tv PBS News Hour PBS September 30, 2021 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT
♪ >> good evening. on the newshour tonight, high-stakes. congress passes a key government funding measure, but democrats remain divided at a critical juncture amid tense legislative negotiation. then, getting the vaccine. the centers for disease control issues an urgent appeal calling on pregnant women to get vaccinated against covid-19. a country in crisis. mozambique battles and isis affiliated insurgency. we examined the drivers of the conflict and the few options left for everyday citizens. >> we blame the bosses of our country. they did not want people to
suffer, they would not give the wealth to foreigners. >> all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour. ♪ >> major fundingor the pbs newshour has been provided by. >> before we talk about your investments, what is new? >> audrey is inspecting. -- is expecting. >> twins. >> changing plans. >> at fidelity, a change in plans is always part of the plan. >> johnson & johnson. bnsf railway. consumer cellular. financial services firm raymond james. video, -- bdo, accountants and advisors. the kendeda fund, committed to
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>> it is all but certain that there will be no government shutdown tonight. a bill extending funding for two months is now before president biden. after it cleared congress this afternoon. still, for the white house and congressional democrats, the pressure is not over. for much of today, it was not certain whether the u.s. house would vote on a $1 trillion infrastructure bill tonight. as speaker nancy pelosi has promised. following all the twists and turns in the story today. first of all, lisa, you are wearing an eye patch. you hurt your i. are you all right? >> i'm fine. no one in congress is responsible for this. was my own fault. i was rushing. i was thinking about something intensely and i pulled car door into my face but i will be fine. it is a reminder may be we all need to slow down. >> we want you to take care of
yourself and it will get better. about what is going on, where do things stand? is it thought that speaker pelosi will go ahead with the voteonight? >> it is. what a dramatic day. that was not what we were expecting this morning. let's look at this reminder of where we are at. these are critical decisions care the infrastructure bill still needs to be passed by the house. it has -- it is bipartisan. progressives want the reconciliation bill with childcare and climate to go first. they were reluctant and they said there would be no votes on the infrastructure bill. pelosi has said and i have been hearing the vote will be tonight after 9:00 eastern time. what proessives are waiting for especially is the word of two senators. kyrsten sinema and joe manchin, the moderates who have been holding out saying 3.5 trillion is too high. until today, joe manchin had not said what number he wants. he did do that today. let's listen. >> my top line has been 1.5
because i believe in my heart what we can do and what the needs have right now and what we can afford to do without changing our whole society to an entitlement mentality. >> protesters were not far away from where senator manchin was speaking and that is 1.5 trillion he was talking about. to trillion dollars away from what these folks want instead. a lot is on the line. we do expect this vote tonight but we do not expect how speaker pelosi will get those votes. as of yesterday, she seemed to be missing 40 to 60 votes of progressives. house republicans say they are not going to make up the difference. she is saying she is confident and it is a mistake -- a mystery as to how the one of the best legislators in modern american history will make this up. >> sounds like it is going to be a late night. at the white house, tell us what is going on. what the president and his people are up to and what is their sense of how all this is going to impact the president's
agenda? >> it is a great question. i want to say the fact that lisa is reporting with an ipaq shows you the dedication we have and how lucky we are to have her on a day like today. we are all reading you will be fine. as to what is happening today at the white house, the president and white house aides have spent all day scrambling trying to get democrats on the same page. the president has not been seen in public. i am told he has been behind the scenes lawmakers. making the pitch he needs his party to get together to try to pass this robust agenda that he promised to the american people. the president is making this pitch to his party. we all want to be on the same page in terms of infrastructure. we'll want to have children -- will want children to have clean drinking water. we want children to have access to broadband. that is why he has been telling lawmakers he does not want to link the bills paired the first bill, he does see it as a critical first step to helping
people and americans who need the help now. this really is the president's legacy on the line. it is a huge test for his party. the white house is saying even if this does not happen today, there are other days to come. as a deadline democrats for themselves. even after today, they hope this process continues. they not admitting failure but they are hinting at the fact the part of the dashed that the president will continue to try to get votes for the larger infrastructure bill. >> hard to think of a more stressful time at the white house. whatever happens with this infrastructure legislation, what is the sense of what democrats are going to do going forward? >> with reconciliation, this is the quandary for them. tough choices are ahead. it is not going to be $3.5 trillion. they are going to have to compromise between themselves. they are going to have to cut something from it. how do they handle that? those talks are beginning now. while many democrats wanted the
process to be ending this week, the truth is the negotiations on reconciliation among democrats are just beginning. >> a long journey of that legislation. please take care of yourself. thank you both. ♪ >> i'm vanea at newshour west paired we wi return to the fu program after the latest headlines. president biden signed a stopgap funding billo avoid a government shutdown, extending funding through early december and providing emergency aid to support the resettlement of afghan refugees and disaster recovery efforts across the country. the national school boards association sought federal help today to investigate threats over mask mandates and other pandemic measures.
