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tv   Sophie Co. Visionaries  RT  July 9, 2021 10:30pm-11:01pm EDT

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of students that study english literature at gc, i see that the exam that kids take at the age of 16 in the u. k. study a book by a person of color and just 7 percent of students at gmc study, a book written by a woman that is a business. and by the way, that research is currently provided to us by penguin books, u. k. who could take a leaf out of their marketing and disclose how many of that it has on, on white for female for them? i said look, i'm not saying that stay a reading list. couldn't use a refresh load you know, white kid make up about 34 percent of students in the u. k. and they ought to see themselves and their experiences reflected in the cannon. but why does the colonizing the curriculum mean killing off to kill a mockingbird? fresh research by frank lungs has found the overhauls of people under the cars stopped talking to someone that's actually stopped
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a relationship with someone because they disagreed with their political views. you, thanks. you know, thank you so i guess i'm sweet enough, throwing out a classic because it doesn't conform to modern standards, feel somehow connected with your children. this court was more common sense in you and the decision to remove call police seminal novel from the reading list, albeit from just one school so far is making people angry. i think it's very wrong for a few people to hold everyone as hostage in the important about the book is that they portray the unwritten truth of the time. we have this white liberal crusade, it turns out to be rape me, right? this is such an american story. the canon of literature is fluid that all mary adds of that, that was classics that didn't age well with then retired into a here and see, but should to kill a mockingbird to be one of them. let's discuss that in the classroom visionaries,
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which i think in a few i'm, it's time for us. us reacted tonight, the team and i will be back in a 30 minutes exactly to bring you the latest headlines. join us again that the fellow, welcome to sophie co visionaries. me guilty shepard, not their plan is beyond our solar system have until recently only existed inside fi or our measure. nation. now, it's not only possible to attack the zone jet flight years way. we can even gauge
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the potential for life on them. what to talk about the some joined by professor jake hello astronomer and the 2900 noble prize laureate in physics. professor d hello astronomer and the 2019 noble prize laureate and physics. great to have you with us today. welcome. thank you. all right, so you said he acts of planets and that's what bought you the noble. right. and because x a planet known to these day is 9000 times further away from earth than neptune. how do you search for something that is just so far away? well, it's difficult to find a planet because it's very close to a very bright object that is the star. so we have to do tricks. we're using what we call indirect effect, off the planet,
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on the star saw bell 2 main effects that you can use. the 1st one is when the planet is orbiting the star. the style is moving a little bit tiny motion. but if you are very sensitive machine to measure this motions, if you use, for example, the change of the speed of the style, you can detect the plan. and that way, the other way is if you got lucky and the planet is just crossing the line of sight between you and the stall, it makes for a brief moment. a slight shadow because transit and we see a slide decrease of the light of the star. and we use that to get the size of the planet. essentially, all the planet have been found. have been detected babies to technique so far. uh huh. what we hear a lot during the last decade that are galaxy might be teeming with trillions of
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earth like planet yet finding them looks like searching for a needle in a haystack. as they're like insanely far away. and they, they don't produce light leg star. so what makes your fellow scientists so sure, there must indeed be so many of them out there. how do you know? oh, that's pretty sure when you, when you detect this, this 2 specific signal, there is no way to do that. but having a planet, so we absolutely sure they are planet all beaching the stalls. but what is interesting about your questions is some time ago we found that all the planet would look like our own system where the small planet next to it. no man like the earth and then the giant had filed away. actually we have realized that is the bit more complicated than that. we have a lot, a lot of fun. it which all orbiting stars way more closer,
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closer than the old beat of mercury. and i was a big shock when we found the 1st one. that was a planet like all on jupiter, to really a be planted full of gas. jupiter is very far away. it takes more than 10 years for jupiter to all be the stun. while the planets i contributor we found 25 years ago, took only 4 days to go around the stars, which means the planet is very close. so that was really a big surprise. and we have learned since then, that our own system is, may be one amongst many. that's not the archetype. that's not the standard way to our planet animals. a shock, because everybody was expecting the planet to look all the same. so we have your right, a lot of stalls, but we also have a lot of very different kind of planets. you know,
