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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  July 12, 2010 6:00pm-7:00pm EDT

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captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. using remote control robots a mile under the gulf of mexico, b.p. worked to fit a tighter containment cap over the blown- out well. >> ifill: i'm glenn glenn ifill. on the newshour tonight, officials hope the new cap will finally stop the oil flow but the obama administration forges ahead with a revised moratorium on off shore drilling.
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we get the latest on today's containment efforts from joel achenbach of the washington post. >> woodruff: and then a terrorism update after somali extremists with ties to al qaeda claimed to be behind the bomb attacks in uganda which killed 74 people watching the world cup soccer finals. >> ifill: ray suarez returns to haiti where over one million people remain homeless in the capital alone. >> half a year after the devastating earthquake, port-au-prince is still struggling to provide for its people's daily needs and to figure out what to do next. >> woodruff: a look at the new government rules making it easier for war veterans with post traumatic stress disorder to claim disability been its... benefits. >> ifill: and jim lehrer talks to former secretary of state george shultz about a new pbs documentary chronicling his years inside the reagan white house. >> i remember when we came back from reyjavik, i was practically summoned to the british ambassador's residence by margaret thatcher who said to me, george, how could you
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sit there and allow the president to agree to eliminate nuclear weapons. i said but margaret he's the president. >> ifill: that's all ahead on tonight's newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by >> this is the engine that connects abundant grain from the american heartland to aaron's best-selling whole wheat while keeping 60 billion pounds of carbon out of the atmosphere each year. bsnf the engine that connects
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us. >> chevron, this is the power of human energy. >> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation, supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. and with the ongoing support of these institutions and foundations. and this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: the obama administration today issued a new and revised ban on off shore drilling. last week a federal appeals court rejected the government's effort to restore its initial moratorium which denied any new permits for deep water projects and suspended drilling on 33 exploratory wells.
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the rules are the administration's second attempt to ban deep water drilling. and will apply to any floating facility with drilling activities and deep water technology. meanwhile in the gulf, work to reseal the leak with a new tighter cap began this weekend. one mile below the sea. if it's successful along with other measures, b.p. hopes to triple the amount of oil captured from the gushing well. remote control robotic arms built a connection piece to hold the massive new cap, known as the top hat ten in place. once that's bolted down, b.p. said they would be a week away from capturing the spewing oil and sending it to ships above. the helix producer ship, capable of collecting 10.5 million gallons of the contaminated mixture a day, is expected to come online as early as tomorrow.
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but the success of the new cap won't be known until later this week, after a series of tests. retired coast guard admiral thaad allen, who is in charge of the government response, detailed the process this morning on abc's "good morning, america. >> we're going to do what's called a well integrity test. that will actually tell us whether or not we can actually close all the valves and withstand the pressure that's inside that or whether or not we'll have to produce oil to relieve the pressure. either way we'll be very close to containing 100% of the oil. >> woodruff: even if those tests show the cap is blocking oil from getting into the water, the leak will continue to spew until a permanent fix is reached. it is is believed the two relief wells being drilled are the only way to permanently stop the oil. b.p. senior vice president kent wells told the presidential oversight panel this morning he believes they will be ready to start the so- called kill procedure at the end of this month. >> we have found the well we
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drilled parallel to it for almost a thousand feet. now we're actually within five feet of it. >> woodruff: b.p. said the cost of containing the spill has climbed to $3.5 billion including $165 million spent to pay out individual claims. the company said it had received 105,000 claims by saturday and made payments to about half of them. with b.p.'s cost estimated to keep rising, it was reported today the company was in talks to sell off billions of dollars in assets from its alaska operation. and for more on these latest developments we turn to joel achenbach who has been covering the story for the "washington post." joel, thanks for being with us. >> nice to be here. >> woodruff: these new rules issued by the obama administration banning off shore drilling, explain to us how these are different from the previous rules they had issued. >> i think they've just reloaded.
