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tv   Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine  Deutsche Welle  January 29, 2022 4:30am-5:01am CET

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o thinker is a sport of many colors and the children in this mountain village of them all but can every one be drunk with them regardless of gender? ama where is blue. the color of her favorite sexes. traditions prevent her from going to games and play an insurmountable obstacle. little girl football on the peak that starts february, 4th on d. w. ah. planet earth is heating up. according to the united nations 2021 was one of the 7
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hottest years ever recorded. global warming is already impacting people and animals world wide. extreme weather events are becoming more frequent. manmade climate change is also affecting oceans and seas. to day we will take a look at how exactly and to what extent. ah hello and welcome to tomorrow to day this science show on d. w. coral reefs have been around for thousands of years. but environmental degradation and climate change threatened to destroy them within a few decades. these diverse ecosystems provide life and food sources for millions of people worldwide is there's still time to save them with carl reefs. unlike anywhere else on earth, the hum to mind blowing biodiversity,
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the wild reefs are shown with red dots here. they cover less than one percent of the ocean floor, but they actually support over a quarter of all marine life built. she tiny animals, coral polyps, cobbles. oh, a great deal of them magic and that beautiful color to a complex co operation between organisms. algae live in the polyps tissue and provide nutrients to the coal in exchange for protection. but this delicate teamwork is under threat from climate change. c, o 2 emissions dissolve in the seas, making what is more acidic and weakening coal skeletons. and that's not all as global temperatures, so coal reef suffer through ever more frequent and intense ocean heat waves. extreme temperatures caused the algae to produce harmful chemicals,
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prompting the cold polyps to kick them out. this is coral bleaching where vibrant polyps, tongue white from heat stress, a process that can eventually prove fatal. and global warming is already driving vast bleaching events to day. my son is far as i told you, it's possible that his kids may never see a car reef. it really scares me to think of a world without coral. rece shirey has established a large scale conservation project in the eastern caribbean. the goal was to find a balance, protecting corals and other ecosystems, while still enabling tourism and fishing, for example, in specific areas. the fact that the community was so involved in the designation the design of these areas, that is why it was so successful. there are also plenty of ways to enhance conservation efforts, like these take playing underwater sounds to look back fish for one slightly
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surprising example. and that is didn't step by protecting reefs from local stresses . marine protected areas, build resilience in the face of ocean assess vacation and rising temperatures. so we have to have multiple strategies in addition to marine protected areas. this is lizzy mccloud, who's global coal reefs lead at the nature conservancy, researches like lizzie, are going one step further in the quest to help reefs resist climate change by investigating how to actually toughen cold reefs up. and so some of that the strategies people are using is, are taking corals that are, we call it stress hardened, so they're better able to deal with ocean warming and actually transplanting and moving them from those areas to other areas with the hope that they'll pass along that trait to their offspring and help the corals in that new area be better able
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to cope with warming. one way of doing this is to find naturally heat resistant. corals that have survived hope what is befall and transplant them from one reef to another. and these aren't the only cutting edge techniques, such as a, using our, the teens are hoping to not just toughen up coal reefs as a whole, but also the individual colds themselves. in my research, we are mostly focusing on increasing the, the tolerance of corals to heat. this is ecological geneticist, madeline fan open. madeline's, looking at a range of approaches to make corals more resistant to rising temperatures, for example, selectively breeding, to toughen up the pollitt. animals. alternatively, tinkering with the algae that gave cold, bad colors. the micro, i'll get a live inside the coral dishes, we can, they come out of the coral and most of these can be cultures in the lab. and in the lab, we can increase the rate by which the cell gay evolve. madeline used this approach
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to create heat resistant al gay, which when put back in, polyps, created more heat resistant calls. so if we combine all these approaches, is that it will we be able to save these unique ecosystems from climate change. if we implemented every tool in our tool box today from marine protected areas, reducing pollution using some of these more active interventions, stress hardening or manipulating the genetics of quarrels. it will not be enough to save chorus if we do not reduce emissions that is absolutely central. the truth is that coral reefs are incredibly sensitive to warming waters in 2018. the intergovernmental panel on climate change. want that even if the world limits global warming to $1.00 degrees. coal reefs could decline by 90 percent. if temperature is increased by 2 degrees,
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that figure is 99 percent or higher. but the world could heat up by more than even this given an emissions pass. if we don't fight to stop climate change, the fight to save cold reefs is doomed, not in the distant future, but within just a few decades. cold reefs could be the fast ecosystem entirely lost to the climate crisis or environmental decisions around the world. whether that's reducing plastic use or limiting global warming could make all the difference for the future of the world's reefs. reducing global c o 2 emissions is critical in the fight against climate change. carbon dioxide is pulse of a continuous cycle in which carbon is absorbed and released into the atmosphere on land plants, abdul c o. 23 process could photosynthesis. the biosphere of f landmass stores some