the group wrote to president biden and warned that rising violence and threats are quote, equivalent to a form of domestic terrorism and hate crimes. at a u.s. senate hearing, how secretary javier becerra said there is plenty of president for covid protective measures. >> 50 years ago, some people protested using seatbelts. today would you not. we know how safe and effective they are. same thing with vaccines. same thing with masks. same thing with social distancing. same thing with her hygiene. we know what works. it is common sense. >> a federal appeals court has allowed the biden administration to continue the use of title 42. a public health order that quickly expels migrants apprehended on the u.s. mexico border. the trump and administration first and plummeted the spread of the coronavirus and the biden administration has continued it despite legal challenges. at the same time, the biden
administration is rolling out new guidelines that will target only migrants who illegally entered the country since last november or who pose a threat to public safety. the new rules take effect november 29. the number of suicides any the active-duty u.s. military rose 15% last year to 580. the overall suicide rate rose only slightly. the figures are part of a pentagon report released today. officials say they do not see any influence from the covid pandemic. u.s. senators attacked facebook today over findings that it's instagram platform can harm teenagers mental health. the wall street journal has reported facebook's own research shows pressure pressure on instagram feels eating disorders and -- fuels eating disorders and suicidal thoughts. richard blumenthal challenge the global safety chief as she disputed those accounts. >> we are looking to find ways to release more of this research
. i want to be clear this research is not a bombshell. it is not causal research. >> i beg to differ with you, ms. davis. this research is a bombshell. it is powerful, gripping, riveting evidence that facebook knows of the harmful effects of its site on children and that it has concealed those facts. >> next week, senators will hear from a facebook whistleblower. late today, the senate confirmed tracy stone manning to head the bureau of land management. the montana resident most recently advised the national wildlife federation on conservation policy. she was confirmed along party lines. the blm manages about 12% of the u.s. landmass mostly in the west. korean automaker hyundai is
recalling 550,000 hyundai and kia vehicles in the u.s. overfull to turn signals. the company says the signals can flash the opposite of what a iver intends. the recall includes hyundai midsize sonatas and sedona minivans made by kia. model years 2015 to 2017. still to come, the cdc calls for urgent action to increase covid vaccines among people who are pregnant. a massive chinese company's financial troubles threaten an alady unstle market. one african country's battle against an isis affiliated insurgency. plus much more. ♪ >> this is the pbs newshour from w eta studios in washington and in the west the walter cronkite school of journalism that arizona state university. >> has democrats work to reach angreement on trillions of
dollars of government spending, theate of the final price tag and the successful package of the president's overall legislative agenda largely hinges on receiving support from two key influential democratic senators, west virginia's joe manchin and arizona's kyrsten sinema. we have reports on how they each think about politics and the pressures they face in their home states beginning with lisa who is back when she was in the mountain state. >> in west virginia, high school football gets you full throated, field throated -- feel tradition. and a stadium full of political insight. for those who have known j manchin the longest. >> his office was right next door to mine. >> we went to the same church for a while. >> he fishes where i fish. >> i was probably a freshman when he was a senior. >> they are from joe manchin's
home county where his identity was forged. started on the football field as a standout player. but now the game and winning are much more complicated. >> i don't agree with his politics. >> from right of center. >> not the way they are taking over the united states. everything is wrong. >> and from left. >> i think he is letting the democratic party down. >> that is the house. >> stephanie gives us a tour of farmington, her hometown and his. >> does every buddy no joe manchin here? >> if they don't, they know a cousin or a brother or some type of relation. >> 400 people and one stoplight. farmington was built up by coal miners to are those wondering why he is a democrat, much of it is here. she and her grandmother who live next to each other .2 the tightknit immigrant community --
