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Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 
Vol. 18, No. 2, May 2020, pp. 629~635 
ISSN: 2502-4752, DOI: 10.1159 I/ijeecs.v18.i2.pp629-635 o 629 


Energy conservation potentials of an office buildings in 
Northern Nigeria: a case study of Katsina secretariat complex 


Muhammad Rabiu Abbas 


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, Nigeria 











Article Info ABSTRACT 

Article history: The importance of energy conservation in our contemporary world cannot be 
. overemphasized, efficient utilization of energy has significant impact in 

Received Sep 4, 2019 improving economy at all levels of human endeavour. No doubt, adequate and 

Revised Nov 6, 2019 appropriate utilization of energy especially electrical energy boosts up any 

Accepted Nov 20, 2019 organizational developmental activities. Recently, research interest has 


emphasis towards efficient energy utilization and energy conservation as the 
effective means of reducing energy consumption in buildings thereby reducing 
Keywords: its maintenance cost. This paper investigated and analysed the energy 
consumption characteristics of Katsina state secretariat complex for the period 
of 3 years (i.e. from 2014 to 2016) based on site surveys and analysis of the 
energy end users present, using the records of electricity utility bills and 





Efficiency 
Electrical energy 


Energy conservation Automotive Gas Oil (AGO), being the two energy carriers of the complex. 
Fossil fuel Records have shown that, the secretariat complex average electricity and AGO 
Office buildings annual consumptions were found as 1045661.95 kWh and 116650.33 litres of 


AGO (which is equivalent to 1250491.54 kWh) respectively. The investigation 
revealed a distinct consumption pattern, indicating peak energy consumption 
during the hot months of April to August due to significant air conditioning 
requirements. The result of the investigation of the energy conservation 
potentials in the secretariat complex have shown that, energy savings of up to 
6.5% of the total energy can be achieved by switching-off all security lights 
during the day. While turning off the air conditioners in the early morning 
hours of between 8am to 10am would provide a saving of up to 19% of the 
total energy. Furthermore, a saving of 16.5% of the total energy can be 
achieved when the incandescent lamps are replaced with the energy efficient 
ones. The energy conserving measures (ECMs) followed in this research has 
shown significant savings in terms of both energy and cost, and if well 
implemented can give way for a sustainable energy management of similar 
office buildings in future. 


Copyright © 2020 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science. 
All rights reserved. 





Corresponding Author: 


Muhammad Rabiu Abbas, 

Department of Mechanical Engineering, 
Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, 
PMB 2052, Katsina, Nigeria. 

Email: ibnabbas101 @ gmail.com 








1. INTRODUCTION 

The significance of energy conservation in modern world cannot be overstated, efficient utilization of 
energy has important influence in improving economy at all levels of human endeavor [1, 2]. No doubt, 
adequate and appropriate utilization of energy boost up any country’s developmental activities [3-5]. Recently, 
research interest has emphasis towards efficient energy utilization and its conservation as the effective means 
of reducing energy consumption in buildings, thereby reducing maintenance cost [6, 7]. Studies on energy 
evaluation conducted on buildings in hot and humid climates had identified energy conservation measures by 
establishing proper ways and efficient usage of electrical energy consuming devices within these buildings 





Journal homepage: http://ijeecs.iaescore.com 


630 o ISSN: 2502-4752 


[8, 9]. For example, an energy evaluation conducted on some hotel buildings in Qatar using these energy 
conservation measures have shown an energy saving between the ranges of 19.69% to 24.12% of their total 
energy consumption [10, 11]. 

