction,  escaped.  The  manufac- 
tory having  been  again  suppressed,  there  has  been  no  return  of  diarrhoBa 
up  to  the  present  time. 

Again,  in  the  Reports  of  the  Health  of  Towns  Commission, 
we  read  as  follows : — 

The  medical  officer  of  St  Saviour  s  Union,  in  answer  to  the  question, 
"  What  is  the  state  of  the  sewers  for  the  houses  of  the  poorest  classes  of  the 
population  in  your  district  V  says,  '*  They  are  in  a  dreadful  condition.  On 
one  side  of  Broad vvall,  at  the  back  of  the  houses,  there  is  an  open  sewer 
into  which  the  privies  empty  themselves.  There  is  a  second  open  sewer, 
situate  between  Hatfield-street  and  Brunswick-street,  which  extends  its 
course  from  Brunswick-place :  and  there  is  a  third  open  sewer  in  Boundary- 
row,  all  places  thickly  inhabited.  These  sewers  are  the  receptacles  of  all 
kind  of  refuse,  such  as  putrid  fish  (thrown  in  by  the  coster-mongers  Hving 
about  the  New-Cut),  dead  dogs,  cats,  vegetables,  &c.  These  two  latter 
sewers  also  receive  the  soil  from  the  privies  of  the  houses  situate  near  them. 
All  the  sewers  are  always  offensive,  but  disgustingly  so  at  particular  aeft- 
sons."  These  sewers  are  only  emptied  once  or  twice  a  year.  In  answer 
to  the  question.  What  is  the  general  state  of  the  health  of  the  people 
exposed  to  the  effluvia  from  the  open  sewer  ?  the  same  gentleman  states, 
that  "  low  and  malignant  fevers  are  much  more  frequent  and  fatal  in  their 
effects  in  these  localities,  than  in  the  other  low  neighbourhoods  better 
situated.  It  is  not  uncommon  to  have  two  or  three  consecutive  cases  of 
fever  in  the  same  house ;  and,  year  after  year,  the  father  or  mother  of  lai^ 
families  is  carried  off  by  the  frequent  occurrence  of  the  disease."  Malig- 
nant cholera  commenced,  in  this  locality,  and  spread  to  a  much  greater 
extent,  on  the  line  of  these  sewers,  than  in  the  other  poor,  and  densely  in- 
habited places.  "  In  Brunswick  place  where  the  disease  flrat  b^n, 
five  fatal  cases  occurred  in  one  house  (here  the  open  sewer  runs  within 
two  yards  of  the  houses) ;  and  in  many  instances,  in  the  direction  of 
the  ditches,  in  a  better  class  of  houses,  two  or  three  cases  termina* 
ted  fatally  from  malignant  cholera,  in   the  same  dwelling.    There  are 


MOFUSSIL  flANATOBY  REFORM.  215 

other  diBeaaed  produoed  by  the  malaria  emitted  from  the  decompos- 
ed refuse  in  these  open  sewers."  Mr.  Clarke  the  medical  ofiScer  of 
St  01aTe*8  Union,  says,  that  the  residences  of  the  poorer  classes  in  his 
dietrict  are  filthy  in  the  extreme.  The  chief  drainage  of  the  district, 
inhabited  by  the  poorer  classes,  is  by  nnoovered  sewers,  which  are  a  sort 
of  ditches,  very  sluggish,  and  emitting  constantly  most  offensive  odours. 
The  line  of  bouses,  where  fever  prevails  at  some  periods,  often  marks  the  line 
of  defective  drainage  and  open  sewers. 

Of  all  reforms  this  clearing  away  of  Priyies  must  be  the  first. 
Without  it^  every  attempt  at  tank  cleansing  will  necessarily 
be  imperfect  The  only  fair  and  practical  mode  of  remedying 
the  evil  is  by  the  formation  of  cess-pools  throughout  every 
town*  Each  should  be  about  twelve  feet  in  diameter^  by  twenty 
or  thirt:^  in  depth,  edged  with  brickwork,  crossed  by  iron  bars, 
divided  into  halves  by  a  central  planking,  and  surrounded  by  a 
hedge.  Such  a  convenience,  separately  accommodating  the 
sexes  by  its  two  compartments,  should  be  formed  in  the  centre 
of  every  town  Muhulla,  and  bricked  up  when  full,  at  which  timp, 
another  might  be  opened.  The  town  sweepers,  already  indicated 
as  employ^  upon  the  drains,  should  visit  them  twice  a  day,  for 
the  purpose  of  throwing  in  a  sufficient  quantity  of  chloridizing 
liquid*  Such  places  of  resort  are,  of  course,  intended  for  the 
poor ;  but  they  would  also  serve  the  purpose  of  the  better  class  by 
foiming  convenient  receptacles  for  house  cleansing.  Once  insti- 
tuted, all  defilement,  of  course,  would  become  penaL  That  such 
an  arrangement  woiild  meet  with  the  hearty  concurrence  of  the 
native  community,  we  have  amply  tested  by  inquiry,  and,  indeed, 
could  point  to  one  town,  where  it  is  already  in  progress. 

Holes  and  Ibbegulabities  of  Subf  ace,  chiefly  caused  by 
deporting  earth  for  bricks,  and  houses,  abound  in  Indian  towns. 
Every  dwelling  is  raised  one  or  two  feet  above  the  surface,  at 
the  expense  of  the  neighbouring  soil,  which  is  excavated  in  the 
same  proportion.  The  surface  of  a  town  becomes  thus  full  of 
irr^ular  holes,  averaging  from  one  to  twenty  feet  in  depth,  and 

E resenting  universally  a  rugged  outline.  In  close  contiguity  to 
ouses,  they  become  the  repositories  of  the  dirt,  and  filth  of  every 
kind,  and  constitute,  in  the  rainy  season,  a  kind  of  marsh,  fruitful 
of  Fever  and  its  connate  diseases.  In  places  of  old  date,  they 
poeeess  the  prescriptive  right  of  ages ;  but  it  is  lamentable  to  see 
the  same  error  perpetrated  in  new  cantonments,  raised  under 
^European  orders,  by  which  |the  soldier's  life  and  health  is  sacri- 
ficed. The  following  extracts  from  our  daily  Journals  offer 
painful  proof  of  this : — 

Ths  Sickness  at  Labobb. — We  alluded  in  our  last  to  the  mortality 
in  H.  M.  96tb  Foot,  as  having  been  considerable  during  the  present  week. 
We  regret  much  to  learn  that  eleven  men  have  been  committed  to  the 


216  TNDIAK  EPIDEMICS  AND 

grave  since  Saturday  loei.  Wo  learn  also  that  388  patients  have  been  ad> 
milted  into  the  regimental  hospital  during  the  same  period  ;  and  that  l[i2 
only  have  been  discharged.  There  were  yesterday  244  on  the  mek  list, 
being  a  slif^t  improvement  on  the  return  three  days  before,  when  the 
number  of  patients  under  medical  treatment  was  286.  If  onr  readers 
will  take  the  trouble  to  look  over  the  table  we  published  on  Wednesday 
last,  they  will  find  that  of  the  European  Foot  Artillery,  also  quartered  in 
Anarkullee,  and  next  to  H.  M.  96tb  Foot,  there  were  17  per  cent  in  hos- 
pital on  the  22nd  of  August.  The  number  has,  we  believe,  not  materially 
increased  during  the  last  few  days.  In  the  Royal  Begiment  the  average 
has  risen  to  upwards  of  80  per  cent. ;  and  it  becomes  a  matter  of  serious 
oonsideration  to  discover  the  cause  or  causes  of  such  a  material  difi^noe. 
Some  of  them  are,  no  doubt,  local — there  being,  in  the  immediate  neigh- 
bourhood of  the  Infantry  lines,  still  large  patches  of  broken  ground  £at 
must  engender  malaria  under  the  present  state  of  the  atmosphere.  The 
Sanatory  Committee,  appointed  during  the  past  year,  recommended  the 
filling  up  of  two  main  receptacles  of  filth  and  putrid  water,  that  poisoned 
the  atmosphere  around  them ;  and  the  Governor  General  sanctioned  the 
estimated  outlav  with  most  commendable  promptitude,  patting  to  shame 
the  notorious  delays  of  the  Military  Boara  in  similar  cases.  But  the 
estimate  in  one  instance,  made  by  an  officiating  executive,  fell  short  of 
the  required  expenditure  ;  and  much  that  should  have  been  done  was  left 
undone.  There  is*  besides  this,  ample  room  for  the  untiring  labours  of  the 
Committee. 

Of  the  sickness  amongst  the  native  population  of  tfafo  town  we  have  no 
authentic  information.  The  mortality  is  certainly  increasing ;  and  the  Ha- 
kims are  so  much  in  reouisition,  that  they  can  no  longerpay  domiciliary 
visits,  but  compel  most  or  their  patients  to  visit  them.  Tne  sickness  pre- 
vails to  a  much  greater  degree  outside  of  the  town,  in  the  suburbs  and 
habitations  to  the  south  and  east,  than  in  those  to  the  north:  the  cAose  of 
which  may  be  traceable  to  the  immense  tracts  of  broken  ground,  that  exist 
and  will  continue  to  exist,  until  some  comprehensive  measure  is  adopted 
for  levelling  the  whole,  and  ultimately  draining  those  parts  where  drainage 
is  necessaiy.  A  plan  for  drawing  off  the  waters,  that  accumulate  in  the 
hollows  at  some  aistance  south  and  south-east  of  Lahore,  has  been  matured 
by  Col.  Napier,  and  will,  we  hope,  be  carried  out  as  a  commencement  of  one 
general  plan  for  improving  the  sanatory  condition  of  Lahore,  and  relieving 
the  station  from  the  imputation  it  now  bears,  of  being,  during  the  months 
of  August,  September,  and  October, "  very  unhealthy."  Let  every  feasible 
means  for  removing  this  state  of  things  be  adopted ; — let  the  town  ditch, 
especially,  be  cleared  out ; — and  the  Government  will  have  the  satisfaction 
of  knowing,  that  thev  have  done  all  that  can  be  done,  even  if  unsuccessful, 
towards  improving  the  condition  of  a  considerable  section  of  the  population 
of  their  newly  acquired  territories. — Lakor^  ChranieU,  Auguit  80,  1861. 

PcsBAwoB.  August  7th — We  regret  to  learn  that  sickness  and  mortality 
still  prevail  at  this  station.  The  98th  Highlanders  is  represented  as  a 
mere  skeleton  of  a  regiment,  the  bod^  being  consigned  to  the  Peshamir 
dust,  and  114  of  the  survivors  now  m  hospital,  dangerously  ill.  The  61st 
(Queen's)  has  nearly  as  large  a  proportion  on  the  sick  list,  and  both  corps 
are  anxiously  looking  forward  to  their  relief.  Much  of  the  unhealthine«s 
of  the  place  is  attributed  to  the  wretched  barracks  assigned  to  the  European 
troops,  which  shelter  them  from  neither  suu  nor  rain.  After  an  aver"- 
age  shower,  several  of  the  barracks  appear  like  islands  iu  a  lake,  aod 
so  remain,  until  the  waters  have  evaporated  or  been  absorbed.  It  is  true 
that  new  bari'acks  are  in  the  course  of  erection :  but,  at  the  present  rate  of 


HOFUSSIL  SANATORY  REFOIBM.  217 

pragresnon,  tbey  are  not  likely  to  benefit  the  existing  generation.  The 
water  oolleotB  in  the  numerous  hollows  or  pits,  from  which  clay  has  been 
dag  to  make  bricks ;  and  thence  a  deadly  miasma  arises  and  poisons  the  air 
for  miles  around.  If  the  Government  have  any  real  regard  for  the  health 
tod  comfort  of  the  troops,  any  care  for  their  efficiency,  or  any  sympathy  with 
their  sofferings,— this  will  not  be  permitted  to  continue  much  longer ;  or, 
otherwise,  Peshawur  will  become  the  grave  yard  of  the  North- West — Delhi 
OazeUe,  August  16,  18&1. 

FsvBa  AKD   Gholbba. — We  regret  to  hear  that  Lahore   is  snffering 

sererely  from  sickness.  The  city  numbers  thousands,  who  are  prostrated  by 

ferer;  and  the  cholera  also  is  carrying  on  its  dire  work — forty  to  fifty  are 

being  conveyed  out  daily,  victims  to  these  two  maladies.    While  at  Anar- 

kttllee  also,  in  cantonments,  as  well  as  in  the  parts  inhabited  by  the  Euro- 

ropean  population,  fever  is  ragiog,  hospitals  are  filling  rapidly,  and  efforts 

are  being  made  by  the  military  authorities  for  the  speedy  removal  of  the 

utillery  and  other  European  troops  to  the  purer  and  more  healthy  air  of 

Mean  Mir.    We  are  informed,  this  insalubrity,  which  last  year  cost  us 

the  valuable  lives    of  so  many  of   the  Fusiliers  and  other  European 

soldiers,   is  owing  entirely    to  bad  drainage!   Where  a  heavy    shower 

of  rain  falls,  the  parade  ground,  the  Sudder  bazar,    and  several  other 

eonaiderable  parts  of  the  station,  become  so  many  marshes,  which,  on  being 

dried  by  the  heat  of  the  sun,  exhale  noxious  vapours,  and  become  so 

^DAoy  hot-beds  of  disease  and  death.      Wuzirabad,  Peshawur,  and  other 

of  our  Punjab  stations,  are  suffering  from  the  same  cause — bad  drainage. 

"rhiB  is  the  penny-wise-and-pound-foolish  system  of  our  Government.    The 

b>e8  of  the  numerous  soldiers  yearly  sacrificed,  taken  only  on  a  L.  s.  d. 

oaleulation,  are  surely  deserving  the  outlay  of  a  few  lakhs  of  revenue  in 

the  proper  and  immediate  drainage  of  the  stations.    And  the  Board  of 

Administration  should  not  longer  delay  in  carrying  out  such  sanatory 

measures  as  will  efiectually  prevent,  in  future  years,  the  sickness  and  mortal- 

ity,  which  has  yisited  our  European  troops  during  the  present  and  the  last 

twelve  months. — Ibid. 

We  have  received  sereral  letters  from  correspondents  at  Barrackpore, 

drawing  our  attention  to  the  state  of  that  station  and  cantonments.    The 

inters  inform  us,  that  they  are  in  the  most  disgraceful  condition  ;  the  roads 

had,  the  drains  worse;  the  ditches  and  water  courses  choked  up  with  jungle  ; 

*Qd  the  compounds  of  all  the  unoccupied,  and  of  some  of  the  tenanted,. 

bungalows,  corered  with  forests  of  the  same  kind.    We  are  assured  that  the 

ststion  now  looks  more  like  one  that  had  been  abandoned  on  account  of 

nnbealthiness,  and  delivered  over  to  the  jackals,  than  the  head  quarters  of  a 

Diriaion.  All  the  weeds  and  jungle,  that  are  now  having  it  their  own  way,  must 

be  eventually  cut  down,  and  left  to  decay  and  infect  the  air  :  and  then  come 

fcvera,  heavy  sick  lists  and  full  hospitals,  and  possibly  deaths  and  such 

other  pleasing  results^    Those  who  have  the  charge  of  the  Barrackpore 

Conservancy  arrangements,  would  do  well  to  rememoer  that  officers  aoxi't 

ilways  die  of  fevers,  dysentery  and  other  tropical  diseases,  which  are  the 

naiilt  of  malaria  and  a  neglect  of  cleanliness,  but  sometimes  escape  with 

their  lives,  and  get  into  great  expense  and  debt  by  travelling  to  endeavour 

to  recover  their  health  and  strength. — Morning  Chronicle. 

In  towns  already  built,  the  evil,  thus  so  powerfully  depicted, 
18  most  difficult  of  cure ;  but  the  public  authorities  are  oound 
to  make  the  attempt  in  restoring  the  level  by  earth  brought 
from  a  distance.  Its  future  practice  should  be  strenuously  in- 
terdicted, and  house-builders  compelled  to  raise  the  dwellings, 
either  on  a  brick  foundation,  or  on  imported  earth. 

E   £ 


218  INDIAK  EPIDEMICS   AND 

To  secure  cleanliness,  and  avoid  the  heaps  of  broken  pots, 
which  constitute  an  attractive  nucleus  for  (firt  of  all  kinds,  it 
should  be  made  imperative  on  every  house,  to  have  a  dust-bin, 
or  clay  vessel,  which  might  be  emptied  weekly  into  the  pubUc 
cart  or  carts,  to  be  appointed  for  the  purpose  of  daily  perambu- 
lating the  town.  Such  refuse  might  be  conveniently  disposed 
of,  in  a  pit  formed  in  the  vicinity  of  the  town  for  the  purpose  of 
supplying  earth,  and  a  daily  compensation  for  loss  would  thus 
be  effected. 

Burials. — Nothing  can  more  powerfully  illustrate  the  silence 
or  non-existence  of  public  opinion  in  India,  than  the  fact  that, 
whilst  the  subject  of  intra-mural  interment  has  afforded  full  scope 
for  the  energies  of  European  sanatory  reformers,  and  given  am- 
ple employ  to  legislative  activity,  it  has  not  even  been  treated 
of  amongst  us.  And  yet  the  evil,  if  possible,  exists  to  a  more 
grave  extent 

Are  [our  readers  aware,  that  Mussulman  burials  invariably 
take  place  in  the  close  neighbourhood  of  the  deceased's  dwell- 
ing— frequently,  indeed,  within  its  boundaries  ?  Every  Indian 
town  is  thus  converted  into  one  huge  grave-yard,  in  which  the 
injurious  result^  are  not  confined  to  certain  spots  idone,  as  in  the 
London  abominations,  but  spread  over  the  whole  city.  Bat 
the  evil  is  not  limited  to  this.  The  depth  of  interment  ranges 
betweeu  six  inches  and  two  feet :  the  body  is  simply  placed  in 
the  earth,  excepting  in  the  case  of  wealthy  men ;  and,  in  many 
instances,  the  jackals  exhume  it  before  the  expiration  of 
twelve  hours,  thus  facilitating  decomposition  with  all  its  atten- 
dant evil  consequences,  and  familiarizing  the  public  eye  with 
sights,  which  tend  to  blunt  its  moral  sensibility,  and  constitute, 
we  firmly  believe,  one  of  the  causes  of  that  recklessness  of 
life  so  characteristic  of  Bengal. 

After  the  mass  of  evidence,  parliamentary  and  otherwise, 
which  England  has  produced ;  positively  demonstrating  the  in- 
jurious influences  exercised  upon  the  living  by  emanations  from 
the  dead,  but  little  necessity  exists  for  dwelling  on  it  here. 
Out  of  the  long  list  of  sanatory  evils  this  is  acknowledged  to 
be  the  greatest :  and  yet  our  Indian  towns  sicken  under  its 
sway,  without  an  attempt  at  amendment  The  following  most 
recent  illustrations  of  the  iujurious  consequences  of  such  a 
custom  may  strengthen  the  impression  on  the  reader's  mind. 

Speaking  of  grave-yards,  the  report  of  the  Board  of  Health 
says: — 

After  the  evidence,  which  we  have  elsewhere  adduced,  of  the  iDJuriooa 
effects  of  graveyards,  on  the  crowded  populations  in  their  immediate  neigh- 
bourhood, we  shall  cite  the  two  foUowiug  occurreuoes,  in  further  iilustra* 
tion  of  the  fact,  deiived  from  recent  experience. 


MOFUSBIL  SANATOBT  SEFOBM.  219 

At  Bristol,  at  a  plaoe  called  the  Baekbaj,  tliere  is  a  burial  ground,  about 
•iglity  feet  in  length  and  between  forty  and  fifty  in  breadth,  the  surface  of 
the  earth  of  which  is  four  and  a  half  feet  aboTO  the  level  of  the  pavement 
iQ  the  adjoining  courts.  It  is  completely  surrounded  by  houses,  thirty-three 
in  number.  Under  the  external  walls  of  the  burial  ground,  there  are  drains 
with  open  gully  grates,  from  which,  at  the  time  the  medical  inspector  exa- 
mined tbem,  issued  the  most  offensive  odour,  having  the  unmistakable  grave- 
yard smell.  Out  of  those  thirty-three  houses,  one  of  them  being  empty, 
eholera  broke  out  in  fifteen,  chiefly  in  those  on  the  side  next  the  burial 
groand.  In  one  house  there  occurred  no  fewer  than  eleven  oases,  and  in 
wreral  from  five  to  six ; — in  all  forty-seven  cases  and  thirty-three  deaths. 

"There  were  no  local  sanatory  defects,"  (says  Dr.  Sutherland),  ^' which 
tended  to  make  this  place  more  liable  to  an  £pidemio  outbreak  than  other 
districts  in  the  same  neighbourhood,  except  the  presence  of  the  burial 
ground,  and  the  polluted  state  of  the  drainage  to  which  it  appears  to  have 
materially  contriouted.  "  It  is  known,"  (says  Mr.  Grainger,)  '*that  a  most 
diBiingaished  surgeon,  Mr.  Key,  whose  valuable  life  fell  a  sacrifice  to  the 
late  Epidemic,  resided  in  a  house,  the  back  windows  of  which  looked  direct- 

2  into  a  graveyard ;  that  he  was  much  in  the  habit  of  sitting  at  these  win- 
»W8  when  opened ;  that  he  had  complained  to  his  servants  several  times, 
shortly  before  his  attack,  of  the  ofiensive  smell  proceeding  from  the  burial 
ground,  in  which  some  cholera  corpses  had  been  entered ;  and  that,  on  the 
veiT  day  of  the  fatal  seizure,  a  grave  had  been  dug,  which  attracted  his 
attention,  as  having  increased  the  noxious  effluvia. 

To  this  we  must  add  the  very  remarkable  statement  In  an 
article  on  Plague,  from  the  British  and  Foreign  Medical  Bemew, 
July  1847;  shewing  the  disease  to  have  been  unknown  in  an 
Epidemic  form  beK>re  the  practice  of  embalming  gave  way  to 
aepulture. 

The  question  is  of  extreme  interest,  why  Egypt,  described  by  Herodo- 
tns,  as  the  most  healthy  country  of  the  world,  a  country  which  was  free  from 
pestilential  Epidemics  during  194  years'  occupation  by  the  Persians,  during 
SOI  years  under  Alexander  and  the  Ptolemies,  and  during  a  great  part  of  the 
Boman  domination,  which  commenced  80  B.  0.  and  continued  until  620 
A.  D.,  has,  since  the  commencement  of  the  Arabic  rule,  been  so  often  decima- 
ted by  the  plague.    The  statement  of  Rufus,  before  alluded  to,  although 
proving  that  the  disease  was  known,  also  proves  that  it  was  nothing  more 
than  a  sporadic  disease  in  his  time ;  and  a  casual  allusion  only  of  Galen,  who 
was  of  the  school  of  Alexandria,  would  prove  the  same,  at  a  like  period.  The 
Committee  state  that  Alexandria,  which  was  founded  831  B.  C,  was,  accord- 
ing to  Galen,  attacked  by  plague  for  the  first  time  as  a  pestilence  A,  D. 
268.    But  they  have  made  a  strange  mistake  in  Chronology,  for  Galen  was 
ham  181  A.  D.,  and,  if  he  spoke  of  the  plague  of  268,  he  must  have  written 
when  he  was  182  years  of  age.    The  fact  is,  it  is  Eusebius,  an  author  by 
no  means  noted  for  accuracy,  who  describes  the  epidemic  of  268 ;  and  the 
disease,  he  describes,  appears  to  have  been  simply  a  contagious  typhus, 
tialen,  aswe  have  said,  only  incidentally  alludes  to  plague,  while  Gelsus, 
Praxagoras,  Serapion,  Saranus,  and  above  all,  GsbUus  Aurelianus,  who  lived 
in  the  fifth  century,  and  practised  in  Numidia,  have  been  quite  silent  with 
regard  to  any  Epidemic  disease,  accompanied  by  buboes  or  carbuncles.     It 
nnst  therefore  have  been  a  rare  disease,  until  the  great  plague  of  542,  in  the 
time  of  Justinian,  broke  out,  which  we  know  was  regarded  by  contemporary 
writenasa  new 


220  INDIAN  EPIDSMICS  ANP 

The  ancient  salubrity  of  Egypt  must,  doubtless,  be  ascribed  in  a  great 
degree  to  the  general  prosperity  of  the  people,  the  canals  of  Sesostris,  aiid\he 
elevation  of  the  towns  upon  artificial  mounds ;  but  we  believe,  above  all,  to 
the  practice  of  embalm-ment.  Ancient  Egypt,  the  mother  of  the  sciences, 
had  recognised  the  effect  of  the  periodical  fertiliiing  inundations  of  the  Nile, 
and  of  the  burning  heat  of  the  sun  upon  the  deposit  left  on  the  subeideoce 
of  the  waters  of  the  river,  over  spots  ivhere  men  or  animals  were  boned. 
What  was  the  result  ?  Inhumation  was  forbidden,  embalm-ment  enjoined ; 
and  now.  instead  of  tombs  and  cemeteries,  the  traveller  observes  along  the 
ranges  of  hills,  which  border  the  Nile,  immense  subterranean  cavities,  miles 
in  extent,  which  are  filled  with  embalmed  organic  remains.  The  living  were 
thus  protected  from  the  dead :  and  to  ensure  the  observation  of  the  laws, 
religious  influence  was  called  in  to  the  support  of  human  wisdom.  The  law 
became  a  religious  rite ;  the  influence  of  the  divinity  was  employed  to  pro* 
tect  Egypt  from  the  evils  of  her  physical  formation.  The  salubrity  of  the 
eonntry  ceased  with  the  practice  of  embalm-ment  The  Christian  Mis- 
sionaries proscribed  the  ancient  usages  as  idolatrous  and  sinful ;  and  this 
mode  of  sepulture  gradually  fell  into  disuse,  and  was  finally  prohibited  and 
abolished,  356  A  D.  We  have  seen  that  the  plague,  though  before  not  un- 
known, was  a  rare  disease ;  but,  in  542,  sprung  up  the  terrible  plague,  which 
devastated  Egypt,  Turkey,  and  Europe,  to  the  borders  of  the  Atlantic,  and, 
according  to  Giobon,  destroyed  a  hundred  millions  of  people. 

In  our  former  article  we  gave  our  reasons  for  believing  that  the  emana- 
tions from  the  dead  bodies,  buried  in  lower  Egypt,  are  the  real  cause  of  ths 
persistence  of  the  disease  in  that  country ;  that  ittd  disease  is  sown  and  pre- 
served by  the  mode  of  the  sepulture ;  that  the  living  are  poisoned  by  the  ema- 
nations of  the  dead.  A  porous  level  soil,  filled  with  dead  bodies,  penetrated 
nniversallv  by  moisture  auring  the  overflowing  of  the  Nile,  is,  after  the  subst- 
denoe  of  tne  waters,  heated  by  a  burning  sun,  and  a  vast  oemetery,  in  the 
language  of  M.  Pariset,  is  converted  into  a  **  true  distillery  of  dead  bodiea 

Where  is  the  remedy  for  this  state  of  things  to  be  found  ? 
In  the  formation  bj  Goyemment,  from  the  public  fiinds^  of  a 
Mussufanan  cemetery  in  the  yicinity  of  every  town^  to  be  main- 
tained in  a  state  of  decency  and  cleanliness,  and  in  which  alone 
burials  shall  be    permitted.      We  are  not  unaware  of  the 
opposition,  which  may  be  expected  to  attend  this  measure,  es- 
pecially on  the  part  of  the  ignorant  and  bigotted  of  the  faith 
of  Islam;  but  we  assert  that  such  difficulty  must  be  met  by  law 
and  decision*     Such  a  practice  was  common  in  the  old  Mussul- 
man cities  of  Delhi  and  Agra,  where  the  passing  trayeller  will 
find  himself  surrounded  at  certain  points  by  tombs  congr^ated 
together ;  and  it  now  prevails  in  Calcutta.   We  have  latel;y  dis- 
cussed the  subject  with  many  Mussulman  gentlemen  of  intel- 
ligence, who  all  concur  in  stating,  that  no  objection  can  possibly 
exist,  as  far  as  the  Koran  is  concerned.    Indeed,  one  has  sponta- 
neously offered  a  piece  of  land  for  the  purpose,  aocompamed  by 
the  following  extract  from  a  "  commentary  on  the  Koran.''  By 
this  it  would  appear  that  not  only  is  a  cemetery  perfectly  un- 
ol^ectionable,  but  that  burial  near  roads  and  bazars  is  absolute- 
ly forbidden :   and  that  the  Mussulmans  of  our  Mofussil  towns 


HOFUSSIL  SANATOBT  BEFORM.  221 

are  thas  daily  transgressing  the  ceremonial  form  of  their  Holy 
Book. 

