what we know and what we are doing. it wasn't us. telling the world what we think it should do. we didn't do that. very important. there was a woman at the workshop yesterday who said she was trying to get her county commissioners to get a climate action plan for a long time and getting nowhere. and then she decided to give them an drawdown. and within two months they were working on a climate action plan. i heard this again and again about the book. especially, as all women have told me this. and they gave it to those in different and they loved the book because it is about stories and narratives. and this is very important about spaciousness. you want to take spaciousness so that the revolutionary love they were talking about can be engaged so people can come in. so that we can listen to them
engage and find out what they are thinking, what their beliefs on based on. when people ask me about what do you say to others? my brothers are deniers. be curious.a ask. how interesting. how could you be a denier? so interesting. i find it fascinating. and rather than being defensive or fearful or angry, that does not work. the book tries to embody that. finally, many voices, pope francis, andrea wolf, david montgomery. i had many voices produce a fitting. there were 60 fellows that wrote the basic text of all the solutions -- you know, when it was published it really surprised people. it took the climate establishment, rocked them on th eir heels.
they could not criticize the methodology. it was straight up models. using science. but the fact that the number 11 was refrigerator management and number four was plant rich diet, number six was educating girls, number seven was fanning planning -- family planning. and the number one solution was the empowerment of women and girls, ok? [applause] paul: thank you so much. thank you. thank you. [appla lara: this is “focus on europe.” i'm
lara babalola. nice to have you with us. russia is launching fresh attacks in ukraine, as moscow declares a new phase of the war. ukrainian forces are calling on their allies to send more weapons, with the conflict approaching its second month. places in ukraine's east and south are under heavy bombardment. russia has sent thousands more troops to the region. residents in ukraine's cities and towns aronce again fighting for survival. amid the death and suffering, new life is also beginning in ukraine. but for some newborns and their parents, the war is keeping them apart. commercial surrogacy is big business in ukraine -- it's one of the few nations in europe that allows the practice. some 2000 children are born through surrogacy in ukraine every year. the vast majority of those babies belong to foreigners who travel to ukraine to pick up their newborns. but the war has changed everything. reporter:
born during the war, these babies have spent their entire lives in this cellar in kyiv. ukrainian surrogate mothers gave birth to them. but their parents -- from places like china, germany, and italy -- have not been able to come and collect them, due to the war. so for now, nannies and nurses like irina and svetlana are caring for these babies. svetlana: like all children, they need warmth and affection. we are trying to provide that while their moms and dads cannot. reporter: both women have been living here in the cellar with the babies for weeks, choosing not to flee. svetlana: i'm older than my colleagues. they have young children. mine are grown up. if i went, who'd take care of the babies? i couldn't abandon them. reporter: this boy, whom they call valeriy, has been waiting for
his chinese parents for months now. first, covid prevented them from picking him up, and now, the war. though it's been more peaceful since the russian army retreated from kyiv, so more parents are finally able to come here. irina: we really hope they'll all be able to collect their babies now. it's so sad that the babies couldn't spend this time with their parents, hearing their language instead of ours. reporter: a scheduled examination of surrogate mothers is taking place at this clinic in kyiv, the second since the invasion began. the clinic belongs to the largest firm in the surrogacy industry, which has come under investigation, facing allegations of human trafficking. business has boomed for years. most of the women here, including irina, tell us they plan to use the money to buy a home for their own families. but it's a huge strain to be pregnant and a surrogate mother in the midst of a war. irina is carrying the child of an israeli couple, and had started to panic when she was
unable to contact anyone from the company after the invasion. irina: at first i just thought, it's all over. what should i do now? i already have two kids, so what do i do with a third? i knew we're not allowed to keep surrogate babies. and if i go to jail, who'll take care of my own children? reporter: now, they're all trying to carry on like before the invasion. nastya remains confident that the bulgarian parents whose baby she is carrying will be able to collect their child. a single mother with two children of her own, nastya comes from a kyiv suburb, and decided not to flee. nastya: my mother wanted to flee with me, but i was extremely worried about the child, in case there were shots or explosions on the journey. after a few weeks, people felt safer at home than elsewhere.
