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tv   Journal  PBS  July 11, 2012 6:30pm-7:00pm PDT

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>> welcome to the "journal." i am anne o'donnell. >> and i am steve chaid. our top stories -- sticking to the streets. mass protests in spain against the government passed new austerity plans. >> and a day of mourning in bosnia 17 years after the massacre in srebrenica. >> as the when marks world population day, we look at some of the problems caused by -- as the un marks world population day, we look at some of the problems caused by overcrowding and ways to solve those problems. captioned by the national captioning institute >> anger on the streets of spain. scenes that are quite reminiscent of greece. >> the spanish government has announced a series of draconian
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austerity measures and tens of thousands have joined the protests in the capital of madrid. >> they say the plan's cost of 65 billion euros in public spending will hit hardest are those on low incomes. >> these miners spent the last 18 days walking from the north of the country all the way to the capital, madrid. they're protesting government austerity measures. the news of more cuts on wednesday only made matters worse. tension spilled over as protesters scuffled with riot police. prime minister rao joya -- rajoy defended his decision, saying the country's financial situation has changed and the only option is to overhaul the country's but it. he aims to cut it by 65 billion euros over two years with a hike in sales tax and massive spending cuts. >> we need money to be able to
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pay the salaries of civil servants, to cover our social spending, our health care system, our education system, and so on. those are billions that we do not have. the amount our government has to spend as much higher than the revenue we are taking in. >> that means more deep cuts, including four care for the homeless, at that time when the unemployment and homeless rates are soaring. >> if unemployment goes up, and we keep seeing more cuts and tax hikes, it is obvious that society will just explode because it is unsustainable. >> rajoy acknowledged he broke a campaign page -- pledge. but he said circumstances have changed. spain was facing an unprecedented recession. so, the people in spain are angry. eu officials believe it is the right path. our brussels correspondent spoke
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to us earlier. >> the european commission spokesperson welcomed the announcement by mariano rajoy, but would not comment on the details. they said that the measures looked decisive. what is clear is that the spanish government is following the eu's recommendations. they say that spain has to increase its tax revenues and also shift the tax burden from taxes on labor and income more to consumption. that is what is happening now. also -- also, spanish prime minister mariano rajoy announced that the retirement age will gradually increase to 67 years over the next 15 years. a lot is happening, but a lot more is needed. they are asking spain to do more to tighten and employment, especially amongst young people, to do more to improve the structural systems and get structural reforms under way. brussels does not want spain to enter into even deeper recession. they're watching closely what spain is doing. >> time to take a look at once
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the's market numbers. -- at a wednesday's market numbers. let's begin with frankfurt. the dax finished amid weak session up by 1/4 of 1%. looking pretty good on the euro stoxx 50. in new york, at this hour, the dow is trending lower at 12,566 points, off by nearly 7/10 of 1%. on currency markets, the euro is trading lower against the greenback at a dollar of $1 -- and the value of $1.22. german chancellor angela merkel is coming under pressure at home over reports of discussions involving exporting combat tanks to indonesia. >> indonesian media has reported that jakarta was interested in buying the tanks. german opposition leaders want to debate the issue in parliament. chancellor merkel has been visiting the world's most
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populous muslim nation this week. the indonesian president refused to deny the reports. merkel has no comment. let's see if we can get a comment from our own political correspondent, standing by. the indonesian product -- the indonesian president has promised that such tanks would not be used against his own people. the guarantee will not stop opponents from talking. >> that is right. critics of the deal have been registering protest today here in berlin -- protests today here in berlin, pointing out that indonesia has a bad human-rights record. these weapons have been used against indonesian citizens for many years. there are rules in place to prevent german weapons being exported if they are going to be used in the wrong way, but some opposition politicians are calling for this matter to be debated in the the bundestag.