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it's sort of a do-over to be honor. the reality is that this industry is not going to be able to drill in deep water until, first of all, they fix this problem. they have to show that they are capable of actually plugging a hole in the bottom of the sea. which they haven't done yet. this is why what's happening today in the sub-sea environment, you know, at the bottom of the gulf, is to critical. i think the administration knows it has the upper hand as long as this thing keeps spewing. the industry won't keep drilling until they can prove that they can stop this well. >> woodruff: does the administration think the new rules will survive the legal challenge. the old one didn't. >> the old one didn't. we're still reporting on this here in the news room. i have yet to see why this will pass legal muster in the way the previous one did not. but the reality is that the industry has said that they are also going to wait as long as the regulatory rules are so
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up in the air, they're not going to do any more drilling in the short run until they find out, you know, what are they going to be allowed to do? >> woodruff: let's talk about this new cap now. how is this different from the existing or the previous cap that was on there? >> the previous cap was the top hat. all it was was just a little dome, like a funnel, just sitting loosely and kind of lopsidedly on top of the well. they yanged that one off. they've come in now with something. some people have called it top hat number ten. that's not actually accurate. the real name is, if you can believe it, is the three-ram capping stack. it's a huge structure, not just a little funnel, inverted funnel. this is something that is 30 feet tall, weighs about 150,000 pounds, and the news today -- and we're just sort of figuring this out-- they think they can seal off the well with this device.
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they're going to have what's called an integrity test. the integrity test, they essentially just crank down the well, crank it closed. and we're going to see if the pressures build in the well. if the pressures build like they want them to build, it means that the well has its integrity still. it doesn't have lots of leaks down below the gulf floor. if, however, the pressures don't build correctly, it means that this well is all blown outside ways down at depth. then they go back to focusing on containment. but in the next few hours or days we're going to discover whether or not they can actually end the whole gushing, geyser part of this disaster. >> woodruff: do you sense that they're confident that this could primarily mainly completely stop the oil? >> that's the right question. i do not know why they seem more confident today about the integrity of the well at depth than they did a couple of weeks ago. i've been covering this for a
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couple of months now. it was only in the last, you know, 10, 12, 14 days that i heard them even discuss the idea of sealing the well from the top. prior to that, it was always about, well, this will help us with containment. this will help us capture more oil. now they're looking at what's essentially a top-kill, in addition to the bottom-kill of the relief well which is still going to keep going. and the permanent solution is the mud and the cement down at the bottom of the well with the relief well. but if they can crank this thing closed and, you know, nothing leaks outside ways, if they don't create, you know, 27 new leaks at the base of the blow-out preventer, then everyone is is going to be very, very happy. >> woodruff: you're saying they are still worried about the potential for leaks, both creating new leaks as well as existing leaks that they may not know about? >> today, we asked -- i say we, the reporters on the
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conference call, could this cause additional problems? i think the answer is they're going to do this integrity test very slowly. they're going to go in there and just gradually shut down the flow and monitor the pressures. if there's anything that looks, you know, scary to them, i think they will suspend the test. they will go back to just doing containment. we'll see how much we can capture. >> woodruff: all right. joel achenbach of the "washington post," thanks very much. >> thank you. >> ifill: still to come on the newshour, the deadly bombings in uganda. haiti, six months after the quake. easing the path to veterans' benefits. and foreign policy in the reagan years. but first the other news of the day, here is hari sreenivasan in our news room. >> sreenivasan: the international criminal court at the ag has issued an arrest warrant for the president of the sudan. this time for charges of genocide. president omar al bashir is accused of committing ethnic cleansing against three tribal groups in darfur. he already faces charges of
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war crimes and crimes against humanity. al bashir was re-electd to a new term earlier this year. he has refused to turn himself in to stand trial and calls the court's allegations worthless. in northern ireland today, sectarian tensions were heightened for the annual property want orange day parades. workers cleared debris from the streets of bell fast after more than 200 irish catholics clashed with riot police overnight. 27 police officers were injured. the ryeate ons broke out in advance of today's marches that mark a 17th century protestant battlefield victory over irish catholics. the marches were mostly peaceful but tonight there were reports of more rioting in a catholic district of bell fast. iraq's parliament will not meet this week as planned. that decision was announced today by the acting speaker of the paferl. >>. political pears have been at an impasse over forming new government since elections in march. no party won enough seats to form a majority lead to go the dead lock. swiss authorities have freed movie director roman polanski from electronic monitoring
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after rejecting extradition requests by the u.s. government. the u.s. south custody of polanski for fleeing the country in 1978 without serving his sentence after admitting he had sex with a minor. the 76-year-old had been under house arrest in his swiss chalet since december of 2009. a gunman opened fire at a manufacturing facility in albuquerque new mexico killing at least two people before turning the gun on himself. police described as a domestic violence suit. part of the city of albuquerque was shut down as a precaution. >> because of the multiple reports and people running from the building we have received reports that there may be a second gunman. we do not believe there's a second gunman. we believe this is a second individual. however, just to be safe we have locked down the entire part of the city . >> sreenivasan: 85 employees were in the building at the time of the shootings. four others were wounded. the american society of clinical oncology issued new guidelines today for the use of hormone-based breast cancer
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drugs. they advised most breast koran cancer patients past menopause to consider taking aromatase inhibitors. since the majority of breast cancers are driven by hormones, this new class of drugs has been shown to help lower the leifs of estrogen and slow the growth of cancers. the new guidelines suggest the women can take the drugs for up to five years usually in the form of a daily pill. on wall street today stock edged up slightly. the dow jones industrial average gained 18 points to close at 10216. the nasdaq rose nearly two points to close at 2198. those are some of the day's major stories. now back to gwen. >> ifill: in uganda, terrorism turns celebration into tragedy. the names of some of the dead were tacked to a tree outside a hospital in the ugandan capital this morning. inside, survivors of the twin blasts flooded the wards. >> the hospital actually has been overloaded with patients.
