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tv   Sophie Co. Visionaries  RT  January 20, 2022 10:00pm-10:31pm EST

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this is not the kind of question the science can. so a russian culture vaccines wouldn't agree, demonstrates a strong protection against the recently emerged on the constrain, according to a new italian study, and also produces more antibodies than the pfizer jap. criminal negligence. that is how russia's foreign ministry is describing the work of some western journalists seeking to mislead the public into believing russia wants to invade ukraine. despite continuous denials from moscow officials disturbing declassified video shows the seconds before a u. s. drone kill 10 after him civilians, many of them children who were playing on the street in one of the most appalling incidents of the botched withdrawal from the country. joe biden says he makes no apologies whatsoever for the disastrous pentagon. pull up the ron opposers,
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american domination, president ibrahim re fi lashes out at white house pressure amid k, ron nuclear talks in an exclusive interview. with those are headlines, i will be back in just under an hour time with another look say with a start international. so called enhanced interrogation techniques used by the u. s. officials were basically designed as techniques to break down the human mind. if you force a human being to stay in a certain position doesn't take very long to the pain involved to become absolutely excruciating, but nobody is clean finger on you. you are doing it to yourself. we started adopting those techniques when i was stationed in mosul among them wordpress positions we've destination inducing hypothermia. there's already beginning to be evidence that these old techniques are now being used on immigrant children.
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whatever you do or more comes from home. nobody has been held accountable for the torture that happened in the past and the moral authority that made america awarded sacrifice. but the shimmer of effective inter yes, me, i do unique name least in fact will at least the typical there is only 9, but already a university. students that away on slash a new month appointment. let's see. yep. you got the glass doors to deal with them, did it not then no bluetooth able to go with him so that he may come come no recalls. he needs control such programs. now. bush
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night, nebraska, of course with level your special i will the yeah my but i did say the 1st way and of course the certified that was to get on the she was in your mind it was i'm did it with sue lose with his teacher was or some reason this one is a good. 6 mm hm . so welcome to sophie co vision or is me sophie shepherd not say, well theoretical and particle physics continues to be mysterious, almost an occult science and the more you try to figure out our reality more
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confusing and counter obvious a guess. well, i talked to noble prize winning physicist, professor heather at hoffman today. professor hoop, thank you very much for agreeing to talk to us. that's my pleasure. we did an interview, but we couldn't see each other because it was over the satellite, so i'm very glad that we're able to do this life and in person i last i we were speaking about black holes. this time, since we're meeting face to face, i thought i would ask you all the big questions. good, because i don't know and i'm going to see you next. so let's start with this. your noble crises for studying. electra weak interactions, the 4 grade interactions that govern the universe of which gravity is the most basic one. so gravity for us is does think that help us stay grounded, so we don't so are somewhere in the universe. but do we have any idea of how gravity actually came? what it is, is, can there be a universe without gravity?
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well, gravity didn't just come and go. it's not a force he can switch on and off or something like that. gravity has always been there. the question is, of course, to her, understand how to describe it. and as it was the concussions we physicist asked, we don't ask an explanation as to why is it there and how did it come? our questions are, are we have to ask her? how does it work? how does it fit in is a rest renewal of science and the ultimate goal is have all scientific phenomenon, whatever they are described by the same basic equations for the same basic theory that covers everything and the soviet that we have for the works very, very well is the 3 other forces, electromagnetic weakens, tone forces among mental particles to particles of homes that are to which
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everything is built, them send those forces much better so, so we have a fairly complete description that let me try to put in gravity receipt. how difficult it is as if we are missing out on something and how to do it. very precise, she be simply don't know what to be. do realize that gravity has very similarities . it looks very much like the other forces, the, the way it acts on partisan and the object is very similar, but are very important element, different differences. gravity, xle mass. why is that? and already einstein noted that the fact carefully just actual mass makes is very, very special. and you can regard cavity as a property of space and time themselves. since you believe that cavity actually is related to the other forces. well, you might think back also the other forces have to do with space and time
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themselves. but we're not that far yet to understand all forces of being due to one particular phenomenon. you know, there are very many, many series around that suggest how this could happen. be simply don't have you clue as to what the actually correct answers. so you're saying in your words, that gravity has always been and to relate to space and time. and here i want to ask you about where we all coming from because a lot of scientists agree that the big bank was lake the think that actually gave birth to our universe. but then the theories differ very much of what was before the big bank. some say that it was another universe that gave birth to our universe . others said there was nothing, not even time. what do you think? i would, i would favor that last view. that time just begins at the