The  extract  adverted  to  was  forwarded  to  us  in  the  follow- 
ing letter  from  one  of  the  most  intelligent  native  gentlemen  in 
Bengal ; — 

Toa  requested  verbally,  ray  opinion,  a  few  days  ago,  on  the  propriety  and 
practicability  of  erecting  public  cemeteries  here  for  burying  the  dead  of  the 
Mussulmans.  That  they  will  be  a  great  boon  and  tend  in  no  inconsiderable 
measure  to  promote  the  healthiness  of  this  town,  can  scarcely  admit  of  a 
moment's  question.  The  present  practice,  of  burying  the  dead  in  the  com- 
pounds of  houses  and  in  the  heart  of  large  and  populous  towns,  is  very  re- 
prehensible.  and  is  the  cause  of  much  of  the  sickness  which  prevails  there. 
Its  discontinuance  ought  therefore  to  be  considered  as  one  of  the  first  and 
most  important  sanatory  improvements  that  can  be  effected  in  the  Mofussil. 

I  believe  the  erection  of  public  cemeteries  is  not  opposed  to  or  irrecon- 
cilable with  the  tenets  of  the  Koran.  That  they  have  existed  in  Arabia  and 
Persia,  from  time  immemorial,  is  evident  from  the  ancient  traditions  and 
records  of  those  countries.  It  is  true  they  are  not  expressly  promulgated 
ID  the  Koran,  but  this  is  not,  because  they  are  prohibited  by  it,  but  because 
they  bad  prevailed  long  before  the  time  of  Muhammad,  and  required  no  fresh 
religious  sanctions.  The  Koran  prohibits  the  burial  of  the  dead  on  the  road 
side,  or  in  the  vicinity  of  bazars,  &c.,  and  it  may  fairly  be  inferred,  that  if 
the  prohibition  had  extended  to  public  cemeteries,  it  would  have  been  dis- 
tinctly mentioned ;  I  beg  to  annex  an  extract  from  the  Ticca,  or  commen- 
taries on  the  Koran,  which  would  fully  warrant  this  inference.  I  beg 
to  add  that  I  have  conversed  with  several  Muhammadan  gentlemen 
on  this  subject,  and  that  they  approve  generally  of  the  erection  of  pub> 
He  oemeteries.  One  of  them,  Mir  Muhammad  Ali,  has  furnished  me  with 
the  extraet  alluded  to,  and  would  be  happy  to  grant  a  site  for  a  public  ceme- 
tery in  this  town. 

The  book  enjoins  that  the  dead  should  not  be  buried  in  a  "  bad  place ;  ** 
that  no  dwelling  should  be  erected  over  the  grave,  nor  any  person  should 
sleep,  walk,  sit,  or  satisfy  any  of  the  calls  of  nature  over  it ;  that  the  bury- 
ing of  the  dead  In  a  lane  or  bazar,  is  improper,  and  that,  if  any  person  is 
interred  in  ground,  belonging  to  another,  without  his  permission,  the  owner 
has  the  right  of  removing  the  corpse,  or  levelling  the  ground  and  cultivat- 
ing it 

How  the  present  most  vicious  custom  ever  became  introduced, 
it  would  be  idle  to  speculate;  but^  if  we  would  seek  to  confer 
the  blessing  of  health  upon  those  beneath  our  sway^  it  must  be 
immediately  abolbhed.  Whilst  we  are  upon  the  subject  of  ce- 
meteries, we  would  draw  the  attention  of  our  fellow-countrymen, 
to  the  painful  condition,  which  too  many  of  our  Christian  ones 
exhibit.  A  small  walled  enclosure,  set  thick  with  tombs,  whose 
pretensions,  size  and  decorations,  offer  the  most  painful  contrast 
to  the  decay  and  neglect  with  which  they  are  surrounded,  is 
the  too  frequent  sight  which  greets  the  inquiring  traveller,  fresh 
ftom  Europe,  and  still  glowing  with  that  holy  deling  of  respect 
for  the  dead,  which  forms  so  strong  and  admirable  a  character- 
istic of  English  communities.     Why  is  this  so  ?    Are  we  more 


222  '    INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

thoughtless  of  the  past,  and  anxious  for  the  present,  than  our 
fellow-countrymen  ?  We  would  fain  believe  that  such  is  not  the 
case,  but  rather  deem  that  the  desolation  and  apparent  forgetful- 
ness  we  deplore,  is  owing  to  the  rapid  changes  of  society,  which 
leave  none  behind,  who  mourn  the  dead,  and  also,  perhaps,  to  a 
natural  disinclination  to  visit 'a  spot  possessed  of  so  few  attrac- 
tions for  the  eye.  All  this  should  be  changed!  ''Local  funds 
might  certainly  provide  a  gardener  to  keep  the  place  in  order,  and 
cultivate  some  few  simple  flowers,  whilst  those,  who  lavish  no 
inconsiderable  sums  to  build  a  tomb,  might  assuredly  provide 
suflicient,  on  their  departure,  to  repair  or  preserve  it  from  decay. 

Burning  Ghat. — Although  our  Hindu  fellow-subjects  trou- 
ble not  the  earth  in  burial,  they  very  seriously  pollute  the  wa- 
ter ; — a  circumstance  of  no  mean  importance,  in  narrow  rivers^ 
which  furnish  drink  for  the  living. 

Our  readers  need  not  be  informed,  that  destruction  by  burning, 
or,  as  we  may  more  briefly  term  it,  cremation,  is  the  ceremonial 
law  for  disposing  of  the  dead,  enunciated  by  the  Shastras  ;  but 
they  are  not,  perhaps,  equally  aware,  that  no  other  mode  of 
dealing  with  the  corpse  is  recognized  or  permitted,  except  in  rare 
instances.  What  is  the  daily  custom  of  the  Hindu  race  ?  About 
one-half  of  those,  who  die,  are  strictly  treated  according  to  this 
edict;  one-fourth  are  partially  consumed,  and  their  scorched 
trunks  cast  into  the  nearest  stream,  or  tank  ;  whilst  the  remain- 
ing portions  are  at  once  thrust  into  the  water,  and  float  down- 
waras  to  the  sea,  in  a  state  of  horrible  decomposition,  poisoning 
the  water  of  narrow  streams,  or  sickening  the  eye,  whilst  tumblea 
in  the  torrents  of  the  Ganges,  becoming  entangled  amongst  the 
shipping  in  its  waters,  or  dinging  to  the  banks  of   the  gardens 
which  adorn  it  Will  our  distant  readers  be  startled,  if  we  assure 
them,  that  in  Ghtrden  Beach,  the  pride  and  boast  of  our  palatial  city, 
we  have  actually  known  servants  employed  at  intervals,  through- 
out the  day,  in  thrusting  these  decaying  vestiges  of  mortality, 
from  the  vicinity  of  their  master's  grounds,  to  float  out  into  the 
stream,  only  to  be  sucked  in  again  by  the  next  turn  of  the 
current  ?  These  horrible  sights  have  ftirnished  food  for  written 
descriptions  of  the  first  appearances  in  India,  from  the  earliest 
days  of  Britbh  India  autnorship ;  but  how  few  have  ventured 
toinquire,'a8to  their  necessity  and^prevention,  as  fiuras  Calcutta 
is  concerned.     Government  has  taken  the  first  step  in  Sanatory 
Reform,  in  relation  to  this  practice,  by  enclosing  a  certain  space 
by  the  river-side,  termed  a  Burning  &hat,  to  which  sdl  crema- 
tion is  limited.      But  sanatory  science  and  public  decency 
claim  yet  another,  which  is  ^^  full  'and  perfect  destruction  of 
every  corpse  admitted  within  its  gates,  tnus  putting  a  stop  at 


MOFUSSIL  SANATORY  BEFORM.  223 

once  and  for  ever  to  the  horrible  eights  we  have  described.  The 
advantage  would  not  be  limited  to  this^  but  we  might  safelv 
calculate  upon  the  system  of  ghat  murders  being  much 
checked  by  its  adoption.  At  present,  we  have  reason  to  believe, 
many  sufferers  from  disease,  reduced  to  the  last  stage  of 
weakness,  are  brought  to  the  river-side,  and,  too  poor  to  afford 
cremation,  are  thrust  into  the  stream,  directly  life  appears 
extinct,  who  might,  on  the  application  of  fire,  have  given  such 
unmistakable  siens  of  life,  as  would  have  induced  their  friends 
to  pause  before  hurrying  them  into  eternity. 

Even  the  inclosed  Burning  Ghat*  is  wanting  in  the  Mofussil, 
where  a  spot  of  ground,  in  dose  contiguity  to  the  town — often, 
indeedj  almost  surrounded  by  houses — ^is  devoted  to  the  purpose, 
as  dumce,  or  the  hereditarv  Ghat  keeper's  convenience,  may 
determine.  In  order,  certainly,  to  determine  the  feasibility 
of  Government  interference,  we  lately  submitted  the  whole 
question  to  a  conclave  of  Pandits^  the  translation  of  whose 
united  reply  is  as  follows : — 

According  to  the  Hindu  Shastras,  it  is  absolutely  necessary  that  the 
dead  of  all  classes  should  be  burnt.  If  an  accident,  or  some  other  cause, 
renders  the  burning  of  any  corpse  impracticable,  the  image  of  a  human 
being  should  be  made  with  straw,  and  this  should  be  burnt;  or  else  no 
ceremonies  can  be  performed  for  the  dead.  When  a  corpse  is  not  burnt,  or 
(in  case  burning  be  impracticable)  the  rite  of  image  burning  is  not  ob- 
aenred,  the  dead  is  considered  to  have  been  impious. 
.    Exceptions  from  this  law. 

1.  Infants  dying  before  their  teeth  are  grown  up  are  not  to  be  burnt, 
but  buried. 

2.  A  person  infected  with  leprosy  should  not  be  burnt,  unless  his 
ablation  is  performed  by  his  son. 

8.  One,  who  dies  by  accident  or  suicide,  should  not  be  burnt,  but  his 
corpse  is  to  be  recklessly  thrown  into  the  desert,  like  wood. 

4.  A  person  who,  renouncing  his  family,  becomes  a  mendicant,  should 
not  be  burnt  after  death;  and  a  religious  sect,  called  Joghis,  practice 
burying  according  to  their  principles.  Even  these  partial  and  infinite 
simally  small  exceptions,  need  present  no  difficulty  to  a  Government 
enactment,  whilst  Hindus  recklessly  break  through  their  law.  An  apt 
illustration  of  tliis  has  occurred  within  our  own  experience,  during  the 
past  week,  in  which  a  KOlin  Brahmin,  having  committed  suicide,  was 
insiautly  carried  to  the  funeral  pile,  instead  of  being  thrown  into  the  Jun- 
gle, as  directed  by  the  Shastras." 

Supported  by  the  authority  of  the  Shastras  and  the  univer- 
sal opinion  of  all  those  Hindus,  whom  we  have  consulted  on 
the  subject,  our  proposition  is,  that  perfect  cremation  should  be 
made  imperative  at  burning  places  set  apart  near  every  town ; 


*  We  are  informed  that,  from  some  canae  unknowD,  burning  t»  verv  little 
aetioedhi  Morshedabad,  a  city  contahiiog  about  1,65,000  souls.  During  the  cold 
ason,  when  the  river  flowing  by  it  becomes  narrowed  to  between  1  and  200  yards, 
may  be  seen  floating  aSont  in  groups  of  twenty,  or  more. 


224  INDIAN  £PII>EMieS  ANZ> 

and  that  where  poverty  Is  the  obstacle^  the  expense  should  be 
met  from  the  local  funds*  We  are  satisfied  by  personal  in- 
spection, that  a  body  may  be  perfectly  consumed  by  four  or 
five  maunds  of  wood,  which  will  average  ten  annas  in  price ; 
four  annas  might  go  to  the  officiating  Brahmin,  and  the  re* 
inaining  two  annas  to  the  expence  of  the  establishment,  mak- 
ing a  total  cost  of  one  Rupee  per  body.  If,  in  a  town  of 
of  20,000  inhabitants,  where  Hindus  and  Mussulmans  are  in 
equal  number,  such  a  system  were  in  force,  our  expenditure 
would  be,  assuming  mortality  at  five  per  cent.,  and  one-half  of 
those,  who  died,  too  poor  to  afford  fuel,  an  annual  sum  of  Cc's 
Rs.  250 ;  or,  taking  Calcutta,  as  an  illustration,  and  basing  our 
calculations  upon  the  Ghat  Records,  furnished  by  Dr.  Stewart,  in 
his  report  on  Small  Pox  for  1843,  we  involve  ourselves  in  an 
annual  outlay  of  only  Co.'s  Rs.  2,000,  for  the  abatement  of  a 
practice,  which  strikes  with  horror  every  thinkins:  mind,  vitiates 
the  air,  pollutes  the  water,  leads  to  a  reckless  disregard  of  Ufa, 
and  facilitates  Ghat  Murders. 

We  cannot  permit  this  opportunity  to  pass  without  recording 
our  deliberately  formed  opinion,  that  cremation  is  the  only  mode 
of  disposing  of  the  dead,  worthy  of  a  civilized  nation.  We 
have  seen  the  fearful  evil  attendant  on  our  crowded  grave  yards. 
Happily  the  better  sense  of  Europe  is  now  forsaking  them  for 
suburban  cemeteries:  but  who  shall  say  how  long  these,  at 
present,  admirable  resting  places  for  the  dead,  will  remain  in 
rural  districts?  London  is  spreading  out  in  every  direction,  and, 
within  the  next  fifty  years,  must  embrace  them  all  within  her 
limits*  Again,  have  our  readers  ever  reflected  upon  the  possi- 
ble number  of  those  who  have  been  consigned  to  the  tomb,  be- 
fore life  was  extinct  ?  Calculations,  sufficiently  appalling,  have 
been  made.  Our  personal  experience  comprehends  two  instances, 
when  such  a  fearful  fate  was  only  prevented  by  the  merest  acci- 
dent. It  seems  to  us,  that  one  such  alone  should  suffice  to 
introduce  a  mode  of  decomposition,  in  which,  did  the  smallest 
spark  of  life  exist,  it  must  become  apparent  Far  be  it  from 
us,  to  detract  one  tittle  of  that  respect,  with  which  Christianity 
loves  to  surround  its  dead.  But  we  would  suggest,  that 
cinerary  urns,  containing  the  ashes  of  the  dead,  might  well 
adorn  our  present  cemeteries. 

That  the  contemplation  of  such  a  mode  of  burial,  if  we  may 
so  term  it,  is  not  confined  to  ourselves,  is  evidenced  by  the 
formation  of  an  association  in  England,  in  1850,  "  for  promo- 
ting the  practice  of  decomposing  the  dead  by  fire.''  Such 
are  the  amiable  prejudices  of  mankind,  jealously  guarding  the 
worn  out  garments  of  those  we  loved  from  all  appearance 


HOFUSSIL  SANATORY  BSFOBM.  225 

of  suffering,  that  the  idea  we  promulgate,  if  destined  to  take 
root  at  alH  must  do  eo  by  very  slow  degrees.  We  sincerely 
tnut,  however,  that  a  more  able  and  powerful  advocacy  than 
our  own,  will  ere  long  arise,  to  urge  upon  the  nineteenth  cen- 
tmythe  wisdom  and  perfect  propriety  of  so  disposing  of  the 
dead,  that  no  harm  shall,  by  any  possibility,  accrue  to  the 
Kvbg.  Let  a  few  energetic  lovers  of  their  race  wiU  such  a 
testamentary  disposal  of  their  mortal  shell ;  and  we  may  hope 
a«t  Aeir  moral  courage  wiU  confer  incalculable  benefita  upon 
mankuicL 

Di8PSN8ABi£8  scarcely  enter  into  the  category  of  Sanatory 
fieform ;  but,  as  no  system  would  be  complete  without  them, . 
they  may  fairly  claim  a  few  words. 

Li  ^te  of  the  most  perfect  application  of  Hygiene,  disease 
ind  death  must  prevail  within  certain  limits.  The  object  of 
aoatory  science  is  to  obviate  any  excess  above  this.  Two . 
percent  per  annum  on  the  population  is  the  probable  mini- 
mimi,  to  which,  with  our  present  knowledge,  we  are  sanguine 
of  reducing  mcMrtality  in  England.  Makmg  every  allowance 
for  the  tropics,  we  see  no  reason,  why  the  mortality  of  Indian 
towns,  provided  Sanatory  Reform,  such  as  we  have  indicated, 
be  carried  out  in  the  right  spirit,  should  exceed  3  per  cent 
The  ground  on  which  we  base  this  aspiration  is,  that  in  the 
Bengal  army,  a  portion  of  which  is  serving  in  climates  noto- 
rionaly  inimical  to  the  constitution  of  the  men,  the  ratio  of 
deaths  to  strength  is  only  1.79,  or,  including  invaliding,  3.25. 
Admitting,  however,  the  unavoidable  mortality  to  be  reduced 
to  three  per  cent,  we  must  still  provide  for  the  alleviation  of 
the  nckness,  which  accompanies  it,  as  well  as  that  not  ending 
fiitally ;  and  this  can  only  be  accomplished  by  disseminating 
£m!opean  skill  throughout  the  country,  and  affording  it  a  fitting 
field  ror  ex^KOse,  by  the  establishment  of  dispensaries  and  hospi- 
tals, united  in  one*  Grovemment  have  done  much  to  meet  this 
want;  but,  aided  b^  local  funds,  they  are  bound  to  continue 
^  good  work,  until  every  town  in  India,  with  not  less  than 
^jOOO  inhabitants,  is  so  provided  for. 

Sesair. — In  dose  vidnity  to  all  dispensaries,  we  would  gladly 
see  establidied  a  Serai,  which,  if  built  of  a  square  form,  contain- 
ing, in  its  interior,  accommodation  for  travellers,  and  externally, 
a  range  of  pucka  rentable  shops,  would  largely  benefit  the 
way-fiiring^  public,  at  a  very  moderate  expense  to  the  local 
fiu»d&  With  such  a  building  in  existence,  we  should  be 
Bpared  the  painful  sight  of  pilgrims  dying  from  cholera  on  our 
niadsy  or  carried  by  convicts  to  some  hastily  prepared  recep- 
tacle. 


226  INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

Such  are   the    refonnB   which,   we   believe^  wbidd  tend  to 
liberate  the  millions  beneath  our  sway  from  the  heavy  pres- 
sure  of   disease  and  death,   now  weighing  so  heayilj  upon 
them.  The  mortality  of  Indian  towns,  as  we  have  seen,  isimHM- 
blj  more  than  double  what  obtains  in  Engand ;  but  the  pro- 
portion of  sickness  far  exceeds  this,  and  is  nuunlj  due,  we  con- 
scientiously believe,  to  remediable   circumstances.     Our  eztrM 
tropical   readers   can    form  no  conception  of  the    occasional 
almost  universality    of  disease  in  India.     At  certain    times, 
especially  in  the  conclusion  of  the  rains,  when  all  the  injurious 
influences,  we  have  endeavoured  to  depict,  come  into  active 
operation,  families  are  one  and  all  prostrated : — ^fittheiB,  mo- 
thers,   children,    servants,  all  succumbing  to  the  malady  of 
the  hour,  which  is  generally  Fever  of  malarious  origin.     The 
task  of  removing  such  a  mass  of  human  suffering  is  worthy 
of  the  mighty  Government  we  serve :  and,  should  our  humUe 
efforts  but  pave  the  way,  even  by  a  single  stone,  for  such  a 
consununation,  the  remembrance  will  gild  our  life   with  the 
reflection  that  we  have  not  lived  in  vain.     If  such  a  feeling  be 
uppermost  in  the  mind,  that  has,  we  fear,  but  imperfectly  pointed 
out  the  evil  and  devised  the  remedy,  what  a  noble  task  wiU 
await  that  man,  who  sludl  be  deputed  by  Government  to  be  the 
active  agent  for  carrying  out  its  philanthropic  intents  I 

Let  us  now  consider  the  means  at  hand,  for  putting  our 
suggestions  into  operation  for  this  purpose.  Towns  may  be  divid- 
ed into  two  classes.  1.  Those  which  have  availed  themselves 
of  the  Act,  or  Acts,  at  the  head  of  our  article.  2.  Those 
which  have  not. 

We  blush  to  say  that  so  little  has  the  vital  importance  of 
Sanatory  Reform  impressed  itself  upon  the  public  mind  in  India, 
that,  throughout  the  whole  length  and  breadth  of  our  dominioD, 
we  doubt,  if  five  cities  can  be  found  enjoying  the  ben^t  of 
either  enactment  Even  when  the  attempt  to  introduce  it  has 
been  made,  as  at  Howrah,  ignorance  and  a  sordid  and  blind  pre- 
ference of  money  to  health  in  the  many  have  prevailed  oTer 
the  intellectual  philanthropy  of  the  few.  Act  10  of  1842  pro- 
vided, that  the  application  of  two  thirds  of  the  resident  house- 
holders of  any  town  was  necessary  to  its  authorization.  Sfodtk 
is  the  vis  inertuB  of  Indian  life,  that  no  one  stepped  for- 
ward in  any  single  town,  as  far  as  we  are  aware,  excepti]]^ 
Howrah,  to  ui^e  his  fellow  citizens  to  make  the  necesaarj 
application:  and  the  whole  piece  of  legislation  thus  became 
inoperative.  Had  the  European  officers  of  Mofussil  towns, 
especially  the  Magistrate  and  Civil  Surgeon,  done  their  duty,  a 
different  fate  might  have  befallen  it.      However,  as  we  have 


MOFUSSIL  SANATOEY  BEFORM.  227 

before  said,  it  is  no  easy  matter  for  any  man,  be  he  ever  so 
zealous,  to  stir  up  two  thirds  of  a  householding  community  to  a 
movement,  which  shall  end  in  taxation. 

Thus  foiled  in  its  benevolent  intentions,  the  Supreme  Council 
was  again  invoked  for  aid,  and  Act  26  of  1850  made  its  appear- 
ance, simultaneously  repealing  Act  10  of  1842,  on  the  ground 
of  its  having  {Hroved  ineffectuaL 

The  new  Act  provides,  in  section  2,  that,  if  it  shall  appear  to 
the  local  Government,  '^  that  the  inl^bitants  of  any  town,  or 
floburb,  not  within  the  towns  of  Calcuttay  Madras  or  Bombay, 
are  desirous  of  making  better  provision  for  making,  repairing, 
cleansing,  or  lighting  any  public  streets,  roads,  drains,  or  tanks, 
or  for  the  prevention  of  nuisances,  or  for  improving  the  said 
town  or  suburb  in  any  other  manner,  the  said  Governor,  or 
Governor  in  Council,  or  Lieutenant  Governor,  may  order  this 
Act  to  be  put  in  force  within  such  town  or  suburb.*^ 

The  3ra  section  provides  for  a  public  notification  and  pro- 
damation  of  any  such  application,  so  that  any,  who  are  so 
inclined,  may  dedare  themselves  for  or  against  it. 

The  6th  section  provides  for  the  appointment  of  administra- 
ti?e  oommissioners,  in  case  of  its  bec(Hning  law,  and  sanctions 
the  preparation  by  them  of  subsidiary  rules,  especially  those 
rehiting  to  taze85  and  the  definition  and  prohibition  of  nui- 
ances.    Such  is  tixe  spirit  of  the  new  Act. 

The  expression  '^  if  it  shall  appear  that  the  inhabitants  *  *  * 
*  *  *  are  desirous  of  making,"  is  a  vast  improvement  upon 
^  two  thirds  of  the  householders.''    In  the  present  case  we 
isay  ccMclude,  that  the  application  of  any  niunber  of  indivi- 
duals, however  snudl,  would  suffice  to  bring  the  subject  forward^ 
and,  in  the  majority  of  Mofussil  towns,  the  wheel,  once  set  a  going 
hv  a  fisw  energetic  Europeans,  would  not  easily  be  stopped. 
The  great  omission  of  the  Act  is  failing  to  point  out  the  nature 
of  the  offioefi  to  be  constituted  by  the  Commissioners,  contem- 
plated in  its  6th  Section.     The  *^  Towns  improvement  Act"  of 
£i^land,pa88ed  with  similar  views,  expressly  notifies  a  Surveyor, 
Officer  of  health,  and  Inspector  of  nuisances,  as  the  active 
agents  of  its  operation.     In  the  smaller  towns  of  India^  a  sur- 
veyor might  be  dispensed  with :  but  upon  the  due  fulfilment 
of  the  other  two  offices  hinges  the  successful  prosecution  of  the 
measure.  The  Civil  Surgeon  would  naturally  become  the  Officer 
of  health :   whilst  the  Inspectorship  of  nuisances  should,  in  all 
pmcticable  cases,  be  entrusted  to  a  respectable  non-commis- 
fliQDed  ofiEicer,  who  would  not  only  make  it  his  business  to  be 
constantly  perambulating  the  town  to  discover  them^  but  should 


228  INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND 

personally  see  to  their  removal.  But  where  is  the  golden 
stream  destined  to  arise^  which  shall  vitalize  the  whole  ?  The 
seventh  section  provides  for  assessment:  the  fund^  resulting  from 
which,  will  be  at  the  entire  disposal  of  the  Commissioners,  mere- 
ly saddled  with  the  condition  of  their  furnishing  Oovemment 
with  an  annual  account  of  all  works  executed,  and  sums  spent 
and  received  during  the  past  year.  This  is  as  it  should  be:  but 
what  is  to  become  of  the  present  surplus  of  chowkidari  tax, 
and  the  75  per  cent  on  profits  of  jail  manufiictures,  both  wholly 
available  by  regulation,  for  the  work  contemplated  by  the  Act? 
They  will,  of  course,  be  made  over  to  the  municipal  commis- 
sioners to  be  amalgamated  with  their  own  funds,  and  dealt  with 
accordingly.  We  should  much  like,  however,  to  have  seen  the 
appropriation  more  distinctly  recognized. 