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-- in the bundestag. it is hard to allay concerns to rest, quite apart from the fact that the german government cannot control what goes on in faraway indonesia. indonesia is an increasingly important country economically. it is a member of the g-20. it has a very dynamic economic -- it has very dynamic economic growth. germany is their largest trading part in the european union. that is why chancellor kohl is calling on the eu to sign free- merkel is calling on the eu to sign a free-trade agreement with jakarta. >> thank you very much. now, joint u.s.-arab league envoy kofi annan has briefed the council on efforts to gain
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support for his revised plan. >> he urged the council to make it clear to both sides that failure to reach a cease-fire will mean a serious consequences. his new plan calls for a halt to all violence in syria before peace talks even began. >> russia and china still have veto rights on the security council. the opposition national council has held talks with the russian foreign minister. it accuses russia of prolonging the 0-- the violence has continued. >> the hostilities in syria s how no sign of easing. diplomatic efforts are being stepped up. so far, they have proved fruitless. in russia, foreign minister -- the foreign minister has been trying to persuade members of the opposition syrian national council to change their position
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on speaking to syrian president al-assad. >> we want to understand how realistic the prospect is of uniting all of the opposition groups so that a dialogue with the government can happen on the basis of kofi enron's un- approved plan. -- kofi annnan's u.n.- approved plan. this is not a disagreement between the syrian people and the government, but a real revolution. it is similar to the events that took place in russia when it wanted to break away from the old regime and embark on a pack of developing democracy -- a path of developing democracy. >> russia is now prepared to take a harder line against assad. they have proposed a resolution that would extend the u.n. observer mission in the country. if-continues, critics say this
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would do nothing to end the, the -- if violence continues, critics say this would do nothing to end the conflict. morsi says he welill consult with leaders to try to find the best solution. his decree to reinstate parliament was overturned. that was in response to a move by the powerful military council to dissolve parliament last month, just before he was elected to the presidency. for more on this story, we go live to our correspondent who is standing by. morsi has issued a decree reinstating the lower house of parliament. is this a change of strategy? >> it became clear that this degree of reinstating parliament by the president will not get through the constitutional court.
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[unintelligible] the courts are blocking this. limited -- the military council remains silent. they're trying to engage in a dialogue. even if you have a parliament or you do not have a parliament, the next contentious issue will be the constitution, which has to be written. it is the main contentious issue. how will the military be controlled by the democratic institution? is it going to be the next -- that is going to be the next upcoming struggle in egypt. the issue of parliament is a closed issue. >> thank you very much. >> it has been 17 years since bosnian-serb forces overran the u.n. safe haven of srebrenica. they slaughtered thousands of
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use -- of muslim men and boys. >> it was one of the worst atrocities since the second world war. people there are commemorating the victims. ♪ >> tens of thousands of people gathered in sweltering heat for the service. it was held at the massacre memorial in the town -- in a town not far from srebrenica. bosnian muslims say it is important to hold the service every year so that the massacre will not be forgotten. about 5000 victims are buried at the site. the remains of an additional 520 victims were recently identified through dna analysis and brought to srebrenica earlier this week. some of the victims' relatives still cannot find closure. >> my father is lying here. i cannot believe it. i cannot believe my father is in his coffin. it is impossible.
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i cannot accept that. >> bosnian-serb forces led by ratko mladic overran srebrenica, murdered 8000 muslim men and boys, and dumped the bodies in mass graves. the u.n. peacekeeping troops could do nothing to stop it. mladic is on trial in the hague for his part in the war. the memories of the massacre are fresh in the minds of many bosnian muslims. >> i would rather die than go through this. it is just too much to take. >> several thousand victims of the massacre have still not been identified. 17 years after it took place. >> a change of gear. the london olympics, which are going to be an extra challenge this year for the thousands of muslim athletes taking part. >> try winning a medal on an empty stomach -- that would be the problem for some athletes. the gains are being held during
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the fasting month of ramadan -- the games are being held during the fasting month of ramadan. >> this athlete hopes to earn a gold medal in judo at london olympics. he says he has no problem competing during ramadan. >> sports are not affected by fasting. sports will remain sports regardless of the season or the month in which they take place. >> an estimated 3000 muslim athletes will be taking part in this year's olympics. this british rower has decided he will compete and he will make donations to charity for not asking. -- fasting. >> i am the -- i am the first gb rower that is a practicing muslim. in some ways, that is an honor. in others, it is a shame.