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>> ifill: at least 74 people died in the bombings including one american aid worker. scores more were wounded. they had all gathered to watch and cheer the world cup final which was being played in johannesburg. but at that moment of african pride as the successful tournament was ending, the bombers struck. targeted an ethiopian restaurant and a rugby club. this man survived the club blast. >> i smelled the gun powder. boom, boom, boom. >> i don't know how i survived. >> ifill: american thomas kramer was at the restaurant. >> i have a big laceration in my leg. it's like deep. i have to get surgery for it again. our friend becky, she moved away from me. she didn't make it. >> ifill: today the somali based islamist terror group claimed responsibility for the
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attacks. the al qaeda linked organization has long threatened strikes outside somalia. but this is apparently the fir time it has followed through. in a statement the group said, "we will carry out attacks against our enemy wlfer they are. no one will deter us from performing our islamic duty." the group also said it hit uganda because its troops make up part of an african union peace keeping force in nearly lawless somalia. it said attacks could continue unless the force withdraws. the ugandan president visited the attack sites and hospitals. he contempted... con departmented the cowardly attackers. if they want to fight, he said, they should find soldiers not attack people who are just enjoying themselves. president obama phoned him to condemn the attack s and pledged to provide assistance. at state department spokesman pj crowley said the bombing would not deter efforts in
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somalia. >> we are very encouraged by what the president of uganda has told us. he has indicated to us that uganda remains committed to the mission in mogadishu. that probably is the strongest retort to the terror group. >> ifill: that somali mission and no doubt last night's attacks will be on the agenda at a long-scheduled african union summit next week. now for more on the attacks and the somali group that claimed responsibility for them, we turn to ahmed sam a tar dean for the institute for global citizen:00. he's written extensively about somalia, where he was born. welcome. >> thank you. >> ifill: what can you tell us about this murky group? >> well, al shabaab is a cluster of different groups, primarily young people. they grew out of the islamic movement in somalia which
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originally came about as part of a struggle to revive somali national institutions which collapsed in the early 1990s. al shabaab became a very heavy presence particularly during the ethiopian invasion of mogadishu and the southern part of somalia a few years back. then from there on began to take a whole new momentum in trying to capture the whole country although they don't control the whole country. that's their ambition. they want to impose a very, very strict rather cruel form of islamic authoritarianism on the somali people. >> ifill: we're not talking about a group with a leader. but we are talking about a group that does have links to al qaeda? >> well, they do have leaders, although they are quite elusive. they have leaders. but it is a cluster of different groups.
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both in terms of their religious orientation. at the very technical, you know, moment they might differ in certain areas but also they come from different ethnic groups or kin groups among the somali people. what brings them together is a certain desire for power , to pick up power, what's left of somali society and national institutions and then with that power do it through religious mobilization and a particular kind of religious mobilization that is heavily grounded in violence and terrorist acts. >> ifill: but this happens in uganda. up until now, al shabaab has been focused in somalia. why uganda now? >> well, uganda for a couple of reasons. the most important one of them is the fact that there are asigf ugandan troops inside somalia particularly in mogadishu and its surrounding. they are the leading edge in this organization
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of african troops from the a.u., burundi also has a significant number that have been sent there essentially to support the transitional federal authority. and the tragedy is that the transitional federal authority is not only a rather ill lee lit jat mao frighteningly incompetent. the somali people are now caught up on one side on of the shabaab that is cruel and puritanical and by the federal government that cannot do anything at all and sustained therefore by ugandan and burundian troops in the neighborhood that the transitional leadership is now leading. >> ifill: these countries if they were to pull their support troop troops from somalia, which would what's left of the government simply fall aapart? >> i think so. the government has no presence anywhere in the somali society.