Such  is  the  latest  machinery  established  by  Government 
to  purge  this  interesting  land,  in  which  Providence  has 
cast  us  for  some  sreat  ends,  of  the  manifold  physical  evils 
which  afflict  it;  but  it  is  a  machinery,  which  will  never 
work,  unless  it  be  set  a  going,  and  its  spring  maintained 
in  action,  by  some  master  mind.  Government  may  fiacili- 
tate  the  reform  we  advocate;  writers  may  plead  its  cause; 
but  our  experience  of  Mofiissil  life  assures  us,  that  nothing 
will  be  done  until  an  Inspector  of  health  be  appointed  to  tra- 
verse the  land  from  east  to  west  and  north  to  south,  visiting 
every  city  in  his  route,  advising,  suggesting,  and  finally  report- 
ing to  Government  Without  the  presence  of  such  an  officer 
(and  no  common  man  must  be  selected)  to  infuse  life^  zeal,  and 
sanatory  animation  into  our  local  authorities,  the  Act,  we  have 
been  discussing,  will  fidl  lifeless  to  the  ground.  But  once  de- 
puted, and  vested  with  sufficient  power,  India,  we  venture  to 
assert,  would  undergo,  within  the  next  decade,  a  revolution  in 
her  physical  characteristics,  such  as,  with  eyes  accustomed  to 
the  daily  pestilence  around  us,  can  be  hardly  dreamt  of.  Every 
department  of  the  state  but  this,  possesses  an  office,  such  as  we 
advocate.  There  is  a  Surveyor  General  to  map  out  the  coun- 
try; superintendents  of  survey  to  check  the  loss  of  revenue;  su- 
perintendents of  Police,  to  render  efficient  the  machinery  for 
repressing  and  detecting  crime;  and  Inspectors  of  prisons  to 

Serfect  a  system  of  prison  discipline ;  but  the  public  measures 
emanded  by  science  for  the  prevention  and  repression  of  dis- 
ease are  left  to  chance.  In  the  formation  of  suchan  office,  weknow 
of  no  better  plan  than  that  suggested  by  Mr.  Bedford,  who  would 
combine  such  an  inspectorship  with  the  locomotive  superinten- 
dents of  vaccination.     The  report  of  the  Board  of  Heakh, 


H0FUS8IL  SANATOBY  REFORM.  229 

almost  entirely  based  upon  the  reBearches  of  its  inspectors^  Dr. 
Sutherland  and  Mr.  Grainger,  shows  what  may  be  effected  by 
such  an  arrangement.   Whether  towns  placed  themselves  under 
the  operation  of  the  Act  or  otherwise^  the  officer^  we  propose^ 
woula  suggest  to  the  authorities  all  necessary  improTcments, 
and  report  upon  their  being  carried  out     His  wide  experience 
of  sanatory  science,  and  constant  supervision  of  the  country, 
would  enable  him  momentarily  to  point  out  what  essential 
changes  were  required,  and  render  the  adoption  of  some  uni- 
form system,  simple  and  easy.  Even  where  the  Act  adverted  to 
is  not  in  operation,  much  might  be  done  by  medical  officers 
directing  their  attention  to  the  changes  we  have  suggested. 
Magistrates  have  no  leisure  for  the  tas£     Upon  the  civU  sur- 
geon lies  the  whole  responsibility.    He  should  make  himself 
thoroughly  acquainted  with  the  town  under  his  charge ;  and  a 
certain  number  of  convicts,  not  less  than  fifty,  ought  to  be 
placed  under  his  orders,  by  the  Magistrate,  that  the  delay  of 
correspondence,  so  fatal  to  energy,  might  be  avoided.    In  con- 
junction with  this,  the  surplus  chowfidari  tax  and  profits  on 
jail  manufactures,  should  be  entrusted  to  the  Magistrate  for 
immediate  expenditure — ^an  annual  account  of  work  done  and 
outky  incurred  being  required  from  him.    The  present  system, 
which  renders  a  reference  to  Government  necessary  for  every 
flepoiate  anna  of  expenditure  for  public  works,  is  altogether 
&tal  to  their  prosecution.     Officers,  unless  animated  by  enei|^ 
and  enthusiasm,  will  not  sit  down,  day  by  day,  to  correspond  for 
every  trifling  want.    We  have  lately  met  with  a  most  remark- 
able instance  of  the  practical  injurious  result  of  the  impediment 
so  created,  in  which  a  town,  reeking  with  disease  and  death  for 
want  of  improvement,  was  actuallv  found,  on  inquiry,  to  be  pos- 
sessed of  an  untouched,  but  available,  fund  of  Co.'s  Bs.  20,000, 
which  had  lainrustingin  theTreasury,forsome  seven  or  ten  years, 
whilst  Ibe  town  had  continued  a  neglected  swamp,  and  hundreds 
had  perished  unnecessarily.    The  towns  of  India,  as  we  trust  has 
been  shewn,  are  now  hot  beds  and  nurseries  of  disease.     Their 
roads,  with  few  exceptions,  are  neglected ;  their  drains,  stamant 
pools  of  decomposing  filth ;  their  tanks,  made  for  the  refresh- 
ment and  heedtn  of  man,  converted  into  a  polluted  source  of 
slow  inmdious  poison ;  their  houses,  surrounded  by  pestilential 
marshes  ;  whiM  the  dead  lie  mingled  with  the  living,  and  the 
very  streams,  that  lave  their  baiu:s,  are  rotten  with  the  foster- 
ing remnants  of  humanity.     What  a  huge  mockery  it  is  to  fill 
these  people's  moutlis  with  Shakespeare,  to  bid  them  study  Ba- 
con, to  practise  on  them  the  refinements  of  law,  and  to  demand 


230    INDIAN  EPIDEMICS  AND   MOFUSSIL   SANATORY   BEFOHM. 

daily  increasing  civilization,  whilst  that  health,  which  is  essen- 
tial to  the  full  perception  and  enjoyment  of  all  and  every  one 
of  these  goods,  is  utterly  neglected.  This  must  be  so  no  longer  ! 
Government  cannot  now  sit  down  in  meek  complacency,  and 
fold  its  hands  in  the  conviction,  that  every  future  step  rests 
with  its  subjects*  The  train  of  Sanatory  Reform  is  not  continu- 
ous. It  requires  to  be  lighted  at  every  fresh  point,  and  its  blaze 
maintained  by  knowledge  and  enthusiasm.  When  this  is  done, 
beacons  will  olaze  up  from  a  thousand  hills,  sufficient  to  irra- 
diate the  land  for  ever,  and  cast  a  reflection  on  the  green  shorei 
of  Britain,  such  as  will  awake  our  fellow  countrymen  to  the 
conviction,  that  we  "  exiles  of  the  East"  have  lived  for  others 
than  ourselves. 


BE8ULTS  OF   BnBfilOKAST  LABOUR  IN  INDIA.  231 


Art.  VI. — 1.    Thirty^Eighth  Report  of  the  Calcutta  Auxiliary 
Bible  Society.     Calcutta.     1851. 

2.  Thirtieth  Annual  Report  of  the  Madras  Auxiliary  Bible  Socie- 
ty.     Madras.     1851. 

India  is  the  largest  appendage  of  a  great  empire,  which  the 
world  ever  saw.  It  is  not  merely  a  country,  but  a  continent, 
which,  in  ancient  days,  contained  numerous  kingdoms,  indepen- 
dent of  one  another.  Stretching  1,800  miles  in  extreme  length 
and  1,300  in  extreme  breadth,  it  includes  within  its  mighty 
boundaries  all  varieties  of  climate,  scenery  and  soiL  The  giant 
range  of  the  Himalaya,  capped  with  eternal  snow  ;  the  sandy 
deserts  of  Rajputana  ;  the  fertile  plains  of  the  lower  Ganges 
and  of  Tanjore ;  the  mighty  Ghats  and  the  salubrious  plateau 
of  Mysore,  alike  rank  amon^  its  territories.  It  contains  at  least 
one  hundred  and  thirty  millions  of  people,  distributed  in  twen- 
ty-four provinces,  and  speaking  thirteen  polished  languages. 
The  resources,  with  which  Providence  has  gifted  it,  are  fitted  to 
promote  the  comfort  of  human  life  in  a  thousand  ways.  It 
supplies  the  cheapest  food  of  numerous  kinds :  and  the  warmth 
of  its  largest  provinces  requires  but  scanty  clothing.  It  fur- 
nishes fields  of  coal,  beds  of  copper,  lead  and  iron^  and  mines 
of  salt  It  has  giant  forests  of  tne  most  useful  trees,  especially 
sal,  teak,  segun  and  oak  ;  while  its  bamboo  topes,  its  cocoanuts 
and  palms,  nimish  the  poor  with  the  posts,  roofing  and  thatch 
of  their  houses,  and  witn  a  variety  of  articles  besides.     Its  dry 

Ekuns  produce  i|i  abundance  varied  kinds  of  pulse  and  ve^eta- 
les,  together,  with  wheat,  indigo,  cotton,  sugar  and  opium : 
while,  in  its  vast  swamps,  are  grown  luxuriant  crops  of  rice. 
The  noble  rivers  of  Bengal  and  the  N.  W.  Provinces  furnish  a 
ready  highway  for  trade,  while  the  cheapness  of  labour  brings 
their  vast  produce  into  the  market  at  a  low  rate.     Not  only  m 
the  necessaries  of  life,  but  in  its  luxuries,  does  the  value  of 
this  mighty  continent  appear.     It  has  given  to  the  world  its 
largest  jewels  and  finest  fabrics.     The  shawls  of  Cashmere,  the 
muslins  of  Dacca,  the  filagree  jewellery  of  Cuttack,  are  to  this 
day  unrivalled.     The  might  of  European  machinery  has,  in 
these  things,  yielded  the  palm  to  the  taper  fingers  and  ingenious 
skill  of  the  natives  of  India  :  while  their  carvings  in  ebony  and 
ivory,  their  curious  musical  instruments,  their  rich  embroi- 
dery, viewed  in  connection  with  other  features  of  their  charac- 
ter and  occupations,  prove  them  to  be  a  unique  and  wondrous 
people.    The  population  has  its  features  of  intercut,  as  well  as 


232  BESULTS  OF   MISSIONABY   LABOUR   IN  INDIA. 

the  country*  It  includes  the  clever  and  cunning  Brahmin; 
the  eubmiasiye  and  patient  Sudra,  the  poor  outcast  Paria  of 
Madras,  and  the  licentious  Mussalman.  it  includes  the  coward 
yet  cunning  Bengali ;  the  spirited  Hindustani ;  the  martial  Sikh, 
Kohilla  and  Gurkha;  the  fighting  Mahratta  and  Rajput; 
the  mercantile  Armenian;  the  active  and  honest  Parsi;  the 
busy  Telugu;  and  the  uncivilized  Gonds,  Khunds,  Bhils, 
Todftwars,  Garrows,  Lepchas,  Kassias,  and  the  like,  who  now 
inhabit  the  hill  forests,  but  who  once  roamed  as  lords  over  the 
outspread  plains.  The  revenue  paid  to  the  Government  is 
equal  to  twenty  millions  a  year:  and  the  annual  trade  of 
the  three  ports  of  India  amounts  to  not  less  than  forty  millions 
of  pounds  sterling. 

But  its  people  are  not  happy.  Though  the  land  contiuiis 
immense  resources  for  the  production  of  wealth,  and  the  popu- 
lation, that  must  develop  them,  swarms  upon  its  surface,  the 
motive  to  industry  is  wanting.  The  cultivator  is  in  the  hands 
of  a  grasping  landholder  and  greedy  underling  Caste  divides 
the  nation  mto  sections,  setting  tribe  against  tribe,  family 
against  family,  and  one  pursuit  agiunst  another.  A  tyrannical 
priesthood  lays  its  grasp  upon  ever^  source  of  ^in,  and  exacts 
fines  and  fees  from  every  transaction  of  the  Hindu,  from  tiie 
time  of  his  birth  till  he  is  burnt  on  the  funeral  pyre.  A 
debasing  idolatry,  which  has  sanctified  by  religious  worship  the 
most  ocBous  vices,  and  calls  the  vilest  of  characters  incarnate 
Gods,  rules  over  millions  of  votaries.  To  the  dicta  of  their 
priests  and  the  assertions  of  their  Shastras,  they  yield  implicit 
obedience  ;  sacrificing  to  their  cruel  swav  the  appeals  of  con- 
science, the  conclusions  of  reason,  and  tne  evidence  of  their 
very  senses.  Can  it  then  be  wondered  at,  that  all  the  power  of 
this  people  is  grossly  mis-used — that  their  intellect  is  debased  and 
perverted,  or  that  their  moral  sense  is  often  all  but  dead  ?  Is 
it  strange  that  there  should  be  found  among  them  so  little  of 
truth,  patriotism,  justice,  or  heart-purity  ;  while  covetousness, 
revenge,  licentiousness  and  lying,  are  as  common  as  the  light 
of  day  ?  The  Hindus  may  be  clever,  acute  and  skilful  to 
a  certain  point,  but  their  moral  character  as  a  nation  is 
debased  in  the  extreme. 

For  what  purpose  then,  we  may  ask,  has  this  ^f  eat  continent, 
with  its  vast  resources  and  countless  population,  been  placed  un- 
der the  rule  of  a  small  island  in  the  western  world  ?  Why  is  it 
that,  in  the  far  east,  *  regions,  Cassar  never  knew/  should  be  go- 
verned by  the  people  oi  that  barbarous  island,  which  Ctesar^s 
legions  were  the  first  to  conquer ;  and  that  their  steamers  should 
bring  within  five  weeks  distance  of  each  other,  countries,  which. 


r 


BfiSULTS  OF  MISSIONARY  LABOUR  IN  INDIA.  233 

to  him  were  the  extremities  of  the  earth  ?  Why  is  it  that  this 
conquest  should  be  effected  without  great  cost  to  England  by 
the  people  of  India  themselves,  in  spite  of  Charters,  Acts  of 
Parliament,  and  the  voice  of  public  opinion  ?  The  hand  of  God 
has  been  in  it  Even  statesmen  and  politicians,  who  never  ac- 
knowledged a  Providence  before,  have  confessed  that  they  see 
it  here.  But  for  what  end  has  it  thus  been  given?  Not  that 
the  pride  of  England  may  be  flattered  by  tales  of  prowess  and 
deeds  of  arms ;  not  that  its  armies  may  reap  ^  unperiBhable 
glory'  on  well-fought  fields,  or  that  its  generals  may  be  raised,  by 
weir  victories,  to  an  English  peerage :  not  that  Ltidia  may  pro- 
vide place  and  pay  for  the  numerous  relations  and  dependents 
of  its  governors ;  not  that  it  may  yield  three  quarters  of  a 
million  in  dividends  to  East  India  proprietors,  or  that  it  may 
enhuge  the  trade  of  English  merchants,  give  work  to  English 
artisans,  and  bring  an  annual  sain  of  eight  millions  sterling  to 
the  English  nation :  not  for  these  and  a  thousand  other  earth- 
ly objects,  has  this  mighty  trust  been  committed  to  England's 
charge.  It  is  given  to  her,  that  the  blessings,  which  have  made 
Engmnd  great,  may  elevate  degraded  £dia  too ;  that  her 
high  civilization  may  be  shared  by  her  dependent ;  that  the 
knowledge,  which  has  enlightened  her  intellect,  may  enlarge  the 
mind  of  the  Hindus :  that  the  mental  vigour  of  the  conqueror 
may  be  imparted  to  the  conquered ;  that  the  justice,  the  moral 
tone,  the  truth  of  England,  may  be  infused  into  a  people,  who 
have  not  known  them  for  ages.  Above  all,  that  the  Bible, 
which  has  made  England  and  America  the  missionaries  of 
the  world,  may  destroy  India's  idolatries  and  caste;  raise 
her  people  from  their  d^radation;  purify  them  from  the 
inunorahties,  which  their  religion  now  teaches ;  make  them  just, 
truthful  and  happy;  raise  the  female  population,  give  them 

ys  in  this  life,  and  animate  them  with  the  nope  of  eternal  bliss. 

t  is  that  Christianity  may  '*  raise  the  poor  out  of  the  dust,  and 
'  lift  up  the  beggar  from  the  dimghill;  to  set  him  among 
'  princes,  and  make  him  inherit  the  tnrone  of  glory." 

In  accomplishing  this  end,  all,  who  come  to  India,  have  a 
work  to  do.  The  Government,  in  all  its  branches,  civil,  mili- 
tary and  financial,  has  to  show  the  influence  of  Christian  prin- 
ciples in  wise  legislation ;  in  the  just  administration  of  sound 
laws ;  in  the  faithful  protection  of  the  life,  the  freedom,  the 
ooxuBcience  and  the  rights  of  all  its  subjects ;  in  justly  appor- 
tioning the  burdens  of  taxation  among  all  classes  of  the  com- 
munity; in  promoting  intercourse  between  all  parts  of  the 
oottotry,  and  in  endeavouring  to  preserve  peace.    Merchants, 

Q  a 


fi 


234  EESULTS  OF  MI8SI0NABT  LABOUB  IK  INDIA. 

traders,  factors  of  all  kinds;  officers  of  Govemment  in  aU 
grades ;  and  all  Christians,  whatever  be  their  station,  ought  to 
shew  the  excellence  of  their  &ith  in  their  consistent  life,  and  by 
taking  all  proper  opportunities  of  pointing  out  the  errors  of 
false  religion,  and  using  efforts  to  remove  them.  '*  Seek  ye,** 
said  the  prophet,  '^  the  peace  of  the  city,  whither  ye  are  carried 
captive ;  for  in  the  peace  thereof  shall  ye  have  peace."  But  by 
far  the  largest  share  of  the  great  work  of  India's  renovation 
belongs  to  the  Church  of  Christ ;  and  all  the  agencies,  which 
it  can  put  forth,  it  is  bound  to  exert  to  its  utmost  power.  The 
door  is  now  open  for  the  fulfilment  in  India  of  the  great  com- 
mission, which  ita  master  has  appointed  as  its  duty  Uirough  all 
time. 

Now  that  the  opportunity  of  discharging  this  important 
duty  has  existed  for  many  years,  the  questions  naturally  arise, 
how  has  the  trust  been  fulfilled,  or  wluit  measures  are  in  pro- 
gress for  its  fitithful  discharge?  These  questions  we  propose 
to  take  up  in  the  present  paper,  deeming  the  dose  of  the  naif 
century  just  past  a  fit  opportunity  for  reviewing  what  has  be^ 
effected,  and  for  enquiring  what  amount  of  agency  is  being  em- 
ployed for  carrying  out  the  end  designed.  We  do  not  now 
enquire  at  any  length,  what  the  Govemment  has  done.  We 
mi^e  no  search  into  the  character  of  its  l^islation,  the  effici- 
ency of  its  army,  its  magistracy,  or  police ;  into  the  state  of  its 
roads,  its  revenue  and  puUio  debts ;  neither  shall  we  examine 
into  the  character  and  proceedings  of  the  merchants,  the 
planters,  and  other  classes  of  English  Society,  scattered  through- 
out the  country. 

We  fear  that,  on  several  points,  we  should  derive  little  satis- 
faction from  either  investigation.  There  are  great  leading 
facts  in  the  history  of  the  Court  of  Directors,  which  might 
well  serve  to  moderate  the  warmth  of  their  admirers.  They 
opposed  the  openins  of  England's  trade  with  India  in  1813, 
and  ike  opening  of  her  trade  with  China  and  the  free  settle- 
ment of  Europeans  in  India  in  1833.  They  now  derive  a 
vast  revenue  from  supplying  opium  for  the  iniquitous  traffic,  in 
which  men  calling  themselves  Christians  seek  gain  by  selling 
poison  to  myriads  of  Chinese.  In  the  battle  between  Christia- 
nity and  Hinduism,  throwing  their  sympathies  and  aid  into  the 
scale  of  idolatrv,  they  imparted  fresh  vigour  to  the  falling  caaae» 
by  renewing  the  temples  and  beautifying  the  pagodas;  they 
compelled  meir  officers  to  take  chaige  of  the  funds,  brought 
their  troops  to  attend  the  festivals,  and  received  the  feea  of 
pilgrims  at  the  pagan  shrines.     They  opposed  the  abolition  of 


BS5DI.TB  OF  HIBSIOHAEY  LABOnQB  IN  INDIA.  235 

Suttee ;  they  resiBted  the  introduction  of  missionaries  into  India, 
and  sanctioned  the  deportation  from  its  shores  of  men  like  Judson 
and  Gordon  HalL  They  have  done  little  to  promote  the  simple 
TeroAcular  edacation  d  the  great  mass  of  the  people.  They 
gorem  the  ooontry  by  means  of  a  small  exclusive  service^  the 
members  of  which  are>  every  one,  sent  out  to  be  provided  for  life 
with  large  incomes,  however  unserviceable  they  may  prove :  and 
the  monopoly  of  tiiis  service,  consisting,  as  it  does  chiefly,  of 
their  own  relatives  and  connections,  they  preserve,  with  a  jea- 
lousy, which  every  Governor  General  lives  to  find,  is  one  of 
the  chief  elements  of  their  policy.  Of  the  Europeans  in  India, 
generally,  we  must  equally  fear,  that  the  truest  account  would 
oe  the  most  unfavourable.  We  have  heard  of  some,  who  re- 
garded themselves  as  Hindus,  rather  than  as  Christians :  of 
others,  who  deemed  Muhammadan  festivals  fit  objects  for  spe* 
jaal  patronage ;  and  of  others,  who  directly  counteracted  the 
hutmctions  of  missionaries,  by  advising  young  men  not  to  be- 
tome  Christians,  and  teaching  them  that  Deism  was  the  true 
leliffion  for  men.  We  have  heard  too  of  thousands,  who  lived, 
as  though  they  r^^rded  gentleness,  mercy  and  spiritual  wor-* 
«hip,  less  than  the  heathen,  by  whom  they  were  surrounded. 

It  would  be  unjust  to  deny  or  conceal,  that,  in.  recent  years, 
there  has  been  a  considerable  improvement  both  in  the  spirit  of 
the  Government  and  in  the  example  of  the  European  population*. 
In  the  Madras  Presidency  especially,  there  has  been  a  large  in- 
crease in  the  number  of  the  Efuropeans,  whafear  God  and  count 
Us  service  an  honour.  The  days,  when  a  sepoy  could  be  dismissed 
fiom  the  army,  simply  for  becoming  a  Christian,  (a  fact  in  the  time 
of  Lord  Hastings)  have,  we  trust,  passed  away,  and  the  influence 
of  upright  Christian  laymen  is  rapidly  on  the  increase.     There 
» too  a  decided  improvement  in  the  character  and  principles  of 
our  rulers.     Doubtless  there  were,  in  former  years,  a  Charles 
Giant  and  a  Parry  in  the  Court  of  Directors,  but  the  predomi- 
nant influence  was  that  of  the  Scott  Warings  and  Twinings, 
who  wished  to  exclude  all  Christianity  firom  India.     Things  are 
different  now,  as  many  recent  despatches  show ;  and  far  be  it 
from  us  to  .pass  lightly  over  the  gratifying  fact.    But  much  re* 
Bains  to  be  improved.    When  it  is  remembered  that  only  three 
years  ago,  the  acting  Resident  at  Nagpore  compelled  the  mis- 
sionaries to  give  up  a  convert  to  be  imprisoned  hj  the  heathen 
&yab,  on  the  ground  that  the  treaty  forbade  the  English  autho- 
ritiefl  to  ^  aid   his  *  discontenied  subjects  ;'  and  that  this  extraor- 
dinary measure,  justified  bv  this  strange  reason,  was  formally 
lanctioned  by  the  present  uovemor  General — it  will  be  seen  at 


236  BESULTS  OF  MISSIONARY  LABOUR  IN  INDIA. 

once,  that  the  improvement  we  speak  of,  is  only  comparative. 
But  on  these  topics  we  shall  not  enlarge  further  thui  to  ex* 
press  our  earnest  desire  that  men  of  Christian  zeal  and  courage 
may  be  raised  up  to  rule  this  land ;  and  that  henceforth  ^e 
name  of  Christian  may  not  be  spoken  of  among  the  heathen, 
as  it  was  in  former  days. 

At  present  we  shall  confine  our  view  solely  to  the  direct 
promotion  of  Christian  Missions  in  Hindustan  by  Christian 
men,  as  such,  and  to  the  efforts  of  Missionary  Societies. 
And  when  we  consider  the  gigantic  field  open  to  those 
efibrts;  when  we  consider  the  perfect  freedom,  protection 
and  safety,  with  which  they  may  be  carried  on;  when  we 
survey  the  vast  regions,  the  thickly  peopled  towns  and  vil- 
lages, the  millions  of  people  within  our  reach ;  when  we  see  the 
strength  of  those  superstitions,  which  hoar  age  has  hallowed 
and  a  spurious  learning  has  defended  and  explained ;  when 
we  behold  the  power  of  the  Brahminical  priesthood  and  the 
firm  bonds  of  the  caste  system  ;  when  we  see  how,  in  the  vast 
population,  reason  has  been  perverted  and  conscience  d^rad- 
ed — ^we  shall  feel  compelled  to  ask  ; — "  Is  there  not  a  cause^ 
for  the  warmest  zeal,  the  purest  self-denial,  the  greatest  ten- 
derness, and  the  most  scrupulous  fidelity,  on  the  part  of  all, 
who  are  called  to  take  up  tlus  great  duty,  and  to  engage  in  this 
gigantic  toil? 

Attempts  to  Christianize  India,  in  whole  or  in  part,  have  been 
repeatedly  made,  during  a  period  of  more  than  three  hundred 
years  ;  and  four  distinct  plans  of  operation  have  been  adopted, 
for  accomplishing  that  end.  The  Portuguese,  backed  by  £jn^ 
John,  and  led  on  Dy  their  fighting  priests,  endeavoured  to  oomp^ 
the  people  of  Ceylon  and  Soudi  India  to  receive  their  fiutb, 
by  bloody  massacres,  cruel  persecutions,  imprisonments  and 
fines.  We  read  of  no  sermons  preached ;  no  distribution  of 
the  Bible  effected  by  them ;  but  we  find,  that  they  '  demo- 
lished, burnt  and  rooted  out '  the  '  pagan  temples,'  sought  to 
abolish  the  heathen  sports,  and '  severdy  punished '  obstinate 
recusants.  The  Jesuits,  in  the  same  part  of  the  country,  endea- 
Tomred  to  accomplish  the  same  end  more  thoroughly,  by  a  per- 
severing system  of  the  most  stupendous  frauds  ever  committed 
under  the  sun.  The^  pretended  to  be  Brahmins  of  the  highest 
caste ;  they  dressed  like  Sanyasis ;  adapted  their  manners,  dress 
and  food  to  those  of  the  heathen;  forged  a  Veda ;  denied  that 
they  were  Europeans ;  and,  to  support  their  character,  resorted 
to  the  most  unblushing  lies,  during  a  period  of  many  years.  ^ 

The  Dutch  Oovemment  next  entered  the  field ;  and,  in 


BESULTS  OF  HI88IONABY  LABOUB  IN  INDIA.  237 

addition  to  setting  before  the  heathen  the  same  example 
of  dishonesty,  covetousness,  falsehood,  licentiousness,  cruelty 
and  intolerance,  which  they  had  seen  in  their  predecessors 
the  Portuguese,  they  sought  to  bribe  the  Singhalese  to  adopt 
Dutch  Presby  terianism  by  the  offer  of  places  and  situations ; 
and  to  terrify  them  into  it,  by  refusing  all  Government 
employ,  and  even  the  fanning  of  land,  to  all  who  were  not  bap- 
tized, and  had  not  signed  the  Helvetic  Confession  of  Faith.  Each 
of  these  three  plans  acquired  thousands  upon  thousands  of  no- 
minal converts,  but  nothing  more.  Neither  cruelty  nor  fraud, 
nor  appeals  to  self-interest,  laid  the  foundation  of  a  sincere  and 
permanent  Christian  community.  It  naturally  followed,  there- 
fore, that  these  thousands  of  converts  returned  to  the  Heathen- 
ism of  their  fathers,  as  soon  as  the  efficient  cause  of  their  pro- 
fession was  withdrawn. 

*  They  melted  from  the  field,  as  snow, 
When  streams  are  swollen  and  south  winds  hlow, 
Dissolves  in  silent  dew.' 

In  1802,  there  were  136,000  Tamil  Christians  in  Jaffna:  but 
in  1806,  after  the  English  conquest,  Christianity  was  ^  exHncC 
Of  the  340,000  in  the  Singhalese  district,  in  1801,  more  than 
half  had  related  into  Bu&hism  by  1810,  and  others  were  fast 
going.  The  Boman  Catholics  of  South  India,  the  descendants 
of  the  Jesuits'  converts,  and  numbering  some  40,000,  are  at  this 
day  scarcely  distinguishable  from  the  heathen.  Their  ceremo- 
nies are,  to  a  great  extent,  the  same ;  the  names  only  of  their 
deities  differ.  Such  are  the  results  of  the  early  attempts  to  con- 
vert the  natives  of  Hindustan :  attempts,  of  which  two  were 
made,  not  by  the  teachers  of  Christianity,  but  by  the  Govern- 
ments of  Europe. 

The  fourth  and  last  plan  of  missionary  operations  adopted  in 
India,  is  that  employed  by  modern  Missionary  Societies.  It  is 
that  of  endeavouring  to  convince  the  Hindus  of  the  evils  of 
idolatry  and  of  the  truth  of  Christianity,  by  preaching  to  the 
old,  by  teaching  the  young ;  by  giving  to  all  the  Bible  and 
Christian  booKS  in  their  own  tongues;  by  endeavouring,  in  a 
word,  to  enlighten  their  understandings,  to  instruct  their  igno- 
rance, to  convince  their  judgments,  and  draw  their  hearts ;  so 
that  they  may  become  willing  converts,  and  abide  in  the  faith, 
which  they  are  persuaded  to  embrace* 

The  series  of  efforts  made  in  India,  on  this  plan  began  with 
the  kbours  of  the  Tranquebar  missionaries,  in  1706.  In  that 
year,  Ziegenbalg  andPlutscho,  the  well-known  founders  of  that 
usefiol  mission,  entered  on  the  work  of  preaching  the  gospel 


238  BESULTS  OF  MIBSrONAET  LABOUB  IN  ISDIA. 

in  the  vernacular  tongue,  and,  for  more  than  a  century,  did  they 
and  their  succesBors  continue  to  carry  it  on.  Until  a  few  years 
affo,  little  was  known  of  the  extent  and  character  of  their  work, 
of  the  stations  they  had  founded,  the  missionaries  who  had 
laboured,  the  incidents  which  had  happened,  and  the  results  by 
which  their  labours  had  been  followeo.  A  recent  work,*  how- 
ever,  has  brought  the  subject  prominently  to  light,  and  has 
enabled  the  Christian  Church  to  see  on  what  au  advantageous 
groimd  the  work  of  missiona  was  placed  in  South  India  daring 
the  last  century.  But  that  mission  was  almost  entirely  a  Conti* 
nental  one.  Begun  by  the  King  of  Denmark,  it  was  supplied 
almost  entirely  in  men,  and  subsequently  in  money  also,  from 
the  Evangelical  Church  and  Universitv  of  Halle,  sustained  by 
Augustus  Herman  Francke,  and  his  illustrious  successors*  The 
light,  which  God  had  kindled  in  that  Prussian  town,  sent 
its  rays  far  into  Southern  India:  so  long  as  it  eontinued 
steady,  the  mission  stations  prospered  greatly  :  but,  when  it 
faded  and  at  last  expired,  the  missions  languished  and  ex- 
pired too.  During  last  century,  more  than  fifty  missionaries 
arrived  in  India,  in  connection  with  the  Tranquebar  Mis^ 
sion.  Amongst  them,  Ziegenbalg,  Schwartz,  and  Gericke,. 
are  well  known  to  English  readers.  But  Dr.  Schultze  of 
Madras,  the  first  Telugu  scholar  and  translator  of  the  Telugu 
Bible ;  Huttemann  of  Cuddalore ;  Breithaupt,  Fabricius, 
and  Dr.  Bottler,  all  of  Madras — the  last,  a  man  of  sci* 
ence  and  a  scholar ;  Kohlhoff  of  Tanjore,  the  companion  of 
Schwartz ;  Dr.  Casmmerer ;  Dr.  John  of  Tranquebar,  the  first 
founder  of  English  Mission  Schools ;  with  Klein,  Zieglin  and 
Weidebrock,  I^ressier  and  Pohle,  Horst  and  Kiemander, 
some  of  whom  continued  their  patient  labours  for  more  than 
fifty  years,  deserve  no  less  esteem.  Through  those  laboius  the 
mission  branched  out  in  various  directions.  From  Tranque* 
bar  it  spread  first  to  Tanjore,  then  to  Madras  and  Cuddalore ; 
then  to  Negapatam  and  I^alamcottah :  and  from  these  servants 
of  Christ,  the  province  of  Tinnevelly  received  its  first  right  im- 
pressions of  Christian  truth.  They  employed  the  same  agendea 
m  their  work,  as  others  do  at  the  present  day.  They  preached 
in  the  native  languages :  they  undertook  extensive  journeys ; 
they  gathered  Christian  congregations,  taught  numerous  schoola* 
tranfi^ktedthe  Bible  into  Tamul,  and  laid  the  foundation  of  a  Chris- 
tian literature*  Several  of  their  native  converts  were  ordained 
to  the  ministry,  while  others  aided  them  in  their  schoola    The 

*  Houffh'i  History  of  Chrisliaiiity  in  India,  rols.  Ui.  and  It. 