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a bang literally. so he called it called at the moment that all clocks are set to 0, and there was nothing before that. so it looks as if the whole universe was in its simplest possible form when everything got started. and all that needed to be done as someone to pull the switch, not literally both turn small metaphorically and then the universe starts expanding . i saw where dorsey creations come from and, and hopefully the switch that is not the kind of question the science can answer. her with nor can you answer the question as to what happened before that. so as far as you know, there was nothing before that, so i would rather abstain from answering that. as far as i can tell, there was nothing before. and before most will, when, when the switches for that, you know, i mean, i know that science and religion, they're like completely separate. but then a lot of people would say ok,
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if you're saying that science cannot explain what was before the switch or the big bang, that's because it's god, would you say that it's possible? maybe it is god or that is just what you did on those years. believes without any basis and the idea sizes, we only accept her beliefs if they have some basis and toss if he can check them experimentally. and the notion of god doesn't help us any because nobody can check that. right. so let's talk specific. so we have the micro, that is something that we cannot see that's not tangible for me. and the micro old, this is where we humans operate and we, you know, we can grasp things, the celestial bodies, et cetera. both worlds are ruled by completely radically different. last, i would say, where is it that the micro world ends and the macro universe begins? where is this for, is not all of these still a totally different worlds effect,
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all just one mold. so all those stars and planets, the time, roaming around your universe, they're built on the same particles that you study in our laboratories and the smallest units of meta sorta small units of matter, make up everything. so if, in principle, if you would know exactly what the laws are that move these particles around, then you can understand how stars and planets are made, how galaxies are made of size and so on. and if a whole new versus made. so there's no fundamental boundary between those worlds. it's just one world. and this is certainly the way we prefer to see things that there's just one world. this world is based, is made out of particles, that 1st form planets and stars and galaxies. and then together in these form the entire universe, but there's no boundary anywhere. but the thing we can ever come up with a precise formula that would explain how this little particles to micro world
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actually influences this point to particles insulins and transform the mac. we're reality that we live in. well, science actually has gone a long way to, to say yes, you do have a very precise you about how it goes about. we understand the forces that accurate in particles. we understand how to describe them. we don't know where they come from, but they do understand how to describe them. and we know how the motion of this particle is being described. how the come together are in the act and our to can form substances that ultimately give shape to planets and stars. and we know why stars are plants behave the way they do because these particles, for instance, in the song, one of the stars, their nuclear reactions taking place. but those nuclear reactions are described by the physics that he know about it. considering these a mentally building blocks, so it already all hangs gather,
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there's much more known as many people he lies. but our science is a huge topic. so although i've seen that a lot to be know and also a lot we don't know. so i think there cannot be one formula, it needs to be many formulas. some of them we have already that explain this mechanism. well, it's almost one former that already it fits on a coffee jaw. so an oil can, i don't want one piece of paper. i can write down the formula, which basically symbolizes or forces that exist. and we have reached that stage already. the only thing not put there or put only in some, in somewhat in color, obscure form is gravity itself. so we can add gravity through the laws of particles, basically very simple. particles move, not the straight lines anymore, but the move in line to the slightly bent because erica invitational force. and if
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that's all you say, okay, we also understand how gravity extra the whole system. so what's the problem? the problem is that i don't means where we want to describe the particles. ready? cavitation force explores, that's when patterns come to close together and where space and time gets too much curved. and then on, sammy stops. and we want to have a better, a complete view of what the creations are that govern that domain. so david relies something missing in our fundamental understanding of cavity, something extremely important. if you could answer those questions, we would suddenly put a whole thing in a different perspective. this far, we understand that the to make all the questions fit together properly. and we haven't quite succeeded in doing that in, but he's gone a long way. but that's not good enough for us for something missing. and so far from physics or quantum physics or, you know, i'm just someone who is interested in thanks. but like to me,
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it's mind boggling that you're saying, like you said, we've gone so far, but yet we're missing the understanding of the most basic fundamental things. that is gravity. well, gravity itself, we have eyes on siri and a dorky stream. you will for stars and planets. so i'm, so notice that if you are more precise than what newton did that concentration call, you get a slightly different shape of the, of the orders of particles. although we managed to reproduce newton's head 599.9 percent so. so basically new from us, right. there's no question about that, but it can be done more precisely. that's what i'm same phone provider. we're going to take a short break right now where we're back. we'll continue talking to nobel prize winner. professor parrot hoped we're talking about what this universe is laid out to stay with us. don't go away.
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ah ah i think what by the apple. ne, get a quote man, he liberties keith is going to push and push it. if i had an event there, sure somebody might sound like a few minutes but,
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but it was 3 to what i still love with it at the but adults ah, medical me in your school visit if you believe about what we didn't get hope. all right, so um what you, what would be with you um like what you this was our partner with that you were able to make it right here for prosper a pretty weaker lia. from a brush up project referral indian bruise. oh is your media a reflection of reality in the world transformed what will make you feel safer? isolation, whole community? are you going the right way?