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2300 gig of carbon display that sees and oceans filter far more carbon from the air around 38000 kick. a tons are stored under water. but humans released too much c o 2 into the atmosphere. and the system becomes imbalanced. the earth heat's up a recent study has shown that elvis fishing oceans could cause additional damage to the carbon cycle. but how could this be? it's taking just a matter of decades for industrial fishing to spread from traditional fishing areas in the northern hemisphere to cover all the planets oceans over the last 70 years, the amount of fish caught by humans has more than quadrupled to over $90000000.00 tons a year. add to that 38000000 tons of bi catch marine wildlife captured incidentally
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almost 30 percent of all fishing grounds are considered over fished with many populations now an able to recover. in addition to the impact on our marine ecosystem, this development might also be a contributing factor to climate change. a survey conducted by scientists at the university of california has found evidence of biochemical changes triggered by shifts and what's known as the biological carbon pump. this is the process fire which plankton and other tiny organisms absorb carbon dioxide dissolved in the see water when they're eaten by other organisms. the carbon converted by the plankton progresses up the food chain to small and then larger fish, which fix the carbon in their feces. much of this sink deep down to the ocean floor where it remains for several centuries fewer fish and the sea however, means less feces and did decrease in the amount of c o 2 stored. the biological
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pumps rather to climate change has enjoyed relatively little coverage to date. that's also because we can only estimate how large fish stocks were before industrial fishing began, and therefore also how significant their decline has been since then. the study assumes that stocks have been reduced by about half a figure that does not sound exaggerated in the eyes of fisheries. biologist, christopher timmerman does either fuzzy apply it, very plausible. but you also have to consider that when there's more carbon dioxide available due to the decimated fished ox than the carbon will be used by other ocean creatures that are not fish met. isn't cohen. it's a factor that the authors didn't really incorporate, although they acknowledge that it often or another factors that the majority of the c o 2, dissolved, the ocean, is delivered there via the physical pump in cultural regions of the oceans. the water has a higher density, which means
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a better capacity to absorb c o 2. over the course of several centuries, the gas is extracted from the atmosphere and sinks together with the cold water masses into the deep sea. this accounts for 90 percent of the c o 2 in our oceans, absorbed from the atmosphere. according to the study, the biological pump accounts for only 10 percent. there was no solid confirmation yet on this having a tangible effect on the climate. i letting small thought, well, you also have to consider is the potentially far greater speed of the process. environmental changes increase the importance of the biological palm to because the transfer of carbon is a lot faster there than by the physical palm as anybody physically to promote the study from the u. s. as it be shown, that we will have to give greater consideration to fishing as a possible factor of influence with regard to the climate. as like nor be few, the enough niche fetched. it shows how much we still don't understand
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a forbidden yet. it was only a few decades ago, for example, that we discovered how in addition to causing a rise in temperatures, fear, climate change also leads to ocean, as edification, comedies are you by the oil that probably has a far greater impact on marine organisms than the temperature increase in itself bill, and this is a similar case, an illustration of how we're still unaware of the effect of certain climate change mechanisms on the ecosystems of the opposite him at the, the oceans cover over 70 percent of our planet surface. as such, they play a highly significant role in both the development of the climate and the options available for combating the consequences of climate change. oh, you see is also mindful, valuable rule materials such as this clear liquid describing the cannabis oil that's also natural building block for human skin. as a rule ingredient,
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scaling is often used in make up and skin cream. it's also used as the dietary supplement, due to the belief that it can help protect skin cells from oxidative stress. but it's extraction often comes at the cost of a secret. his vital organ shock, smoother squealing is a substance found in all advanced organisms. plants, animals, and humans. although its highest concentration is found in shark liver, they can make up one 3rd of the animal's total weight, a higher proportion than with any other organism. and that's a problem. because sharks therefore, constitute a low cost source of squealing, making them commercially attractive, not least, because there's no global ban on fishing them. hiker seed events is a shark expert for the worldwide fun for nature. here she's visiting the tropical aquarium and the hamburger to she fears that sharks are increasingly in desperate
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straits for him this year. if the primary danger is from fishing is good to touch it. there are fishing enterprises that are actually after other species like tuna. with that, because the method of fishing is similar, that catches can comprise up to 80 percent shocks through ox. and because the shocks are in demand tail, there are welcomed by catch pan locked it, then come. then the natalie's ultimate going home of the 1200 species of shark and re world wide over a 3rd are now in danger of extinction. conservationists fear that the number of animals being caught and killed is far more than the ecosystem can cope with. in the long term, both sharks and rays have been prowling around in our oceans for 450000000 years. they're indispensable for the ocean because they help to maintain the ecosystems equilibrium they reproduce late in life and have relatively few young. at the same time, an estimated 100000000 shocks die every year from targeted fishing or as by cash.