BE8I3LT8  OF  MISBIONABY  LABOUB  IN  INDIA.  239 

Dumber  of  their  baptized  converts  amounted^  altogether^  to  more 
than  fifty  thousand:  and,  had  their  htbours  been  properly 
iQBtained,  and  the  places  of  those  who  died  been  mled  up, 
they  would  have  done  much  towards  bringing  the  whole  of 
Southern  India  under  Christian  instruction  and  influence.  But 
the  eprings,  whence  their  waters  came,  began  to  dry  up.  German 
neology  usurped  the  place  of  Bible  truth.  The  missionaries, 
that  came  towards  the  end  of  the  century,  were  few  and  far 
between:  and  at  last  ceased  altogether.  In  1806,  only  six 
mittioDaries,  and  in  1816  only  three  remained,  supported,  with 
one  exception,  entirely  by  EngUsh  funds.  Under  these  circunx-^ 
stances,  many  of  the  native  churches,  as  was  natural,  fell  away 
and  were  scattered;  the  schools  were  closed;  the  missions  lost 
their  distinctive  character ;  and  at  length,  their  remnants  became 
totally  absorbed  in  the  proceedings  of  other  and  more  active 
missionary  agencies.  Perhaps  one  cause  of  their  ra^id  decline 
arose  from  the  mighty  error,  which  had  been  committed  from 
the  first,  of  allowing  native  converts  to  retain  the  caste  usages, 
which  ihey  had  flowed  as  Hindus :  an  error,  which  long 
existed  in  subsequent  missions,  and  is  retained,  by  the  successors 
of  the  Tranquebar  missionaries  at  the  present  hour. 

The  modem  era  of  missions  in  India  begins  with  the  found'* 
ing  of  the  Seram^re  Baptist  Mission  in  1799.  The  continental 
Christians  had  retired  from  the  work ;  but  the  churches  of  £ngland 
and  America  had  awoke  to  their  duty,  and  were  seeking  to 
Ailfil  it    Within  a  few  years,  stations  were  established  in  Ual- 
CQtta,  Madras  and  Bombay,  and  began  to  push  outward  into 
aU  the  Presidencies  of  Hindustan.     The  begmnings  were  slow 
but  sure.     One  society,  then  another^— one  missionary  and  then 
another,  landed  on  the  coast,  and  took  .up  their  posts  on  the  great 
battle-field  of  idolatry.     The  London  Missionary  Society  sent 
missionaries  to  Chinsurah ;  to  Travancore ;  to  Madras,  Vizaga- 
patam  and  Bellary  ;  to   Surat ;  and  lastly  to   Ceylon.     The 
Amebican  Board,  after  some  opposition  from  the  Government, 
occupied  Bombay.    The  Church  Missionary  Society  entered 
first  on  the  old  Missions  at  Madras,  Tranquebar  and  Palam* 
eottah :  bat  soon  began  an  altogether  new  field,  among  the 
Syrian  Ghriatians  in  West  Travancore.   They  planted  a  station 
at  Agra,  tar  in  the  north-west,  and  maintained  the  i^ency, 
which  Corrie  had  employed  at  Chunar.     A  native  preacher 
b^n  the  work  at  Meerut,  while  two  missionaries  were  sta- 
tioned in  Calcutta     The  Baptist  Missionary  Society  soon  oc- 
cupied Jessore,  Chittagong,  Dinagepore  and  other  places ;  and 
also  began  its  mission  in  Ceylon.     In  the   latter  island,  the 


240  BESULTS  OF  MISSIONARY  LABOUB  IN  INDIA. 

Wesleyans  speedily  followed  them ;  and  to  them  succeeded  the 
missionarieB  oi  the  American  Board.  North,  south,  east  and 
west,  the  church  of  Christ  was  pushing  forth  its  men  and 
means  into  the  land  with  vigour  and  earnestness  of  purpose. 
The  Bible  Society  aided  the  missionaries  in  translating  the  in- 
spired word,  and,  within  a  few  years,  it  was  circulated  among  the 
various  nations  of  India,  in  several  languages,  for  the  first  time. 
In  thus  endeavouring  to  occupy  the  vast  field  opened  before 
them,  the  missionaries  and  their  advisers  were  at  first  compell- 
ed, &om  want  of  experience,  to  act  much  at  random.  Numerous 
were  the  errors  and  mistakes  they  fell  into ;  mistakes  to  which 
all  new  colonists  are  liable  in  all  lands.  Much  of  their  time 
and  ener&T  also  was  devoted  to  the  spiritual  benefit  of  their 
deBtitute^antrymen,  who  suffered  from  a  most  grievouB  defi< 
ciency  of  the  means  of  grace.  They  had  to  create  facilities  for 
acquiring  the  languages  of  India,  for  learning  the  superstitions, 
notions  and  habits  of  its  people.  They  had  to  create  their 
various  agencies,  and  to  begin  the  veiy  simplest  plans  for  ap- 
plying gospel  truth  to  the  ignorant  objects  of  their  care.  Bat 
they  hs^  a  spirit  powerful  to  meet  difficulties  and  put  them 
down :  they  had  a  noble  object  in  view ;  and  they  laboured, 
looking  to  that  fruit  which  begins  already  to  gladden  the  eyes 
of  their  successors.  In  spite  of  inexperience,  in  spite  of  dis- 
couragements and  difficulties,  arising  £rom  the  language,  the 
people  and  their  irreligious  countrymen,  they  laid  a  brwA  and 
solid  foundation  for  future  sure  success.  And  now  their  suc- 
cessors can  enter  at  once  upon  their  work,  with  abundant  faci- 
lities of  every  kind,  for  its  speedy  and  efiective  application. 
Honour  be  to  the  men,  who  thus  bore  the  burden  of  the  first 
and  hardest  toil  I  Eternal  honour  be  to  that  Lord,  who  enabled 
them  to  exalt  the  valleys  and  make  low  the  hills ;  to  make  the 
crooked  straight  and  the  rough  places  plain,  that  the  glory  of 
the  Lord  might  be  revealed  and  all  flesh  see  it  together ! 

Steadily  advancing  in  their  efforts,  in  the  year  1830 ,  after  a 
lapse  of  twenty-five  years  from  the  entry  of  most  societies  into 
India,  the  missionary  agencies  stood  thus :  There  were  L&boor- 
ing  in  India  and  Ceylon,  ten  Missionary  Societies,  including 
the  great  Societies  of  England  and  the  American  Board :  the  mis- 
sionaries were  A  hundred  and  forty-seven  in  number,  and 
their  stations  were  a  hundred  and  six,  scattered  over  all  parts 
of  the  country.    Since  then,  however,  the  interest  felt  by  Euro- 

Eean  and  American  Christians  in  the  conversion  of  this  country, 
as  greatly  increased,  and  renewed  exertions  to  secure  it  have 
been  put  forth  with  vigour.     The  discussions  concerning   tbe 


BESULTS  OF  MISSIONARY   LABOUQ  IK  INDIA.  241 

Sattee ;  the  removal  of  old  restrictions  by  the  last  charter ;  the 
publication  of  numerous  works  on  Indian  Missions ;  and  the 
appeals  made  to  Christian  churches^  have  shown  that  India  is  one 
of  the  noblest  fields  where  missionary  labour  may  be  carried 
on.  The  result  is  that^  during  the  last  twenty  years>  those 
churches  have  nearly  trebled  the  agency  previously  employ  ed^ 
have  greatly  enlarged  the  sphere  of  their  operations^  and  are 
beginning  to  reap  the  most  substantial  fruits.  With  a  view  to 
exhibit  these  results  completely  and  with  scrupulous  exactness, 
we  have  lately  entered  into  very  extensive  correspondence  with 
missionaries  m  different  parts  of  India,  and  passed  under  care* 
fill  review  a  large  collection  of  Missionary  Beports,  together 
with  the  recent  religious  literature  of  the  various  President 
cies.  The  &ct8  thus  elicited  have  been  formed  into  a  sta- 
tistical table,  and  the  following  is  a  brief  statement  of  its 
results. 

At  the  dose  of  1850,  fifty  years  after  the  modem  English 
and  American  Societies  had  begun  their  labours  in  Hindustan, 
and   thirty  yeara  since    they   have  been  carried  oa  in  full 
effidency,  the  Stations,  at  which  the  gospel  is  preached  in  India 
and  Ceylon,  are  two  hundred  and  sixty  m  number ;  and  engage 
the  services  of  four  hundbed  and  thbee  Missionaries,  be- 
longing to  twenty^two  Missionary  Societies.   Of  these  missiona* 
ries,  TWENTY-TWO  are  obdained  natives.    Assisted  by  five 
HUNDRED  AND  piFTT-ONE  Native  Preachers,  they  proclaim 
the  word  of  God  in  the  bazars  and  markets,  not  only  at  their 
several  stations,  but  in  the  districts  around  them.      They  have 
thus  spread  far  and  wide  the  doctrines  of  Christianity,  and  have 
made  a  considerable  impression,  even  upon  the  unconverted  popu* 
lation.    They  have  founded  three  hundred  and  nine  native 
CHURCHES,  containing  seventeen  thousand,  three  hundred,  and 
fifty-dx  Members,  or  CSommunicants,  of  whom  five  thousand  were 
admitted  on  the  evidence  of  their  being  converted.  These  church 
members  form  the  nudeus  of  a  native  christian  community, 
eomprisinff  one  hundred  and  three  thousand  'individuals, 
who  r^ukrly  enjoy  the  blessing  of  Bible  instruction,  both  for 
yonng  and  old  The  efforts  of  misdonaries  in  the  cause  of  educa* 
tion  are  now  directed  to  thirteen  hundred  and  forty-five  day- 
ediools,  in  which  eighty-'three  thousand^  seven  hundred  boys  are  in- 
structed through  the  meditun  of  their  own  Vernacular  language ; 
to  seventy-three  boarding  schools,  containing  nineteen  hundred 
<nul  nmety^two  boys,  chiefly  Christian,  who  redde  upon  the  mis*- 
donaries' premises,  and  are  trained  up  under  their  eye  ;  and  to 
one  hunored   and    twenty-eight    day-schools,   with  fourteen 
thousand  boys  and  students,  receiving  a  sound  Scriptural  educa- 

h  h 


242  BE8ULTS  OF   MISSIONABT  LABOUR  IN  INDIA. 

tion^  through  the  medium  of  the  English  language.  Their 
efforts  in  Female  Education  embrace  three  hundred  and 
fifty-four  day-schools^  with  eleven  thausand,  five  hundred  girb; 
and  ninety-one  boarding  schools^  with  fioo  thousand  four  hundred 
and  fifty  ffirb,  taught  almost  exclusively  in  the  Yemacular 
languages.  The  Bible  has  been  wholly  translated  into  ten 
hmgitagesy  and  the  New  Testament  into  five,  not  reckon- 
ing the  Serampore  yersions.  In  these  ten  languages,  a 
considerable  Christian  literature  has  been  produced,  and  also 
from  twenty  to  fifty  tracts,  suitable  for  distribution  among 
the  Hindu  and  Mussulman  population.  Missionaries  have 
also  established  and  now  maintain  twenty-fiye  printing  establish- 
ments. While  preaching  the  gospel  regularly  in  the  numer- 
ous tongues  of  India,  missionaries  maintain  English  services 
in  fifty-nine  chapels,  for  the  edification  of  our  own  coun- 
trymen. The  total  cost  of  this  vast  missionary  agency  during 
the  past  year  amounted  to  one  hundbed  and  eightt-seybn 
thousand  pounds  ;  of  which  thirty-three  thousand  five  hun- 
dred pounds  were  contributed  in  this  country,  not  by  the  native 
Christian  community,  but  by  Europeans.  A  few  comments  o& 
these  expressive  facts  may  put  them  in  a  clear  light. 

The  various  Missionary  Societies,  from  whom  these  efforts 
spring,  are  twenty-two  in  number.  Besides  the  great  Missionaiy 
Societies  of  England,  the  Established  and  Free  Church  of  Scot- 
land's Missions,  and  the  American  Board,  they  include  the  Ameri- 
can Presbvterian  Church ;  the  American  Baptist  Missions ;  six 
societies  nrom  Germany,  of  which  the  Society  at  Basle  ranks 
first  in  its  amount  of  agency:  the  General  Baptist  Society; 
the  Wesleyan  Society;  the  Irish  Presbyterian  Church,  and 
others.  To  these  we  must  add  the  six  Bible  and  Tract  Sode- 
ties  of  England  and  America.  It  is  a  most  gratl^ing  fact  that, 
notwithstanding  the  numerous  and  sometimes  bitter  contro- 
versies, which  occur  among  Christians  of  the  western  world, 
their  missionary  messengers  in  the  East  Indies  exhibit  a  v^ 
large  amount  of  practical  and  efficient  Christian  union.  While 
occupying  stations  apart  from  each  other,  and  thus  avoiding 
occasion  of  mutual  mterference  with  each  other's  plans,  in 
numberless  instances  the  labourers  of  different  sodeties  culti- 
vate each  other's  acquaintance,  and  preach  together  to  the 
heathen.  Almost  all  use  the  same  versions  of  the  Bible ;  and 
the  Christian  tracts  and  books  written  by  one  missionary  become 
the  common  property  of  all  others.  At  Calcutta,  Madias  and 
Bombay,  the  missionaries  of  all  Societies  are  accustomed  ta 
meet  monthly,  for  mutual  conference  and  united  prayer.  In  these 
meetings,  all  general  questions  relating  to  the  more  effi<^^^ 


BEaULTS  OF  MI^IONABT  LABOUR  IN  INDIA. 


243 


eondnct  of  missionary  operations^  to  common  difficulties  and 
common  success,  are  brought  forward  and  discussed ;  while 
frequent  occasions  are  furnished  in  private,  for  cultivating 
personal  friendships  of  the  closest  kind.  Of  the  exceeding 
value  of  such  union»  as  well  as  of  its  duty,  scarcely  too  high 
an  estimate  can  be  made.  In  a  land  so  given  up  to  all 
moral  abominations,  as  India  is,  never  could  'the  Prince 
of  this  world'  obtain  a  greater  victory  over  the  preachers 
of  the  cross,  than  by  inducing  them,  on  trivial  grounds,  to 
torn  their  arms  against  each  other,  ^d  never  can  the  agents 
of  Christ's  church  so  justly  hope  for  a  sure  triumph,  as  when 
they  obey  their  Master's  command  in  striving,  with  common 
efforts,  with  undivided  affection  and  united  prayers,  for  the 
extension  of  His  kingdom  and  the  converncm  of  perishing  souls* 
Let  us  hope  that  the  *  Evangelical  alliance '  of  Indian  mis- 
sionaries, throughout  this  great  continent,  may  become  more 
dose,  more  pure,  more  sincere  and  more  efficient  every  day ; 
and  that  the  few,,  who,  in  pride  of  sect,  stand  aloof  from 
ethers,  may  lay  aside  their  estrangement,  imd  become  one  with 
their  brethren  and  fellow  labourers  in  the  Lord's  work!  It 
is  when  men  *^  see  eye  to  eye  "  that  the  Lord  has  mercy  upon 
Zion. 

The  Missionary  agency,  connected  with  the  direct  preach- 
ing of  the  gospel  to  young  and  old,  is  thus  distributed : — 


In  Bengal,  Orissa  and  Assam    

In  the  North  West  Provinces    

In  the  Madras  Presidency - 

Missionaries. 

Native 
Preachers. 

101 

58 

164 

87 

43 

185 
39 

808 
11 

58 

In  the  Bombav  Presidency    

In  Ceylon    •«.• •••• 

403 

551 

The  numerous  band  of  missionaries  here  mentioned  constitutes 
more  than  one-fourth  of  the  entire  body  of  missionaries  sent  into 
all  ports  of  the  world ;  and  furnishes  a  splendid  proof  of  the 
deep  interest,  which  Indian  Missions  have  aroused  in  the  church 
of  Christ.  It  must,  of  course,  be  supposed,  that.  of.  the 
whole  number,  some  were  absent  from  their  stations 
during  the  year,  through  ill-health ;  and  we  believe,  that  twenty 
were  so  situated.  The  number  of  missionaries,  that  died  during 
1850,  was  four.  A  careful  examination  of  the  different 
periods,  during  which  these  missionaries  have  laboured  in  India^ 


244  BESULTS  OF  MISSIONABT  LABOUR  IN  INDIA. 

will  at  once  explode  a  fallacy,  widely  circalated  among  tbe 
friends  of  missions,  in  relation  to  the  length  of  missionary 
service.  It  is  generally  believed  that  in  this  country,  owing 
to  the  deadly  climate,  the  average  duration  of  missionary  life 
is  seven  years ;  and  many  have  come  out  as  missionaries  imder 
the  idea,  that  they  would  be  certain  to  meet  with  a  premature 
death.  But  this  is  a  great  mistake.  From  a  careful  induction 
of  the  lives  or  services  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  missionaries, 
we  have  found,  that  hitherto  the  average  duration  of  missionary 
labour  in  India  has  been  sixteen  years  and  nine  months  each.  It 
was,  doubtless,  much  less  at  first ;  and  numerous  cases  can  be 
adduced,  in  which  young  missionaries  were  cut  off  after  a  very 
short  term  of  labour.  But  a  better  knowledge  of  the  climate  and 
of  the  precautions  to  be  used  against  it,  the  use  of  airy  dwelling- 
houses  and  light  dress,  with  other  circumstances,  have  tended 
very  much  to  reduce  the  influence  of  the  climate  and  preserve 
health:  so  that  the  average  duration  of  life  and  labour  is 
improving  every  year.  As  an  iUustration  of  this  fact,  we  may 
state,  that  out  of  the  147  missionaries  labouring  in  India  and 
Ceylon  in  1830,  fifky  [we  can  give  their  names]  are  still  labour- 
ing in  health  and  usemlness ;  while  of  the  ninety-seven  others, 
who  have  since  died  or  retired,  twenty  laboured  more  than 
twenty  years  eacL  Several  living  missionaries  have  been  in 
India  more  than  thirty  years.  It  is  a  remarkable  &ct,  that  the 
average  missionary  life  of  forty-seven  of  the  Tranquebar  mis- 
sionaries, last  century,  was  twenty-two  years  each* 

The  Natiye  Pbeachebs  associated  with  missionaries  form,  on 
the  whole,  a  large  body,  though  in  each  station  they  appear 
few  in  number.  They  constitute  the  best  portion  of  the  native 
church  in  India,  and  are  engaged  in  the  useful  work  of  in- 
structing their  converted  countrymen,  or  of  preaching  to  those 
still  in  idolatry.  Whilst  missionaries  rejoice  in  the  co-opera- 
tion of  these  native  fellow-labourers,  they  are  quite  alive  to 
the  imperfections  of  their  religious  character,  and  their 
want  of  ability  to  carry  on  the  work  of  missions  by  them- 
selves. Some  have  attained  to  character  of  a  high  rank,  and 
give  much  satisfaction  by  their  consistency,  their  earnest  zeal, 
and  readiness  to  seek  other's  good :  but  the  majority  share 
in  the  weaknesses  and  defects  of  their  fellow  countrymen,  and 
often  give  pain  to  their  friends  by  the  inconsistencies  and  follieBy 
into  wnich  they  occasionally  &U.*  Were  the  great  body  of  native 
Christians  better,  some,  who  are  now  native  preachers  and 

*  It  is  but  fiiir  to  state  that  not  a  few  of  the  better  educated  converts  are  toqus 
men  of  distineiushed  ability  and  exemplary  life,  and  give  promise  of  great  tutnre 
useAilne88.—£o. 


r 


BESITLTS  OF  HISSIONABY   LABOUR  IK  INDIA.  245 

have  been  appointed  from  the  necessity  of  the  case,  would  be 
set  aside  for  others  of  a  higher  Christian  character.  Efforts 
are  being  made  in  all  parts  of  India  to  train  a  superior  class 
of  preachers ;  and,  if  it  be  made  a  sine  qua  non  in  all  missions, 
that  native  preachers  shall  be  men  of  clearly  manifested  piety 
and  of  active  intelligence,  and  that  they  shall  receive  a  good 
edacation  (especially  in  their  own  language)  before  they  are 
appointed,  we  may  hope  to  see  the  great  body  of  teachers 
greatly  improved  in  character  and  influence  during  the  next 
thirty  years.  The  rule  to  be  adopted  in  choosing  them  is  clearly 
stated  in  the  Bible,  and  ought  to  be  scrupulously  observed ; — 
*^  The  things  which  thou  hast  learned  among  many  witnesses, 
the  same  conmiit  thou  to  faithful  men,  who  shall  be  able  to  teach 
others  alsa" 

The  various  stations  occupied  by  misfflonaries  throughout 
India  are  two  hundred  and  sixty  in  number.  They  are  scat* 
tered  very  unevenly  over  the  sur&ce  of  this  great  continent ;  but 
form  a  pretty  continuous  chain  throughout  the  three  Presidencies 
and  the  island  of  Ceylon.    They  are  thus  distributed : — 

Bengal,  Orissa  and  Assam  have 69 

The  North  West  Provinces 24 

Madras  Presidency  113 

Bombay  Presidency 19 

Ceylon  35 

In  the  Bengal  Presidency,  they  are  situated  chiefly  in  the 
kiger  towns,  that  lie  on  the  great  rivers  by  which  the  coun- 
try is  intersected,  as  the  Granges,  Hooghly,  Jumna,  Megna, 
and  Brahmaputra.  In  that  of  Madras,  they  have  been  fixed 
in  the  towns  between  the  hills  and  the  sea,  on  both  sides  of  the 
continent ;  and  in  Ceylon,  along  the  sea-coast.  A  few  mission 
stations  are  located  in  the  saluDrious  climate  of  the  hiUs.  A 
alight  glance  at  the  map  of  India  wiU  shew  how  little  these 
stations  can  effect  for  the  thorough  proclamation  of  the  gospel 
in  all  parts  of  India :  and  how  thoroughly  insufficient  the  pre- 
sent amount  of  agency  is  for  the  grand  object  which  it  is 
intended  to  effect  it  is  true  that  the  chief  towns  of  the 
Presidencies,  as  is  most  just,  are  not  ill  supplied  with  missiona- 
riea  Calcutta,  the  metropolis,  has  twenty-nine  missionaries, 
labouring  at  twelve  different  stations  in  the  city ;  Benares  has 
eleven;  and  Agra  eight.  In  Madras  there  are  twelve  stations 
and  twenty-five  missionaries:  in  Bombay,  four  stations  and 
thirteen  missionaries ;  while  Colombo  has  but  two  missionaries 
at  two  nussion  stations.  Other  stations  have  but  two  or  three 
missionaries;   and  the  majority  only   one    each.      Scattered 


246  RESULTS  OF   MISSIONARY  LABOUR  IN  INDIA:. 

throughout  the  country,  there  are  whole  districts,  with  numer« 
ous  towns,  villages  and  a  dense  population,  that  never  hear  the 
word  of  God  at  alL  The  position  occupied  by  Europeans  in  India 
proves  that "  the  Lord  hath  surely  called  us  to  preach  the  gospel" 
to  its  idolatrous  people :  but  the  cry  '^  Come  over  and  help  us" 
is  in  many  places  unheeded.  Were  missionaries  to  be 
thoroughly  successful  in  their  present  spheres,  they  would 
have  yet  to  acknowledge ;  '^  There  remaineth  much  land  to 
be  possessed." 

The  Native  Christian  Churches  in  India,  established  by 
missionaries,  now  amount  to  three  hundred  and  nine.  Some 
of  these  contain  numerous  members ;  but  the  great  maiority  have 
but  a  few.  It  must  be  remembered,  that  the  standard  of  admis- 
sion into  these  little  societies  is  not  every  where  the  same.  Some 
missionaries  admit  members  only  upon  good  evidence  of  their 
conversion,  arising  from  competent  knowledge  and  consistency  of 
Christian  conduct.  Others  require  merely  a  certain  amount  of 
knowledge  in  their  communicants,  and  the  absence  of  great  in- 
consistencies. By  some  the  Communion  of  the  Lord's  Suppes 
is  considered  a  church  privilege,  to  be  enjoyed  only  by  those  who 
am  appreciate  it.  By  others  it  is  counted  a  means  of  grace, 
which  shall  fit  men  for  understanding  its  ends.  The  number  of 
members  admitted  on  the  higher  standard  is  ^ve  thousand  two 
hundred:  of  those  on  the  lower  twelve  thousand.  The  care  of 
these  infant  churches  constitutes  one  of  the  missionary's  hardest 
trials.  While  it  is  a  matter  of  thankfulness  and  ioy  to  see  their 
members  forsaking  idolatry,  seeking  the  true  salvation,  and  at- 
tending regularly  the  means  of  grace,  their  defects,  their  back- 
slidings  and  the  j?rievous  falls  into  sin,  which  sometimes  occur, 

E rove  now  imperfect  their  character  is,  and  give  him  many  a  bitter 
our.  It  is  scarcely  just  to  look  for  any  high  general  development 
of  Christian  exceUence,  amidst  the  dense  heathenism  of  India, 
and  amidst  a  people  as  low  in  moral  goodness  as  any  in  the  eartL 
The  evil  may  be  accoimted  for;  how  to  devise  a  remedy  is 
more  difficult.  Careful  pastoral  superintendence,  and  instruc- 
tion, raising  the  standard  of  admission  into  the  body  of  com- 
municants and  members,  and  the  faithful  administration  of 
Scripture  discipline,  may,  under  the  divine  blessing,  tend  to  the 
elevation  of  native  Christians,  and  by  degrees,  diminish  the 
evils  which  prevail  among  them. 

Connected  with  the  native  churches,  is  a  body  of  individuals, 
cut  off  entirely  from  the  great  communities  of  Hindus  and 
Mussulmans.  It  includes  not  only  the  families  of  native 
Christians,  but  of  many  others,  who  have  cast  off  the  restraints 
of  Heathenism,  and  placed  themselves  under  the  influence  of  tho 


RESULTS  OF  MISSIONABY  LABOUR  IN  INDIA. 


247 


€r06peL  Though  but  nominally  Christian^  they  are  all  under 
regular  Christian  instructioii ;  tne  children  especially  are  cared 
for  in  schools ;  and,  under  the  blessing  of  God,  much  good 
may  be  effected  among  them  in  the  future.  It  only  remains 
to  state  how  they  are  distributed : — 


Bengal,  Orissa  and  Assam  ... 
NorSi  Western  Provinces  ... 
Madras  Presidency 

Churches. 

Members. 

Christians. 