other point two the tightknit immigrant committee. >> croatians, polish. all these other different countries. when they got here, they were on an even playing field. >> this building was their grocery store. they also own to furniture store where he worked. the stores and family framed his rent of democrat. his family regularly helped struggling miners with food and clothes and everyone was expected to work hard. >> don't get things for free but at the same time, being in that environment, he saw the good deeds and the way they paid it forward to other families. he always >> stood up because he wanted to help. >> over 20 years, he rose from state delegate to governor. build at reading political winds, he worked by forcing opposite sides to talk and he often got his way. cutting taxes while expanding a few pieces of the social safety net. here he is at t 2008
democratic convention. >> we reduce the size of state government and tackled our debts. now the time has come for washington to follow our example and bridge partisan divides to bring america the changing needs. >> that year as governor, he swept every county in the state but a decade laternd a decade later in 2018, senator manchin barely won. the state has shifted dramatically to the white. some democrats are shifting too. with pressures on home state and younger progressives. >> there are some things that are existential. climate change, existential. the state of the pandemic, existential. >> 20-year-old jared shows us the pictures of his beloved dead who died of covid last year. >> that chair right there, that was the last seat he got to sit in in that house because he had to search for his insurance card. >> he remembers a teacher
offering to keep them fed when his dad lost his job. >> i took from a lesson held to be a west virginia in. we care for those who need care. >> he believes mansion has good intentions. is he making the kind of deals you think should be made for the country echo >> kno i don't know how long this window of opportunity for democrats is going to remain open in washington. >> that is mike, current state senator, ally and longtime union leader. joe manchin was governor during two major coal disasters. afterward, he led pushes for mining benefits. >> his care for health and safety on the job makes him a democrat. >> and of course, coal is a major factor. on most everything else, he wants mansion -- he wants joe manchin to head more left.
>> i think he makes his decision based on what he believes is the right thing to do for west virginia. i don't think he will cave to that type of outside pressure. >> from voters, we heard one thing the most that he sits on the fence too often and for too long. but not in doubt that he is the same middle-of-the-road democrat who was first elected to office 40 years ago. >> i'm stephanie at the arizona state capitol in phoenix where kyrsten sinema started her little career. unlike senator joe manchin, she was not always the centrist willing to reach across the aisle. in her ely activist days, she used to attend protests on this very long. her reputation was as a liberal flamethrower. her move to the center has confounded and angered aggressive democrats. -- angered progressive democrats.
kyrsten sinema used it lead protests. now the tables have turned. since the summer, she has been the target of anger by activists in the democratic party from the civil rights leader jesse jackson to workers rights leader dolores huerta who last week melted an ice sculpture of senator cinema in effigy. >> is beautiful statue we have here. your sport is going to note away. >> an educational and political consultant in phoenix says she has volunteered for senator cinema for more than a decade. >> i would cling to her every word. she would talk about having the proper education and knowing how to interact with opposing views. but it was always standing on your values. it was not selling out. i remember she -- our member when she was approachable. >> david wells, a political science professor at arizona
state university attended rallies with her protesting the wars in iraq and afghanistan. >> she ran for legislature the first time as an independent. she did not want to be outside the two parties. she worked really hard but she lost. then she ran as a democratic and one in the house. >> and then elected to congress. >> i like the fact how she kind of bucked the status quo at the time and standing up as though she was the people's champion. >> in 2018, she became the first democrat elected to represent arizona in the senate since 1995 and the first woman. >> arizonans don't care whether you have an r or a d at the end of your name. what they care about is whether you are able to deliver real results for everyday arizonans. >> i am a former republican. >> and you are a conservative. so what do you like about senator cinema? >> everything. she is young. she is cute. she has two masters.