In addition, studies on energy conservation and cost saving measures of buildings in the Middle East 
region had been reported extensively in literature [12, 13]. This led the United Arab Emirate (UAE) government 
for example, to implement an energy ratings system for domestic electrical appliances, air conditioning systems 
and lightings [10]. On the other hand, the research conducted by Bin and Dowlatabadi [14], indicated that, 
the United States (US) buildings consume nearly half of the country’s total energy consumption through 
heating, cooling and power. The studies estimated that about 30% of this consumption could be saved by using 
energy conservation measures and/or through using sustainable building designs and operations [15]. 
\In another research, the United Kingdom (UK) for example, consumes more than 60% of its energy for 
cooling/heating the indoor environment [13]. In addition, reports from some studies had found that more than 
50% of all delivered energy in Europe and the United States had been associated with buildings [14, 16, 17]. 
However, it was shown that, the air conditioning systems were responsible for about 40% of the substantial 
share of the energy usage [8, 18]. On the other hand, an extensive studies carried out on energy conservation 
and efficiency measures in institutions had also revealed a significant energy savings on their total energy 
consumptions, and as such, resulted to a huge cost savings [19, 20]. Thus, effective energy management in an 
enterprise can lead to significant energy and cost savings in addition to the indirect benefits, such as extension 
of the equipment’s service life, reduction in maintenance costs, improving comfort and environmental safety 
[21-23]. Hence, electrical energy in any enterprise must be efficiently managed and utilized so as to minimized 
losses, maintenance cost and efforts. Energy retrofits and the implementation of energy conservation measures 
had been found as the cost-effective means of reducing energy consumption in buildings which therefore, 
minimized the maintenance cost. Also, as reported in literature, changing building HVAC (Heating, Ventilation 
and Air Conditioning) facilities with those that have energy saving devices and adjusting their operating 
strategies had worked well in producing huge savings as a result of peak load reductions [15, 24, 25]. 

Like any other secretariat complex, Katsina state secretariat complex consumes a lot of energy daily, 
obviously due to the large number of buildings and facilities in the complex. Measures are generally not taken 
in order to conserve the energy in this environment. This is evidently in the poor maintenance culture which is 
one of the maladies in this nation. Usually, a lot of energy is unnecessarily wasted everyday due to negligence 
or ignorance. The state government can save a lot of money monthly if measures of energy conservation are 
taken and used effectively in the complex. These energy efficiency measures if well implemented, will help 
the state government redirect the utility cost savings back into the government purse for a reasonable 
developmental program elsewhere. Therefore, energy analysis is one of the key methods for improving energy 
efficiency and management in buildings [26-28]. The aim of the study is to identify and recommend efficient, 
less expensive and/or more environmentally friendly energy conserving measures (ECMs) for use in the 
Katsina state secretariat complex in order to minimized energy usage and cost. 


2. RESEARCH METHOD 
2.1. Data Gathering 

The first stage in the investigation was collection of data, this was feasible with the cooperation of the 
facility manager’s office in the complex and ministry of works, housing & transport of the state. Utility bills 
of the secretariat complex for three years (2014 to 2016) were requested, collected and analysed. Furthermore, 
each section of the secretariat complex was physically examined and investigated using a walk-through data 
taking exercise, from which, information about the ventilation and air conditioning (VAC), electrical 
equipment and lightings were obtained. These data provided sufficient information on the energy consumption 
pattern within the secretariat complex. For example, Table 1 indicates the summary of the four major lighting 
types in the secretariat complex. Finally, the architectural and engineering drawings for the secretariat complex 
were obtained and studied information regarding the floor areas of the buildings there present. For example, 
Table 2 depicts the summary of the floor areas in the secretariat complex. During the investigation exercise, 
several ECMs were considered, based on the data obtained, energy pattern and usage, human behaviour as well 
as the nature of the environment in which the secretariat complex was situated. The ECMs indicated below 
were used for the evaluation of the energy conservation potentials in the secretariat complex. 


Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci, Vol. 18, No. 2, May 2020 : 629 - 635 


Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci ISSN: 2502-4752 o 631 





Table 1. Summary of the Four Major Lamp Types in the Complex 








Lamp types Offices Conference Verander Security Corridor Toilets 
Tabular fluorescent (20 & 40W) 2203 52 - 544 81.7% 364 85.6% 633 
95.6% 39.4% 100% 
Compact fluorescent (40W) 102 4.4% 8 - - 50 - 
6.1% 11.8% 
Incandescent lamp/bulb (60& 100W) - 72 56 - 11 - 
54.6% 100% 2.6% 
Metal halide (250W) - - - 122 18.3% - - 
Total number 2305 132 56 666 425 633 
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 





Table 2. Summary of Floor Area in the Secretariat Complex 











Ministry/Department Floor Area (m?) Total Floor Area 
Offices Corridors (m?) 

