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tv   Matter of Fact With Soledad O Brien  NBC  July 14, 2019 5:00am-5:28am PDT

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>> right now on "matter of fact." >> when applying for a drivers license, does someone consent at the dmv to be in a database searchable by the fbi? >> republicans and democrats unite in a face off with the fbi to protect your privacy. plus -- >> we can see you coming down the ladder now. >> 50 years after the eagle landed, nasa gets set to return to the moon. but will they be bringing moving boxes? soledad: all of this is with an eye to one day people populating the moon? james: and mars. you bet. let's go. >> and returning to their roots. how women of color are fighting back against hair
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discrimination. >> this is who i am. why can't i participate in the workforce in this way? psoledad: i'm soledad o'brien. welcome to matter of fact. one area of bipartisan agreement on capitol hill is anger over the unregulated use of facial recognition technology by federal law enforcement agencies. congressional hearings, lawmakers from both parties grilled the fbi and other federal officials over privacy concerns. this, after government records revealed the fbi and homeland security are using facial recognition algorithims to scan state and local photo databases, like drivers license photos, without the public's awareness or consent. fbi deputy assistant director kimberly del greco testified that facial recognition is a crucial to protect public safety and that it doesn't interfere with civil liberties or privacy. but ohio republican congressman jim jordan, the ranking member of the house oversight committee, wasn't buying that.
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>> when they started this system, stood up this system there were five things they had , to follow that they didn't. my understanding is they still h'ecteall of those. is that accurate? >> that is correct. >> so they still haven't fixed the five things they were supposed to when they started. >> we have open recommendations. >> but we're supposed to believe , don't worry everything is just , fine. and we haven't even gotten to the fundamentals yet, not even the first amendment concerns, fourth amendment, we are just talking about the process of implementing, standing up the system. you said earlier to the chairman, you said strict policies that we follow -- how are we supposed to have confidence i first place? soledad: claire garvey is a technology center and testified
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before congress on this issue. it's so nice to have you, e here.t to soledad: so we so rarely talk about hearings where it's bipartisan. were you surprised about that as well? claire: honestly we've seen bipartisan support and interest in face recognition and face recognition poses very real concerns to our constitutional rights and that's something that everybody's concerned about. soledad: before we get into that i want you to step back and just explain for us who don't fully understand the technology what is it exactly and how does it work. claire: very simply put face recognition enables a law enforcement agency or whoever else is using the technology to take a photo of an unknown person, compare it against a database of known individuals and hopefully get a match get an identification. so this is very useful for law enforcement who might have surveillance photos that they can then compare that to a mug shot database or increasingly a driver's license mas matches.
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claire: there are a lot of there are a lot of false concerns with face recognition. one is that it gives law enforcement agencies a power that they've never had before. and this is why. face recognition is a biometric identification tool. think fingerprints, think dna. law enforcement can't scan a protest and secretly fingerprint everybody. they can't walk through a protest and demand that everybody show their i.d. they can use surveillance video and then run that through face recognition and identify everybody at that protest. face recognition enables the type of kith amendment. soledad: there are people who support this who would say, yeah, but it's another tool. i mean you mentioned fingerprints. dna tests would be another one . doesn't this just fall as another tool in a toolbox for law enforcement? claire: face recognition is a neutral. it has positive uses and negative uses. the problem is it has been deployed in a very, very widespread manner without any rules and without any transparency into how it's being used. and as a consequence, there are real concerns about how it might
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be used, about the accuracy issues when it comes to face recognition. soledad: are there specific groups of people who are consistently misidentified? claire: yes. face recognition consistently performs less accurately on certain groups of people, particularly women, people with darker skin, and young people. and it certainly doesn't benefit over-surveilled, over-policed communities who might be disproportionately likely to be misidentified for a crime they didn't commit because the tool is fundamentally faulty. soledad: thank you for the walking us through the 101 ony. apthank you for having me on. >> next on "matter of fact," does humanity's survival mean moving to mars? soledad: is that crazy. james: no, it's not crazy. it's in our future. >> how close nasa says we are to relocating to the red planet. plus, black women open up about hair bias in the workplace. >> i know the anxiety that people have after getting their hair done, and like, ok, what's people have after getting their hair done, and like, ok, what's going to happen when i go to
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entire country. the right to wear your hair however you like is now law in california. it's called the crown act, and it's supposed to protect people in workplaces and schools from racial discrimination based on their natural hair and style choices. that discrimination tends to target people of color, mainly black people. so now, styles like afros, braids, twists, cornrows, and locs are now protected. new york city issued a similar ban back in february after raelene roberts and other salon employees filed a complaint against their employer, a high-profile salon in manhattan. >> i love being natural because it makes me confident, it gives me freedom, it makes me feel stylish. i feel like i'm not like anyone else. ery time i got my hair done by one