she has a law degree. she has run in two iron man's. >> rick ireland is a staunch supporter. >> i tell people i was on her selection committee. they would say do you know who she is? she is very liberal. she wears pink tutus and she is anti-this and anti-that. >> but ireland, a former army officer and businessman sees beyond her brazen fashion statements and early activism and says she has grown up. >> she is to me neither right nor left. she is right down the middle. she reminds me of my political hero in this state and that is john mccain. >> john mccain was arizona senator for more than three decades. there are signs senator cinema has taking cues from the man known as a maverick. last march, she voted no to increasing the mid mom wage to
$15 an hour in covid stimulus bill. giving a thumbs down, echoing mccain's game changing vote against repealing the affordable care act. but for chanel, her performance that day was a stab in the heart. >> i cut goosebumps. -- i got goosebumps. again, these are the same families from the organizers who have been knocking on doors and making phone calls and persuading voters to vote for her to say she was going to be our champion. >> this sentiment may put sinema at risk if she faces a democratic primary challenger in 2024. but david wells says her shift to the middle reflects her pragmatic side and her view toward the long game. >> republicans are going to have a hard time running anybody of note against her.
>> an unlikely duo. kyrsten sinema and joe manchin, two critical votes deciding the democratic agenda in washington. for the pbs newshour loader -- newshour, i'm stephanie sy in phoenix, arizona. >> lisa joins me again. you and stephanie looking at these two senators. but what do you know, what do we know about their role as negotiators? >> there's so much to say. they are very different kind of negotiators. other them try to forge copper mice. from my reporting, kyrsten sinema has a spreadsheet. she is looking at different kinds of policies. how much they cost. joe manchin is looking at the 30,000 foot view. he has maybe six or seven overarching goals but he is not getting into the weeds. what he wants is for the opposing sides to come together and duke it out in room. they are a little bit different in how they work with their state. joe manchin is the son of west virginia.
someone told me everyone has his cell phone in western europe. i asked 134 people. random people. three of them did have joe manchin cell phone. 60 of them said i know somebody who has his cell phone. his cell phone went off today during his news conference. his influence comes from his state. >> the other thing that we need to say about these two individuals is what they face in terms of the election. they are both up in 2024. what are the political calculations at this moment? >> kyrsten sinema is from a purple state where there are very fractured divides politically. there is a big question for both of these lawmakers. does donald trump run for president in 2024? that will affect their fate dramatically. kyrsten sinema, it is a little bit different where we saw joe biden win. for joe manchin, he has survived in one of the most trump states in the country. will make things for harder -- things harder for him if trump
runs. they both want to say representatives and serving their state in four years. they also are hearing a lot from what their constituents say about what this means for their party. these are the two dynamics that are difficult for them. >> over three years away but still very much in focus. thank you again. the cdc released its most urgent appeal today calling on pregnant women to get vaccinated against covid-19. new cdc data show that pregnant women are twice as likely to be hospitalized if they get the virus. more than 22,000 women have been hospitalized so far. 161 have died. 22 of those deaths were in august. more on the vaccine and the risks of the virus. >> just 32% of pregnant women
are currently vaccinated and the racial disparities are stark. among asian women, 47% are vaccinated as her 35% of white women. among hispanics and latinos, only 27% or not you appeared among black women, 17%. we explore this all with the founder and president of the national birth equity collaborative. that is an organization focused on the reproductive health and well-being of black women. welcome to the newshour. thank you for making the time. let's start with the overall number. what to we know about why the vaccination rates for pregnant women are so low? >> we took a long time to get around to pregnant women. if you about the beginning of this pandemic, we were focused on the elderly, front-line workers and so our messaging and outreach focused on those areas. for so long, that left pregnant women as well as pregnant people
and children out of the conversation. it was confusing. if you are pregnant right now, it has been 18 months. why are you coming to me saying i need to be vaccinated? we have to do a good job of explaining although in the beginning we did not have data that showed it was important for pregnant people to become vaccinated because they were not the most at risk. we got the front-line workers vaccinated. we got the elderly vaccinated. now the virus has moved on to the next host the next host who is on vaccinated is pregnant people and children. the science tells us it is time we beef up our efforts in reaching out to the group. >> what is in urgent action from the cdc? how does that get more shots in arms? >> it is really important. i know from my colleagues many people are not telling their patients to become vaccinated. when we see a call from the cdc, we heed that. as scientists, midwives, ob/gyn's, the cdc saying you