S.S.G & Lands 1866.70 852.08 2718.78 
HOCSS & Establishment 1828.62 486.04 2314.66 
Min. of Finance 1759.56 537.35 2296.91 
Min. of Works 2180.33 791.08 2971.41 
Min. of Health 1797.08 450.27 2247.35 
Min. of Information 1341.68 541.78 1883.46 
Min. of Justice 1476.61 554.59 2031.20 
Min. of Commerce 964.99 225.16 1190.15 
Min. of Agriculture 1626.68 822.48 2449.16 
Min. of Water Resources 1056.71 353.91 1410.70 
Min. of Women Affairs 1248.50 460.41 1708.91 
Min. of Education 3053.70 1233.39 4287.09 
Mosque 281.71 71.64 353.35 
Cafeteria 505.01 157.68 662.69 
Conference 698.49 319.91 1018.40 





2.2. Evaluation of Energy Conservation Potentials 
2.2.1 No Cost Measures 

These are measures that can be implemented through behavioural and operational means without the 
need for system or building modifications and, therefore, do not require extra cost for its implementation [29]. 
For the secretariat complex, the following measures were identified for implementation. 
ECM #1: Adjusting the Set Point Temperature (SPT) in the air conditioning systems in such a way that, 
the cooling temperatures during the hot and cold season months are set at 21°C and at 24°C respectively as 
against the base case SPT of 18°C. 
ECM #2: Switching-off of all equipment not in use and remove the ones which their life span had expired from 
offices. 
ECM #3: Minimizing the effect of indoor air infiltration while the air conditioning systems are in operation. 
It has been observed that, many times doors were left open while the air conditioning systems were under 
operation, this triggered large amount of energy requirements by the systems so as to cater for the proper 
comfort needed in the indoor environment, and directly affects the energy consumption rate by rocketing the 
total annual energy consumption. 
ECM #4: Scheduling of the operation of building lightings and electrical equipment is normally ignored, 
but its importance in any enterprise cannot be over emphasized. In this regard, the secretariat complex was no 
exception, it was found that the lighting and electrical equipment were left in full operation even during the 
low occupancy and unoccupied hours. 


2.2.2 Low Cost Measures 

These are measures which require replacing some of the building fittings or the modification of the 
building itself, and thus, it required extra but low cost for their implementation [30]. For the secretariat 
complex, the following measures were identified for implementation. 
EMC #1: Research have shown that the use of a passive cooling measure tends to reduce the thermal cooling 
load and also minimize heat gain from outside. This is a measure whereby the walls are protected from the 
direct impact of ultra-violet rays of the sun by making use of roofing running over the doors and windows or 
by planting trees placed at 2 meters or 3 meters away from the walls. 
ECM #2: Also, the use of energy-efficient lighting lamps and ballasts, addition of reflective devices and de- 
lamping are measures considered. 





Energy conservation potentials of an office buildings in Northern Nigeria... (Muhammad Rabiu Abbas) 


632 o ISSN: 2502-4752 


2.2.3 Major Investment Measures 

Replacement of 1.5 kW (2 hp) Air-conditioning (AC) systems with 1.13 kW (1.5 hp) AC systems. 
It is a known fact that, modern office equipment do have energy saving devices, and therefore changing the 
older ones with the new ones should be encouraged in the secretariat complex and similar establishments, even 
though this require careful scrutiny before a decision can be taken due to the substantial cost involved [11]. 


3. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 

From the result of the investigation using the recommended ECMs, the energy savings achieved in 
the study was encouraging. For example, from the investigation, it was found that, when the security lights 
were turned off during the day, a savings of up to 5.5% of the total annual energy consumption due to that 
sector was achieved. In addition, when a 100W bulbs were replaced with 34W energy efficient lamps, 
an energy savings of up to 15% of the total annual energy consumption from that aspect was achieved. 
Also, when fluorescent lamps of 40W were replaced with energy efficient lamps of 15W, a 21% reduction in 
the total annual energy consumption due from that sector was achieved. Energy efficient lamps can last for 
5000 to 6000 hours. Thus it indicates that, in terms of life span, power savings and even cost, the contemporary 
energy efficient lamps can replace the conventional fluorescent tubes. Another aspect which saves energy is 
the schedule of electric equipment. The investigation revealed that, when electric equipment are switch-off 
when not in use, an energy savings of up to 7% was achieved from the annual energy consumption of 
that aspect. 