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i wish there were others who had come before me. >> this athlete believes he has good religious grounds to go ahead -- to decide to go ahead with his training. >> we ask religious scholars. they said that if we are on a national mission like this, there is no problem with not fasting. afterward, you have to make up for the days you lost. >> the timing conflict between the games and ramadan is unfortunate. the muslim athletes who will be competing say they have come to terms with it. but still to come, we'll take a closer look at the u.n.'s -- >> still to come, we will take a closer look at the un's goal of sexual reproductive health for all. >> they are trying to overcome taboos and teach young girls about sex and family planning. >> some homeless people in venezuela have found a place to live in the country's overcrowded capital.
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>> she has a vision. she began small. she convinced the bank to give her a loan. >> we have developed trucks.
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we are proof that a woman can be equally competitive. >> the woman opportunity. it is smart economics. -- give women opportunity. it is smart economics. >> today is world population day. the focus is on the universal access to reproductive health services. achieving that by 2015 was one of the millennium goals agreed by world leaders 12 years ago. but they are -- but there is a long way to go. but it is estimated at nearly 800 women die each day during -- >> it is estimated that nearly 800 women die each day during childbirth. the problem is especially severe in india, where coltrane norms make it difficult for women to speak openly about -- where cultural norms make it difficult for women to speak openly about sexual health. >> there is a program that aims to educate girls with a frankness that is almost unheard of in india.
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>> these girls are arriving for a very unusual class. in this small bit -- a small village outside of new delhi, they are getting a lesson in sex education. it is a topic that is rarely taught in indian schools. in fact, sex is a taboo topic for many in india, especially contraception. the girls put their questions to the teacher. she answers. she works with an n.g.o. >> this is the first time i am hearing about this stuff. i am in 10th grade and nobody has ever talk to me so openly about this. it is exciting -- talked to me so openly about this. it is exciting. >> i will benefit about this. i will share my knowledge with the kids in the neighborhood. i am not embarrassed. >> the fact that the girls are able to come here at all is a tribute to their parents who were open to the idea. they also rely on the social support group, a network of
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local women who want to provide young girls with something they never had -- sex education. >> i got married at 16. if i knew the things that girls learned today, i would have thought about birth control and i would not have three kids. that is important. >> many women in india are married at such a young age, even though they are not legally allowed to wait until they are 18 -- to wed until they are 18. experts consider -- experts say women should consider spacing out their pregnancies, but men have to be on board, too. >> even though there is sex education in schools or in urban slums -- we have more access to girls. it should be equal to boys and girls. >> there are more than 1.2 billion people in india.
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experts say family planning could help stem the population boom. >> the increasing world population is another concern. >> it was 200 years ago that the number of people living on planet earth finally reached the 1 billion mark. but that figure has been continually rising. much more rapidly since the second world war. there are now 7 billion people on the planet. the un forecasts 10 billion by the end of the century. what is more is there is a very uneven distribution of the world's population with some 60% of people living in asia. after that comes africa with 15%, followed by europe with 11%, latin america home to 9% of the world population, and north america, 5%. >> that means the vast majority of the world population is living in developing countries. the consequences of that is often extreme poverty and lack of living space. in the venice with it is one country facing such problems -- >> venezuela is one such country
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facing problems -- one country facing such problems. >> a view like this is not affordable for most residents of caracas. in his high-rise, things are different. construction work was halted when the economy went sour. the 45-store -- the 45-story building was empty until these squatters moved in. they need -- then it ain't the building after its builder -- they nicknamed the building after its builder. >> it it was full of debris at first. -- >> it was full of debris at first. >> affordable housing is in short supply. it is the product of a growing population coupled with inadequate urban planning. the tower of david is a last resort for many families. >> everyone who moves in here has a good life. we live peacefully here.