need to make sure pregnant people are vaccinated, that means our job is to ensure our patients when they come in for their appointments, we offer the vaccine. we have it in their off -- our offices. changes the sense of urgency when the cdc says to the community this is important hours job is to respond where patients can thrive. >> what about the gap we are seeing across racial and ethnic background? >> we know there is warranted mistrust. we have a history of legacy. the black community have a mistrust of the health-care system. that is an opportunity. we can ensure we give them the information they need so they come in a good decision -- they can make a good decision. >> we have seen pregnant women and women who hope to be pregnant targeted with misinformation online. i went to tech through some of the things -- i want to tech through some of the things we have seen to is there any evidence vaccine causes
infertility? >> there is no evidence the vaccine causes infertility. we are worried in the future we might find out covid causes infertility because we know it causes blood vessel damage. you have blood vessels around your ovaries, reproductive parts. you want to get vaccinated to protect your fertility not because it does not harm it. >> any acts any evidence the vaccine increases the chance of a miscarriage? >> there is no evidence vaccine causes miscarriages or stillbirth. instead of focusing on the vaccine, we should be worried about the what -- the virus. the virus causes illness. getting the vaccine protects your baby and you from having a baby that is too small. >> if someone is pregnant or thinking about becoming pregnant, what would you be -- what would be your best advice to them? >> it is important to talk to
your provider, which is one of the reasons why we see lower rates with black and latino folks. a trusted provider to ensure you feel comfortable and get all your answers, your questions answered because we want you to be safe. if you're thinking about being pregnant, trying to get pregnant or if you are lactating, all of those times are safe to be vaccinated and ensure your provider has a conversation with you to ensure all your questions are answered so we can get you vaccinated. >> that is the founder and president of the national birth equity collaborative. thank you for your time. >> it has been my pleasure. ♪ it's >> too big to fail. a phrase used during the 28 financial crisis for large companies so overextended that their collapse could cripple the
global markets. now china is trying to make a too big company with too much debt that has already missed key payments and manage its failure. the company is a real estate giant called evergrande. >> the mission was occupy ever grande in a country where protest was often prohibited, investors filled the lobby to chant, give us our money back. they direct their fury at a manager. his solution is rejected and he is dejected next to a woman who speaks for the crowd. >> if they don't give me my money back, i will jump off a tall building. have cheated me out of all my money. i have nothing left. >> evergrande build itself and help china build extraordinary growth thanks to those tall buildings. this promotional clip shows evergrande departments for china's booming upper middle
class. evergrande became one of the largest real estate developers by building apartments and pre-selling them before they were done. have built apartments remain unfinished even though people already paid. >> we definitely hope the government will come out and give us an assurance. we still have to pay the mortgage. >> it was xi jinping's government that looked at evergrande and china's real estate giants and decided to cut them down to size. at one point, evergrande's ceo rejected a $100 million yacht as to plane. >> evergrande is the poster child for what beijing is looking to do. >> michael is theractice head for the eurasia group and the former u.s. treasury chief representative in beijing. he says the $300 billion of debt amassed by evergrande, whose headquarters towers over shenzhen, was considered too risky. >> china is basically five years into what they are calling a
financial d risking campaign. it is a reflection of the fact that xi jinping and the chinese leadership realized if they did not get serious about desk -- about debt risks, they could bring the whole system down. >> not only her risk of more protests outside of the headquarters police try to hide but also contagion. last week, evergrande's troubles led to the dow jones worst day in months. experts say evergrande is not a repeat of lehman brothers in 2008. bankers left their jobs and left the global financial system on the verge of collapse. when it comes to real estate, what happens in china does not stay in ina. >> in a worst-case scenario, what we would see is the fallout from evergrande ripple through the sector. a fall in property prices, property sales, property demand that would have a big impact on china's growth. >> a ripple in china could mean