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in fact there are regions particularly in the north which have rather peaceful elections recently. it is quite different politically in the way they have handled the somali crisis than the south. but the shabaab's movement project in uganda is primarily there to send a word and put fright in the hearts of the africans who are now a part of the troops that are protecting the transitional federal government and make them believe that this is impossible to sustain somalia. but also for the international community that they cannot accept that shabaab is not going to access any kind of an international force that comes to have the somali people pick up the pieces so the project really is about controlling the somali territory. >> ifill: how significant is it where these attacks happened, that they happened at world cup viewing matches, that one happened at an ethiopian restaurant and the other at a rugby club? >> well it's significant in the sense that first it gives
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clearly that al shabaab can reach out beyond the somali boundaries of the republic. second it is significant that it can kill and kill with a great deal of ferocity. and then thirdly it can put fear, therefore, both in the sense of the international community that wants to do something about the somali society including sending more troops and secondly, of course, put fear in the somali people themselves and convince them that there is no alternative. that's the underlying project here. >> ifill: thank you, professor, so much for helping us out. >> woodruff: next haiti tries to rebuild. ray suarez has returned to the heavily damaged capital port-au-prince. here is the first of his week- long series of reports on the situation in haiti, six months after the quake. >> suarez: in port-au-prince, deacon instruction comes before reconstruction.
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hundreds of thousands of cubic yards of rubble have been cleared from building lots and streets , yet shattered buildings still stand in every direction. when the tremors stopped, this metropolitan area had been shaken to pieces. an estimated 300,000 lives ended. tens of thousands of buildings destroyed. untold numbers injured. 060,000 people fled to the rest of the country. more than a million people are homeless in the haitian capital. more than a million. imagine putting the entire population of dallas out on the streets. it's the most visible sign of the work that remains to be done. >> there are clear plans, clear targets now. we need the resources. >> suarez: a uniteded nations deputy special representative in haiti. >> when you think about a million-and-a-half people in camps, while there has been violence and there is
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unacceptable violence against women in quite a few counts, overall there's a level of calm of people who have been incredibly hit, lost so much which i find amazing. >> suarez: whether or not you see port-au-prince six months after the quake as on the right track depends on how you define success. all around the sprawling city, privately and publicly hired crews are breaking up rubble and bringing down houses inspected and judged to be beyond repair. still, fewer than 20,000 new houses have been built to move haitians from the camps. >> they are living in very dire conditions. they are in tents that are crumbling. they are living in cabins . they should have expected better from their government. >> suarez: this doctor is a well known medical doctor, journalist and historian in port-au-prince. >> i think one of the priorities of this government would be
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to quickly build modern housing to give every single one who has lost their house a shelter because they have reconstruction money. you have to address the housing problem and then fortunately have very little done so far in this direction. >> suarez: there's been widespread criticism that the dispersement of a promised $5.5 billion in international aid has been slow, but the prime minister says a comprehensive urban plan needs to be finished before any big spending can take place. he said the international community and his people need more patience . >> people have their own frustration. every day life is getting more and more normal. but if you are somebody sick under a tent
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, it's raining, your children are going to school. you have lost your business. you put a microphone in front of that person, how do you feel your government is doing for you? i can understand and i can relate. i can measure the height of the frustration. >> suarez: he says now that planning stages are near complete, the people of port-au-prince will see more evidence of the rebuilding. but it's going to take years , longer than these workers can wait. they're shoring up the steep hillside that became their home when the earthquake destroyed their neighborhood just across the valley. they're digging drainage, filling sandbags, mixing cement to keep their shelters from sliding into the ravine when the heavier rains come. judy is with the american red cross. >> the goal of the red cross is to get people into
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transitional shelters, something that will be more stable than this because of the land issues which are incredibly complicated. and the millions of cubic meters of rubble that are covering port-au-prince. there have been delayed in trying to build those transitional shelters. until we can get people into something that is more sturdy, we're trying to give them the tools and the knowledge to protect themselves as well as possible to these temporary settlements. >> suarez: they would like to move to safer land but they can't. proof of ownership of land is rare in haiti. the quake has launched thousands of disputes. many of the government's records were destroyed in the quake. and it's been cautious about seizing property. even when people need to be moved from dangerous conditions. >> when it rains it's like a big river because everybody is in the water. >> suarez: 29-year-old lives with his wife and daughters in
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port-au-prince. he and his neighbors in this make-shift tent village have had to move their tents further and further from rising waters brought on by recent rains. >> you can see that the tents are too close one to the other because we don't have enough place. we have as you can see about four and five tents in the water. >> suarez: this water is dangerous to your family. >> oh, yes. we tried to prevent them to not work in the water because there are many kinds of insects and mosquitos and many kinds of things. i mean that's why we had a lot of malaria cases and also tie food. we have two cases of typhoid. >> suarez: the international organization for migration, a u.n. agency, is is hoping to move this man and his neighbors soon. a visit to haiti's general hospital reflects the tone of haiti six months after the quake, heavily damageded with many staff among the dead and
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injured, it swarms with volunteers, emergency cases, the broken, the dead and the dying in the frantic days after january 12. now it's a much calmer place. still pediatric patients today are being treated in tents outside in the tremendous heat , and much of the medical staff that stayed on the job for months will only next month get their retroactive checks for the last eight months. when the wiring is finished, children's ward will move to these temporary buildings, but the director, dr. alex laseg wants a new hospital. >> we want now to assemble sufficient funding to have (inaudible) a new building and new way to deliver the care to the people.