71 
21 
162 
12 
43 

3,416 

608 

10,464 

223 

2,645 

14,401 

1,828 

74,512 

554 

11,859 

Bombay 

CeYlon  • •• 

309 

17.856 

103,154 

The  labours  of  missionaries  in  the  education  of  the  young 
occupy  an  amount  of  time  and  attention^  second  only  to 
those  connected  with  the  preaching  to  adults.  The  share^ 
which  Education  occupies  in  the  great  work  of  India's  renoya- 
fion^  must^  from  its  amount,  greatly  astonish,  as  well  as  gratify^ 
all  who  are  interested  in  that  object.  The  schools  for  boys  are 
of  three  classes.  Yebnaculab  Schools  haye  been  established, 
chiefly,  for  the  benefit  of  the  heathen;  but  are,  in  many  localities, 
beneficial  also  to  the  children  of  natiye  Christians.  Of  course, 
the  Scriptures  are  taught  in  them  all,  either  by  a  missionary  or 
natiye  preacher,  or  both.  In  the  majority  of  these  schools,  the 
general  education  giyen  is  not  of  a  high  character ;  consisting 
of  reading,  writing  and  the  elements  of  general  knowledge,  in 
addition  to  Scripture  instruction.  In  some,  howeyer,  in  North 
India^  and  in  others  among  the  large  Christian  congregations 
of  South  India  and  Ceylon,  the  education  is  of  a  yery  superior 
kind. 

BoABDiNG  Schools  haye,  in  many  stations,  been  established 
upon  mis^onaries'  premises,  for  the  benefit  of  orphans  and  the 
children  of  natiye  Christians.  Besides  imparting  a  good  Ver- 
nacular education,  they  haye  the  adyantage  of  keeping  their 
{roimg  charge  away  from  the  eyil  influences  of  priyate  heathen 
ife,  and  retaining  them  continually  under  the  power  of 
Christian  example  and  discipline.  Seyeral  of  the  Doarding 
schools  in  South  India  and  Ceylon,  exhibit  this  extraordinary 
peculiarity,  that  Hindu  boys  and  yoimg  men  reside  on  the 
mission  premises  and  eat  food  there,  without  losing  their  caste. 
Such  a  met  is  utterly  unheard  of  in  North  India,  and  shews, 
how  different,  in  some  of  its  practical  details,  the  caste-system  of 


248 


RESULTS   OF   MISSIOKAHY   LABOUR  IN  INDIA. 


South  India  is  from  that  of  other  parts  of  HindustaiL  The  sam^ 
is  true  also  of  Female  Boarding  schools. 

The  English  Missionary  schools  are  confined  to  those 
parts  of  the  country^  where  a  strong  desire  is  felt  for  acquiring 
the  English  language.  They  are  most  numerous,  and  have  the 
largest  number  of  scholars,  in  and  around  Calcutta.  In  that  city 
and  its  neighbourhood  they  amount  to  nine  schools,  or  Institu- 
tions (as  they  are  generally  called),  and  contain  more  than  fict 
thousand  scholar Sy  of  whom  three  hundred  are  young  men,  deserv- 
ing the  name  of  college  students.  The  same  desire  for  an 
English  education,  though  to  a  smaller  extent,  we  find  in 
Benares,  in  Bombay  and  Madras ;  in  which  cities  also  most 
efficient  missionanr  institutions  have  been  established.    In  other 

?arts  of  India,  the  scholars  ate  comparatively  few  in  number. 
?he  English  Missionary  Institutions  occupy  a  ^here  of  use- 
fulness peculiar  to  themselves.  They  convey  Bible  truth,  in 
connection  with  a  high  degree  of  intellectual  truning,  to  the 
minds  of  lads  and  young  men  some  of  them  belonging  to  the 
upper  and  wealthy  ranks  of  Hindu  society.  This  class  is  left 
almost  untouched,  in  many  districts,  by  vernacular  education,  or 
vernacular  preaching  ;  but,  through  tne  English  schools  which 
they  attena  so  eagerly,  they  receive  the  gospel  as  well  as 
others.  A  great  change  has  already  been  produced  by  means 
of  these  schools.  Missionary  schools  are  distributed  through- 
out Hindustan,  as  follows : — 


Bengal,  Orissa,  and  Assam 
N.  W.  Froyinees 

Vernacular  day 
Schools. 

1 
BoardingSchools. 

English  Schools. 

Schools. 

Boys. 

Schools. 

Boys. 

Schools. 

Boys. 

127 
65 

852 
65 

246 

6,369 
3078 

61,366 
3,848 
9,126 

83,787 

21 
10 
32 

4 
6 

761 
209 
754 
64 
204 

22 
16 
44 

9 

37 

6,054 
1,207 
4,156 
984 
1,675 

Madras  Presidency 

Bombay  Presidency 

Ceylon 

1,345 

73 

1,992 

128 

14,076 

Female  EDtrCATiON  has  occupied  much  of  the  attention  and 
anxieties  of  missionaries;  but  such  powerful  hindrances  lie 
in  its  way,  as  to  have  greatly  crippled  the  efforts,  which  they 
were  desirous  of  making.     Boarding  schools  for  orphans  and 


r 


BE8ULTS  OF  MISSIONABT  LABOUR  IN  INDIA. 


249 


the  daughters  of  native  CbnBtians  have  been  most  successfiil ; 
many  of  the  most  intelligent  and  best-behaved  of  the  native 
Christian  women  have  there  received  their  education.  Many 
of  the  orphans^  saved  from  desolating  fitmines,  or  from  the 
murderous  Meria  sacrifice^  owe  life  and  name  to  these  Christian 
sanctuaries.  But  female  day-schools  have,  in  most  parts 
of  India,  met  with  little  encouragement  The  habit  of  se- 
clading  females  prevents  the  wealthy  from  attending  them ;  and 
the  early  marriage  of  the  scholars  (at  the  age  of  eleven  or 
twelve^  takes  away  those  who  do  attend,  just  when  they  are 
beginnmg  to  learn.  In  Bengal  there  are  very  few  of  these 
achools  now ;  though  at  one  time  they  were  most  numerous, 
espedally  in  Calcutta.  In  Madras,  however,  and  in  Bombay, 
they  flourish  much  better.  The  female  schools  are  thus  dis- 
tributed:— 


iBengal,  &o 

N  W.  Provinces 


jMadras  Presidency 
'Bombay  Presidency 
jCeylon 


Day   Schools. 

Boarding 

[  Schools. 

Schools. 

Girls. 

Schools. 

Girls. 

26 

690 

28 

836 

8 

213 

11 

208 

222 

6,929 

41 

1,101 

28 

1,087 

6 

129 

70 

2,630 

5 

172 

854 

11,549 

91 

2,446 

• 

A  portion  of  missionary  labour  inlndia  is  employedinENGLiSH 
KELiGious  SERVICES^  for  the  benefit  of  our  European  country- 
men. Though  this  is  not  professedly  the  duty  of  a  missionary^it  is 
frequently  beneficial  to  many,  who  would  otherwise  be  depriv- 
ed of  the  means  of  grace  altogether.  By  maintaining  such  ser- 
vices, missionaries  may  *  save  souls  from  death ;'  may  remove 
hmdrances  to  their  work  among  the  heathen,  and  raise  up 
friends,  who  will  aid  them  in  carrying  it  on.  The  total  num- 
ber of  such  services  regularly  maintained  is  fifty-nine  ;  of 
which  twenty-one  are  in  the  Bengal  Presidency,  seventeen  in 
Uiat  of  Madras,  and  twelve  in  that  of  Agra. 

Lastly,  the  work  of  translating  the  Word  of  God  and  of 
pubUshmg  Christian  works  in  the  various  languages  of  India 
18  another  object,  to  which  considerable  missionary  labour  is 


I  I 


250  RESIILTS  OF  MISSIONARY  LABOUR  IN  INDIA. 

deroted.  There  are  in  India  eight  Bible  Societies  in  all»  auxiliary 
to  the  two  great  Societies  in  England  and  America,  and  to  those 
of  the  Baptist  churches.  During  last  year,  they  published  130,000 
copies  of  the  Bible,  or  selections  from  it,  in  thirteen  languages ; 
and  distributed  185,400  copies.  These  Societies  are  endear 
Youring,  in  someparts  of  India,  to  supply  every  family  with  a 
portion  of  the  W  ord  of  God.  There  are  also  fifteen  Tract 
Societies,  who  receive  grants  of  money,  paper  and  books  from 
the  English  and  American  Societies,  and  are  engaged  in  sup- 
plying works  for  native  Christians,  short  tracts,  or  ezjMMitions 
of  Bible  truth  for  the  heathen,  and  school  books  for  missionaiy 
schools.  These  Societies  help  greatly  to  make  the  preaching 
and  teaching  of  missionaries  more  effective,  and  to  render  their 
agency  more  lasting. 

The  total  cost  of  all  these  missions,  as  we  have  already  stated, 
including  all  items  of  expenditure,  amounted  in  1850,toONK 

HUNDRED  AND  EIGHTY-SEVEN  THOUSAND  POUNDS.     The  items 

included  are,  the  salaries  of  missionaries,  the  expenses  of  mis- 
sionary iourneys,  the  expenses  of  native  preachers,  of  schools, 
and  of  the  circulation  of  Christian  books.  Of  the  whole  sum, 
£153,460  were  drawn  &om  Europe  and  America ;  and  the  muni- 
ficent sum  of  £33,540  was  contributed  by  Christians  in  this 
countiy.  It  is  surely  a  remarkable  fact,  that  while  the  East 
India  Company,  with  an  annual  revenue  of  twenty  millions,  has 
expended  so  little  for  the  physical  improvement  of  their  great  em- 
pire, for  roads  and  bridges,  and  the  acceleration  of  safe  and  rapid 
communication,  the  Christians  of  Europe,  America,  and  Hindus- 
tan, are  found  devoting  of  their  own  accord  the  sum  of  more 
than  eighteen  lahhs  of  rupees  to  the  spiritual  interests  of  the  Hin- 
dus ;  a  siun  not  drawn  from  Government  resources,  but  made  up 
of  the  &ee-will  offerings  of  Christians  of  all  denominations. 

Such  b  the  amount,  and  such  are  the  varieties  of  agency,  em- 
ployed at  the  close  of  the  half  century  just  past,  for  spreading 
Christianity  among  the  people  of  India.  Each  Idnd  of  agency  has 
long  been  in  operation  m  the  older  localities ;  and  missionaries 
are  seeking  to  render  all  efficient,  wherever  they  are  employed. 
Each  too  nas  met  with  the  most  gratifying  results.  The  pub- 
lic preaching  of  the  gospel  in  the  bazars  and  markets,  in  pnvate 
houses,  and  in  the  great  assemblies  of  idolatrous  pilgrims,  has 
led  many  a  Hindu  to  become  the  disciple  of  Christ,  and  has 
induced  manv  more  to  doubt  about  the  efficacy  of  their  own 
religion.  The  instructions  of  day-schools  have  brought  nu- 
merous young  men  to  give  up  all  for  the  gospel;  and  the 
Christian  influence  of  boarding  schools  has  led  those,  who  were 
Christian  in  name,  to  seek  for  conversion  of  heart     Through 


RESULTS  OF  MISSIOli^ABT  LABOUB  IK  INDIA.  251 

their  means^  Christian  young  men  have  come  forward  to  teach 
their  countrymen ;  and  Christian  women  have  maintained  a  con-< 
sifltent  profession  before  many  witnesses.     The  circulation  of 
die  Bible  and  of  religious  tracts  has  not  only  exdted  enquiry 
and  given  instruction^  but  has  proved,  in  numerous  individual 
cases,  the  direct  means  of  converting  the  souL     And  the  con- 
tinued preaching  of  the  gospel  and  administration  of  the  or- 
dinances of  the  church  have  been  the  means  of  building  up  small 
bodies  of  native  Christians,  the  nucleus  of  larger  communities 
yet  to  be  gathered.     The  approval  of  the  Lord,  in  whose  name 
the  work  is  carried  on,  has  rested  upon  all  these  branches ;  and, 
amid  many  difficulties,  has  encouraged  his  servants  to  persevere. 
But  the  question  is  often  asked  ;  Does  the  number  of  native 
church  members,  and  of  natives  under  Christian  instruction, 
exhibit  such  a  result,  as  all  the  great  labours  of  the  past  fifty 
years  lead  us  to  expect  ?    In  other  words,  have  missions  been 
fluccessful,  or  a  comparative  failure  ?     Missionaries  and  others 
interested  in  the  conversion  of  India  have  often  discussed  the 
matter ;  but  different  opinions  have  been  entertained ;  some 
considering  that  the  results  are  fully  equal  to  what  might  have 
been  expected;  others  thinking  that,  for  some  reason  or  other, 
they  Ml  short  of  them.     It  is  not  difficult  to  perceive  that  these 
differing  conclusions  arise  from  the  different  expectations,  which 
their  advocates  had  previously  formed,  from  the  kind  of  results 
looked  for,  as  well  as  from  the  standard,  by  which  those  ex- 
pectations were  measured.     Before  examining  into  the  ques- 
tion, we  must  remember  firsts  that  a  large  portion  of  the  mis- 
aonary  agency  now  employed  has  been  in  operation  too  short  a 
time  to  allow  us  to  judge  definitely  of  its  final  fruits.     Nearly 
two  thirds  of  the  missions  existing  in  Hindustan  have  been  es- 
tablished less  than  twenty  years ;  and  several  even  less  than  ten. 
How  could  they  have  brought  forth  finished  results  within  so 
short  a  time?     We  must  remember  also  the  peculiar  manner  in 
which  missions  work  on  the  country.    An  indigo  planter  or  sugar 
manufacturer  can  soon  tell  whether  the  district  he   cultivates 
gives  him  a  due  return  for  his  labour  and  for  the  expensive  facto- 
ries he  has  erected.  A  farmer  can  tell,after  a  complete  season,  tlie 
capabilities  of  his  farm.  But  it  is  not  so  with  missions.     Human 
society  is  slower  in  changing  its  views,  than  is  the  physical 
world  in  bringing  forth  its  fruits.     In  undertakings  beset  by 
great  obstacles,  as  in  railroads,  vast  labour  is  expended  before 
the  usee,  to  which  they  are  designed,  are  effected  in  the  small- 
est degree  :  and  for  many  years  after  they  have  be<j[un  to  suc- 
ceed, the  *  block,'  the  *  fixed  capital'  expended  at  first,  is  re- 
garded as  the  source  of  present  gain.     Apart  from  the  actual 


252  BESULTS  OF  MI8SIONABT  LABOUB  IN  INDIA. 

converts  already  gained  (no  mean  number,  however),  we  con- 
sider the  ^  block'  of  Indian  missions  one  of  the  greatest  re- 
sults attained.  A  most  valuable  and  effective  agency  has  been 
Erepared  and  set  soing ;  and  long  will  it  be  before  the  results  of 
tbours,  hitherto  done,  are  exhausted  and  cease  to  flow.  Of  this 
we  shall  speak  more  fiilly  hereafter.  We  will  only  mention 
a  sincle  fact  here,  to  show  the  folly  of  too  ereat  haste  in  looking 
for  the  spiritual  fruit  of  missions  in  India.  In  the  beeinmng 
of  the  present  century,  the  Bev.  D.  Palm  was  sent  oy  the 
London  Missionary  Society  to  the  province  of  Jaffiia  in  Ceylon : 
but,  after  several  vears'  labour,  the  mission  was  reported  a  fail- 
ure ;  and  it  was  abandoned.  The  missionaries  of  the  American 
Board  entered  upon  the  abandoned  station ;  and,  on  coming 
to  Tillipally,  the  natives  immediately  brought  to  their  notice 
a  lad,  who  had  been  one  of  Mr.  Palm's  scholars.  He  became 
their  first  Tamul  schoolmaster,  was  baptized  in  1824,  was  U- 
censed  as  a  catechist,  and  died  as  such,  aner  exhibiting  for  many 
years  a  consistent  Christian  deportment.  ''The  fruit  of  six 
cocoanut  trees,  near  the  mission<)iouBe,  planted  by  Mr.  Palm, 
and  of  which  the  American  missionaries  have  eaten  for  thirty- 
five  years,  is  but  emblematical  of  the  higher  fruits  they  have 
gathered  from  the  labours  of  one,  whose  mission  was  accounted 
a  failure." 

To  form  a  sound  and  correct  judgment  on  this  matter,  we 
must  examine  the  missions  in  Hindustan  by  the  measure  of 
success,  which  has  been  granted  to  other  missions  in  other  ages 
and  in  other  countries  of  the  world.  We  must  find  cases  par- 
allel to  our  own  in  all  their  bearings,  and  judge  of  our  results 
by  theirs.  To  do  this  thoroughly  would  require  an  immense 
induction  of  a  great  variety  of  particulars,  and  would  1^  us 
away  from  the  inunediate  object  of  this  paper.  We  can  only 
indicate  therefore,  in  few  words,  the  view  we  hold  of  this  impor- 
tant subject.  We  cannot  compare  the  modem  missions  in  Hin* 
dustan  with  the  establishment  of  Christianity  among  the  Franks 
by  Clovis  ;  among  the  Saxons  by  Charlemagne,  after  a  thirty- 
three  years'  war ;  among  the  Danes  by  Otho  the  Great ;  in  Nor- 
way,by  Olaus  Trygvesen,  or  his  successor  Olaus  the  Saint ;  among 
the  Sclavonians,  by  the  Dukes  of  Saxony ;  amon^  the  Kusrians, 
by  Vladimir;  or  in  Prussia,  by  the  Teutonic  Knights.  Most  of 
these  missions  were  missions  of  force,  not  of  persuadon :  they 
were  carried  on  by  warlike  Governments  with  swords  and  spears; 
— ^not  by  believing  men,  who  aimed  to  enlighten  and  convert. 
Neither  can  we  compare  them  with  the  Spanish  missions  to 
Mexico  and  Brazil,  or  with  the  missions  of  tne  Portuguese  and 
Dutch  in  this  very  country.    Persecution,  civil  disabilities  and 


BESULT8  OF   MI88IONABT  LABOUR  IN  INDIA.  253 

iraod^  kre  not  the  agents,  which  the  Saviour  of  men  bade  his 
followers  employ  in  Christianizing  the  nations ;  and  we  have 
wisely  given  them  up.  We  must,  therefore,  for  a  just  compari- 
son^  nill  back  upon  the  early  missionary  success  of  the  apostolic 
age,  or  look  to  modem  missions  in  other  lands.  A  glance  at 
both  will  help  to  put  our  position  in  India  in  a  clear  light. 

The  missionary  labours  of  the  apostolic  age  were  grand  in 
their  character,  rapid  in  their  operation,  and  gigantic  in  their 
results.    But  firom  what  agencies  did  those  results  spring  ? 
We  must  look  for  them  not  merely  from  the  day  of  Pen- 
tecost ; — ^not  merely  from  the  time,  when  the  preachers  began 
to  declare  their  gospel    message  of  mercy.      The  work  of 
preaching  to  be  successful  must  have  ready  hearers,  as  well 
as  zealous  teachers:  and  although  it  was  only  from  the  day 
of  Pentecost  that  men  began  to  preach,  yet  the  Providence 
of  Grod  had  been  preparing  the  minds  of  the  hearers  for  more 
than  three  hundred  years  previously.     For  more  than  three 
hundred  years.  He  had  been  moulding  the  nations,  uniting 
them  together,  removing  hindrances  and  creating  facilities, 
for  the  conversion  of  the  world :  and  it  was  not  till  *^  the 
fulness  of  time"  was  come  ;  not  till  all  the  preparations  were 
completed,  that "  God  sent  forth  his  Son."    Without  due  atten- 
tion to  this  important  fact,  we  cannot  correctly  estimate  the 
progress  of  Christianity  on  its  first  establishment.     By  the  wars, 
which  took  place  during  those  centuries,  old  societies  were  bro- 
ken up  ana  old  notions  scattered ;  while  the  frequent  inter- 
course of  different  nations  with  each  other  tended  to  expand  the 
minds  of  alL     The  universal  empire  of  Rome  became  the  means 
of  binding  all  those  nations  by  one  common  authority  under 
one  common  law :  especially  when  accompanied  by  the  great 
privil^e  of  Soman  citizenship.     The  wonderful  spread  of  the 
Grreek  language,  of  Greek  manners  and  Greek  notions,  tended 
to  the  same  end.     The  different  religions  of  the  world  were 
brought  into  contact,  and  their  follies  and  mutual  contradic- 
tions, brouffht  them  all  into  contempt.    Philosophy  tried  to  fill 
up  the  void  produced,  but  miserably  failed :  and  the  desire  for 
idiffious  truui,  being  unsatisfied,  led  men  to  look  for  a  special 
debverer,  who  was  to  enlighten  all  nations.  The  difipersion  of  the 
Jews  also  wonderftilly  aided  the  desired  result,   from  the  days 
of  Shalmaneser,  they  went  east-ward ;  from  the  days  of  the  Ptole- 
mies, they  went  west- ward;  until  Syria,  Asia-Minor, Greece, and 
Italy^  were  filled  by  their  synagogues  and  their  religious  discus- 
sion.   By  their  zeal  for  Judaism,  they  gained  over  thousands  of 
proselytes,  and  so  annoyed  the  old  idolatrous  parties,  as  to  draw 
down  on  their  head  severe  persecutions.    Under  these  circum- 


254  B-ESULTS   OF   MI6SI0NAUT   LABOUR    IN   INDIA. 

stances  it  was,  that  the  pure  gospel  of  Christ  was  prcachefl, 
'  with  the  Holy  Ghost  sent  down  from  heaven/  accompanied  with 
the  gift  of  tongues  and  the  power  of  working  miracles ;  and  the 
influence  of  this  grand  and  extensive  preparation  met  with 
magnificent  success.  How  differently  placed  is  the  work  of 
missions  in  India  at  the  present  day  I  With  the  Apostles  the 
preparations  were  completed :  with  us  they  have  had  to  begin. 
With  them  old  things  had  passed  away ;  with  us  they  exist  stilL 
They  had  but  to  reap :  we  have  to  sow.  Who  can  wonder  then 
that  with  few  agents,  in  a  foreign  clime,  and  speaking  foreign 
tongues,  the  work  in  Hindustan  has  fallen,  and  will  continue  to 
fall  short,  of  the  splendid  results  which  they  attained  ? 

Neither  do  we  find  an  exact  parallel  between  missions  in  India 
and  the  successful  missions  of  modem  days  elsewhere.  We  can- 
not compare  them  with  those  in  Greenland,  or  South  AfHca,  or 
the  West  Indies,  or  among  Brainerd's  Indians,  or  in  the  South 
Sea  islands.  A  mighty  difference  meets  us  at  the  very  outset 
The  tribes  in  these  localities  were  uncivilized  in  the  last 
degree ;  while  the  Hindus  have  a  civilization^  extending  back 
more  than  three  thousand  years.  Those  were  without  a 
written  language:  these  have  thirteen  polished  languages, 
each  with  its  own  character,  and  an  extensive  literature  in  one 
of  the  oldest  languages  of  the  world,  the  Sanskrit.  Those 
were  debased  and  ignorant ;  while  the  Hindus  are  educated. 
In  those,  reason  was  undeveloped :  in  the  Hindus  it  is  pervert- 
ed, and  has  become  an  enemy  far  more  difficult  to  deal  with. 
Those  had  but  few  gods  and  a  small  number  of  priests ;  these 
worship  numerous  principal  deities,  honoured  oy  expensive 
festivals^  by  a  daily  ritual,  and  upheld  by  a  powerful  and  ex- 
acting hierarchy.  Those  had  fettered  the  natural  ties  of  kin- 
dred and  social  union  with  no  unnatural  laws ;  but  these  have 
superadded  to  natural  ties  the  stringent  rules  of  caste,  the 
breach  of  which  renders*the  transgressor  a  vagabond  and  out- 
cast. Even  with  all  the  feu^ilities  for  the  progress  of  truth 
among  those  tribes,  years  passed  in  each  instance  before  great 
results  were  attained  in  the  conversion  of  many  souls.  What 
delay,  therefore,  might  we  not  expect  in  Hindustan,  amid  the 
numerous  difficulties  which  its  case  presents  ? 

The  circumstances  of  our  Indian  missions  seem  to  us  alto- 
gether unique  and  peculiar.  In  its  idolatries,  India  resembles 
other  lands,  it  is  true ;  but  in  its  numerous  ancient  and  vene- 
rated Shastras ;  in  its  lordly  and  powerful  priesthood,  the  mono- 
polists of  its  ancient  learning ;  in  its  well-bound  famUy-^stem ; 
and  above  all,  in  its  bonds  of  caste,  it  presents  difficulties  and 
obstructions  to  the  progress  of  Christianity,  such  as  it  has  not 


X£dULTS   OF  MISSIONARY    LABOUR  IN   INDIA.  235 

met  before.  Triumph  it  will  over  all  these  obstacles ;  it  has 
begun  to  triumph  already:  but  there  may^  there  must  be  delay, 
beibre  the  complete  triumph  is  achieved;  and  when  it  does 
come,  it  will  be  one  of  the  most  signal  and  illustrious  that 
the  world  has  ever  seen.  The  dam,  which  stands  before  the 
trickUng  rill,  and  leaves  its  tiny  waters  to  fall  in  slender  strings 
over  its  grassy  ridge,  shakes,  quivers,  falls  before  that  rill,  swol- 
len to  a  mountain  torrent,  and  pressing  forward  its  pent-up  waters. 
And  thus  is  it  with  Christianity  in  this  '  day  ot  small  things.' 
Caste  may  form  a  barrier  to  its  passage ;  but  the  knowledge  of 
the  goBpel  is  increasing  and  accumulating  among  the  people, 
whom  the  bonds  of  caste  restrain.  Alr^y  has  it  begun  to 
shake,  and  its  defenders,  fearful  of  a  crash,  have  rushed  to  its 
defence :  but  they  cannot  stay  the  weight  and  force  of  Christian 
truth.  In  due  time  their  system  must  give  way;  and  there 
will  be  a  steadv  and  continuous  flow  of  Hindu  families  into 
the  church  of  Christ. 

We  look,  with  some  satisfaction,  on  the  little  band  of  native 
oonyerts  already  gathered  from  among  the  people  of  India. 
They  may  be  few  in  number;  but  they  are  proofs  that  the 
work  of  the  church  has  not  been  carried  on  in  vain.  They 
are  on  earnest  of  the  great  results,  at  which  missionaries  aim, 
and  which  must  ultimately  follow.  They  may  be  few  in  num- 
ber ;  but  considering  the  difficulties,  that  have  been  encoun- 
tered and  overcome,  we  need  feel  no  surprise.  Even  in  their 
fewness,  we  learn  a  fact  most  Encouraging  in  relation  to  the 
future.  It  has  been  shown  that  the  ratio  of  their  increase  is 
steadily  progressing.  A  statistical  paper,  laid  before  the  Mis- 
sionary Conference  in  Calcutta,  a  few  years  ago,  shewed  that  in 
Lower  Bengal,  exclusive  of  Krishnaghur,  the  accessions  of  na- 
tive converts  to  the  Christian  church  had  been  made  thus : — 

From  1793  to  1802 27 

„      1803  to  1812 161 

„      1813  to  1822 403 

„      1823  to  1832 675 

„      1833  to  1842 1045 

In     1 843  and  1 844,  two  years 485 

With  the  increased  agency  now  employed,  and  its  greater 
efficiency,  we  may  hope  for  results  far  higher  and  more  nu- 
merous than  these. 

But  the  accession  of  native  converts  is  but  a  small  part  of 
the  results,  which  missionary  labour  has  secured  in  India  and 
Ceylon.  The  wide  and  extensive  preaching  of  the  gospel ;  the 
ppread  of  Christian  knowledge ;  the  infusion  of  Christian  ideas 


256  RESULTS  OF  MISSIONABT  LABOUR   IN  IKI>1A. 

into  native  minds :  the  preparation  of  an  efficient  system  of 
agency^  and  of  materials  which  that  agency  may  employ  ;  the 
acquisition  of  valuable  experience,  and  similar  results, — all  find 
their  use  in  smoothing  the  path  of  future  labour  and  securing 
future  and  more  rapid  success.  Such  a  result  of  past  efforts  has 
frequently  been  noticed  by  missionaries  of  long  standing,  who 
knew,  from  their  own  hard  experience,  what  vsuuable  helps  are 
now  provided  for  the  missionaries  of  modem  days.  The  fol- 
lowing  testimony  of  the  Rev.  W.  Fyvie  of  Surat,  given  in 
1847,  on  his  departure  for  America,  illustrates  the  case  so  clearly » 
that  we  quote  it : — 
^^  Persons  arriving  at  Bombay  now  visit  it  under  different 
circumstances,  from  what  it  was  twenty-five  or  thirty  years 
ago.  When  I  landed  on  your  shores,  there  was  only  one 
church  in  Bombay,  and  one  service  on  the  Lord's  Day,  very 
thinly  attended  indeed.  There  are  now  six  places  of  public 
worship  on  this  island  for  divine  service  in  English,  and  a 
seventh  is  now  building.  Thirty  or  thirty-five  years  ago, 
evangelical  preaching  was,  I  fear,  but  little  known  on  this 
island;  but  now  the  case  is  happily  very  different  and  has 
long  been  so.  Less  than  thirty-five  years  ago,  there  were  no 
Educational,  Bible,  Tract,  or  Missionary  S^eties  here.  Is 
not  the  case  now  verv  different  ?  Then  one  hardly  knew  where 
to  look  for  a  decidedly  pious  person,  for  the  worship  of  God  in 
fishmilies,  and  prayer  meetings  in  public.  In  how  many  pious 
families,  in  this  place  and  at  other  stations,  is  the  voice  of 
prayer  and  praise  presented  to  Grod,  morning  and  evening, 
at  the  family  altar :  while  weekly  prayer-meetings  are  also 
numerous.  In  viewing  all  that  has  been  done  among  our 
countrymen,  have  we  no  cause  to  say,  '  what  hath  (rod 
wrought !' 