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and those are only the official figures. so there's plenty of money to be made from their meat and above all their fins. but squealing is also a lucrative product. there's hope, however, of it in the future, no longer being a reason to catch and kill sharks. ha petula works at the institute of molecular biotechnology at austria's technical university of crowds. he and his colleagues were working on a research prod with brewers yeast when they had an interesting idea when using the east to produce squealing as one see here. and here you can see east sales forming bugs which suggest that they are thriving and reproducing, and have a very active metabolism. and that means they can create a lot of squealing if you've seen trans yell if excluding so far,
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the researchers have only been able to harvest a relatively small amounts of squealing from the brewers yeast. not enough to cover the hundreds of tons of the substance needed every year. but the scientists are looking at a potential solution by changing the metabolism of the east fungus. we often thick on them with the we like working with rumors use to comes and decades of research. have you told us a lot about its metabolic pathways agency at which we can manipulate pretty much like a higher quantity of squealing and who of his mos on squatting pollutants will cut on the research. his focus is on changing the genetics of carbon metabolism. they then placed the manipulated fungus in a bio reactor after between $3.00 and $5.00 days of growth and a few additional procedures, the team checked the results the
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amount of scaling produced has now increased 10 fold. but the team want to further improve their method. in longer laboratory scale, when you have your very a fairly squealing productions in each cells from another one, but 2 or 5 liter scale today. but obviously we're interested in increasing that to an industrial scale to well also improving the extraction of an upgrade on that will enable us to use least squealing to replace the animal latest version. so as it's generating large quantities of squealing in the bio reactor would be a major success for the researchers in austria as well as on the conservation front than to conf. disqualify rebecca here for what he had been being able to use brodis to produce wally and white mean some miraculous and to shark fishing. then it's not there. it is all too many other products in demand. so over exploitation will softly continue. i'm products, but at least that will be one more lucrative product off the market. and fewer
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shocks being fished for that particular reason. i am there, good luck with the prospect of producing spoiling industrially should mean decreasing the threat to shark populations. but that's only one element in their conservation. stringent controls and better fishery management in general will help . but the world needs protected areas where sharks can wrong without danger of being caught. if i let is read, why i you curious to know something from the world of science? why not ask us? send us a video text or voice message. if your question is selected, you'll not only get an answer, but a little surprise as a thank you. so come on, just ask, you can find us online and on social media. this
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week, the question comes from samuel olma. from uganda. he wants to know could the ice at the polls cooled down the earth's molten cor enough to extinguish its volcanism? deep beneath our feet in the center of our planet, it's extremely hot. hot liquid rock is constantly being pushed upward and can escape through the surface resulting planets. a similar in structure to a peach has a thin skin flush underneath and a pit in the middle of the earth's pits or cor, in the center has a temperature of about 6000 degrees celsius and contains radioactive elements that release heat much of that heat dates back to the earth's
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beginnings when dust and other rocky particles drew together and condensed to form a planet. at that time, all the components, metals, rocks, water, and gases were well mixed. over time, the heavier materials, like iron, nickel, and radioactive elements sunk to the center. this radioactive fuel can continue to heat the earth for billions of years and the 3000 kilometer thick at mantle and shows that very little heat escapes. it's a bit like a thermos flask that keeps drinks hot. even outer space only extracts heat from the earth very slowly, and space is very cold. about $2.00 kelvin, or about minus $270.00 degrees celsius, a lot colder than the ice at the polls. so the ice won't extinguish volcanism lava spearing volcanoes will continue to shape the face of our planet for years to come