so, i decided to stay. reporter: but everyone here is wondering what will happen next in the war. and what will the situation be like when it's time to give birth? in the storeroom, the medical director shows us his supplies. the panic of the first few weeks has subsided, and he says things are under control again. that includes the issue with surrogate mothers who fled to poland but can't stay there. ihor: surrogacy is illegal in poland, but many of our women, about 10, are there. i am okay though if they are 12, 16, or 20 weeks pregnant. they gave me their word that they would return when they are in their 28th week. why then? after 28 weeks, the child is capable of surviving outside the womb. reporter:
this video was made to reassure clients. armed and in secure vehicles, the medical director is seen picking up newborns from the hospital. after covid-19, it's the second crisis for ukraine's surrogacy industry. ihor: initially there were quarantine regulations, but now it's fear that keeps parents away. i bow down to the parents who made it to kyiv, despite the shelling and air raid sirens. they came to the shelter where their babies were living. or to the train station where we also handed over babies right by the train. those are true parents. reporter: the ukrainian authorities have removed some red tape to make it easier for parents to collect their babies. svetlana says she'll stay and care for the babies that are already here, and those that are yet to be born, for as long as necessary. no matter how the war develops. lara: while the majority of ukrainian refugees have fled to nearby
countries, some have landed in turkey -- around 60,000 according to the turkish foreign ministry. coastal cities like antalya, that typically attract tourists, are now also hosting ukrainian refugees. but turkey has close ties with moscow, and antalya's coast is a big draw for russian holidaymakers. a bitter pill to swallow for ukrainians like tanya moskal. she spends her days in the mediterranean thinking about the war in her homeland, while russian tourists bask in the sun. reporter: sun, sand, and sea. even in spring, the turkish coastal city of antalya offers everything a vacationer's heart could desire. but tanya mozkal is not in a holiday mood. while her two children venture into the water, the ukrainian is thinking about her homeland. when the war broke out, she and her children fled kyiv for
turkey via romania. but even at the beach she still can't relax. tanya: what bothers me is that i don't know what kind of people are around me right now. where do they come from? what do they think about my heritage and my country? reporter: because antalya is a popular destination for tourists from russia, the country that has invaded her homeland, ukraine. tanya knows that the majority of russians support putin's policies. yet most of the russians at this beach are reluctant to talk about the war. >> we love our country, our people, and our lives in russia. but we also understand what's happening in ukraine. >> you can't blame us russians for that. many people just believe it when russian tv claims that the
ukrainian army is attacking its own targets. reporter: before the war, two million ukrainians also vacationed on the turkish riviera every year. now they're staying away. but turkish tour operators are hoping to attract even more russian tourists. many here are glad that turkey is not imposing sanctions on russia. nihat: in the future, the russian market can potentially supply 50% of all our tourists. russia has assured us that up to 30 charter flights per day could soon be arriving here. reporter: turkey is one of the last countries in europe still fully open to russians, including oligarchs who moor their superyachts here, safe from sanctions.
turkish president recep tayyip erdogan calls both ukraine and russia friends. he offered to mediate between the two warring parties, so far, without success. tanya and her children are staying with turkish friends. the two families got to know one another before the war. semiha: we try to distract her, so she doesn't watch so much news. otherwise, she won't stop crying. that's hard on me, too. reporter: but distraction doesn't always work. tanya's husband is still in kyiv, helping with the civil defense. tanya: i want to go back to my husband, to my homeland. but i'm afraid and i don't know how to live with my fear. i hear stories about girls getting raped, many between 10 and 14 years of age. they're in hospital and quite a
few are pregnant. reporter: and so, here in the hills above antalya, the ukrainian is caught up again and again by the brutal war crimes in her homeland, while russian tourists sun themselves on the beaches below. tanya: you know, i'm a very level-headed person. i avoid conflict and hardly ever start arguments. but seeing people from russia spending their vacations here and having a good time makes me pretty mad. reporter: tanya mozkal would also have liked to enjoy a relaxing family vacation in antalya this year. but, right now, each visit to the beach is a painful experience. lara: far from mass tourism and crowded beaches is extremadura in spain. the region, which is west of the capital madrid, is known for its breathtaking nature.