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there are 1000 does x appliance out there and to find truly habitable one scientists look if they have an atmosphere. liquid water in the rocky and i understand the 1st 2, but can i explain why upon it needs to be rocky to be seen as potentially habitable? it's not like the variety of landscape that makes life possible. that's yeah, that's correct. i seen you perfectly true. i think we, we don't know exactly what we need when you're talking about life, when you talk about life. habitability is a very specific definition switch. something comes from the fact that when you have a rocky planet, in define the possibility for that rocky planet to have liquid, walter said, the only thing that describe the ability. but you could imagine planet thought different of that. this one that could still be he nabbit. so that's completely different stories. the habitability sometimes to be confusing because he come just
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by the definitions of liquid water. now if you look into solar system, our own system, of course we have mosse. we have venues. we have the earth, actually, these 3 planets all, all within the bit ability. well, it's not the case because mars has lost most of its most fear. venus has a very c, i see genetic atmosphere. so it's way to be one that beats ability, but technically speaking they could be habitable though we also have some satellite of child planet that have crossed of ice and we know that under it they're all liquid water. so we, we don't really know whether there are some change i've has started there. and that's the beauty of the problem. so i think you're right by saying that rocky planet and i bit ability are not absolute prerequisites simple for us
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to numbers. when you think about the rocky planet and they all, plenty of lucky planet, we can just ask ourselves whether they all atmosphere on this planet and we can try to understand what eas, lease atmosphere made. and that's the kind of program that we would be doing in the next 20 years to find life on some actual planet, not in theory, but in practice, we have to send a robot there at least to collect soil samples, etc. which doesn't seem to happen anytime soon. well, the search for a habitable earth like planet remain solely on paper until the technologies in place. or are there ways to find out sooner? yes. so what is going to happen is they all tree ways to look for life and each is telling you something about life. the 1st way is to just look at life as we know it. the only life we know is a life. we have
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a nurse is only one single life on earth. so people can study the chemistry of life on earth. i can look to understand the origin of fly. we have not really understood that yet. and you can look for that on other planets, all the solar system. so the 1st way to do that, you have a real chemistry real object. you can think about bringing rocks from off. we can think about bringing rocks from venus. it's possible and to study whether you find some engine sign or fly there, all actual find the flies on the system. so that is something you can do as well. the problem there is you may find the same kind of fly. we have an earth know when you're talking about planet on other stars. that's true too, said that it's very unlikely we'll go there very soon because it's tremendously difficult. and we may even never be able to leave that place. that we can remotely study the atmosphere of this planet. and we may find something strange. well,
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of course, i mean having one planet with a strange atmosphere will not tell you the story. so i used to describe this as like doing a paintings. you do a big paintings, but you, when you do a little bit of detail of one painting, you don't understand the global shape of the painting. so one planet will tell you one part of the story. but the big difference with studying few planet in the solar system, we have potentially a lot of planets. we can study on a lot of climate, other slightly different, a slightly different composition. so we will do kenneth's global picture. each of them will not tell you really anything, but the hope is when we will have study thousands of atmosphere stud, make a painting and we will start seeing the big picture. and we will combine what we have learned with a detail study on specific piece of rocks like you said, from material coming from other planets of own system. so even if someone
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finds a perfect ac supplies, it will still be so far away from us that traveling to it will be impossible in any practical way traveling from it. almost not almost. i think it's just impossible. so while this fuzz, what is the use of finding him ok, we found a planet, but we can go there and we can come from there. yeah. well, i think i would, i used to say there is tree. perform questions that everybody keeps asking and do you mind kind has tried to answer almost in the beginning. the 1st one is the all he gene and the nature of the matter around. well we what are the things around us? that's one be questions and i collect a lot of sciences. so going one is the all. busy he gene and the nature of life. it remains a pretty profound mystery. matter at some point can become alive,