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or are you being led somewhere? direct. what is true? wharf is great. in the world corrupted, you need to descend. ah, so join us in the depths or remain in the shallows. is the earth still large enough to satisfy the ambitions of jeff bezos? you know, it's got its tentacles in so many aspects of the economy. there's nothing that amazon isn't trying to get into to step by step. the amazon empire has extended its grip on the world that walks like a dog inquired like a dog gets a dog. so amazon looks like monopoly trades like a monopoly makes money like a monopoly behaves like, monopolized amazon essentially controls the market place. it's not really
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a market as a private arena, a wild, where a single company controls the distribution of all day, the products and the infrastructure of our economy. is this the world according to amazon? ah and we're back with professor at harvard professor. because you're saying, you know, we find out exactly what is gravity then thinks could turn out to be completely different from what we thought. do you feel like some day will come to a point where he's physics and einstein's relativity could turn out to work in a completely different way. the thing that you all expect actually is that the language will have to be modified. the mean use a certain language to describe the particles he talk with particles,
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meaning here moving to there about a planet being here. moved to their plan of being cautious, consisting of particles, use all those words. and those words work very well on the ordinary circumstances. but the suspicion is they will fail and he will describe gravity at a very, very short distance range, much stier distances even than the size of the particles dance things go wrong in our discussion. and we want the gracious, i do not want to go home anywhere. and this you did not succeed in, but the belief is the other. you have to modify our language to get this right. and that is quite normal. that's actually where i'm son davis from newton. i'm son is covered a different language to say the same things as newton toward new settles not hong. but you have to say to a different language and then you discover you can do what precisely. dictations newton ever did. in particular, i'm son found that the fat at light only go to the finite speed. it's the same everywhere. that fact was not properly incorporated in. you can siri to do that,
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right? you need a different language arts and found that language. and this happens again and again, quantum mechanics is the fundamental theory that describes how particles have forces on each other. and how they move is a totally different language from what people used to before. and that language helped us to get a better description is fundamentally better. now we understand our atoms move our, our chemical reaction to work on atoms are going to be simple thing. an atom discourses of a nucleus is electrons going around it like a solar system. what's so complicated about it, but then we find that quantum mechanics makes it complicated and generates are things that you call chemistry atoms attacked or repel each other. those forces are quite complex, yet they are basically understood by quantum mechanics. provided you use this new language, which is a very mysterious language, we want understand that a wise languages there. and i fear that you have to change the language again. okay,
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so let's try to do it right now. for instance, if we take the quantum entanglement theory right, for me, and mortal who is far from physics, the way i understand it is that you have 2 particles no matter how far away they're from each other. and somehow they react at the same time, to the changes that are done to the both of those particles or many particles. i don't know. so what is it exactly? does the information travel faster than light? what's going on here? well, i'm convinced that those were said that you will not inventing because you've, you heard the many times. yes. those was actually a wrong kind of language. it is not true. the information travels faster than light . we know that's pretty for sure because i see these were extremely well and they tell you that information never was faster than light. and in all our quantum
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series, also information is not go fast and light. so when they say it does go faster, it means that they're using the wrong language. indeed, if entanglement is a very special phenomenon that you only encounter in quantum physics, and it has to do with this information, we have marco's particles. if you know how one party is oriented, you can, you can sometimes know what other particles oriented, because radical spin and then orientation that way. but it's been a very special way that you can only understand in quantum language. if used the quantum language, only, nothing goes faster than light. and this is the way we have learned to describe the fundamental particles. but people want to understand what they're doing. they want them sent. this quantum language is fine, but there's something fishy about something we don't believe you want to go deeper . we dig deeper when they deeper they find out maybe other way to discard the what's going on. and in this other language, it looks as if information was faster light. i think personally that's
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a lie because those people think to have her right and found a better language, but they have not defined a worse language. the best language you can use who called mechanics, is all use the language to help us forward in the past. and don't try to think what it really means. that's good for the moment, but many people say no, no, we can't have that. we can't have this crazy anguish. the language just tell you exactly where a particle is is i won't tell you where the particle is the some probability. and we don't want that probability language a. we don't want to save all you if it's whole dice, never know where that i shall go because a lot of probability norway is hold the dice very carefully. you know how to make 2 sixes, right? that is a very, a child addition might maybe the thought die such a will, yours guess, to sixes if knows exactly how that works, very hard to the principle possible. so that's, that's what we want in quantum mechanics. well, we think of something underneath that says there's no shut decision at all. quantum