<^  Thirty  years  ago,  if  any  native  had  wished  to  become  ac- 
quainted with  Christianity,  there  was  then  no  Bible,  Tracts 
or  Christian  book  in  Mahrathi  or  Gujurati,  to  put  into  his 
hand.  During  the  last  twenty-five  years,  however,  the  Bible 
has  been  translated  and  printed  in  both  these  languages,  so 
that  the  people  can  now  read  in  their  own  tongues  the  won- 
derful works  of  God.  Tracts,  discourses,  prayers  and  cate- 
chisms have  been  prepared  and  widely  circuited,  and  are  read 
by  thousands  throughout  the  lengdi  and  breadth  of  the  land. 
Some  of  the  heathen  at  the  different  missionary  stations  have 
believed  the  gospel-report;  others,  an  increadng  number^ 
are  convinced  of  the  truth  of  Christianity,  but  have  not  yet 
sufficient  moral  courage  to  put  on  Christ,  and  to  forsake  all 
for  his  name :  some  of  the  converts  have  become  preachers 


UaULTS  (»  KISaiOKAST  LAB0UB  Itf  INDIA.  257 

'  of  tho  gespeL  When  I  arrived  in  India>  the.  Ajnerioan 
^  brethreQs  Meears.  Hall  and  Newell,  were  labouring  amidat 
'  many  discouiagements  to  estaUiah  their  first  native  schooL 

*  Now  there  are  numerous  Bchools  at  all  the  different  mis^ 
'  donary  stations ;  and  they  might  be  greatly  increased.  When 
'  I  arrived,  with  the  exception  of  the  two  American  brethren 
^  mentioned,  there  were  no  mifisionariea  in  the  whole  of  Western 
^  India.  Since  that  time,  the  great  Lord  of  the  harvest  has 
'  thrust  forth  many  labourers  fi^m  Great  Britain  and  Ireland, 
'  America,  and  the  Continent  of  Europe*  Let  us  bless  Grod 
'  for  this :  and  pray  that  they  may  be  upheld,  directed,  comr 
'  forted,  sanctined,  and  their  labomrs  greatly  blessed  No 
'  doubt,  but  in  due  time,  they  or  their  successors  shall  reap 

*  largely,  if  they  fidnt  not" 

This  interesting  passage  will  apply  to  the  whole  of  India,  ex- 
cept the  Serampore  mission  and  a  few  stations  in  the  Madras 
Presidency,  which  had  been  established  previously  to  the  time  rer 
ferred  to :  and  it  will  suggest  to  the  reader  one  class  of  results, 
which  missions  have  already  produced.  These  results  we  shall 
now  describe  in  detail. 

In  addition  to  the  actual  conversion  of  a  goodly  number  of 
native  Christians,  missions  in  India,  in  preparing  the  way  for 
far  more  numerous  conversions  hereafter,  have  spread  a  large 
amount  of  Christian  knowledge  throughout  the  country,  and 
have  produced  deep  impression  upon  the  native  mind,  both  in 
relation  to  the  follies  of  Hinduism  and  the  truth  of  the  Bible. 
For  many  years  missionaries  have  preached  with  steady  persever- 
ance in  chapels,  bazars  and  schools,  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
their  stations.     They  have  undertaken  extensive  preaching 
journeys  over  districts  of  the  coimtry  seldom  visiteo.     They 
have  distributed  thousands  of  tracts  and  portions  of  the  Word 
of  Grod,    They  have  held  conversations,  and  not  nnfrequently 
long  discussions  with  the  disciples  of  Hinduism  and  of  Muham- 
mad in  chapels  and  shops ;  by  the  way-side  and  in  the  thronged 
bazars;  at  the  weekly  markets,  and  in  the  great  annual  festivals. 
They  have  maintained  thousands  of  schools,  both  in  the  vernacu- 
lar and  English  languages ;  and  thus  have  brought  home  the 
word  to  young  and  old. 

After  all  tms,  is  the  country  the  same  as  it  was  fifty  years 
ago  ?  Far  from  it  The  knowledge,  which  they  have  spread,  has 
mnk  among  the  community,  and  is  working,  like  leaven,  in 
silence  but  with  certainty.  The  Hindus  have  learned  that 
their  system  is  full  of  errors ;  that  the  science  of  their  Shastras 
16  contemptible  and  worthless  ;  that  their  idol-worship  is  foolish 
and  insulting  to  Him,  who  is  a  spirit  ;  that  the  characters  ascrib- 

K  K 


256  BESULTS.  OF.  MISSIONARY  LABOUB  IK  INDIA. 

ed  in  the  Shastras  to  their  many  gods  are  full  of  vice  and 
crime;  that  those  Shastras  are  full  oi  inconsistencies;  that  their 
worship  is  unworthy  of  reasonable  bein^,  and  their  priesthood  is 
grasping  and  ignorant.  They  have  learned  in  contrast,  that 
there  is  but  one  God ;  that  He  loves  the  souls  of  the  sinful, 
and  has  sent  His  Son  to  be  the  Saviour  of  the  world.  Many 
have  been  led  to  acknowledge  that  their  system  must  decay, 
and  Christianity  surely  triumph.  Acknowledgments  to  this 
effect  are  made  repeatedly  in  all  parts  of  the  country ;  and  a 
eonviction,  more  or  less  deep,  that  Christianitv  will  destroy 
-caste  and  idolatry,  has  entered  thousands  of  minds.  Temples 
are  being  allowed,  to  a  great  extent,  to  fall  into  decay,  while 
the  number  of  new  ones  erected  is  by  no  means  large.  In 
those  parts,  where  missions  have  been  carried  on  most  extensively, 
a  considerable  falling  off  in  the  attendance  at  the  great  festivsJs 
is  distinctly  observable.  The  swinging  festival,  for  instance,  in 
Lower  Bengal  is  very  different  from  what  it  used  to  be.  The 
number  of  idols  sold  at  festivals  is  neatly  diminished,  and  the  of- 
ferings at  the  great  temples  are  of  &r  less  value  than  they  once 
were.  A  great  change  has  taken  place  in  the  views  and  in  the 
spirit  of  the  people  at  large.  Formerly  they  knew  nothing  of 
what  true  religion  really  is ;  but  they  have  been  enlighten- 
ed on  the  nature  of  moral  obligation,  the  duty  of  love  to 
God,  of  love  to  men,  and  the  nature  and  evil  of  sin.  Mis- 
aons  have  gone  far,  during  the  last  fifty  years,  in  developing 
a  conscience  amongst  the  natives,  in  whom  it  was  in  a  d^bdly 
deep.  Is  not  this  alone  a  great  result  ?  The  Hindus,  too, 
have  begun  to  lay  aside  some  of  their  old  notions.  The 
Brahmins  are  no  longer  so  highly  honoured  ;  the  clever  So- 
dras  thrust  them  aside  from  place  and  power  without  scruple; 
by  far  the  greater  increase  of  wealth  and  wisdom  has  been 
diffused  among  the  latter.  Thousands  now  approve  of  female 
education;  and,  in  the  great  cities,  the  ladies  of  numerous 
families  are  being  privately  taught.  Even  the  re-marriage  of 
widows  is  discussed  by  the  native  papers,  and  its  advantages 
fully  acknowledged.  A  numerous  body  is  coming  forward  in 
society,  possessing  far  more  enlightened  notions  than  their 
fathers  did  ;  a  body  of  men,  who  put  little  faith  in  the  Shastras, 
and  look  upon  the  old  pandits  ana  teachers  as  ignorant  bigots. 
The  great  contraist  between  these  two  parties  shows  how  great 
a  step  has  been  made  in  the  process  of  public  enlightenment 
The  spirit,  in  which  Bible  trutn  is  heard,  has  also  greatly  im- 
proved. Formerly,  when  a  missionary  preached,  he  was  compelled 
to  enter  into  disagreeable  and  apparently  useless  controversies ; 
Jhe  same  objections  were  brought  forward  again  and  again ;  and 


HE8X7LTS  Ol*  UIS8I0NA&T  LABOUR  IN  INDIA.  259 

the  diacusdon  was  frequently  closed^  with  the  pradical  applica- 
tion of  broken  pots,  sand,  dirt  and  cries  of  *  Hari  bol  I'  But 
now,  in  all  the  older  missionary  stations  and  even  beyond  them, 
discussions  seldom  occur.  The  people  o(Hne  to  the  chapeb,  and 
often  listen  to  the  end :  frequently  acknowledging  aloud  the 
truth  of  what  is  said.  What  is  eyen  more  singmar  is,  that 
small  companies  have  been  found  in  various  parts  of  the  coun- 
try, who  nave  gathered  a  little  collection  of  Christian  books, 
and  meet  together  to  read  and  study  them.  These  facts  are 
full  of  encouragement  from  the  proofs  they  ftimish,  that  the 
word  of  God,  &ough  hidden,  is  not  lost ;  but  that,  like  good 
seed,  it  will  spring  up  and  put  forth,  first  the  blade,  then  the 
ear,  after  that  the  fiul  com  in  the  ear.  Only  let  this  word,  so 
eztenaively  known,  be  applied  with  power  *  by  the  Holy  Ghost 
sent  down  from  heaven,'  and,  at  once,  '  the  Uttle  one  will  be- 
come a  thousand,  and  the  small  one  a  great  nation.' 

These  facts  must  not,  however,  be  reckoned  of  more  value 
than  they  are  worth.  Much  has  been  done,  it  is  true,  to 
enlighten  the  Hindus,  but  infinitely  more  yet  remains^  Their 
ears  are  opening  to  listen  to  the  gospel,  and  their  minds  are 
beginning  to  receive  it,  while  an  awakened  conscience  feels  its 
power.  In  the  nei^bourhood  of  many  stations,  it  is  true,  that 
many  declare  that  Hinduism  is  false  and  Christianity  true  ;  but 
very  few  perceive  the  duty,  which  arises  from  a  fact  so  important. 
Truth  and  duty  are,  in  tik&r  ideas,  not  necessarily  connected. 
They  do  not  yet  possess  the  feeling  that  they  need  thephysician> 
whose  skill  they  acknowledge ;  and  no  where  has  any  spirit  of 
enquiry  been  aroused  on  an  extensive  scale.  Missionaries  have 
therefore  to  so  on ; — ^preadiing  and  teaching  still — ^preaching  and 
teaching  sti£  They  can  see  that  they  are  not  labouring  in 
Tun,  and  that  the  word  of  God  will  not  return  to  Him  void. 
In  confirmation  of  these  views,  we  will  quote  the  testimony  of 
a  missionary,  who  has  laboured  in  Bengal  for  forty-five  years, 
and  mention  two  most  extraordinary  facts  describea  in  mission- 
ary reports.  The  Rev.  W.  Bobinson  of  Dacca,  after  a  mis- 
sionary journey,  says : — 

This  litUe  trip  has  fdlly  conviDced  me  of  one  important  fact ;  viz..  that 
the  time  for  pr&tuihing  is  come.  Go  where  you  will,  the  people  will  bear. 
It  was  not  always  so ;  far,  far  otherwise  was  the  state  of  things  nearly  forty 
yaazs  ago,  when  Chamberlain  and  I  were  together  at  Catwa.  Then  the 
people  used  reproachfully  to  ask  ;  "  What  is  the  use  of  all  this  labour  ? 
Nobody  will  bear  you ;  no  one  will  become  a  Christian."  Chamberlain's 
teply  usually  was ;  *'  We  are  throwing  a  little  fire  into  the  jungle— burning 
the  jungle  to  prepare  the  land  for  cultivation."  I  think  we  may  now  boldly 
affinn,  tihe  jungle  is  burnt;  the  field  ia  ready  for  cultivation.  Our  business 
im  now  to  drive  the  gospel-plough  through  the  length  and  breadth  of  India. 
Bat  where  are  our  labourers?  Painful  thought!  we  have  none.  Here  are 
whole  districts  without  a  labourer. 


260  JU6ULT8  OF  MISSIONAET  LABOUS   IN  INDIA. 

The«¥i4it^>  with  wbieb  hotiks  8i«  Aow  teoeived,  Sb«  marked  feature  in 
the  pteeent  state  of  .the  Indian  mission.  Former  periods  of  the  mission 
were  those  of  clearing  and  ploughing ;  but  now  the  time  for  sowing  is  come. 
QfO  and  preaeb  where  you  will,  the  people  wHl  hear  you ;  carry  books  where- 
ever  y^u  please,  and  they  will  be  most  gladly  accepted.  Tell  our  good  (rieads 
at  home,  that  the  sowing  time  is  indeed  oome ;  and  that,  if  tbey  wish  to 
reap  bountifully,  they  must  sow  bountifully.  We  want  seed  to  sow  :— 
booKs,  books  in  quantities  almost  innumerable,  and  we  want  men  to  sow 
the  seed.  It  will  be  a  sad  blot  on  the  churches  in  England,  if,  after  the 
gronnd  is  thus  prepared  for  1^  reception  of  the  seed,  that  seed  is  not  oasi 
in  abundantiy. 

The  extraordinaiy  fiicts^  described  in  the  follomng  extract, 
took  plt^e,  daring  a  fearM  outbreak  of  cholera  in  Assam^  in 
18475  uid  are  described  in  a  letter  from  one  of  the  Assam  aiifl- 
TOonanes  ?-**• 

The  ravages  of  this  disease  have  been  fearful  among  us.  Some  days 
there  haye  been  as  many  as  eloTen  or  twelve  deaths ;  one  hundred 
and  ten  were  swept  off  in  twenty  days,  which  is  a  very  great  mortality  for 
so  small  a  station  as  this.  During  this  period  of  distress,  we  have  seen 
some  striking  proofs  of  the  diminished  confidence,  with  which  many  of  the 
natives  regard  their  own  religion.  Several  of  them,  in  the  hour  of  their  extre- 
mity, have  been  found  calling  upon  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ  Others 
have  spent  nearly  all  their  time  in  making  pajas ;  and  the  temples  near  as 
have  resounded  day  and  night  with  their  idolatrous  songs.  Soon  luier  the  die- 
eaie  broke  out,  the  Brahmins  and  others  of  the  better  class  made  a  grand 
festival,  and  sacrificed  a  large  number  of  goats,  ducks,  &o.  At  the  close  of 
their  celebration,  one  of  the  firahmins,  who  has  been  in  my  employ  as  pan- 
dit for  the  last  two  years,  was  called  upon  to  make  an  extempore  prayer  to 
^e  deity,  which  he  did  in  the  presence  of  some  thousands.  Having  a  ca- 
riosity to  know  how  a  heathen  would  pray*  I  requested  of  him  a  eopy  of 
his  prayer,  which  he  readily  gave  me ;  and  was  not  a  little  surprized  to  find 
how  nearly  he  had  imitated  the  prayers  which  he  has,  from  time  to  time, 
heard  among  the  Ohristians.  He  had  not  once  used  the  name  of  any  of 
their  gods,  but  had  simply  addressed  Ood  as  ths  Supreme  and  Eternal ; 
in  fact,  i£  it  had  not  been  for  the  omission  of  the  name  of  Christ,  it  would 
have  been  precisely  such  a  prayer  as  a  Christian  might  make.  This,  amongst 
a  people  like  the  Asamese.  who  consider  that  all  religion  consists  in  repeat- 
ing the  name  6{  Ram — in  whose  Shastras  it  is  declared  again  and  again, 
that  the  word  Rdm  is  the  centre  and  substance  of  all  religious  merit,  and 
the  only  ground  of  salvation-^appears  somewhat  extraordinary,  and  would 
seem  to  indicate  that  the  native  belief  is  undergoing  an  important  change. 

The  last  extract,  we  quote,  is,  from  the  Rev.  6.  Wiirth  of 
Hubli,  on  die  borders  of  the  Bombay  Presidencj,  and  not  &t 
from  the  district  of  Groa: — 

When  travelling  la£^t  year  in  the  southern  parts  of  the  Dharwar  OoUee- 
torate,  I  met  with  a  man,  who  told  me  that  there  was  a  Lingaite  Swami^  in 
a  village  caJled  Maruli,  who  advised  the  people  to  throw  away  the  Lingm, 
which  they  wear  on  their  breast,  and  to  put  no  confidence  in  their  idols,  but 
to  believe  in  Christ.  I  was  very  much  surprised  to  hear  this ;  and  went  one 
day  to  the  village  where  the  Swami  resided.  I  did  not,  however,  find  him  at 
home ;  but,  some  of  his  disciples  telling  me  that  the  Swami  would  be  -rery 
glad  to  see  me,  I  wrote  him  a  letter,  inviting  him  to  come  and  pay  me  a 
visit.    He  very  readily  complied  with  my  request,  and  came  to  the  tenipla 


jftESULTB  or  MIBSIONIBT  LABOUB  IlfT  INDIiu  261 

vfaero  I  wt8»  followed  hj  many  of  his  disciplas  (Lingaite-pnest^.  who  car- 
ried with  them  a  great  number  of  books.  Among  these  were  the  New 
Testament,  Genesis,  the  Psalms,  and  the  Prophets,  all  in  Canarese.  The 
Swaml  having  taken  his  seat  in  the  midst  of  his  disciples,  I  thus  addressed 
him :  "  Ton  hare,  I  see,  many  of  our  saored  books ;  you  have  read  them  ; 
do  yon  believe  what  is  written  in  them  ?"  He  said,  "  Why  should  1  keep 
them,  if  I  did  not  believe  their  oontents?*'  After  I  had  spoken  to  him  and 
his  disciples  about  the  necessity  of  receiving  the  remission  of  their  sins 
through  Jesus  Christ,  of  whom  all  these  books  bear  witness,  and  of  confess- 
ing Mm  openly  before  all  men,  the  Swami  said,  "  I  believe  that  Jesus 
Christ  is  the  son  of  God,  and  that  the  Holy  Trinity,  Grod  the  Father, 
and  God  the  Son,  and  God  the  Holy  Ghost,  is  the  omly  true  God ;  and, 
though  the  people  call  me  a  madman,  I  shall  not  give  up  this  my  convic- 
tion.'' Then  taking  the  evidences  of  Christianity  in  Canarese,  he  read 
from  it  the  article  on  the  Divinity  of  Christ,  to  show  me  that  he  entirely 
approved  of  what  was  written  there  on  the  doctrine.  He  has  formed  a 
eirale  of  disoiples  around  him,  who  are  to  believe  tiiat  of  which  their 
master  is  convinced.  I  was  quite  astonished .  to  hear  a  Swami  o(  the 
Lingaites  speak  in  this  way,  who  was  never  in  dose  connection  with  a 
missionary.  He  had  drawn  his  knowledge  from  Tracts,  but  especially 
from  the  Scriptures,  which  in  their  divine  simplicity  are  the  best  teacher 
for  every  body.  He  did  not,  it  seems,  tiU  now  seek  the  remission  of  his 
•ins  in  Christ,  but  rather  admired  the  sublime  truths  of  the  Christian 
religion.  But  I  entertain  a  good  hope,  that  the  word  of  God,  which  has 
led  him  on  so  far,  and  which  is  quicK  and  powerful,  and  sharper  than  any 
two-edged  sword,  will,  under  the  influence  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  become  to 
him,  in  this  respect  ako,  *'  a  lamp  unto  his  feet,  and  a  light  to  his  path," 

Thon^  mifisiofus  liave  apparently  accomplished  little  in  most 
parts  of  India^  in  certain  districts  they  have  made  most  substan- 
tial progress.  Three  years  ago^  considerable  religious  enquirj 
was  awakened  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Barisal,  to  the  east  of 
Calcutta.  A  careful  examination  has  shown,  that  the  enquiry 
was,  in  numerous  instances,  sincere  and  well  based,  and  is  even 
not  jet  come  to  an  end.  In  a  short  space  of  time,  188  natives 
hare  been  admitted  to  the  Communion  of  the  Lord's  Supper, 
and  1^085  individuals  been  brought  under  Christian  instruction. 
The  great  anxiety  of  these  new  Christians  for  iurther  instruction, 
tlieir  willing  obedience  to  church  discipline,  their  patience  under 
much  oppression,  and  the  continual  accessions  to  their  number, 
furnish  evidence,  that  the  work  going  on  among  them  is  a  real- 
ly Christian  work. 

Hie  religious  movement  in  the  Krishni^hur  district  is  so 
well  known,  that  we  need  but  name  it.  The  spirit  of  enquiry, 
in  which  it  began,  seems  to  hare  been  sincere ;  but  the  fiimine 
of  1839  brought  so  many  inferior  motives  into  connection  with 
it,  as  greatly  to  depreciate,  if  not  to  destroy,  its  usefulness. 
Sat  as  famines  in  India  have,  m  no  case  but  this,  led  to  large 
accessions  of  natives  to  the  Christian  church,  it  must  be  allowed, 
€bBt  there  was  something  peculiar  to  give  it  a  religious  direc- 
tion.   Be  this  as  it  may,  by  its  means,  4,400  natives  have  been 


262  BESULTS  OF  MI8SI0KAST  LABOUB  IN  INDIA. 

brought  under  Chrifitian  instruction.  Six  nuasionary  stations 
have  been  established  among  them,  and  churches,  mission- 
houses,  and  schools  erected.  It  is  allowed,  even  by  the  friends 
of  the  mission,  that  the  state  of  religion  is  low ;  and  that  many 
old  habits  still  remain  among  the  people.  But  it  is  not  all  evil 
One-half  of  the  people  regularly  attend  public  worship  ;  and 
one-sixth  is  under  aaily  instruction  in  the  boarding  schools. 
Faithful  labour  will  do  much,  under  the  Lord's  blessing,  to- 
wards completing  the  work  thus  begun. 

In  the  province  of  Jaffiia,  in  Ceylon,  several  circumstances 
evince  the  deep  impression  made  on  the  population  by  the 
American  mission,  during  the  last  thirty  years : — not  that  the 
native  Christians  are  very  numerous  ;  but  they  are  intelli- 
gent and  well  educated.  This  mission  has  directed  its  efforts 
chiefly  to  education.  Under  the  looser  notions  of  caste  preva- 
lent in  Ceylon,  they  have  been  able  to  instruct  heathen  boys  and 
S'rls  in  boarding  schools  (a  drcumstance  unheard  of  throughout 
orth  India) ;  and,  of  the  many  hundreds  trained  by  their 
Christian  care,  a  very  large  proportion  have  made  a  public  pro- 
fession. An  intense  desire  for  education  has  spread  through  the 
province — for  the  education  of  females,  as  well  as  males  ;  the 
whole  district  has  been  greatly  enlightened ;  and  a  conviction 
established,  that  Hinduism  must  be  destroyed.  So  extraordi- 
nary is  the  desire  for  knowledge  now  prevalent,  that  when  cer- 
tain Hindus  in  Jaffna  established  a  school,  in  opposition  to  that 
of  the  missionaries,  they  were  compelled  to  introduce  the  Bible, 
in  order  to  keep  their  school  open ! 

By  far  the  greatest  progress  has  been  made  in  South  India,  In 
the  provinces  of  TinneveUy  and  Travancore.  Missionary  work 
has  long  been  carried  on  in  these  districts,  and  the  people  are 
far  more  open  to  the  gospel  than  other  Hindus.  In  Travancore 
there  is  a  native  Government,  and  the  Brahmins  are  both  nu- 
merous and  powerful.  But  the  majority  of  the  people,  both 
there  and  in  Tinnevelly,  are  not  Hindus  like  those  in  Tiorthem 
India.  They  are  Shanars,  a  large  body  devoted  especially  to 
the  cultivation  of  the  palm-tree  :  and,  whether  immigrants,  or  a 
portion  of  the  aborigines  of  the  land,  who  have  been  enslaved  by 
Brahmin  conquerors,  they  still  retain  their  original  customs.  They 
are  all  devil-worshippers,  and  worship  the  objects  of  their  fear 
with  horrible  ceremonies  and  disgusting  dances.  They  conti- 
nually add  to  the  number  of  their  devils:  and  singularly  enough 
in  one  district,  an  Englishman  wcu  worshipped  as  such,  for  many 
years.  The  offerings  presented  on  his  tomb,  were  spirits  and 
cigars  1  The  Shanars  are  said  to  be  '  the  least  intellectual 
people  found  in  India.'    Their  long  servitude  and  oppression 


BESULXS  OF  MISSXONABT  LABOUR  IN  INDIA.  263 

bave  debased  them  to  a  very  low  level :  and,  though  a  few 
are  found  to  possess  considerable  ability^  the  majority  are 
marked  by  apathy^  indifference^  ignorance  and  vice,  and  are  un- 
able to  carry  out  a  process  of  thought  for  any  length  of  time. 
l^eir  social  bonds,  such  as  those  of  parents  to  children,  are  feeble; 
and  their  social  amusements  few.  But  withal  they  are  a  docile 
and  pliant  people,  and  decidedly  willing  to  improve.  The  causes^ 
which  led  to  such  a  rapid  progress  of  Christianity  among  them, 
are  readily  discernible.  Their  religion  sat  very  lightly  on  them ; 
their  caste  is  low ;  the  religion  of  Europeans  was,  of  course, 
looked  upon  with  favour.  In  Travancore  a  special  reason  exist- 
ed Many  years  ago.  General  Munro  procured  an  order  from  the 
Bani,  tluit  Christians  should  be  exempted  from  work  on  their 
sabbath,  and  from  employment  in  the  Hindu  festivals.  These  cir- 
cumstances have  contributed  much  towards  the  easy  passage  of 
so  many  converts  from  Heathenism  to  Christianity.  The  whole 
number,  now  under  instruction,  we  reckon  to  be  52,000.  It 
must  not,  however,  be  supposed  that  they  are  aU  true  Christians. 
None  know  this  better,  or  have  spoken  it  more  plainly,  than 
the  missionaries,  who  instruct  them.  Yet  had  they  only  given 
up  their  abominable  devil-worship,  a  great  thing  would  have  been 
accomplished.  But  they  have  done  more.  They  have  placed  them- 
selves under  an  evangelical  ministry ;  they  regularly  attend  public 
worship  :  more  than  17,000  children  and  young  people  are  dai- 
ly instructed  in  Christian  schools,  some  of  whom  are  being  cdu- 
<cated  as  teachers,  and  others  as  preachers  to  their  countrymen. 
Best  of  all,  a  goodly  number  have  exhibited  in  their  lives  the 
fruits  of  conversion  to  God.  A  great  improvement  has  taken 
place  in  this  numerous  body  of  Christian  natives ;  a  great  desire 
19  evinced  for  increased  instruction ;  family  prayer  is  not  uncom- 
mon ;  the  public  services  are  well  attended ;  and  a  large  sum  in 
the  aggregate  is  annually  contributed  for  Christian  books  and 
for  the  poor.  The  whole  Shanar  population,  120,000  in  number, 
is  open  to  missionaries ;  and,  if  Societies  are  faithful,  and  mis- 
nonaries  fiEdthful,  we  may  hope,  in  two  or  three  generations,  to 
see  the  whole  of  the  soutnern  provinces  of  India  entirely  Chris- 
tianized. 

The  wonderful  progress  of  the  American  missions  at  Moul- 
mein  and  Tavoy  might  well  be  described  at  length,  even  in  a 
short  sketch  like  ours.  They  are  carried  oh  in  the  territories 
of  the  East  India  Company,  and  enjoy  the  protection  of  its 
Government.  But  we  have  omitted  them  altogether  from  our 
enquiry,  inasmuch  as  the  races,  whose  conversion  they  seek,  are 
generically  different  from  those  of  Hindustan,  and  their  languages 
entirdy  of  another  character.    We  will  only  add  that  the  history 


264  B£8ULT8  OF  MISSIONAEY  LABOUR  IK  IKDIA- 

of  these  miseions  from  tbeir  commenceiiaent  by  Dr.  Judacxe^ 
including  their  apostolic  success  among  the  Karens,  may  well 
claim  a  notice  of  its  own.  Our  American  Baptist  brethren  have 
thrown  nearly  their  whole  energies  into  Burmsm,  and  have  reaped 
deserved  success.  We  trust  that  they  will  give  somewhat  more 
of  their  zeal  to  the  work  of  ijnissions  on  the  continent  of  Hin- 
dustan. Not  only  is  there  ample  room  for  all  the  churches  of 
Christ;  but  the  country  appeals  to  those  churches,  with  the  as- 
surance that  they  can  never  sufficiently  supply  the  labourers 
required.  Our  enterprising  brethren  thcQ  across  the  Atlantic 
will  find  in  India  an  open  field,  and  be  weloomed  heartily  into 
it,  as  honoured  fellow  labourers. 