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of my sisters, you know, it brought us together, like sitting in the kitchen with grandma doing, you know, our hair. it's memories. it's good memories. >> right after college, i began working at sharon dorram at sally hershberger salon as a receptionist. i first realized my hair was an issue for sharon dorram and the workers there when i asked for an evaluation from my general manager at the time. the only negative feedback he gave me was that my hair wasn't straight enough, even though i already straightened it with a flat iron. he said it needed to be a little bit straighter. when i came into work the next day with a wig, i was told that it looked like a wig. of course it looks like a wig, my hair doesn't do that. so after i was told it looked too weak and i shouldn't wear it, i left early that day, crying. i felt hurt, i felt like, why am i working here? why do you want me to work here
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if you don't like who i present myself as? >> usually hair discrimination cases are not often obvious and you have to do a little bit more digging. in order to prove some kind of discrimination under the new york city human rights law, all you have to show is differential treatment, or that you were treated less well because of the protected status. >> people of color in this messages and ideas about their hair and their skin and their appearance. our new york city rights law protects against race based discrimination and we've interpreted that to include discrimination based on hair. so that might be locks, braids, bantu knots, twists, fades, whatever it might be. >> this is not a grooming issue, this is a basic human rights issue. in the last year, we've seen a rise in viral videos of black people being punished or humiliated, pushed out of school because of the way they wear their hair. last summer, we watched wrestler
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andrew johnson have his locs cut off immediately before he was asked to compete in a wrestling match. the aclu represented twin sisters in massachusetts who were barred from their extracurricular activities because they wore their box braids, including extensions. even though white students at the school were allowed to wear extensions and other hairstyles. >> i think on one level, its outrage and anger, you know, this is who i am. why can't i participate in the workforce this way or why is my child, you know, my kindergartener, why can't they go to school because they have locks? underneath the anger i think er people from just wanting to live depression, because th their life. >> i know the anxiety that people have after getting their hair done, and like ok what's going to happen when i go to work, are they gonna say anything? >> you know, it's a big thing in the workplace. a lot of people don't wanna draw attention to themselves so they try to do the norm. >> a lot of the time i'd always
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get people just like saying how like soft my hair is and everything and like wanting to touch it. that's always a big thing. and like adults doing that, too, i'm like, you know, you don't touch no black woman hair. >> i think many employers may not realize the policies that they have in place are actually problematic. i foresee our hair guidance being a national trend and maybe even inspire a changed >> i wish sharon dorram asked me why i wore my hair the way i to change ofay she could've just educated herself by asking me those questions. soledad: a lawyer for sharon dorram color at sally herschberger salon says they did learn a lesson from raelene's complaint. while they deny the policy was applied only to african americans, she says that the owners understand that it wasn't sensitive to black people. the case was settled this year.
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>> when we come back, is nasa's planned to return to the moon just the start of an ambitious relocation package? >> our future generations will be living on mars. >> plus, the wage war moves to be living on mars. >> plus, the wage war moves to capitol hill ♪ ♪ be living on mars. >> plus, the wage war moves to capitol hill ♪
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soledad: next weekend marks the 50th anniversary of nasa's apollo 11 mission and humans' first steps on the moon. >> that's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. soledad: those famous words spoken by astronaut neil armstrong on july 20, 1969 ushered in what armstrong called the beginning of a new age. the landing was watched on t.v. by a half a billion people around the world.
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and on that same landing, fellow apollo 11 astronaut buzz aldrin "magnificent desolation." for more than two hours, the two astronauts explored the moon and collected samples which they brought back to earth. in total, six of the nine apollo missions successfully landed humans on the moon and returned them safely home. the astronauts collected more than 800 pounds of moon rock during their missions. some of those samples have never been unsealed until now. doctor james green is nasa's chief scientist. he's back with us. it's always nice to have you. james: my pleasure. soledad: thank you. thanks for visiting with us. so how is it possible that something that took place so long ago and brought back something incredible has not been investigated and explored until now? james: well, it was done intentionally, so our policy for sample return missions is 25% of the material stays pristine, unopened, and it's in anticipation of several things.
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one, we learn a lot about the samples that we have, that we do analyze. then that allows us to think about more things that we want to do with samples that are unopened, and second, and most importantly, the technologies in the laboratories just exploded, you know. so the apollo 11 mission when they brought back rocks, there was no ct, you know, scanning systems capable. and we now we look inside them. that's, you know, all kinds of game changing equipment now is available in the laboratories. soledad: what's the future of moon travel? obviously the president has said 2024. i mean, is that a realistic date? is that what you're really working toward right now? by the way that's around the , corner. james: yeah, it is in five years. it's a spectacular opportunity to take all the stuff that we've been developing and move it forward. i think we can do it.