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>> suarez: after their many years of setbacks, people here continue to work very hard, endure all with a sturdy stoicism and a ready smile. but to get people out of camps that provide more security, water and food than their pre-earthquake homes you have to give them a reason to leave. >> if you remember that six out of seven people living in port-au-prince before liveded in the slums. they didn't have access to water and sanitation, the things they're getting now in camp. unless we can start to look at making sure that those services are available and affordable back in their communities, then they won't go back. >> suarez: now more than every, port-au-prince is a city that moves to the rising and setting of the sun, bustling , teeming and occasionally still the capital of the poorest cup country in the americas ends the first sick months of recovery moving ahead and still way behind.
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>> woodruff: margaret warner talked with ray right after he sent that report. >> warner: hey, ray, it's good to see you. that was quite a bleak picture you painted there. what's the major roadblock to get reconstruction going faster. >> suarez: first they had to have a plan. then they had to have institutions that could handle a gush of billions of dollars that is pledged over two years. there are hold-ups all along the chain from the national capitals that have pledged the money to the intermediaries like the world bank to the government here. so right now it seems that money has been damning up behind some of these blocks but now that there is an institutional setting, a commission set up by bill clinton and the prime minister and now there are actual plans and people ready to get to work. money will start to flow more easily, more readily, and people will really start to see the work on the ground moving ahead more quickly . >> warner: you were there six months ago. any bright spots you see when
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you compare the two pictures? >> suarez: absolutely. people who are in need of medical care are getting it. much more reliably than they were before. water is being delivered to all the camps . almost all of the time. so people have a steadier and more reliable supply of water than they did before the earthquake. and now haitian school kids are heading back to temporary schools all around the city. they were out of school for months. that was one of the major complaints of the people who were homeless not "get me out of this tent." but help me get a job and help me get my kids back to school. >> warner: very briefly you'll be there all week. what will we hear from you the rest of the week? >> suarez: tomorrow night we'll have an interview with the haitian president. later on in the week vel ... we'll have reports on the efforts by the international community to get prosthesis for the thousands of amp uwe tees. and another report on mental health services which were
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already severely lacking before the earthquake. now with all the trauma and the stress and the dislocation, very much needed here in this capital. >> warner: we'll look forward to it, ray. thanks. take care. >> suarez: good to talk to you, margaret. >> ifill: now new rules for treating veterans suffering the psychological after-effects of war, post traumatic stress disorder. health correspondent betty anne bowser begins with this report. the health unit is a partnership with the robert wood johnson foundation. >> reporter: of the more than two million men and women who served in afghanistan and iraq, it's estimated one in five will come home with post traumatic stress disorder or pssd. but for thousands of those veterans and others from previous wars, getting the government to recognize their disorder and compensate them for their injuries has been difficult. >> good morning, ladies and
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gentlemen. >> reporter: today the veterans administration announced enthusiasm regulations intended to make the process easier. michael is the acting undersecretary for benefits. >> the v.a.is liberalizing the standard for veterans complaining ptsd by relaxing the evidence requirements for proving an in-service stressful event or stressor. streamlining the process which will result in veterans receiving more timely decisions. >> reporter: under the new rule, the v.a.will play disability benefits up to $27 00 a month and provide free health care to vets with ptsd if they can show they served in a war zone and experienced fear or traumatic events believed to have caused their condition. a v.a. psychiatrist or psychologist must also support the claim. the new rule applies to veterans of all wars. under old regulations, a
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veteran had to prove verifiable names, locations and times when a traumatic event or stressor occurred. many have found it impossible to do that many months after the fact. president obama said the change was long overdue on saturday in his weekly radio address. >> i don't think our troops on the battlefield should have to keep notes just in case they need to apply for a claim. i've met enough veterans to know that you don't have have to engage in a fire foyt fight to endure the trauma of war. >> reporter: nearly 400,000 veterans of all wars currently receive ptsd disability benefits. however, veterans' advocate groups say only half of 153,000 diagnosed by the v.a. from iraq and afghanistan have been granted benefits. back in 2008 the newshour followed one such case that ended tragically. that of specialist scott