As  another  fruit  of  their  labours,  missionaries  are  able  to 
point  to  a  large  number  of  individual  converts,  now  dead,  in 
whom  the  fruits  of  religion  were  decidedly  evinced.  They  can 
show,  not  merely  thousands  of  Christians  under  instruction,  and  a 
small  band  of  professors,  but  native  converts  distinguished  from 
their  brethren  by  the  peculiar  consistency  of  their  fives,  and  the 
triumphant  hope,  which  they  enjoyed  in  death.  There  is  no 
vague  generality  here ;  no  mere  display  of  numbers  ;  no  boast 
of  thousands  of  nominal  converts,  who,  on  the  first  opportunity, 
relapse  into  their  fathers'  heathenism.  We  see  the  gospel  re- 
ceived by  individuals  on  their  personal  conviction  of  its  truth. 
We  see  them  adopting  it  willingly,  professing  it  openly, 
bearing  reproach  for  it  with  patience,  and  obeying  its  precepts. 
We  see  them  purified  by  its  law,  strengthened  by  its  motives, 
encouraged  by  its  promises,  holy  in  life,  and  happy  in  death.  So 
frequent  and  so  decided  is  this  individuality  in  Indian  missions, 
that  one  can  scarcely  open  a  Missionary  Beport  without  finding 
evidence  of  it.  It  is  not  confined  to  one  [Presidency  only,  but 
exists  in  all;  and  proves  that  the  Spirit  of  God  is  at  work 
in  them  all,  bringmg  forth  the  same  fruit  in  all  parts  of  the 
country — fruit  the  same  as  that  which  the  church  has  borne  in 
all  places  and  in  all  time.  The  large  number  of  converts^ 
whose  death  or  conversion  is  recorded  in  the  history  of  Indian 
missions,  enables  us  the  better  to  point  out  those  who  have  been 
distinguished  above  their  brethren.  Many  there  are,  whooe 
names  are  known,  not  only  in  India,  but  in  Europe.  In  the 
recently  published  *  Oriental  Christian  Biography,'  we  find 
nearly  one  hundred  such  described.  Among  them,  Rcganmken^ 
the  active  and  devoted  catechist  of  Tanjore;  Abdul  Massihf 
Henry  Martyn's  convert,  and  a  faithful  missionary  at  Agra ; 
Kris/ma  Pal  and  Fitamber  Singh,  the  early  converts  of  the 
Serampore  mission ;  Hingham  Misr,  the  first  convert  at  Mon^hyr; 
Ramji,  the  first  convert  to  the  south  of  Calcutta,  and  lu3 


RB8ULTS  OF   MISSIONARY  LABOUR  IN   INDIA.  265 

ereelleDt  son-in-law,  Radhanath ;  Mahendra  and  Khailas,   the 
first  catechists  of  the  Free  Church  in  Calcutta ;  Lakhan  Das, 
Krupa  Sindhuy  Badha,  and  many  others,  whose  holy  lives  and 
happy  deaths  have  cheered  the  hearts  of  the  missionaries   in 
Orissa ;  Samuel  Flavel  of  Bellary,  the  native  ordained  mis- 
sionary of  the  London  Missionary  Society;  Nyanamutto  of 
linnevelly ;   Christian  Thomas  of  Y izagapatam ;  Mohun  Das 
and  Tajkhan^  the  pensioned  sepoys    of  Chunar;.  Brindabun, 
the  disciple    of    Chamberlain;    Gunaanarayan  Sil;  Narapat 
Sinffhy  who  gave  up  his  property  that  he  might  be  a  Christian ; 
—with  many  others,  are  conspicuous  and  well  known.    Others 
not  80  conspicuous,  have  enjoyed  peace  in  death,  and  left  to 
their  sorrowing    pastors  the  assured    hope,  that   they  have 
entered  upon  eternal  life.      A  soodly   number   of  the  na- 
tive converts,  as  we  have  shown,  have  been  appointed  preach- 
ers to  their  countrjrmen,  and  a  few  have  been  publicly  ordained 
to  the  Christian  ministry,  in  the  same  way  as  European  mis- 
sionaries.    Many  others  have  been  appointed  as  readers,  school 
teachers,  and  school-mistresses.     Thus  is  the  way  being  opened 
for  ma^ng  Christianity  an  indigenous  religion ;  and,  though 
the  beginnings  are  but  small,  they  must  not  be  forgotten  or 
passed  by  in  ingratitude  and  contempt 

But  the  pleasing  results  of  missionary  labour,  in  commencing 
or  maintaining  spiritual  life  in  the  heart,  have  not  been  con- 
fined to  native  society.    From  the  first,  the  destitute  condi- 
tion of  our  own  countrymen  at  many  stations  attracted  th& 
missionaries'  eye ;  and  the  fruit  of  their  ministry  among  them 
has  been  seen  ooth  in  the  conversion  of  some,  and  the  mainte- 
nance of  true  religion  in  others.     Mr,  Robert  Money  of  Bombay  ^ 
Captain  Page  of  Monghyr ;  Captain  Baton  of  Lucknow ;  Mr.  Bo- 
hert  Cathcart  of  Dharwar,  and  Jtulffe  Dacre  of  Madras;  Donald 
Mitchell,  the  infidel  officer  of  Surat,  and  subsequently  the  first 
missionary  of  the  Scottish  Missionary  Society ;  Mr.  Casamajor, 
the  friend  of  the  Mangalore  mission ;  John  Monckton  Hay  of 
the  Bengal  Civil  Service  ;  Mr    Cleland,  the  Calcutta  barris- 
ter ;  Mctjar  Hovenden,  Captain  Mills,  and  Lieut  St.  John,  are 
but  specimens  of  those,  who  readily   acknowledged  the  last- 
11^  benefiit,  which  missionary  instruction  and  counsel  had  con- 
ferred upon  them.     Many  now  living,  the  friends  and  sup- 
porters of  missions,  we  forbear  to  name.     Numerous  soldiers 
m    the   Gttropean  regiments  have  had   no   other  instructors 
than  miesionaries ;  and  great  have  been  the  benefits  they  have 
received.     Missionary  labour  too  has  done  a  great  deal  towards 
raising  the  tone  of  European  Society  from  its  thoroughly  irreli- 
gious condition  at  the  opening  of  the  present  century,  to  that 

L   L 


266  BEBULTS   OF   MISSIONARY   LABOUR  IN  INDIA. 

which  it  now  exhibits,  after  a  lapse  of  fifty  years.     Then  thete 
were  but  few  churches  and  ministers  of  the  gospel :  now  both 
are  numerous.     In  the  Presidency  of  Bengal,  for  instance^  there 
were  but  three  chaplains,  and  three  churches.    Now  there  are  se- 
venty churches  for  the  use  of  Europeans,  occupied  by  more  than 
sixty  episcopal  chaplains  and  ministers,  besides  those  we  have 
already  mentioned  under  the  charge  of  missionaries.     Then  the 
attendants  on  public  worship  were  but  a  handful :   now  every 
station  has  its  worshippers.  Drinking  and  gambling  have  greatly 
decreased,  and  marriage  is  honoured.     Much,  very  much  of  this 
is  owing  to  the  improvement  of  English  society  in  England  itself, 
which  has  been  reflected  upon  this  and  other  dependencies  of 
the  empire.    But  much,  in  all  justice,  must  be  attributed  to 
the  eiforts  of  missionaries  in  the  country,  who,  by  their  character, 
their  spirit  and  their  direct  instructions,  have  aimed  to  advance 
the  religious  welfare  of  "  their  kindred  according  to  the  flesh." 
Again,  the  literary  labours  of  missionaries  in  India,  have 
been  by  no  means  insignificant  Coming  to  a  foreign  land,  and  to 
nations  speaking  a  variety  of  polished  languages,  it  has  been  their 
duty  to  adapt  their  instructions  to  the  capacities  of  their  hearers, 
to  address  them  in  their  own  way,  and  construct,  ab  initio^  a 
system  of  agency,  that  shall  directly  apply  Christian  truth  to  the 
native  mind.     This  object  they  have  kept  steadily  in  view.     To 
missionaries  the  languages  of  India  owe  a  great  deal.     They 
found  the  higher  range  of  terms  appropriated  by  the  learned, 
and  they  have  given  them  to  the  common  people.     T^^^J  found 
many  of  the  languages  stiff;  they  have  made  them  flexible. 
They  have  brought  down  the  high  language  of  the  Brahmin; 
they  have  elevated  th6  patois  of  the  Sudra,  and  thus  formed  a 
middle  tongue,  capable  of  being  used  with  ease  and  elegance  by 
the  best  educated  classes.    The  Tamul  and  Bengali  langui^es 
have,  especially,  been  formed  and  established  in  this  manner. 
Missionaries  have  compiled  more  dictionaries  and  anAMMARft 
of  the  tongues  oflndia  than  any  other  class  of  men*  We  haveBen** 

Eli  grammars  by  Drs.  Carey  and  Yates;  Bengali  dictionartea, 
-ge  and  small,  by  Dr.  Carey  and  Mr.  Pearson,  with  yolumes 
of  dial(^es.  We  have  a  Hindui  dictionary  by  Mr.  ThomscMi 
of  Delhi ;  a  Hindui  grammar  and  dictionaiy  by  Mr.  Adam  of 
Benares;  a  Bengali  dictionary  by  Mr.  Morton;  an  Urija 
grammar  and  dictionary  by  Dr.  Sutton ;  a  Hindustani  diction* 
ary  by  Mr.  Brice ;  a  Hindustani  grammar  by  Dr.  Yates ;  and 
Sanskrit  grammars  and  dictionaries  by  Drs.  Yates  and  Carey. 
We  have  Tamul  granmiars  by  Ziegenbalg  and  Bhenius ;  the 
Malayalim  dictionary  and  grammar  by  Mr.  Bailey  of  Cottaymm  \ 
a  Gujurati  grammar  by  mx.  Clarkson  of  Baroda ;  and  a  Sing^ 


BE8ULTS  OF   MISSIONARY  LABOUR  IN  INDIA.  267 

halese  grammar  by  Mr.  Cbater  of  Colombo.  Of  other  lan- 
guages we  are  unable  to  speak^  but  doubt  not  that  many  such 
efforta  have  been  made  in  them  likewise. 

Their  great  work,  however,  in  this  direction,  has  been  the 
TRANSLATION  OF  THE  fiiBLE,  a  work,  which  ranks  first  in  impor- 
tance among  the  agencies  employed  for  India's  conversion.  Be- 
sides the  numerous  Serampore  versions,  including  thirty  transla- 
tions of  the  whole,  or  parts  of  the  Bible  into  Indian  tongues — ^and 
which,  however  gooa  for  a  beginning,  and  however  useful  in 
powerfully  directmg  attention  to  the  greatness  of  the  object, 
are  acknowledged  to  be  unfit  for  standard  use — apart  from  the 
great  moducts  of  these  mighty  minds,  we  have  translations  of  the 
whole  bible  into  the  followmg  languages,  carefully  revised  during 
the  last  twenty  years.  There  are  versions  intoHindustani  or  Urdu. . 
and  Hindui ;  mto  Bengali  and  Uriya ;  into  Tamul  and  Singhalese ; . 
into  Canarese  and  Mmvalim ;  into  Mahrati  and  GujuratL    We 
have  ten  versions  of  the  entire  Bible — ^not  first  attempts  by 
scholars  at  a  distance,  but  the  work  of  ripe  years,  by  mis- 
sionaries, who  were  constantly  in  intercourse  with  the  people 
for  whom  the  versions  were  intended.     The  complete  New 
Testament  has  been  similarly  revised,  and  published  m  five  lan- 
guages ;  viz,  in  Assamese,  by  the  American  missionaries  ;inTelugu, 
with  much  of  the  Old  Testament,  at  Yiza^apatam  ;  in  Tulava  by 
theMangalore  missionaries ;  and  in  theancientlanguages  of  India, 
the  Sanumt  and  Pali    Besides  these  again,  we  have  a  gospel  or 
two  published  in  four  languwes,  spoken  bv  the  barbarous  hill 
txibes  I  in  Santal,  Lepch^  Knassia,  and  tne  Tankari  of  Eote- 
^hur.    Translations  have  also  been  commenced  in  the  Pun- 
jabi   Thus  are  the  civilized  Hindus  and  Mussulmans  of  all  In- 
dia and  Ceylon  enabled  to  read  in  their  own  tongues  the 
wonderful  words  of  God,  clearly  and  intellisiibly  set  £3rth.    The 
value  of  such  a  book  who  shall  declare  ?    How  many  years  of 
thoughtful  labour  are  concentrated  in  this  small  library  of  Bi- 
bles T    How  many  millioivs  of  immortal  minds   will  draw 
from  it  the  streams  of  instruction,  which  shall  convince  the 
smner,  make  the  Christian  grow  in  fiprace,  comfort  the  sad, 
rebuke  the  backslider,  warn  all  of  hell,  point  all  to  heaven. 
Had  missionaries  done  nothing  else  but  prepare  these  excellent 
versions,  incalculable  good  womd  have  been  effected.  Apart  firom 
all  good  to  the  natives,  they  have  lightened  the  labours  of 
their  successors,  and  eiven  them  an  immediate  entrance  to 
their  work,  for  which  me  first  missionaries  long  sighed.    This 
effect  of  past  missionary  labour,  which  it  will  take  a  long 
to  develop  fiiUy.    As  an  illustration,  we  quote  a  passage 
fipoiii  the  letter  of  a  Ceylon  missionary,  on  lately  receiving  Mr. 
Perdval's  beautiful  translation  of  the  Tamul  Bible : 


268  RESULTS  OF   MI6SI0NART   LABOUR  IN   INDIA. 

^^  For  several  years  all  the  Tamal  Scriptures,  which  I  obtained, 
'  were  some  hajf-a-dozen  copies  of  the  Serampore  edition  of 

*  the  New  Testament,  and  one  copy  of  the  Tranquebar  edition  of 
'  the  Old  Testament  by  Fabricius,  the  printing  of  which  was  so 
'  bad  as  to  be  scarcely  legible.  What  a  pleasing  contrast  to 
'  that  state  of  things  does  our  present  supply  of  Tamul 
'  Scriptures  exhibit !  Now  we  have  the  whole  of  the  Old  and 
'  New  Testaments  beautifully  printed  and  bound  in  one  voluma 
'  We  have  it  also  in  parts  of  almost  every  form  and  size,  suitable 
'  for  distribution  among  the  people,  and  for  the  use  of  our 

*  numerous  schools." 

The  translation  of  the  Bible  constitutes  but  one  portion  of 
the  results  of  missionary  labour  in  the  native  languages.  In 
all  the  languages  above  mentioned,  missionaries  have  prepared 
a  small  library  of  Christian  books,  to  explain  and  entorce  the 
truths  which  tne  Bible  teaches.  In  each  of  the  chief  laiufuages, 
they  have  prepared  from  twenty  to  fifty  tracts,  suitable  for  Hindus 
ana  Mussulmans,  exposing  the  errors  of  their  systems,  and 
urging  the  dums  of  the  Bible  upon  their  attention.  A  few 
books  and  tracts  also  have  been  similarly  published  for  the 
instruction  of  native  Christians.  In  almost  all  these  languages 
we  find  translations  of  the  PilgrvnCs  Progreaa  ;  the  H<^  War ; 
Dodd'i'idge's  Rise  cmd  Progress ;  and  similar  works.  We  have 
books  on  the  Evidences  of  Christianity  ;  on  the  doctrines  and 
duties  of  the  Bible :  exposures  of  Hinduism  and  Muham- 
madanism  ;  and  in  Tamul,  an  exposure  of  the  errors  of  Popeiy. 
There  is  also  a  goodly  collection  of  vernacular  school  books, 
Instnictors,  Readers,  books  of  Bible  history,  and  the  lika 
Christian  and  Papist,  Hindu  and  Mussulman,  will  find  in  every 
language  of  this  land  useful  instruction  in  the  gosnel  of  Christ : 
and  the  stores  of  knowledge  thus  opened  are  enlai^ing  every 
year.  A  fresh  impetus  luis  been  gdven  to  these  efforts  only 
recently,  by  the  proceedings  of  tiie  Calcutta  Tract  Society ;  the 
Madras  Society  has  followed  it  up  ;  and  there  is  every  proba- 
bility of  two  very  extensive  Christian  libraries  bein^  rapidly 
formed  in  the  Tumul  and  Bengali  languages,  containing  nu- 
merous  standard  works  thorou^y  adapted  to  the  people  who 
use  them. 

There  is  one  circumstance,  which  greatly  contributes  to  the 
production  of  these  native  works,  and  in  connection  with  which 
Missionary  Societies  have  not,  perhaps,  received  that  meed  of 
praise  which  is  their  due ;  we  refer  to  the  establishment  of  Mis- 
sion Presses.  At  the  present  time  there  are  no  less  than  twenty- 
five  printing  establishments,  in  connection. with  missionary  sta- 
tions in  India:  and  it  is  from  the  facilities  they  furnish  for  pro- 
ducing tracts  and  books,  as  well  as  from  the  liberal  donaUons 


BESULTS  OF  MISSIONARY  LABOUR  IN  INDIA.  269 

of  the  English  and  American  Bible  and  Tract  Societies,  that 
missionaries  have  been  able  to  publish  so  much  for  the  instruc- 
tion of  this  country.  Not  omy  directly,  but  indirectly,  have 
they  promoted  the  extension  of  information  throughout  India. 
This  example,  and  that  X)f  their  countrymen,  engaged  in  the 
periodical  press,  have  led  the  natives  likewise  to  import  presses 
for  themselves ;  and  at  the  present  time,  in  the  Presiaencies 
of  Bengal  and  Agra,  there  are  no  less  than  fifty-four  presses 
belonging  to  natives,  engaged  in  printing  vernacular  works  or 
publisning  newspapers  and  magazines  (A  these,  twenty-six  are 
in  Calcutta. 

Missionary  literature  does  not  stop  here.    Indian  missionaries 
have  done  much  towards  drawing  the  attention  of  the  Christian 
world  to  the  daims  of  Hindustan  upon  their  sympathies  and 
prayers.    Many  of  our  countrymen  engaged  in  Government 
employ  have  described  its  scenery,  its  productions,  its  his- 
tory, Its   resources,    and    the  social  life  of  the  Europeans, 
that  reside  within  its  borders.    But  to  missionaries  are  we 
indebted   for  fiill   accounts  of   the   religious    systems    pro- 
fessed by  its  people ;  of  their  religious  rites,  their  religious 
errors,  and  their  social  condition ;  of  the  character  of  their 
priesthood,  their  caste   system,  their  debasing  idolatry,  the 
^orance  and  vice  which  every  where  prevail,  and  the  great 
mfficulties  in  the  way  of  the  people's  conversion.    While  but 
three  or  four  such  works  describe  the  religious  condition  of 
Chma,  or  of  the  South  Sea  islands,  or  South  Africa,  or  the 
West  Indies,  we  can  name  at  least  thirty  works  written  about 
India  by  missionaries,  or  containing  the  lives  of  missionaries 
who  have  died  in  the  country.    These  works  embody  an  im- 
mense amount  of  information  respecting  the  natives  of  India, 
and  fiilly  illustrate  the  attempts  which  have  been  made  to 
spread  Christianity  among  them.  Neither  are  these  of  an  in- 
ferior kind,  nor  written  by  inferior  men.    They  include  works 
by  the  Serampore  Missionaries ;  by  Dr.  Duff,  and  Dr.  Wilson 
of  Bombay  ;  the  works  of  Messrs.  Weitbrecht,  Long,  Wilkin- 
son, Buyers,  Leupolt  and  Smith  on  Missions  in  the  R'esidency 
of  Bengal  :  those  of  Messrs.  P^fgs,  Sutton  and  Noyes  on 
Qiissa ;  those  of  Messrs.  Campbell,  Hoole,  Hardey  and  Smith 
on  the  Missions  of  South  India;  and  the    admirable  work 
€Kf  Mi.  Arthur,  published  not  long  since.     They  include  the 
Memoirs  of  Carey,  Schwartz,  and  Rhenius,  the '  Sketches'  of 
Mr.  Fox,  and  the  '  Journals '  of  Henry  Martyn.    Shall  we  pause 
to  describe  the  usefulness  of  these  valuable  contributions  to  the 
missionary  literature  of  our  missionary  age? 

Missionaries  also  maintain  several  English  periodicals,  des- 


270  REBULTS   O?   MISSIONARY   LABOUR  IN  INDIA. 

criptive  of  their  work  and  its  details.  Of  these  two  monthly 
periodicals,  and  one  quarterly,  are  published  at  Madras  ;  two  at 
Bombay  ;  and  four  in  Calcutta.  These  have  been  most  usefdl 
in  recording  the  difficulties  and  encouragements  of  Indian  mis- 
sionary life,  in  developing  the  experience  of  friends,  and  meet- 
ing the  calumnies  oi  opponents.  Two  of  them  have  existed 
twenty  years,  and  contain  a  vast  accumulation  of  useful  in- 
formation. 

In  connection  with  this  subject,  we  must  in  justice  refer  to  the 
speeches  and  writings  of  Indian  inisaionaiies,  when  in  Europe, 
and  to  the  good  they  have  done  in  placing  before  the  Church 
the  claims  of  missions  in  their  proper  light  Missiona- 
ries, when  they  return  to  their  native  country  even  on  account 
of  sickness,  do  not  eat  the  bread  of  idleness.  It  is  a  well 
known  fact  that  they  are  extensively  engaged  in  travelling 
amon^  the  churches,  imparting  information,  making  appeals, 
fostenng  the  missionary  spirit,  and  as  eye*witnesses  relating  its 
results.  To  such  journeys  the  churches  owe  a  great  desu  of 
what  they  know  concerning  the  heathen  world.  ]£uiy  a  Chris* 
tian  mother  learns  from  a  missionary's  appeal  to  devote  her 
sons  to  the  good  cause ;  and  many  a  youth  receives  liiose 
impressions,  which  end  in  his  own  consecration  to  the  salvation 
of  the  heathen.  All  the  churches  are  enlightened,  and  the 
zeal,  the  liberality,  the  prayerfulness,  of  all  are  called  forth 
afresh.  England,  Scotland,  Qermany  and  America  have  all 
benefitted  in  this  way  by  the  reports  of  the  men,  whom  they 
themselves  had  sent  to  the  eastern  world. 

Let  these  literary  agencies  and  literary  products  of  mis* 
sionary  labour  in  India  be  taken  in  connection  ¥dth  other  efforts 
in  other  departments  of  their  work — and  it  will  at  once  appear 
that  great  tnings  have  been  accomplished  and  great  hindrances 
removed.  Demands  are  now  speedily  met,  and  wants  readily 
supplied.  How  differently  situated  therefore  is  missionaiy 
work  now  from  what  it  was  at  the  commencement  of  the  pre- 
sent centuiy.  When  a  missionary  lands  for  the  first  time  in. 
this  country,  he  no  longer  finds. himself  in  the  destitute  eir- 
cumstances,  which  awaited  his  first  predecessors.  There  are 
books  at  his  command  to  inform  him  of  the  country  and  the 
people,  to  whom  he  has  come,  to  describe  their,  superstitions^ 
and  shew  him  how  to  meet  them.  He  finds  grammars^  dic- 
tionaries, and  vocabularies  to  aid  him  in  studying  the  native 
languages.  He  finds,  in  many  places,  Hindu  students  in  mis* 
sionary  institutions  able  at  once  to  receive  his  Christian  instruc- 
tions, though  delivered  in  his  own  languaga  He  finds  native 
chapels  erected  wherein  he  may  preach  ;  and  finds  the  people 


BESULTS   OF   MISSIONAttT   LABOUR   IN   INDIA.  271 

Erepareil  in  spirit  to  understand  his  message  ;  he  finds  school- 
ouses  built,  scholars  gathered,  and  school-books,  suited  to  his 
scholars,  waiting  for  mm  ;  he  finds  Christian  tracts  and  trans- 
lations of  the  Bible  ready  for  distribution.  His  theolo^cal 
nomenclature  is  already  settled,  and  he  has  only  to  learn  it  as 
fiist  as  he  can.  He  finds  small  societies  of  Christians  already 
gathered,  in  which  his  halting  efforts  in  the  vernacular  may  be 
oommenced,  and  to  which  converts  may  be  introduced.  He 
finds  that  a  vast  amount  of  secular  work,  in  building  houses, 
churches  and  schools,  has  been  completed  ;  all  the  elements  of 
an  eflScient  agency  have  been  prepared  ;  an  agency  suited  to 
the  country  in  every  way,  in  language,  and  in  thoughts,  em^ 
bodying  the  knowledge  and  expenence  of  many  men,  who  spent 
years  of  toil  in  acquiring  them.  The  more  this  matter  is 
studied,  the  more  mghly  shall  we  vidue  the  past  labours  of 
Indian  missionaries.  If  human  agency  must  oe  employed  ; 
and  if  efficiency  in  the  agency  is  conducive  to  the  speedy  at- 
tainment of  the  contem^ted  results ;  then  it  must  be  allowed 
that,  in  their  literary  and  other  labours,  apart  from  actual  con- 
versions, missionaries  have  already  completed  much  toward  the 
object  of  their  efforts,  the  regeneration  of  Hindustan.  ^^  Other 
men  have  laboured,  and  we  are  entering  into  their  labours/'  We 
have  been  sent  to  reap ;  let  us  remember  those  that  sowed. 