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it's tremendously exciting for us to be able to think about going to the moon as soon as that and we're going to do it. soledad: why? what do we need to learn from the moon that we didn't get the first go round? james: so there's been all kinds of discoveries over the last several years and probably one of the most important one. it's an absolute game changer is that we have found water in ice form in the permanently shadowed regions of both the north and the south pole the moon. water is everything to us because that is a resource we then can drink. water is water, ok. it's h2o. even here on earth and on the moon. but it also allows us to break it apart. and the hydrogen and oxygen can be used for rocket fuel. the hydrogen we can then store but also the oxygen we can breathe and so it gives us atmosphere, life from water, and then rocket fuel. and that is exactly what we need
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when we go to mars, a resource of water. soledad: all of what you're describing sounds like you're planning for people to move to the moon one day. is that crazy? james: no, it's not crazy. it's in our future. you know soledad: how near future? james: well, the start of that, of course, is going to the moon in 2024. we're gonna develop an infrastructure. we'll have opportunities to literally live and work on a planetary surface. we'll practice that. soledad: all of this is with an eye to one day people populating the moon? james: and mars. you bet. let's go. soledad: and is it, because earth is going to be uninhabitable? james: no. we need to take care of the earth, the beautiful earth that we have. there's no question about that but i believe a single planet species cannot survive long. so yes, our future generations will be living on mars. soledad: and how in your mind -- i won't hold you to this because i realize it's a bit of a
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guesstimate -- how far away is that? james: we have to learn to live and work on these surfaces. and that'll take a little time. but this century that we're in is going to see some revolutionary changes. and i would expect us to be living on the moon and on mars before the end of it. soledad: dr. jim green, nice to have you always. the chief scientist at nasa. always a pleasure. james: thank you. soledad: you bet. >> coming up next, a masterpiece goes under the microscope. what will scientists learn by peeling back the layers of one of art's most famous paintings. plus -- soledad: raising the federal minimum wage to $15 would likely boost pay for 27 million workers. >> but what would an increase in the federal minimum wage really cost the american economy?
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soledad: now to a weekly feature we like to call we're paying attention even if you're too busy. both democrats and republicans comes to raising the federal
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minimum wage. a new report from the non partisan congressional budget raising the federal minimum wage to $15 would likely boost pay for 27 million workers, and lift 1.3 million households out of poverty. the same report found the income boost could trigger 1.3 million job losses as some businesses trimmed payroll by cutting jobs. the report comes as congress prepares to vote on the raise the ge act. a bill that would slowly increase the minimum wage to $15 by the year 2024. republican lawmakers opposed to the bill said the report shows an increase will hurt americans jobs. democrats said the report proves their point, that the benefits of raising the minimum wage vastly outweighs any cost. researchers at cal-berkley released another major study and found a similar positive effect on wages but no adverse effects on employment. the current federal minimum wage is $7.25 an hour. it'no
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since lawmakers have raised it. that's the longest period in history that it's stayed stagnant. >> when we return, a famous 17ts
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the thought of working with someone watching over your shoulder makes you anxious, try millions of people watching your every move. that's what happening right now at amsterdam's rikes-museum where artists are restoring one of the world's most famous paintings "the night watch" by dutch master, rembrandt. the museum created a special glass chamber so the restoration could happen while the painting is still on display, and the work will be livestreamed on the museum's website. rembrandt created "the night watch" back in 1642 but the restoration is very high tech. a team of more than 20 artists, curators and scientists are using x-rays to scan every millimeter of the paintin l're also takingn 12,000 high resolution, close-up photographs from a distance of five micrometers -- that's one thousandth of a millimeter. their goal is to learn more about the chemical elements,
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pigments, and techniques rembrandt used during the process. just this research phase of the restoration is expected to take at least a year. that's it for this edition of "matter of fact." we'll see you next week. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit]
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♪ robert handa: hello and welcome to "asian pacific america." i'm robert handa, your host for our show here on nbc bay area and cozi tv. today, asian americans and pacific islanders in film, both in front and behind the camera. "asian pacific america" went on the road to talk with cultural pioneers and the stars and co-writers of "always my maybe," now on netflix,nt on ali wong and randall park,ural along with director nahnatchka khan. and we start our show with one of our favorite events. it's time for frameline 43, the san francisco international lgbtq-plus film festival that starts this week. now, founded in 1977, this film festival is the longest-running, largest, and considered by many to be the most widely recognized lgbtq-plus film exhibition event in the world.
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