On the other hand, when the air conditioners were turned off during the early morning hours (between 
8:00am tol0:00am), a savings of up to 15% of the total annual energy consumption from that sector was 
achieved. Similarly, the analysis of the energy savings due to the replacement of 1.5 kW (2 hp) AC systems 
with 1.13 kW (1.5 hp) AC systems in the secretariat complex was recorded as high as 25% from the total annual 
energy consumption contribution from that sector during the hot season months, a time which recorded the 
highest usage of the AC systems in the secretariat complex. However, this is an energy conservation measure 
which require huge financial investment for its implementation. Therefore, is recommended to be implemented 
only through system renovation, retrofitting building’s ventilation and air conditioning installations and their 
installations during future building constructions. 

Investigations have revealed that, the secretariat complex had been run on two energy carriers, Electric 
energy from the national grid and AGO. However, it was revealed from the energy consumption analysis in 
the secretariat complex, that, the total average electric energy consumption for the period under consideration 
was 1045661.95 kWh while the average energy consumption from the AGO was 1250491.54 kWh. 

Table 3 shows the details of the annual electric energy consumption on monthly basis in the secretariat 
complex from 2014 to 2016. From the table, it was observed that, the peak energy consumption occurred mostly 
between the months of March to October. This can be attributed mainly to the high energy demand to comfort 
indoor environment during the period stated, being the combination of two different hot seasons, for example, 
a hot period (i.e March to June) and hot-humid period (i.e July to October) in Nigeria. In addition, for the years 
under consideration, there was no clear pattern indicating any specific variation from any year to another. 
However, the total electricity consumption varied slightly from one year to another, due to mainly the slightly 
different weather conditions, and more prominently to the variation in building use and operations in the 
secretariat complex, especially occasional overtime work. Furthermore, Figure | depicts the monthly 
comparison of the electric energy consumption pattern in the secretariat complex for the years under appraisal. 
As was explained earlier, the electric energy consumption shows distinct variation, with the months from 
March to October indicating the highest consumption. 


Table 3. Average Monthly Electric Energy Consumption in the Complex 








Month 2014 Consumption (kWh) 2015 Consumption (kWh) 2016 Consumption (kWh) 
January 78739.35 79905.47 79683.35 
February 75915.07 77088.69 77179.97 

March 91257.32 91366.08 91295.06 

April 91281.3 91333.36 91333.36 

May 91416.57 91318.66 91262.66 
June 90111.22 90370.79 90100.84 
July 90500.57 90634.89 90562.71 
August 90282.61 90422.81 90422.81 
September 89695.75 89432.57 89665.84 
October 90533.65 90004.03 90377.94 
November 84377.9 84085.97 84321.14 
December 80481.4 80256.47 79967.68 





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Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci ISSN: 2502-4752 o 633 

















m2014 m2015 m2016 
100000 
90000 
= 80000 
Š 70000 
£ 60000 
= 50000 
@ 40000 
E] 
2 30000 
= 20000 
2 
i 10000 
o 
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec 
Month 








Figure 1. Average monthly electric energy consumption in the complex from 2014 to 2016 