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eiswart who served in iraq in 2004 as a driver for the tennessee army national guard. while there he saw several of his friends blown up by roadside bombs. yet the v.a. repeatedly denied his claims for ptsd benefits, saying his condition was not incurred or aggravated by military service. >> no one told me what to prepare for, what to look for. no one said he would be different. no one said he would be angry. nobody told me how different he would be when he got home. >> reporter: the newshour spoke with his wife tracy just a few weeks after her husband committed suicide. >> he said he just had faces, the faces of the dead, the blood and the body parts. he goes that's what's in his head. not dates and names. >> reporter: after his death the v.a.eventually agreed that that his ptsd was in fact the result of his service in iraq and granted his widow disability benefits. today v.a.officials said they
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aren't sure how many veterans will apply for benefits under the new rules which go into effect tomorrow. but they believe they can handle any additional claims. >> ifill: geoffrey brown takes a closer look at the impact of the new rules. >> brown: for that i'm joined by caroline shaper of iraq and afghanistan veterans of america, a nonprofit organization that focuses on veterans' issues. she served in a military intelligence unit in iraq with the georgia national guard in 2005 and 2006. and dr. jeffrey johns was an air force psychiatrist from 2001 to 2008 and treated many soldiers with ptsd. he's now in private practice. we invited the veterans affairs department to join this panel, but they declined. i'll start with you to talk about some of the important changes here. one is relaxing the evidence requirements. we heard it in the report. why is that so important. >> that's so important because a lot of people don't keep paperwork, as you just addressed. the burden of proof has been
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very difficult for people that aren't in combat arms units such as women that are being put on patrols even though they may be financed or even men who don't have a combat arms like infantry and things of that sort. so if you don't have the sworn statements that state that the activity happened or you weren't writing it down or you don't remember the dates to this point it was difficult for the v.a. to accept that. >> brown: were people being kept out of benefits or was it more a cumbersome process or what? or both? >> it was more time consuming. you might have that burden of proof. your line leader might have that burden of proof. you would have on contact them and that would take more time or if it was just rockets flying over your head there is no proof. that's just a daily occurrence. if you don't have a combat action badge or a combat infantry badge you also lack that proof. >> brown: another thing they're changing is this reliance on a particular definition of combat service, dr. johns.
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what would that mean in terms of expanding the definition of benefits and how that would work? >> well, historically the v.a. had taken a very strict definition of trauma. and the president mentioned in his radio address the word "fire fight." for too long the word "fire fight" had been sort of a magic word that would open up the diagnosis. therefore, the benefits of ptsd within the v.a. system. general shin she cany referenced an internal institute of medicine report in his op-ed day in the usa today that shows that simply being in a war zone does increase the risk of ptsd substantially. there are several different types of trauma that can cause ptsd. it could be being mortared, driving a truck, hearing an i.e.d.would be around the corner. patrolling the neighborhoods. harassment from others.
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handling dead or wounded. many of those events can be just as traumatic as a fire fight or a bomb of some sort. >> brown: you mentioned this would have, this broadening of the definition would have a particular impact on women. >> definitely because women aren't in combat arms. even though some women sign up for jobs in the military such as military intelligence, medics, pilots truck drivers knows they'll be outside the wire everyday claims processors at the v.a. may not assume that that is not combat and deny their claim. the same goes for the women that are being pulled out to screen women or have a spot in the convoy that traditionally aren't in jobs that leave the base. >> brown: dr. johns, would you expect a big increase in the numbers of those who qualify for benefits because of this? >> yes. as well, there should be. however, that will in the long term hopefully shorten the waiting time that individuals
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need to get their disability. however, in the short run, that could increase the waiting time because you have more people applying. so these rules need to be matched by an increase in the providers who are capable of doing evaluations as well as the treatment that these individuals deserve. >> brown: explain that a little bit more because i think i gather today the v.a. was suggesting that they don't think they will need more providers to implement all this. you think that is probably underestimating the problem? >> definitely far underestimating problem. the wait times are far too long for individuals to get the benefits they need. between the time that someone applies for a benefits and actually gets them can be six months, eight months or 18 months, excuse me. which is far too long. the v.a. even when ... has far too long to provide an adequate level of care. >> brown: how do you see this? >> very similar.