but despite the beauty, all is not well on isla de valdecañas. a luxury resort was erected in the middle of a bird sanctuary, and now a court has deemed it illegal and ordered it to be demolished. a victory for julio césar, an environmentalist, but a huge blow for the property owners who are crying foul. reporter: upon entry, it's clear this is an exclusive resort, from the golf course and marina to the discreetly placed villas. the marina de valdecañas rests on an island in a large reservoir. from above, you can hardly see there are any buildings. but this is a nature preserve and bird sanctuary, so the settlement has to go. down below in paradise, it's red alert. a crisis meeting is held in the complex's four-star hotel. in attendance are owners -- mostly wealthy people from madrid who've paid upwards of
half a million euros for their villas -- and local villagers. united in their anger, they think the total demolition by court order is insane. “what was here before?” asks this speaker, pointing to a mound of garbage. “who cared about the environment then?” jose: we all agree that court rulings must be followed. but i think they just didn't have all the relevant information at hand. and now we're in an absolutely kafkaesque situation. reporter: the extremadura, a two-hour drive southwest of madrid, is a natural paradise. but it's also one of spain's poorest regions. here, a third of the population lives at or below the poverty line. el gordo, the village next door to the resort, once had nearly 2000 residents -- now there are just 400.
the people from madrid saved us, they say. suddenly there were jobs in the hotel and on the golf course, and property taxes for the village coffers. jeanette sarro returned to el gordo a few years ago. she sold her house in town and put all her money into this shop. but the villagers seldom shop here. her business caters to the wealthy clientele who stop in on their way to their weekend homes. jeanette: we might have to close up shop. and we've only just opened. then we can flush our whole investment down the drain. and it just makes me sad because we'd have to leave the village again. reporter: so far, the idyll is intact, and everyone is going about their daily business. but years of legal battles have already left their mark. because even before the last ruling, the demolition ruling,
construction was halted. the project developers are bewildered. they tried to do everything right, make everything pretty, not like the concrete monstrosities of the 1970's and 1980's. but did they never have second thoughts? jose: no, never. after the first ruling, the regional government even amended the land use laws. they are entitled to do that. and so we assumed that there would not be the slightest problem. reporter: environmental activists say what didn't fit was simply made to fit. julio césar is one of the campaigners who filed suit against the marina de valdecañas, probably making him one of the least popular people in the district. but that doesn't faze him. everyone knew that this was a nature preserve, that birds live and breed here. and still, they built. julio:
this is going to set a precedent. if you don't tear it down and leave it as is because it's already standing, despite all the court rulings and all the surveys, that's sending a signal -- in spain, you can do whatever you want. reporter: total demolition -- that means everything. not just the hotel and houses, but also power boxes, water lines, and sports fields. this would have to be handled by the regional government, which had approved it all. in the regional parliament, they've vowed to fight the ruling all the way to the spanish constitutional court. that may also have to do with money. because the cost of demolition and compensation for the owners is estimated at 140 million euros. if it really comes to that, spanish taxpayers will be
financing a first-class funeral for the marina de valdecañas. lara: environmental protection is also a top priority for john and edward towers. the english dairy farmers love their job and their livestock. but cows are climate killers -- they emit methane, which is a leading contributor of greenhouse gases. at their farm in farleton near lancashur, an experiment is underway to make the industry greener. the cows have been put on a modified diet designed to clear the air. reporter: cows exude a certain calm and wisdom. and provide us with food. john and edward towers have a special bond with these animals. father and son are dairy farmers in northern england. their only concern is that their cows produce large
quantities of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. ed: if we can't solve the problems that we've got within the industry, and it's affecting the planet in a bad way, we can't produce milk, and people can't drink milk. we need to solve these problems as an industry for the industry to carry on. because if it's not serving the planet well, well, we shouldn't have it. reporter: there are some 1.5 billion cows on the planet. they produce a third of the world's methane emissions, mainly through their belching. this makes them a climate hazard. so the towers are experimenting with a new type of feed supplement, made from garlic and citrus. it influences enzymes in the cows' stomach and intestines. the astonishing result -- the cows emit 30% less methane.
the towers' receive regular visits from other farmers and agricultural experts, like these representatives from a livestock auction house. the towers want their visitors to recommend the new product so that more farmers can reduce their carbon footprint. ed: it's about 50% of most farm's carbon footprint, is that methane emission. it would then effectively knock our product down by about 15% in terms of the overall carbon footprint. this is the product that we've been feeding, a garlic and citrus extract. it's fairly strong-smelling, if you want to have a little whiff. don't get too close, because it'll knock your socks off. reporter: alternatives to cow's milk, such as soy, oat, and almond milk have been gaining popularity in recent years. that's a trend the towers are determined to stop. their family has lived in lancashire for centuries.