Table 4 shows the details of the annual AGO consumption in the secretariat complex by the generators 
on monthly basis from 2014 to 2016 and the averages. From the table, it was observed that, the peak AGO 
consumption occurred mostly between the months of April to August within the period under consideration. 
This can be attributed mainly to the high energy demand to comfort indoor environment during the period 
stated, being a hot session period in Nigeria. Furthermore, it can also be observed that 2014 has the highest 
AGO consumption, then followed by 2015 and 2016 respectively. This is an indication that, there was an 
improvement of electric energy supply in the secretariat complex from 2014 to 2016, and that what made the 
operational hours for the generating sets to reduced drastically, thereby reducing the total AGO consumption. 
Furthermore, Figure 2 depicts the monthly comparison of the AGO consumption pattern in the complex for the 
years under review. As was explained earlier, the AGO consumption shows distinct variation, with the months 
between April and August indicating the highest consumption. The fact that, the year 2016 recorded the lowest 
consumption was an indication that there was a significant improvement on the energy supply from the national 
grid. This supply of energy has caused the operational time of the generators to be reduced, since they are not 
being utilized whenever there is supply of energy from the national grid. And as such, this causes the reduction 
in the AGO consumption as well. 


Table 4. Average Monthly AGO Consumption and Power Delivered by Generators in the Complex 
Month 2014 Consumption 2015 Consumption 2016 Consumption Average Power 





Average Consumption 





(Litres) (Litres) (Litres) (Litres) Delivered (kWh) 
January 7314.85 6890.7 5200.08 6468.54 69342.75 
February 7615.09 7210.05 5430.72 6751.95 72380.90 
March 10434.93 10130.23 7640.04 9401.73 100786.55 
April 14155.48 13990.46 10550.29 12898.74 138274.49 
May 15065.20 14930.5 11260.2 13751.97 147421.12 
June 14885.06 14740.7 11120.03 13581.93 145598.29 
July 14615.45 14470.11 10910.22 13331.93 142918.29 
August 14524.77 14370.08 10830.66 13241.84 141952.52 
September 8155.52 7770.48 5860.27 7262.09 77849 .60 
October 7795.23 7390.86 5570.94 6919.01 74171.79 
November 7364.69 6940.72 5230.86 6512.09 69809.60 
December 6945.56 6520.08 4910.71 6125.45 65664.82 








AGO Consumption (Litres) 





m2014 92015 m2016 








- Mar. 


Jan. Feb pr. 


May Jun. 


Month 


Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. 











Figure 2. Average monthly AGO consumption for 2014 to 2016 





Energy conservation potentials of an office buildings in Northern Nigeria... (Muhammad Rabiu Abbas) 


634 o ISSN: 2502-4752 


4. CONCLUSION 

The energy conservation potentials in Katsina state secretariat complex had been investigated. It was 
established that up to 15% and 21% of the total energy in the consumption of the lightings system in the 
secretariat complex can be saved by changing the systems with the recommended energy efficient lamps of 34 
Watts and 15 Watts respectively. Furthermore, a saving of 15 % and 25% of the total energy consumption of 
the air conditioning systems can be achieved for the schedule of the systems and their replacement with lower 
wattage ones respectively. Hence, a significant amount of energy savings can be achieved when the prescribed 
energy conservation measures are implemented successfully. 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The author would like to thanks the Nigerian government through the Tertiary Education Trust Fund 
(TetFund) program for providing the sponsorship, Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic and Katsina State 
government for giving the enabling environment for the research. 


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BIOGRAPHIES OF AUTHORS 


Dr. Muhammad Rabiu Abbas 
A. Educational background 
2016 Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) Mechanical Engineering, 
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia. 
2010 Master of Engineering (Energy Engineering), 
Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. 
1998 Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering), 
Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. 
B. Research interest/work 
“+ Energy Auditing and management 
“* Renewable/Alternative Energy 
% Automotive Turbo-machinery 
% Materials Engineering 
> Thermal Barrier Coatings 
> Advanced Ceramics 
> Ceramic Composites 
> Functionally Graded Materials 
> Material Characterizations 
% Heat and mass transfer 
“* Advanced Thermohydraulics 
“* Mechanical Structural Analysis 
Internal Combustion Engine 
Strength of Materials 
Thermodynamics Analysis 
Fluid Mechanics Analysis 
Membership/Registration 
Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). 
Registered Engineer, Council for the Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria (COREN). 
Member, International Association of Advanced Materials JAAM). 
Member, Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (IEOM) Society 
International. 





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Energy conservation potentials of an office buildings in Northern Nigeria... (Muhammad Rabiu Abbas)