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claims will shorten end times which the benefits are earlier but we want to make sure the people that are diagnosing ptsd are qualified to do that. right now i don't know if the v.a. has enough people because right now the veterans are too far away from the hospitals in a lot of instances. i go to the v.a. in washington d.c. and there you kind of feel like you're being processed through. there are so many veterans there that you only get 15 to 30 minutes. you wait months for that appointment. >> brown: what about the potential for fraud or abuse? that's always been a question in this. as you expand the definition, is that a concern? >> definitely a concern. there's always ma lingers. there's people in uniform that are trying to bilk the system. once they get out they're going to do the same thing. if people are so determined to get benefits to something that hasn't occurred to them, they'll find a way. of course there's a way to do it. the number of interviews you have to go through is a lengthy process.
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you really have to be committed to fraud. >> brown: dr. johns, what do you think about that potential for fraud or malingers as she put snit. >> the potential is there but the larger picture is that so many individuals have been denied, that it is our duty as the president said, our sacred trust to provide them the care. there's been an ownorous process for individuals to prove the dates, the locations of a traumatic event and all the details there. the military is a tremendous bureaucracy that has not done a very good and can't do a great job of documenting all the horrors of a messy war. >> brown: let me stay with you on the question of potential cost of this. i've seen a wide range. i've seen up to $42 billion over the next ten years. but the v.a. today seemed to feel it might not cost anything extra because it would be saving time. what do we know about that?
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>> i can't imagine that to be the case. war is expensive. taking care of our troops is terribly expensive. if we are going to live up to the slogans "support our troops" we need to fund them. the v.a., much more than we are doing right now. >> brown: what do you think about the cost question especially we're in a very tight budgetary environment. >> it's understandable that cost should be a question because our veterans need to be taken care of. the sooner you take care of people with ptsd t.better their care is, the more likely they'll get the education they need, start working again and the cost will eventually decrease because you're not taking care of them for such a long term. >> brown: but they will be there in the beginning. >> they'll be there but they're worth it. the veterans deserve it. >> brown: let me ask you one last thing. every. >> lehrer: we look at this the notion of stigma comes up the stigma of a soldier or a marine going to say i have a psychological problem. to what extent is that problem still there?
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do you see any change in these new measures having any impact on that? >> it's certainly still there. slowly it's changing as secretary schenn she cany said today. it takes courage and determination to apply for these been... benefits to say that you might have a problem. i agree with that. it's the first step and shows the strength of a warrior to admit you have a problem and get the help that you need. it's going to take time. >> brown: it's not going away. >> not right abay but showly but surely we're working towards it. >> brown: thank you both very much. >> thank you. >> thank you. >> woodruff: finally tonight, a pbs documentary about the inner workings of president ronald reagan's white house as seen through the eyes of his secretary of state george shultz. shultz's six years in office included major diplomatic breakthrough s with the soviet union. we begin with this excerpt about an unplanned but pivotal
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dinner. >> during a gathering winter storm, george shultz returns to washington from a trip to china. he's lucky to be able to land at andrews air force base before the snow becomes a major blizzard. >> so we got home on a friday . it was snowing. it had been snowing. it kept snowing. so the reagans were not able to take a chopper up to camp david or a car. nothing. they were stuck in the white house for the evening. so our phone rings and they said why don't you come over and have supper with us. so my wife and i went over. the four of us had a very nice supper. >> after supper, shultz and the president have coffee and talk about chinese leaders the
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secretary has met on his trip. with more coffee, the topic begins to shift . reagan presses shultz for information about soviet leaders. >> i knew the soviet leaders because when i was secretary of the treasury earlier, i had met with them and done a lot of negotiation with the soviet leaders. and i began to see this man is dying to interact with these people and try to work them over in his way of thinking. >> given reagan's stand on communism, no one on his team has ever recommended that he meet a soviet leader. shultz has other ideas. >> so i said to the president , the ambassador is coming over next tuesday at 5:00. what if i bring him over here and you talk to him? he said, "oh, that would be great." and he had said to me, "it
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will be a very short meeting. all i want to say is if it's a new boss andropov wants to have a constructive dialogue, i'm ready." >> reagan and shultz agreed that the meeting must be kept secret. over the next several days shultz develops a plan and the meeting at last takes place. >> so we go over and the meeting went on and on and on and on. we discuss every conceiveable subject. >> reagan quizzes the man on a number of issues from arms control to the sensitive topic of human rights in the soviet union. the meeting is viewed as a success by both sides. shultz's initiative has just provided reagan with a lesson on the value of direct talks. it is a lesson others in the white house are not ready to accept. >> ifill: jim lehrer spoke with secretary schultes on friday about that dinner and other key moments during his years working for president reagan. >> mr. secretary, welcome. >> thank you.