farmers here claim that the soil is too poor for most crops, but perfect for cows to graze. protecting the earth is something farmer john towers sees as his special responsibility. john: i feel i am very fortunate to be working with the younger generation of my family, who are probably more foresighted than i am, and they could see the change coming faster than i could see it coming. they've driven our business in that direction, to face the challenge, and to adapt our market to what our consumer is actually looking for. reporter: feeding the garlic supplement to their 400 cows costs the towers about 20,000 euros a year. in the future, the climate-friendly milk should be a part of emissions trading, allowing farmers to offset the additional costs, ed towers says. ed: i want to put solar panels on,
and i want to have electric tractors, and i want to cover over the lagoons so that i can capture the methane and use it for the tractors. all those things cost money. and if we do them all at once, we would run out of cash and then we're a terrible example, even if all those ideas were going to work. so, it's a case of sometimes reining in your ambitions, or making sure you've got partnerships with other companies that also have the same kind of values as you. reporter: many farmers are old-school and reluctant to change, says john towers. but father and son aim to do everything in their power to make other dairy farmers more climate conscious. and they have one good argument in their favor -- their milk doesn't taste of garlic at all. lara: now to the happiest place on earth -- finland. for a fifth year in a row, it has topped the list of the world's happiest countries. so wherein lies the secret? for salla honkavuori, happiness
is spending time with her family enjoying the great outdoors. despite her country's reputation, salla doesn't take her blessings for granted. finland shares a border with russia, and the war in ukraine has prompted finns to reassess the threat their neighbor poses. reporter: living way up north means long periods of cold and darkness. yet finns say they are the happiest people on the planet. salla: willpower, resilience, and a lot of respect for nature -- that's what makes us happy. reporter: well, that and some delicious food by the lake. salla honkavuori and her family come here once a week. tonight's menu -- salmon and grilled vegetables. lake akanjärvi is in lapland, the northernmost part of finland. it's the place of their dreams. salla: i love these hills.
it's the landscape of my soul. when i stand on top of that mount overlooking the vastness, i just feel small and insignificant. and then all my day-to-day worries also seem trivial. reporter: that's one reason why she and her family are looking for a new home here in lapland. the content manager comes from the south of finland. now she and her husband want to move to lapland, along with their two children, ani and miklas, to allow the youngsters to spend as much time as possible in nature, far from urban life. that's why the family is moving around in search of their happy place, preferably one with few other people. even though helsinki is considered one of europe's greenest and most easy-going capitals, it has too much stress and too little nature for this family.
alongside nature, the finnish state itself is a major factor in the happiness of its citizens. frank: we have freedom of the press and freedom of expression in finland. there are free elections and the level of corruption is very low. you also have the feel-good package of the welfare state -- child benefits, unemployment benefits, and pensions. it gives people the feeling that the state actually cares about them. reporter: but can this welfare state protect its citizens from an outside threat? that's something many finns worry about, including salla's family. finland's border with russia is more than 1000 kilometers long, and russia is an unpredictable neighbor whose attack on ukraine has shocked the world. salla: of course i'm worried about the current situation. but i try not to think about it and hope that everything will
get better soon. i don't want it to take over my life, because that would just make me feel unhappy. reporter: the family's mood is, however, quite relaxed. it's still the season for winter sports, and by introducing ani and miklas to snowboarding, salla is passing on her love for lapland's great outdoors. here, the ski-season lasts from october to may. but the sauna-season is year-round. for finns, every day is a good day for a sauna. salla: sauna is a big deal here. we often take a sauna, sometimes on special occasions like christmas or midsummer, three times a day. it brings people together. taking a sauna means cleansing your body and your mind. reporter: can there be happiness without it? salla: no way. sauna goes hand-in-hand with happiness.
it really plays a big part in our lives. reporter: freedom is decisive for her happiness, says salla honkavuori. someday she hopes to travel all over europe with her family, before returning to her favorite lake in lapland, her happy place. lara: that's all for us this week at “focus on europe.” don't forget, you can watch more of our shows online at dw.com. thanks for your company. bye for now. ♪ [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org]