a ripple globally. >> if you think of the property sector in china as 25 to 30% of china's economy, think of the fact that china has been generating about 30% of global growth in recent years. this is an edge in for china's economy in china is an edge in for the global economy. >> beijing assures the world even if there is no bailout, china will not explode. >> various regions and various government departments have adhered to the principle of housing for living in. and stabilized housing prices. the overall situation has restate -- has retained a stable trend. >> china faces economic headwinds and now rolling blackouts. the lights are out in many shops and factories to delay this year's holiday shipments. the cuts come from beijing's reigning in emissions from coal-fired plants to meet environmental targets. beijing things cleaning up
pollution as popular and helps long-term stability. that require short-term pain. whether it is electricity or housing, the risk is the communist party will fail to deliver the immediate prosperity it believes create stability. >> we have president xi jinping striking this scheme of common prosperity, which means equitable gains for households. the party is going to take care of you. it is going to ensure quality of life and having households purchasing apartments that don't get delivered looks worse than ever. >> beijing is trying to reduce risk without sparkg crises. whether it could succeed could determine the country's economic future. ♪ >> the southeast african nation of mozambique is being terrorized by al-shabaab, an
isis affiliated agency that has killed 3000 people. we first reported from their earlier this year and with support of the pulitzer center, a special correspondent and filmmaker recently returned to mozambique to report on the drivers of this conflict. >> islamic insurgents have been pushing for control in northern mozambique since 2017. in their own videos, they pledge allegiance to the so-called islamic state and show off their weapons. ey build their territory by terrorizing towns andillages. the conflict has displaced more than 800,000 people. families in horrific violence and human rights workers
struggle to keep up with the flow of people and reach those trapped in the middle of the conflict zone. 100 miles south of the fighting, people displaced by the violence live here with local families. the host community is flooded with newcomers. in this village, we meet a 28-year-old. she and her baby were held captive for a month after insurgents attacked her village. >> i was scared and shaking and i was crying. i could not look at them. >> before escaping, victor witnessed the brutality. >> we saw them beheading men. they would hold the men by the ears and tied them to posts. they would behead them and bring the heads inside to show us. they said this is the work that we do. >> many of this -- the displaced people we met during our two weeks said they also witnessed beheadings and obscene violence.
their stories made us want to understand the motives of the insurgents beyond the narrative of islamic extremism. it is rich in natural resources. while most local people still lives in extreme poverty, the large international companies profit from the regions wealth. the insurgency has grown around one of africa's largest foreign investments. a $20 billion natural gas project run by french energy giant total. in march, the insurgents mounted a significant attack where the project is located. prompting total to suspend its operations. total told pbs newshour it is committed to ensuring local
communities benefit from the project. the same preconditions for insurgency that exist around the gas project are also growing around one of the most infamous industries. mining. we tracked deep into a forest in the major mining area to gain access to a legal gold and ruby mines. multi nationals including a u.k. based company have bought rights from the mozambique government to extract precious minerals and stones from this area. these miners say the presence of large companies has left them little choice but to dig illegally. >> we blame the bosses of our country. if they did not want their peopleo suffer, they would not give our wealth to foreigners. they would leave it to us. as you can see, these people are very angry. >> reports suggest requests from big businesses from mining
concessions have increased as the contact -- the conflict has escalated. indication mining companies are benefiting from the insurgency. the men in this minor working under tough conditions and say they are often beaten and chased away by security forces. being pushed out of the mineral industry is one of the many reasons why the people of cabo donato province are unhappy with their government. in the famous ruby minds, the conflict between illegal miner and multinationals boils downs to a simple problem. >> white people want the stones. we want them too >>. experts on the conflict are concerd it is this anger with the government in cabo delgado that is filling the insurgency. he works for the royal environment conservatory which aims to contribute to the sustainable environment of sustainable regions.