Missionaries,  and  the  religious  public,  which  supports  them, 
have,  during  the  oast  fifby  jears,  exerted  a  great  influence  upon 
the  Government^  by  inducmg  it  to  remove  some  of  the  most 
glaring  abominations  current  throughout  India.  Dr.  John  of 
IVanquebar  and  Sir  Fowell  Buxton  were  the  first,  who  brought 
before  the  Government  of  India  and  the  British  Parliament 
respectively,  the  dreadful  nractice  of  Suttee.  Under  die  orders 
of  Lord  William  Bentinek,  that  great  Indian  Governor,  the 
^ttee  disappeared  ;  and,  when  he  left  the  countir,  the  noble 
Lord  declared  that  nothing  in  the  course  of  his  adminis-' 
tration  gave  him  so  much  pleasure  in  the  review,  as  did  the  re- 
moval of  that  great  eviL  InfanHcide,  too,  especially  in  Western 
India^  has  been  greatly  checked,  although  not  perfectly  extermi- 
nated.  The  Human  Sacrifioea,  systematically  offered  in  Goomsur^ 
bave  been  finrbidden,  and  an  agency  has  been  established  to  save 
the  n&happy  victims,  the  Menahs,  by  removing  them  from  the 
diirtaiet  ThuMee  has  been  almost  entirely  put  aown,  and  an  in- 
stitotion  establuihed  at  Jubbulpore  for  training  the  fionilies  of 
Thugs  to  various  useful  employments.  Sla/v^  has  been  abo- 
lished throoghout  the  Company's  territories ;  though  it  still  ex- 
ists to  a  lamentable  extent  in  Travancore.  Some  of  the  bonds 
which  connected  the  Government  with  idolatry  have  been  sever- 


272  BE8ULTS   OF   MISSIONilllT   L.ABOUB   IN  INDIA. 

ed.  And  lastly,  by  the  celebrated  Act  of  last  year,  it  has  been 
declared,  that  all  natives  of  India  are  free  to  hold  their  own 
conscientious  opinions  in  religion,  without  fear  of  l^al  penal- 
ties.  These  improvements  have  been  effected  within  the  last 
twenty-five  years  ;  and  the  result  of  the  efforts  made  to  secure 
them  cannot  but  encourage  those  who  strive  to  see  other  great 
evils  checked,  such  as  the  Charak  puja,  Ghat  murders,  and 
the  support  of  idolatry  by  the  Government  itself  To  these 
subjects,  over  and  over  again,  the  attention  of  the  Govern- 
ment and  of  the  public  nas  been  called  by  missionaries ; 
and  the  direct  and  mdirect  effects  of  their  dismterested  advo- 
ca^  of  the  claims  of  humanity  cannot  be  too  highly  estimated 
These  brief  statements  contain  ample  proof  that  missionarv 
labour  in  Hindustan  has  been  anytning  but  unsuccessful  a 
the  small  number  of  native  professors  do  not  inspire  entire  con- 
fidence, or  fall  short  of  the  high  expectations,  which  some  had 
formed,  on  a  survey  of  the  amount  of  labour  bestowed  on  the 
country,  we  think  that  a  wider  view  of  the  results  of  missions, 
in  not  only  converting  a  few,  but  in  consolidating  a  powerful  and 
widdy-spead  agency,  must  tend  to  excite  the  strongest  hope 
in  relation  to  the  futura  In  the  increased  attention  di- 
rected to  India  by  the  churches  of  Europe  and  America ; 
in  the  large  number  of  missionaries  located  throughout 
its  great  districts  and  in  its  most  influential  towns ;  in  the  com- 
plete establishment  of  many  stations,  including  the  erec- 
tion of  buildings  wherein  all  varieties  of  labour  are  pursued ; 
in  the  numerous  and  useful  translations  of  the  Bible  or  New 
Testament :  in  the  formation  of  a  Christian  library,  suitable 
both  for  the  conversion  of  Hindus  and  the  enlightenment  of 
converts  ;  in  the  successful  study  of  the  native  languages  and 
the  formation  of  aids  for  future  students  ;  in  the  &tlmil  des- 
cription of  the  superstitions  and  social  evils  prevailing  through- 
out the  country ;  m  the  record  of  painful  and  long  tried  expe- 
rience ;  in  the  extensive  improvement  of  European  society ;  in 
tlie  removal  of  enormous  evils  fix)m  among  the  native  com- 
munity, and  the  public  exhibition  of  the  fact,  that  some  parts 
of  Hinduism  are  too  monstrous  to  be  allowed,  and  must  be  put 
down  by  law  ;  in  the  securing  of  liberty  of  conscience  for  all ; 
in  the  gathering  of  a  native  church,  some  of  whose  membeii 
have  been  distmguished  by  their  Christian  consistency  and 
fidelity  to  the  gospel ;  in  the  substantial  progress  made  in 
certain  provinces  of  our  Indian  empire ;  and  in  the  deep 
and  wide  impression  made  upon  native  society  by  Christian 
truth,  the  loosening  of  tlie  bonds  of  caste,  the  exten- 
sion of  knowledge  imd  the  enlightening  of  a  seared  con- 


R£6ULT3  OF  MI8BIONARY  LABOUR  IN  INDIA.  273 

science ;— in  all  these  important  results,  we  think  that  great 
things  have  been  accomplished  by  our  Indian  missions,  and  that 
ire  DAve  the  most  ample  encouragement  to  carry  out  what  we 
have  begun.  ^'Thanks  be  unto  G^  who  always  causeth  us  to 
triumph  r 

It  snould  be  remembered,  that  these  results  have  not  been 
secnred  without  great  efforts,  without  great  difficulties,  without 
many  trials.  Difficulties  meet  the  gospefevery  where— difficulties 
arising  from  the  sinfulness  of  the  hearer,  and  from  the  human 
weakness  of  the  preacher,  in  every  country  of  the  globe.     But 
in  India,  there  are  special  hindrances,  and  trials  with  special 
pecoliarities,  which  help  to  retard  the  efficiency  of  the  preadier^ 
and  the  entrance  of  the  word  into  the  hearer's  heart    TheBo 
difficulties  are  not  connected  with  physical  privations  :  even 
the  heat^  which  is  so  trying  to  health  and  patience,  is  borne 
hj  missionaries,  in  common  with  thousands  of  their  country- 
men with  aims  &r  inferior  to  theirs.     They  arise  from  the 
^t  power  of  the  superstiticms  of  the  country,  of  the  ancient 
phastras,  of  Brahmimcal  rule  and  Sudra  semtude ;  from  the 
iron  system  of  caste  and  fiunily  connection  ;  from  the  igno* 
nnoe  of  the  people  ;  from  their  great  apathy  and  utter  in-> 
difference  to  the  subject  of  true  religion  ;  from  their  oon* 
stant  levity  respecting  sacred  things  ;  from  their  subtlety  and 
cuimin^  I  from  their  total  want  of  moral  courage  :  and  frcMa 
their  (^pendence  upon  others.    The  native  churches  add  to 
these  trials.    Their  small  numbers  ;  their  imperfect  character ; 
their  frequent  fitults  ;  their  want  of  earnest  zeal ;  their  dejpen- 
dcaiee  on  t^eir  teachers  ;  all  try  the  &ith  and  patience  ott^e 
missionary,    and    hinder    the  swift   progress  of  the  gospel 
among  the  heathen.     The  worldliness  and  irreligion  &  £u« 
ropeans  also  increase  these  difficulties.    In  past  days,  mudi 
more  than  at  present,  the  immoral  lives,  the  mjustice,  and  the 
oorrc^on   of  Europeans,  put  a   great   stumbling-biock   in 
tbe  way  of  many  well  inchned  to  the  gospel ;  and  the  evil, 
though  modi  diminished,  still  exists.    Again,  with  one  or  two 
hoBooraUe  exceptions,  we  believe,  the  whole  political  press 
of  India  is  ^ther  indifferent  to  missionary  labour,  or  down- 
t^ht   hostile  to  it     If  occasionally  a   few  encomiums  ap- 
pear upon  the  missionary  diaracter  in  general — encomiums 
^idi  are  int^ided  to  propitiate  that  powerful  body,  but  are 
y^lued  at  just  th^  proper  worth — at  other  times  gross  mis- 
statements and  mis-representations  of  their  work  are  admitted 
without  a  word  of  comment ;  or  principles  are  advocated,  which 
cat  away  the  very  foundation  on  which  missions  rest,  and 
declare  them  to  be  chimmcal  and  vain.    Happily  the  mis* 

M  M 


274  BESULTS  OF  MISSIONARY   LABOUR  IN  INDIA. 

sionary  body  has  a  press  of  its  own^  and  contains  some  of  the 
best  writers  in  In^  But  surely  a  class  of  men,  who,  widi 
all  their  deficiencies,  have  come  to  India  solely  for  its  good, 
and  are  sending  ,f  187,000  a  year  within  the  country  for  that 
end,  may  justly  claim  a  better  treatment  than  some  have  givea 
them. 

One  difficulty  in  the  way  of  their  labours  deserves  special 
mention,  both  m>m  its  importance  and  extent ;  we  mean  the 
support  ef  idolatry  by  the  Government  There  was  a  time  when, 
through  the  extensive  preaching  of  the  gospel  by  the  TianG[uel)ar 
and  Tanjore  missionaries  and  other  causes,  the  temples  m  the 
^[adras  !nresidency  began  to  be  deserted  and  perceptibly  to  M 
into  decay.  Then  it  was  that  the  Government  of  Madras  took 
them  under  its  own  protection,  appointed  the  officiating  priests, 
received  the  offerings,  disbursea  the  expenses,  publicly  re- 
sented gifts,  and  restored  new  vigour  to  the  dying  system !  Vo- 
luntarily, deliberately  and  knowingly  the  Government  of  Madras 
made  itself  trustee  of  the  pagoda  lands,  for  the  perpetuation 
of  that  debasing  idolatry,  wmch  the  God  of  Heaven  has  deter- 
mined to  overtnrow.  In  times  of  drought,  the  *  Collector' 
ordered  the  firahmins  to  pray  to  the  Go£  for  rain,  and  paid 
money  for  their  expenses.  European  officers  joined  in  salutes 
to  the  idols.  Some,  of  their  own  accord,  would  make  their 
obeisance :  and  others  would  ride  in  front  of  the  cars,  shouting 
widi  the  multitude,  ^  Hari  fiol !'  Villagers  were  summoned  to 
draw  the  cars  by  order  of  the  Collector,  and  were  whipped 
by  the  native  officials,  if  they  refused.  The  temples  were 
kept  in  repur  by  the  Government ;  and  the  illuminations  at  the 
festivals  were  paid  for  from  the  treasury. 

Hie  same  fifuilty  course  was  adopted  at  the  other  Presidencies. 
In  Ceylon,  au  the  Chief  Buddhist  priests  were  appointed  by 
Government ;  and  expenses  for '  devU  dancvng,'  continued  at 
Eandy  for  seven  days,  were  paid, as  per  voucher,  'fob her 
KAJESTV's  SERVICE  1'  Again  the  Government  of  India,  by  one 
of  its  R^ulations  in  1810,  recognises  Hindu  and  Mussul- 
man endowments  as  pious  and  charitable  uses ;  places  the 
superintendence  of  them  in  the  hands  of  Christian  officers, 
instead  of  leaving  them,  like  all  other  trusts,  solely  to  the 
parties  interested ;  imd,  by  this  regulation  and  by  the  prac- 
tices we  have  described,  has  estaolished  the  closest  connec- 
tion between  themselves  and  the  shrines  of  abominable  idolatiy. 
These  are  a  few  fisu^,  illustrative  of  the  Government  connection 
with  Hinduism :  we  are  acquainted  with  manv  more,  but  find 
it  impossible,  in  this  sketch,  to  enter  into  detaiL  We  will 
add  only    another  &ct  on  the  subject  of  Muhammadanisin. 


BESULTS  OF  M18SI0NABY   LABOUR  IN  INDIA.  275 

We  hear  much  from  England  of  the  endowment  of  Maynooth 
by  the  British  legislature  ;  yet  that  l^slatore  consists 
partly  of  Romanists,  and  the  £Etot  of  the  endowment,  though 
matter  of  sorrow,  cannot  altogether  be  viewed  wil^  surjpse. 
But  what  shall  be  said  of  the  Indian  Goyemment,  calling  itself 
Christian,  and  supporting  a  large  church  establishment,  while 
at  the  same  time,  it  supports  the  Calcutta  Madbissa — ^a  Coll^ 
for  the  education  of  Muhammadans  in  their  own  creed  ?  The 
privileffes  domed  to  the  Bible,  which  is  repudiated  as  a  class- 
rook  from  the  Government  schools,  are  allowed  to  the  Koran ; 
and  that  £Edse  and  fiematical  system  is  patronized,  and  its  zealous, 
proselyting  priests  are  trained^  by  our  Christian  rulers!  The  late 
Mr.  Bethune,  we  believe,  wished  to  change  this  system,  and 
to  make  the  college  the  means  of  conveying  sound  knowledge  to 
the  scholars.  We  fear,  however,  his  purpose  is  not  likdy  to  be 
soon  carried  into  effect.  So  long  as  the  present  system  conti- 
nues, shall  we  have  obvious  reason  for  finding  £mlt  with  the 
Kdtion  of  the  Government  in  relation  to  the  &lse  religions  of 
dia 

There  are  some,  who  make  excuses  for  this  open  violation 
of  the  law  of  God,  who  can  find  reasons  for  delaying  the  entire 
severance  of  the  East  India  Company  from  this  plague  spot 
But  we  are  sure  that  eveiy  right-minded  man,  who  looks  at 
the  simple  &c^  of  a  Christian  Government's  lending  the  prestige 
of  its  name  to  the  cause  of  Hinduism  or  of  the  mlse  prophet, 
must  condemn  it  as  a  crime  That  the  rdigious  people  o£ 
England  so  regard  it  has  been  shown  in  many  ways.  Their 
numerous  remonstrances  with  the  Court  of  Directors ;  their 
numerous  petitiona  to  Parliament ;  the  declared  assent  of  Her 
Majesty's  ministers ;  and  the  stringent  despatches  of  the  Direc 
tors  themselves,  all  a^ee  in  affirmmg  that  the  Government  con 
necdon  widi  klolatry  is  a  thing  whk£  rrmst  be  put  a  stop  to. 
Some  features  of  the  case  have  already  been  corrected: 
Uie  Government  of  India  has  not  been  wholly  averse  to  dimi- 
nish the  evils,  which  it  still  cherishes.  The  pilgrim  taxes  at 
Allahabad  and  Gaya  have  long  been  aboUshed,  and  the  tem- 
pies  given  back  to  the  Bramnina  Oaths,  in  the  name  of 
Hindu  idols,  have  been  abolished.  The  attendance  of  Euro- 
pean officers  on  idolatrous  ceremonies  has,  at  last,  been  dis- 
pensed with,  and  salutes  in  honour  of  the  idols  have  ceased. 
The  colonial  office  has  given  up  the  tooth  of  Budh,  and  deter- 
mined ''to  separate  the  British  Government  from  all  active 
participation  in  the  practices  of  heathen  worship/'  The  Court  of 
Directors,  in  1847,  gave  stringent  orders,  that  the  gaardianship 
of  the  temples  and  mosques  in  the  North  West  Provinces,  and 


276  BERULTS  OF  MISSIONABT  LABOUR  IN  INDIA. 

the  contributions  paid  to  them,  amounting  to  Ba  l^lO^OOOyShould 
ceasa  But  a  ^eat  deal  yet  remains  to  be  dona  The  temple 
of  Jaeanath  still  reoeives  its  Ba  23,000  annually :  and,  to  tnis 
day,  tne  Besidents  atNagpore  and  Baroda,  t^e  lepresentativesof 
the  Govemment,  take  a  snare  in  the  heathen  festivala  In  the 
Madras  PresidenGy,  the  evil  continues  to  a  fearful  extent 
Down  to  1841,  more  than  ^400,000  a  year  passed  through  the 
hands  of  the  Madras  Qovemment,  in  connection  with  heathen 
temples ;  and  the  annual  profit  was  <f  17,000.  Even  after  the 
receipt  of  the  orders  of  the  Court  in  1841,  Mr.  Chamier,  the 
secretary^  in  communicating  these  orders  to  the  Board  of  Be- 
venue,  and  informing  them,  that  the  withdrawal  from  the  ma- 
nagement of  the  pa^>das  is  to  be  '  final  and  complete,'  writes 
thus :  '^  It  is  not,  however,  the  desire  of  Qovemm^oit,  that  the  reye- 
'  nue  officers  should  relinquish  the  management  of  lands  attadied 
'  to  religious  institutions,  which  have  been  assumed  for  the  pur- 
*  pose  of  securing  the  public  revenue,  or  in  order  that  protection 

^  may  be  furnished  to  the  ryots There  is  no  i/nieniion  cf 

'  wimkoldmg  amy  cmthorized  omd  cudtcma/ry  ^yrnenta  and  al* 
'  lofiiximxs!*  To  this  day,  therefore,  the  donations  continua  To 
this  day,  the  temi^e  priests,  the  dancing  women,  and  the  idok' 
clothes  are  paid  for  by  our  rulers !  With  such  orders  from 
the  Local  Oovemmen^  to  explcmi  the  views  of  the  Court  ci 
Directors,  we  can  easily  understand  the  foUowinff  statement, 
in  Sir  Herbert  Maddock's  Minute  in  1844,  on  2ie  grant  to 
Jagannath:* 

^^  The  temple  of  Jaganath  is  only  ONB  of  innxtxe&abu 
Hindu  Tebiples  the  estdbUahmeTita  cmd  vxyrship  of  which  Gire 
pa/rtiy  vnai/niamed  by  money  payments  from  tne  pvJbUo  treor- 
swry  :  and  it  cannot  be  proposed  to  commnte  all  these  pay- 
ments in  a  similar  manner  (i.  a,  by  an  assignment  on  the  huid 
revenue),  thoi^h  there  is  no  other  reason  for  making  Jamr 
nath  an  exception,  than  such  as  arises  from  its  greater  o^e- 
brity  and  from  tiie  notoridtv  of  the  Government's  hAe  con- 
nexion with  its  management' 

It  must  not  be  concealed  that  the  oomplebe  truth  on  this  im- 
portant sulgect  remains  to  be  known  bv  the  publia  We  lear 
that  even  the  Court  of  Directors  themselves,  are  not  thoroqgk- 
ly  acquainted  with  the  extent,  to  which  they  endow,  or  take  in 
<sianze,  the  shrines  of  £Eklse  religions^  We  require  therefore,  first 
of  aU^  a  most  thc»^ugh  enquiry  into  the  expenditure,  in  evaiy 
allah  of  our  Indian  Empire,  on  account  of  mosques,  temple 
and  priests,  and  shall  never  be  content  until  it  is  mada    Th^ 

*  Ib  the  Pttrlumentary  Bhie  Book. 


BBSULT8  OF  MI8SI0NABT  LABOUR  IN  INDIA.  277 

mere  statement  of  the  bare  trolih  wUl,  we  are  sore,  both  astonish 
the  Government  and  lead  to  a  sweeping  reform. 

Apart  fix>m  these  definite  results^  obtained  amid  manj  diffi- 
culties, the  missionary  agents  of  the  past  fifty  years  in  India  have 
(as  already  stated)  acquired  a  store  of  experience,  calculated  to 
reader  their  future  operations  more  efficient  and  more  successful. 
Even  their  fisulures  and  mistakes  have  not  been  in  vain :  and 
the  experiments  made  have  only  tended  to  develop  more  clearly 
die  character  of  the  field  they  occupy.  We  purpose  merely  to 
mentioQ  one  or  two  of  the  more  important  lessons^  which  expe- 
rience has  taught :  though  we  should  like  to  see  the  whole  mat- 
tar  tlioroughly  examined  by  those,  who  have  made  themselves 
aoquaintea  with  the  history  of  Indian  mission& 

1.  ^perienoe  has  shown  that  in  endeavouring  to  meet  a 
system  like  Hhiduism,  the  church  of  Christ  may  profitably 
employ  a  variety  of  plans.  Amid  the  peculiarities  of  Hindu 
Society^  the  preadier  of  the  gospel  has  to  reach  rich  and  poor, 
young  and  old,  male  and  female,  Brahmin  and  Sudra^  learned 
and  rude :  he  has  to  set  rieht  all  who  have  been  led  wrong.  By 
preadiing  in  the  native  languages  he  mav  reach  the  lower 
classes  of  the  adult  population :  oy  good  sddools,  both  in  En- 
glish and  the  vernacular,  he  may  reacn  the  upper  classes  through 
flieir  sons;  where  drcumstances  allow,  he  may  establidi  scho^ 
for  respectable  girls,  as  well  as  bova  All  will  profit  by  trans- 
latioBS  of  the  Bible :  all  will  profit  by  Christian  books.  And 
so  long  as  preachers  are  few,  while  tne  greater  part  of  their 
labour  is  spent  on  a  special  locality,  a  portion  of  it  may  be 
applied  by  itinerancy  to  the  general  district  around.  The  mis- 
sionary's object  is  one:  his  plans  may  be  many.  We  think  that 
those  therefore  err,  who  would  confine  all  labours  to  a  fixed 
routine,  to  be  applied  in  all  places  and  among  all  dasses.  Exr 
pwenee  has  proved  the  value  of  all  the  plans  hitherto  employ- 
ed All  have  been  blessed,  both  to  the  conversion  of  in^vi- 
dnals^  and  the  general  spread  of  Christian  truth.  We  may 
Bpedallv  observe  that  the  new  system  of  English  education, 
which  long  suffered  so  much  obloquy,  has  been  proved  to  be  a 
valuable  i^ent  in  cantyinig  out  missionary  ends  in  a  sphere  pe- 
culiar to  Itself  Our  plcms  are  not  antagonists :  they  are  oo- 
i^^ta  ''We  saw  one  casting  out  devils,'' said  the  disciples,''  and 
we  forbade  him,  because  he  followeth  not  with  us.''  But  the 
master  rq^lied,  "  Forbid  him  sot :  for  he  that  is  not  against  us 
18  on  our  part"  It  is  only  required  that  every  plan  should  be 
wisely  apjmied  to  the  persons  and  the  places,  mr  which  it  is 
suited.    That  is  the  very  condition  of  its  success. 

2.  Experience  has  shown  that  in  the  present  paucity  of 


278  RESULTS  OF  MISSIONARY  LABOUR  IN  INDIA,' 

labourers,  the  large  cities  and  towns  of  Hindustan  are  the 
best  mission  stations.  The  same  &ct  has  been  true  in  all  ages. 
Great  cities  contain  the  most  active  and  intelligent  portion  of  a 
people,  while  agriculture  has  almost  always  been  associated  with 
Ignorance  and  sloth.  It  is  cities  that  rule  the  world :  and  through 
cities  is  the  world  to  be  converted.  It  was  so  in  the  beginning 
of  the  gospel.  Antioch,  Ephesus,  PhiUppi,  Thes^onica^ 
Athens  and  Corinth  were  the  cities,  in  which  Paul  opened  his 
commission.  Jerusalem  and  Csesarea  had  their  churches :  so 
also  had  Rome  and  Alexandria.  It  was  while  Paul  tarried 
at  Ephesus  'for  the  space  of  two  years,"  that  'all  they  which 
dwelt  in  (Boman)  Asia,  heard  the  word  of  the  Lord.'  It 
was  from  the  church  of  Thessalonica,  too,  that  the  word  of 
the  Lord  'sounded  out  in  Macedonia  and  Achaia.'  The  word 
pagcmi  '  villagers,'  came  at  length  to  denote  'heathen;'  because, 
among  the  vulagers  the  idol  system  lingered  last  It  was  the 
same  during  the  Reformation,  and  is  true  in  India.  In  those 
districts  where  die  deepest  impression  has  been  made,  that 
impression  has  been  produced  through  the  medium  of  the 
towns.  Towns  give  the  largest  audiences  and  the  most  inteUi- 
gent  scholars,  if  we  wouid  lay  a  good  foundation  for  the 
conversion  of  all  India,  the  j^eat  cities  must  be  occupied ;  and 
every  availableplan  set  to  work  therein,  systematically  and  steadi- 
ly for  the  end  m  view.  Missions  to  the  hill  tribes  are  greatlv 
in  &vour  with  some  Christians.  They  argue  that  as  the  hill 
tribes  have  no  caste  and  no  antiquated  regions  system,  they 
are  the  more  likely  to  receive  the  gospel  freely  and  at  onca 
True :  but  the  hill  tribes  have  no  more  influence  upon  India 
generally  than  the  South  Sea  islanders.  When  you  have  con- 
verted them  all,  you  have  not  gained  one  step  towards  the 
overthrow  of  Hinduism.  Their  individual  souls  are  precious, 
and  missions  among  them  must  do  good.  But  we  want  more 
than  this.  We  want  to  make  every  individual  conversion  tell 
on  the  country  at  large :  but  that  must  be  among  the  Hindus 
or  Mussulmans,  who  constitute  the  great  bulk  of  the  ruling 
population.  The  stir  that  is  made  in  Calcutta  or  Madras,  when 
a  tew  Brahmins  become  converts,  shews  how  deadly  the  blow 
struck  at  Hinduism  is  felt  to  ba 

3.  Eveiy  mission  in  order  to  be  efficient,  in  the  way  we  have 
described,  should  contain  a  plurality  of  labourers.  The  scat- 
tering of  missionaries,  in  isolated  spots,  has  done  great  injury 
in  past  days.  Missions  need  to  be  concentrated  in  well  choeea 
localities.  It  may  seem  that  more  is  effected  when  three  mis- 
sionaries occupy  three  single  stations,  than  when  they  act  conjoint- 
ly in  one.  But  experience  has  proved  the  contrary.    Apart  from 


BE8ULTS  OF   HISSIONABT  LABOUR  IN  INDIA.  279 

die  advantage  of  mutual  counsel  and  companionship,  the  very 
combination  of  efforts  gives  new  power.  The  sickness  and 
death  of  single-handed  missionaries  has  frequently  interrupted 
operations  in  a  particular  station  ;  and,  in  many  cases,  caused 
the  station  to  be  altogether  abandoned  More  ihm  forty  stations 
have  been  thus  given  up  at  various  times  ;  and  almost  ^1  the 
labour  and  expense  bestowed  upon  them  has  been  thrown 
away.  We  need  point  to  only  one  or  two  recent  instances. 
Ddhi,  after  having  been  occupied  for  twenty-five  years,  has, 
since  the  death  of  Mr.  Thompson,  been  entirely  given  up.  The 
Baptist  missions  at  Allahabad  and  Patna  have  also  been  closed 
after  many  years  of  labour.  Midnapore  has  been  occupied  by 
single  missionaries  three  times,  and  three  times  been  abandoned. 
Eimial,  Mirut,  BareiUy,  and  other   stations,  were  long  since 

flven  up  by  the  Church  Missionary  Society;  and  only  Mmit  has 
een  re-occupied  Manj  other  cases  might  be  cited  in  SouUi 
India  The  principle  oi  Dr.  Chalmers's  hooU  system  is  peculi« 
arly  needed  m  Hindustan.  It  is ;  that  to  accomplish  a  great 
work,  we  should  cam/ni&yioe,  on  a  smaU  sccde,  va  a  sphere  matia 
perfectly  wnder  our  control ;  that  we  should  labour  there,  till 
it  is  accomplished  ;  and  push  outvxirds,  as  our  strength  in- 
creases.  Better  a  few  mission  stations,  efficient  and  steadily 
maintained,  than  many  imperfectly  carried  on  for  years,  and 
finally  given  up.  It  seems  to  us,  that  all  chief  stations  should 
have  three  or  more  missionaries,  and  never  less  than  two.  Barely 
will  it  occur  that  there  are  too  many  missionaries  in  one  place. 
So  great  is  the  work  to  be  done,  tnat  none  can  be  considered 
supernumerary. 

4.  Provided  with  such  complete  materials  for  an  efficient 
agency,  missionaries,  we  think,  with  few  exceptions,  ought  now 
to  give  their  whole  care  to  the  direct  work  before  them. 
The  preparation  of  agency,  however  efficient,  is  but  indirect 
labour,  after  alL  The  translation  of  the  Bible  and  the  publi- 
cation of  Christian  tracts  are  only  means  to  an  end  They  only 
famish  fEKulities  for  getting  at  the  native  mind  and  for  making 
upon  it  a  lasting  impression.  That  impression  remains  to  be 
mada  When  me  best  translation  has  oeen  prepared,  it  must 
still  be  circulated  When  the  best  school-books  have  been 
written,  they  must  be  explained.  When  the  best  tracts  have 
been  publisned,  they  must  find  readers,  ere  they  serve  die  end 
for  which  they  have  been  composed. 

This  explanation,  this  direct  appUoation  of  truth  to  the  mind, 
is  the  work  of  the  preacher  and  teacher  of  the  young ;  and, 
however  excellent  be  the  agents  who  prepare  these  materials,  the 
latter  dass  are  essentially  needed  to  complete  the  work  of  the  for- 


280  RESULTS   OF   MISSIONARY   LABOUR  IN  INDIA. 

mer.  During  the  present  century,  an  immense  amount  of  labour 
has  been  spent  on  the  indirect  branches  of  missionary  work :  and 
though,  with  the  increase  of  inferior  aids,  more  labour  has  been 
expended  on  its  direct  branches,  yet  that  labour  is  neither  sd 
complete,  nor  so  decided,  as  to  render  a  word  of  caution  respect- 
ing It  unnecessary.  It  seems  to  us,  that  the  external  facilities  to 
missionary  labour  are  so  great,  the  literary  aids  so  numerous 
and  efficient,  the  native  mind  so  impressed,  as  to  call  for  the 
most  strenuous  exertions  in  applying  divine  truth  directly  to 
the  hearts  of  the  Hindus.  The  time,  we  think,  is  come,  when 
missionaries  should  give  their  best  energies,  their  best  men,  and 
the  largest  amoimt  of  their  efforts,  to  the  two  great  works  of 
preachmg  to  the  old  and  teaching  the  young.  These  are  not  the 
easiest  branches  of  their  labour,  but  they  constitute  the  end,  for 
which  others  are  carried  on.  We  wish  that  all  missionturies, 
with  the  exception  of  a  few,  peculiarly  fitted  to  amend  our  Chris- 
tian literature,  should  give  themselves  to  the  word  of  God  and 
{)rayer.  Young  missionaries,  especially,  may  well  endeavour  to 
earn  the  native  languages  at  once ;  andpreach  and  get  expe- 
rience in  native  modes  of  thought  Thus  they  will  be  wdl 
fitted,  after  a  few  years,  to  employ  leisure  hours  from  more  active 
labour  in  adding  to  the  existing  agency  or  amending  its  defectsL 
Their  efforts  wm  be  of  the  most  useml  kind,  never  dissipated 
nor  ill-applied.  This  will  be  the  best  use  of  their  predecessors' 
hard  earned  experience,  and  will  save  them  firom  the  disappoint- 
ments which  they  had  to  bear.  This  is  the  true  influence  of  the 
division  of  labour  in  science,  or  in  commerce :  and  the  law  holds 
good,  when  applied  to  missions.  But^  though  the  principle  is  obvi- 
ous, it  has  not  always  been  acted  on.  Shenius  declares,  that  he 
began  to  edit  a  new  edition  of  the  Tamul  Bible,  before  he  had 
been  in  Madras  one  yeaT-andrOrhalf  !  Other  missionaries  have 
confessed  to  similar  foll^,  and  warned  their  successors  against  it 
May  they  be  wise  in  tmie,  and,  whether  old  or  young,  endea- 
vour to  U8e  vjp  the  matenals,  provided  for  their  use,  in  fiidli- 
tating  that  intercourse  with  theiieathen,  which  is  tiieir  primary 
object  in  coming  to  this  land 

The  principle,  which  we  advocate,  wiU  ftpply  to  the  sub