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and that's quite amazing. so this is the 2nd question. the 3rd one is the consciousness. at some point you build up a consciousness. well, when you dealing with life under the planet, actually you addressing one and maybe 2 of this question together, you're trying to understand. and the only way to understand is to look and to study . so that's what we're doing. what we're going to find. i don't know, my understanding is life is some kind of chemistry that went a little bit on its own and to control of itself is able to produce by itself. the own chemistry needed for life is kind of in depth and then structure that is able to build its own matter. you old matter, making this system alive. and this should happen elsewhere. know what we going to see. maybe we were going to find out that all this life when they become very clever, all civilized school that like like that they said destroy and tell you something
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that is a very practical outcome. when you see all much weaponry, tell me when you wip any, we honor like how and we have the power of gold. so destructions. maybe we're going to see planet, we have, which clear evidence that life has been extinct. because we will see you remaining massive outcome off a big war that has completely destroy life on the spot. so it's all about ourselves in a way, what are we talking about? it's all about the origin of life, the nature of life. and maybe it will tell us something about all the ability of survival. and maybe we're going to learn something professor, we're going to take a short break right now when we're back. we'll continue talking to deja hello astronomer. and the 2900 noble prize laura and physics talking about the role of x o planets research and finding more about the origins of life on earth. they will
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join me every thursday on the alex simon show. and i'll be speaking to guess in the world, the politics sport, business. i'm show business. i'll see you then me ah, today, industry 1st meeting of euros in the today regulations. i will be all about making money. profit is among the big corporation. international markets about export. do you imagine the number of the diseases that are in every family today? you know, due to new viruses or new microbes? that's true. so it is due to environment. not going to take either the momentum,
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much time. yes, accumulate go don't come in today. mostly they don't allow us. the food industry is successful, it will create more jobs. it will create more value added. it will create more. so i don't see why we shouldn't also fight for the interests of the industry that we have regulation. we want the regulation of industry and if we don't behave then yes, that's fine. ah, me ah, and we're back with professor d kilo sean number 2900 noble prize lauren and physics professor. you famous, predicted that will find alien live within 30 years when asked, what makes you so sure. you said that since life is basically chemistry,
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we just have to find the perfect coma of elements and conditions that are actually going to make life possible. so how do you know that a combination like that even exists somewhere while chemistry is doing the same everywhere you can point to radio telescopes and you realize that there are plenty of molecules. there is plenty of water. all the, the chemistry element, you know, they are the same on mall, they are the same of the styles. they is exactly the same kind of functioning. so there is no, i mean, profound difference between any of these chemistry. what makes a difference is the fine tuning of this? no, i agree that may be to fine tuning. a nurse was very special that make us very special . but they so many storms there is so many planet. so i can believe that the fund junior has to be so precise that you have only one cases. i just can't believe that because life that seems to be that special. it look special because we don't
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understand how to make it. but the day when we will have understood it, i think it will say, oh yes, i was just this as soon as we have this ingredient, as soon as we have this element together, it app. so it's just a matter of understanding what are we talking about? no, it looks magical because we don't understand speak like any physical phenomenon. you could have people trying to understand 1000 years ago. that's could have been magic because you don't understand why why bird is flying is magic. we can compute that is very well known equations and we building plane. we building rockets. we're going to do moon sol. this is ok. may not be easy, but we know to do that. so it's exactly the same. so 30 years is kind of a time scale, which is very long in science. it's impossible to predict. so it's usual time that everybody is using sale 30 years, everything is possible. so i think it was