>> it has all the conditions for the insurgents. this mining project only increases social isolation. it creates the sense of social anger and revenge. >> in statement, jim fields told pbs newshour a country's gemstones are not resources to be looted for purely personal gain and said the suggestion that mining has contributed to the insurgency is absurd and misleading. in addition to minerals and natural gas resources, there is also a large timber trade. trees are cut down legally and illegally and shipped to china. experts subject -- experts suspect insurgents could be felling trees and selling wo od to fund their operations. the more money they make, the
moreillages they can attack, sending dozens of people each day south. insurgents control the roads further north so many people flee the fighting by boat. >> my children and i were seasick. we were vomiting. everyone in the vote -- the boat were vomiting. >> they complete their long journey to her mother's house. relief as the loved ones are reunited. her mother had been waiting for her daughter and grandchildren with no news. >> we spent almost two months without even going home waiting for my children to arrive at the beach. >> back on the beaches, it is not just people arriving by boat. cabo delgado is a key point along international drug trade corridors. drugs are ride in that -- arrive
in the port on cargo ships are transferred onto small fishing boats and brought ashore. one drug dealer was willing to speak to us under the condition of anonymity. what are the drugs come in from? -- where to the drugs come in from iago >> the drugs come from pakistan. from brazil or colombia. >> can you give us details about when they come in at the port ? >> bags of sugar. [indiscernible] >> heroin is estimated to be mozambique's second largest export. huge quantities of drugs are transported down to south africa and onto europe. analysts blame high-level corruption. >> it is not possible to make a business like this without the involvement of the mozambique
government in the army. -- and the army. >> interest in preserving this black market economy makes cabo delgado fertile ground for the insurgency to thrive. we wanted to ask the government about the marginalization of miners, the drug trade and multinational business interests but the regional authorities declined our request for an interview. in july, rwandan troops deployed to mozambique to help the government read -- help the government regain control. they now claim to have taken back most of the territory once held by the insurgents. but many who have been displaced by the conflict will not feel safe going home until security is restored. she is still living in a host community a 100 miles away from her village. >> we have nothing. i just want to go back home. >> that is what everyone we
spoke to said they want. in a region shattered by war, it seems the interest of big business has jeopardized the security of the people of cabo delgado. for the pbs newshour, in cabo delgado, mozambique. ♪ >> it is the famous lightbulb going off story every school kid learns. how james watson and francis crick discovered the structure of dna and cemented their place in scientific history. as william brangham explains, a new book paints a more troubling picture of how this famous discovery came about and who else deserves some credit. >> we are at the national academy of sciences, which is where the most celebrated scientists in america are members. for a long time, it was an all
boys club. >> and also an old white boys club. >> with very grayair. that was the way science was socially construct. >> howard is a doctor and medical historian. in his newook, he tells the famous story of james watson and francis crick who won the 1962 nobel prize in medicine for their discovery of the double helix shape of dna, which revolutionized the study of genetics. >> that catapulted them into the pantheon of great scientists like albert einstein. i will betf you are asked to name some nobel prize winners, i think everyone can say eyes dine but next would come watson and crick. >> in the book, he comes -- he tells how the discovery was based in part on the work of a researcher named rosalind franklin and how her contribution was denied for years. it is what he calls one of the most egregious ripoffs in the historof science. the secret of life opens with
that famous moment in 19 53 in cambridge, england when they have just made their discovery and rushed to share it with the world. >> they ran from the cavendish laboratory out toward free school lane literally 100 steps to the eagle pub, which was a favorite watering hole of many cambridge students and professors. the way watson described it, crick wing to end said the eagle and said they have discovered the secret to life. >> remind us of these central characters. >> watson was a young postdoctoral student. he had gotten his phd at indiana. he was dna crazy. long before other people thought dna was the genetic rentable. crick was a full-time graduate student. he was very loud. he had a loud laugh and he was