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. thanks to earth's central heating system. no one knows just how long the ice at the north and south poles will last. currently, global warming is causing it to vanish at an alarming rate. the arctic could be completely ice free in summer in as little as a few years. elsewhere, ice is melting on mass. glaciers are disappearing. in some regions, this could mean riverbeds dry in up, entirely as a result. and what about ice below the earth's surface? is that feeling the heat? here in the austrian house, 1600 meters above sea level is the world's largest ice cave. the van icy invent german 4 world of the ice giants. every year, france, screenshot, land is team, monitor the state of the ice. it's not only freezing cold inside the cave. it's
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also which dark the might of their headlamps gradually reveals a magical world. the ice cave was 1st discovered by an explorer in the late 19th century, but he didn't actually get very far when he ventured into its depths. it was only decades later that an expedition party, equipped with crampons and picked axes, continued where he left off. manzona branson, the great wall of ice, was 1st climbed in 1913 by young k researcher from vienna and 2 colleagues to loosen velma. they had to carve out $140.00 steps in the eyes to reach the top speed say enough to come and mm. what they found exceeded all their expectations, a vast system of caves, full of spectacular ice formations, that resembled giant sculptures. but how exactly where they created?
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well, there are cracks and fishers and limestone caves. and in spring, milt water from outside can trickle into these entrances and fries. it's an extraordinary phenomenon. while the snow melts outside meter high layers of ice build up inside. it's what's known as the stack or chimney effect. the cave galleries and fishers form a link from lower entrances to openings higher up in the mountain. in winter, when it's cold, outsides an inside the caves, warm air rises through these openings and drifts out as if through a chimney. meanwhile, chilly winter air enters below and pulls the cave down. that's why the ice only forms in the 1st kilometer of the cave. it never gets cold enough for them to form in the other 40 kilometers of the cave. in 2018 climatology just pushed off sputter and his colleague gabriela ko, tie from the university of ins, brooke began researching the possibility that the ice cave used to be even bigger.
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the trouble is ice that disappears, leaves no trace. at least that's what scientists used to think. but then geologists found tiny crystals that had formed and puddles left behind by former ice surfaces that have melted somewhere else. ready spectral and coach i found exactly these kind of crystals in the giant ice cave in van. missy clinic started as in their tiny couse crystals which were long overlooked on long excited murphy. they were believed to be particles of sand looks. ready in fact, and they represent a smoking gun or evidence of earlier ice formations, goals for the past few years. we've been working very intensively and successfully to show that this vast system of ice caves used to be even larger ice. lisa, though physically as the ice crystals not only proved there used to be ice here, it's possible to ascertain exactly how old they are in the last ice age. the cave
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used to be even icey or several times b, m of novice and couldn't. and we've been able to show that the last major underground glaciation occurred some 12000 years ago. was that had i been a guide back there, leading visitors through the cave. the tour would have been 5 times as long as it is today. the researchers preliminary findings show from an aerial perspective that during the last ice age, the ice extended much deeper into the cave. the ice cave changed as the climate changed. it ruined periods when it is especially cold and then shrank when temperatures rose. what does this mean for the future in light of global warming? the latest measurements suggest that the ice inside the cave is stable as paradoxical as it might sound. that might be because recent summers have been unusually dry, displaced as his information. what would be most damaging would be
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a rainy summer with relatively warm rain inside the cave, warm water would supply the warmth to make the ice melted. so in fact, it is dry, hot summers are good for the ice caves, even if they're bad for the glaciers. i would like to get ah, however, increasingly warm winters do pose a threat to the ice caves. still climatology, just don't expect any melt in the next few years. scientists and tourists will be able to marble that this on sparing natural phenomenon for a while to come. ah, that's it for this episode of to morrow to day. we have to see you again next time until then. stay curious. ah,
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o. and the battle against covey. and the only variant is putting healthcare systems around the world to the test. vaccination campaigns are accelerating while restrictions are intensifying once again. but are these measures enough to stop the spread of omicron, fax, the data and reports release, you know, a weekly covert 19 special. every thursday on d w. one of mankind's oldest ambitious could be within reach or what is it really is possible to reverse aging researchers and scientists all over the world are in
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