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a good number to, to drop to the price i i remember talking to the bad cameras looking into the origins of life on earth, and he says, we're likely to find bacteria on other planets. sure. but not complex life forms like us. what's your take on this? yeah, that's a very interesting opinion. i don't know. is there any, i mean, fundamental fact that prevent life to have old, i don't know. that's a good point. it's nobody knows this. well, the, the most difficult bit is to stop life as soon as you started. i think it is difficult to stop it. the reason why is life is there we? well, no, i mean, we have to minus self. anything living here is alive. it's the same way, it's the same mechanistic, same machinery. there is no difference between the piece of grass and between us in time of functioning. no,
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it seems that as soon as you find the trick to make it work, nothing can stop it. so the fact you are multi cell, you got a mono send it off. i think it's a detail to me. i just don't believe this is a fundamental limit here. so then a way more fundamental aspect is the concept of consciousness. i mean, do we always have as an end product of life, some entity that is nowhere aware or conscious and he's impacting anita environment like us. these. i don't know, it may be you need a lot of luck to happen. you need something. you need to get rid of the dinosaurs to have the mammy fair moving ahead and you need maybe some, some commit to commit to impact there. but there are a lot of stuff floating on us anyway, and there is a lot of deliveries. and so it's not that unlikely that similar though we could have happened on the planet as well. so i don't really know that, but i can't believe there is any looking make a nice the most difficult part is to get the beginning starting
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a soon as you start, it seems to be a machine that nothing stop and you have it. the only way to stop it is to have the system you decided to put an end of it. that's it. otherwise i don't think you're going to stop it. well, make where the sun will decide at some point, but, you know, 4000000000 years we have seen something. so how accurately can we now reconstruct the conditions on earth billions of years ago when live face, you know, thought to have appeared that is very difficult. because earth is, has the capability to itself or to says reveal itself. so the blake tectonic is essentially removing any traces of, of engine life. we do have the stomach alive. we know that this has happened. we know that they also mentioned rocks and we know that exactly the composition of the time. but we missing daily beginning. this is why we very excited to go to the
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planet like malls of venice. last is fascinating because mosse, we absolutely share that had water, at least for the 1st 1000000000 years. so. and then something stop the play, tony, stop and the planet became way dead, never evolve anymore. so mosse is possibly a planted that had some kind of cool, a pollution like the earth for the 1st b on you're going to off is maybe a way to probe what was the earth in the 1st 1000000000 years. and the other way to do that would be to detect autoplanet on the stars and to look for other stars having a similar age that the early sun. and this is also something which is pretty cool enough for physics because we don't only have many options. we can also look at different ages. we can pick a star which is younger or older and we can compare the time in relation to for planet which is which i think a very important aspect also that we need to be study. so we should be able to get
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some hint of the pollution of the planet by looking at plenty of other planet orbiting other styles later on. and to compare this planets with the one we have in the system. so finding out what exactly earth was like when last appeared will help us look for other planets like that. and perhaps we will find life out there. but isn't that mean that even if we do, we'll still have to wait, like 3 billions of ears to, you know, for some kind of amino acid to all into his thinking pieces. well, you know, this is the fascinating bits of the story on earth. is we, we have evidence that life was there after 1000000000 years, which if you forgot the 1st half of 1000000000 with the earth, was extremely hot and not really a pleasant environment. as soon as the government becomes nice in a way in time of chemistry, i'm not going to chemistry, you have life. so it appears that life is
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a very fast process as soon as you have the right condition there. know, but he's also interesting is life has been slow at the beginning to build up a capability to grow and to be committed to sell it. but as soon as you find a tweak there, everything go very fast and the complexity of life as soon as you have it, you just just have millions of possibility that happen. so it's not, no clear what is timescales. there is a possibility that life would start early on, but would become very difficult to find because it, it is a very slow evolutions but, but let's okay. i think we can study plenty of planet steady the atmosphere, and we may not have any evidence of live there, but you may find interesting atmosphere with a possibility of live ablation. so that's not the problem. finding the planet is, is really finding what looks like the planet and what exactly is the structure and the atmosphere based on it. and we may find out that the only interesting feature that we may suspect, be related to life, comes very late. and i will be