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>> lehrer: before that snowy dinner in 1983, what had been president reagan's view about talking directly to the russians? >> well, there was an atmosphere around the white house that there should be a stiff arm. of course, we inherited from president carter the cutting off of all contacts. i thought that was a mistake. and i remember my good friend the chancellor of west germany helmut schmidt had come to me and said, george, the situation is dangerous. there's no human contact. so i thought we should rebuild that. >> lehrer: nobody knew that dobrinin was coming and going to talk to president reagan besides you and the president. >> well, his staff knew it. some of them tried to stop it. he was a strong-minded person. when he decided he wanted to do something, he was going to do it. so it went through. >> lehrer: was there a serious attempt to keep that meeting from happening by the
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other members of the cabinet and other people on the reagan staff? >> i don't think other members of the cabinet knew about it. i was told that some members of his immediate staff tried to stop it. people had a funny feeling. they didn't have confidence that he could hold his own. in these conversations. i knew him very well. and i was confident that he could hold his own and then some. he was terrific. >> lehrer: now on iran-contra, how serious were you when you offered to resign as secretary of state ? >> well, i always felt, jim, that no matter how much you were privileged to have a job like secretary of state-- because you could make a big difference-- you shouldn't want the job too much. and there were these constant tensions between me and others in the administration .
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i felt that he'd be better off with an administration where people were pulling together more . so i said that to him. and in his diary, he writes that cap weinberger and bill casey want me to get rid of george because of what he's doing. but actually what george is doing is what i want him to do. so i was more in sync with him than they were. >> lehrer: finally, let me ask you this. because to 1986. the summit meeting in iceland. chairman gorbachev and president reagan. how close, looking back on it now, how close do you believe those two leaders were to deciding to eliminate nuclear weapons ? >> first there was a genuine agreement on positions that president reagan had proposed early on, namely, to eliminate intermediate range nuclear
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weapons. and to cut strategic weapons in half. the idea of eliminating all nuclear weapons had not been on the table before, although president reagan had spoken publicly about it many times. so it wasn't as though it was out of the blue as far as he's concerned. i think if that had been agreed to reyjavik, there would have been a storm of protest but nevertheless it would have pushed the ball strongly. i remember when we came back from reyjavik, i was practically summon to the british ambassador's residence by margaret thatcher who said to me, "george, how could you sit there and allow the president to agree to eliminate nuclear weapons? " i said, "but, margaret, he's the president." he said, "yes, you're supposed to be the one with his feet on the ground."
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i said, "but margaret, i agreed with him." her reaction was typical but it is striking as recently as you know a group of us, henry kissinger, sam nunn, bill perry and i and many others have been working again on this effort to get to a world free of nuclear weapons. the reaction has been entirely different. much more favorable. still plenty of people are opposed but it's a different atmosphere now. but ronald reagan's ideas are often you see he's very prescient. this idea i think has staying power. sooner or later we're going to get something ... we're going to get somewhere. >> lehrer: secretary shultz, thank you very much. >> ifill: the documentary turmoil and triumph will air tonight and the next two mondays on many pbs stations. there is a book of the same name accompanying the series. >> ifill: the major developments of the day, b.p. worked to fit a tighter containment cap over the blown- out well in the gulf of mexico.
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somali extremists with ties to al qaeda claimed to be behind bomb attacks in uganda that killed 74 people. and in havana former cuban president fidel castro made a rare appearance on cuban television this evening. he appeared relaxed and talkative during an interview with one of the country's most prominent talk shows. the 83-year-old has been largely out of the public eye since he fell ill four years ago. >> woodruff: also a correction before we go. in last friday's news summary we mistakenly displayed the logo of the oakland police department instead of the bay area rapid transit police. a former member of the transit police was convicted of manslaughter in a controversial shooting verdict last week. we regret the error. the newshour is always online. hari sreenivasan in our news room reviews what's their. >> sreenivasan: ray swaurers has filed a video dispatch from haiti. he has more about the successes and failures there. and betty anne bowser has a reporter's notebook on her
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past coverage of the impact of ptsd on military families. that's all on the rundown. and a reminder you can keep tabs on the latest efforts to cap the broke he oil wellhead in the gulf on our live video feed. find that on our home page. all that and more is on our website newshour.pbs.org. judy? >> woodruff: that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. >> ifill: i'm gwen ifill. we'll see you online and again here tomorrow evening. thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by bank of america. continuing to help fuel our nation economic growth. >> chevron. this is the power of human energy. >> bnsf railway. >> the william and flora hulett foundation. working to solve social and environmental problems at home and around the world. >> and with the ongoing
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support of these institutions and foundations. and this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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