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mechanics is just a, a bad language or something that's much better, but we don't understand what it is. but okay, because for out an ordinary person, the more i dwelled into this whole quantum mechanics and i'm listening to you, it still seems pretty random to me. you know, like i said, god doesn't play dice. you're saying there is no dice. but then at the same time, you're saying it's impossible to predict exactly brains. so to me it sounds like quantum physics is more of like as a terry discipline, rather than like a precise science because it's all probabilities that we're talking about now. well, you have to understand that this world consists of particles which interact with each other. but just imagine how many particles are, are how many padded are in your body. as long more,
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you can count any computer. so if you very easily then do a world as infinitely complex, motherly, infinitely very, very complex. so complex that is hopeless to predict exactly where every party was going. that doesn't mean is patios, don't know where they're going. they do know they are exactly prescribe the laws of nature, but we don't understand those laws of nature well off to be able to foresee where a particle will be going. so we use the loss of statistics. there's actually a very slight move the scientist made. the beginning of the previous century to say, well, we don't know for sure others are going, but we know where to go on average. and that has been extremely helpful. and basically, that's all you need because in practice, it's never possible to control all the particles that are running around some way as hopeless. so don't even die. don't even dream about it, just say, okay, we know where the moving average does good enough for us. if you can get the maximum amount of information about that,
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that's what we want. that's the presence state of affairs. that's how we understand how particle physics works, how quantum physics works. but it doesn't tell us what is on the line rules. exactly. i. so what i want to know is what tells a particular exactly where to go. even though it's impossible for us to reproduce it, it will not be able to use that knowledge to make better predictions. and quantum physics itself is all as probability distributions think of an insurance company that wants to fix the premium for someone who's insured. in principle, what they can try to do is calculate exactly in advance what the lifetime of a person will be. and whether you make an action or not, and exactly, estimate the premium for that. but that's what was hopeless. no insurance company can do that. they don't want to do that. they say, okay, the, this is the general probabilities. this is what the choose as a basis for how much insurance you how much you pay for your insurance. huh. so
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that's the same way quantum mechanics today. it also works that way. we don't even try to make about the prediction than what he can do. it doesn't make any sense because situations who do have make what extremely well. so data is that you are what chemistry is and so on. so when, when a, and listen to you speak about the nature of this whole quantum mechanics. it reminds me how great near scientists speak of human brain because they're saying no, no, no, it's not that at the nearest there are infinite, they're the 3rd, they're certain number, but it is so many of them and the connections between them. it's hopeless to try and figure out each one of them. so the last that we have so far worked somewhat. okay. would you say there's a connection? does our conscious maybe our brain has a quentin nature as well? i personally don't think that's the case. so a quantum mechanics determines exactly how all chemical reactions take place and
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his chemical reaction. i extremely complex and obviously they're of great importance for the way our new systems work. and i saw in that sense called me going to is very important from sally. how to brain functions, but the memory cells themselves, i don't believe they're based on quantum mechanics. many people think so, but i disagree. i don't believe that. i think the memory celsius contains certain chemical particles sitting somewhere or city, not somewhere else. and it's miles that terms, the state a new on his end, and that's the way we memorize things. and that's quite enough for all practical purposes. so i think our brain, we will be able to do very well without using chronic mechanics to explain how many cells in great are planes work. we only need quantum mechanics to explain how the chemistry works. but once you know that you can just, you know, close to kept the quantum mechanics book. not open up your chemistry book. then you
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know, howard neurons will transmit information to one another. then you close that comes him again. and, and you say, now i only need my computer books, my computer manual, the manual says that if you, that, if you know whole hardware, this is a software you can produce. and the most miraculous features in the brain is a software. how does our brain work, and how does, how are we able to think? and that includes the concept that he called consciousness. so some of my colleagues, they attach some mystic value to the notion of consciousness, but i don't, i think consciousness is, is a question of information. and in particular, if mation about yourself and information about your environment, full information. so to be able to, to investigate all information that comes to you and to make use of that. all that together is consciousness and his intelligence. so next step of course is to understand intelligence, human intelligence. but all that, it had basically
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a question of software. i mean, we can't see, we can't see intelligence and we can see consciousness will open a scalp here of what you don't see consciousness. that's why i was thinking something. if you open a computer, what do you see? a lot of you see a lot of wires. yeah, i don't understand what's involved. what's the information inside that computer? no, i don't release. i assume all these little things are. so this is just the 1st half of our in depth arc with professor noble prize winner, parrots at halston about the way universe works. stay tuned for the 2nd part ah.


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