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a strong incentive that the life becomes visible at a stage of the atmosphere of the planet we late. i don't really know. what i do know is we will be able to do that because you not breaking the law of physics to do that. it just depends on the size of the telescopes under observing the right stars of the right moment. so we have a working theory about the origins of life, the primordial soup flora, main element somewhere in a higher thermal band got last started, right? sounds like yourself. so say that we don't really know and we need to find out how live started. what is wrong with the current theory? well, there's nothing wrong, i think that, you know, doesn't exist. this, the jury is not really build on the foundation of chemistry. the jury is, is build on reason. so there has been some idea that at the bottom of the ocean's, you have this, this, this energy that comes on the, from the cross of the earth,
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and then you use the complexity of this event. it's not actually the black smoke of the 3, the very cool event and much more nice thing away, duck cities, i'm not kind of faces. and there are some similarity in the structure of these vent with some of the mechanics of life. the one that like the krebs cycle producing in the g for example. so it's by similarity and it comes essentially funded by the just the just point the possible gene there. know what has happened in the last couple of years. he's the bio kemi stuff challenged distillery quite significantly by telling by the just that that's fine. but this is not the theory because there is no any backing in chemist chemistry and people enough stop coming up with a new approach here trying to we could use those, you know, 5 in the lab. and what they found out is instead of being on the bottom of the oceans, you could have been more massive life production, dis, just face of the content. essentially, you bring the ingredients, you have, which is the water s or 3, which from the volcanic activity, the a c and up comes from the delivery of the comment water,
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very natal atmosphere when you get, when you build the planet full of c o 2 and then a lot of creation. so you'd be addition from the start that bring the energy mechanic for the chemistry to happen. the realize this is a kind of recent series of paper about 5 to 6 years old. you produce exactly the 20 amino acid which has been build up for life and then you produce also the ingredient kenia, and that is a foundation like its own solutions that kind of for the, for the cell for the future. so the make any, to reproduce the could thing. and then also the, the make a nice which is building the stuff, i mean gears the whale, the protein, the element of the protein. so, so this is account if you approach it's not completely contradicting because in a way you eat it, life has to happen the kind of chemistry there, but it seems it's not at the bottom of the ocean, but the face of the earth, which in tell us what is interesting because we will be able to measure something from the show face is way more difficult to get from the bottom,
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but from the still face of the planet. so we started to engage on that and to check this jury. one of the easy check is whether there is enough energy to make the reaction, the chemistry reaction up. and, and we confirmed that recently. and recently we confirming all the k, the key steps of the reaction making the pathway to the, to the light. so i think this is chance within a couple of years. some live in chemistry will make life into a lab live, as we know, it would be made from 0 level from scratch. and i would be the final demonstration that this is the origin of life. well, i hope everything that you say comes true. thank you very much for this amazing insight. it's always really interesting to dream and wonder if one day we could be living on another planet. so i helpful, i hope that we get as much information as possible in the near future about all that because you know, i still want to be alive when something tangible happens in that area. anyway,
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thank you a lot. good luck with all your future endeavors. i hope we meet sooner than 10 years to discuss. let's look at a little update on what's going on. ok with with great pleasure. thank you so much . thank you. bye. have a good day, bye. the so what we've got to do is identify the threats that we have is crazy for taishan, let it be an arms race is on often very dramatic development. only personally, i'm going to resist. i don't see how that strategy will be successful,
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a very critical time. time to sit down and talk the sort of celebrate we can gain the growth. i'm going to start include in another border crossing that says the us president confirmed troops will be out of the country by the end of next month. you know, mission accomplishing, right? in responsibility that can people along the sides or future and how they want to run their country. why as refugees continue to be the country for a new life in europe, they're both who rape and murder of a 30 year old girl in austria at the hands about them. margin. once again, what's the issue of immigration back in the spotlight? nation government off the us and us to send troops to help protect the country. the key infrastructure in terms of destination.


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