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>> some 2500 people currently reside in what has been dubbed the world's tallest squat. it has administers and kiosks, a barbershop, and even a prayer -- administration kiosks, a barber shop, and even a prayer room. >> i lead a good life here. >> the unfinished building does have some drawbacks. there are no elevators. one step too far could prove to be fatal. >> there aren't any railings, so we always have to keep an eye on the children. we do not let them go out on the balcony's on their own. we are going to put up more fencing soon. >> president hugo chávez promised 200,000 new housing
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units in the last election. now his government is rushing to make good on at present -- on that pledge ahead of the next poll in october. maybe it will not be long before a lot of the residents are in new and better housing, but many say are more than happy to stay put -- many say they are more than happy to stay put. >> in germany, the government is facing a very different problem -- a falling birth rate and an aging population. that presents numerous challenges, from the rising costs of health care to the future of the pension system. >> the german government has otherwise introduced a series of measures in an effort to persuade people to have more children, including an expansion of day-care for toddlers. >> that has caused the problem in itself. there are not enough qualified staff to fill vacancies at the nation's kindergartens. >> starting next year, parents in germany will legally be entitled to take care service
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for their children. but currently, there are not enough qualified preschool teachers to meet the expected demand. authorities plan to train the long-term unemployed to work in this field. >> in local job centers, we are conducting detailed discussions with potentially-interested job- seekers. they have to fulfill the formal qualifications, but they also have to be motivated ensure commitment. there are also the social skills, which are very important. >> theoretically, the retraining is available to all registered job-seekers. the job centers plan to focus on reaching out to the long-term unemployed. the labor union has welcomed the idea, but insists there cannot be any short cuts. >> the road training is of the essence. it cannot be shortened. the labor -- borrow -- thorough training is of the essence. it cannot be shortened.
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>> there needs to be an immediate action program to train the number of preschool teachers needed and improve the job's image. since the full training course can take up to five years, there will not be enough qualified personnel in time for the launch of the day-care system next year. >> a few moments ago, we look at the problems of crowded spaces and overpopulation -- we looked at the problems of crowded spaces and overpopulation. now to spain, where there is more than enough space. >> officials have a plan for what to do with it. they want to build a storage site for nuclear waste. >> you would think the people living in the village would not be happy about that prospect, but he would be wrong. bierne there is lots of wide open space in central -- >> there is lots of wide-open space in central spain. these local men decided to put that space to good use. they came up with the idea of
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building a nuclear waste storage facility. they say the project will create jobs. >> our village will be the only one in spain that will have a future. in five years, you will not recognize this place. an opportunity like this comes along just once in a lifetime. it is going to be our salvation. the village is located 130 kilometers south of madrid. 500 people live here. there is a store, a bank, and a bar. soon, there will be a nuclear- waste dump. the residents celebrated when they got the news that the central government had approved the project. this man has just earned an engineering degre.
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this is a chance for him to make some real money. >> a lot of engineers have been forced to leave the country. they cannot find work, so they go to places like germany. a big project like this waste- storage facility will create new jobs for engineers. >> don't forget chernobyl. most of the local residents do not seem too concerned about the possible dangers. the people who know about these projects explained everything to us. we just have to trust them. a lot of local residents have headed for the fitness studio to get in shape for the extra work that will be coming their way soon. >> there is one spanish city that is extremely crowded at the moment. the festival is in full swing in pamplona. the fifth of the iconic bull
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runs took place today. >> 6 bulls and oxen plundered over the cobblestones. as every year, a number of runners needed medical attention. no one was gored, but a handful of participants got cuts and bruises. >> and we will be going back to spain in our next "journal." >> don't forget to check our web site.
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