brilliant. he was so brilliant he would figure out your research questions before you did. nobody really wanted to talk to him. >> before we get to the central tension of your book, can you remind people who have not followed the science why their breakthrough was so astronomical and important? >> prior to 1953, no one understood heredity, genetics, how we pass on traits to our children or our grandchildren not to mention all the issues that dna led to in terms of rna and mrna viruses and vaccines. >> revolutionary things to this day. >> i call it a light switch moment because once that switch was turned on, nothing was ever the same. it changed everything. it was a major discovery. the problem is it was not entirely their discovery. >> rosalind franklin knew and interacted with watson and crick in the 1950's. she was at nearby king's college
doing similar research. she was an expert in x-ray crystallography, the use of reflected x-rays in complex calculations to work out the structure of incredibly small objects. he documents how without her knowledge, james watson was shown one of her key x-ray diffraction patterns and crick was shown one of her progress reports. armed with that information, the two men figured out that dna structure had to be a double helix. as francis crick later admitted. >> he said we did not do the double helix because things go in pairs. we did it for a reason because we had her data. >> the reality is if life was fair, it would be called the watson creek franklin model. >> do you think it is at all clear that they would have gotten there absent heard data? -- absent heard data? >> absolutely not. the more interesting question is that francis crick said of
course rosalind would have figured it out in a few weeks. it was that we figured it out faer. >> you also document in your book a very extensive campaign those two gentlemen went to hide the fact that her data had been this moment for them. why are they so set on denying her that a recognition? >> i think they never thought of rosalind has a serious competitor of their level. i think it was chauvinism to the nth degree and was very common in academic science on both sides of the atlantic ocean at that >> time. she was a tough person. she did not suffer pools she was quick to point out your mistakes. she was not necessarily the nicest person. you also say had she been a man, those traits would have written off as eccentricities. with her, they condemned her. >> she was very intense in her work and did not like to be bothered like a lot of scholars.
they get almost jarred when someone interrupts them. that was part -- that was how she worked. she really did have to focus on things. she was a difficult person. that said, these other guys were rather difficult and odious in their behavior. >> there are so many heartbreaking moments in this book. rosalind dies of cancer. maybe because of the work she was doing and being exposed to x-rays. >> at 38. > she also does not really find out how central her data was to their discovery and their nobel prize. she does not find out about this campaign that was waged to hide that from her. > she died only five years after the events. this conspiracy and i call it that because it was not just watson and crick. their bosses were involved. i asked her sister about this a few years ago and she said if rosalind had known, there would be a big fight. >> at the very end of your book,
after building this very convincing case of the stolen data and the cover-up of the theft, you are able to confront james watson and put these questions to him. it is a striking ending. >> it is the best ending of any book i have ever written. i guarantee you it will keep you on the edge of your seat as it kept me on mine. i challenged him about the whole rosalind franklin credit issue. as response was not pleasant. and was quite definitive. i don't agree with it. but it was an interesting moment in my interviewing career. >> we will leave it to the readers to see. the book is the secret of life, rosalind franklin, james watson, francis crick and the discovery of dna's double helix. always good to see you. ♪
>> the creek fire in central california burned across 385 thousand acres for three months in 2020. the u.s. forest service this summer said the cause of the fire was undetermined. the most probable cause was a lightning strike. in new documentary, valley pbs of fresno explores efforts to fight the fire and the impact on the surrounding community. >> a member getting on the radio operations division microphone, go ahead. we got 200 foot flame lengths. the fire is moving toward the east. we are going to have structure impact within the next hour. and copy. i need every additional resource. >> after burn, the creek fire documentary errors tonight at 7:00 p.m. pacific on valley pbs and streaming across pbs digital
and social platforms. we want to take note tonight of one of our own. calvin solomon worked as a graphic artist at the newshour for 33 years. he was the first african-american art director of a public broadcasting news program. in 2018, he was diagnosed with a brain tumor. calvin solomon died yesterday at 63 years old. our deepest condolences are with his friends and family. especially his wife, crystal. that is the newshour for tonight. join us online and again, here tomorrow evening for all of us at the pbs newshour, please stay safe and we will see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by -- 92 the rules of business are being reinvented with a more flexible workforce by embracing innovation, by looking only at current opportunities but ahead to future ones. >> people who know no bdo --
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