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tv   Close up - Surviving the Holocaust - Uncovering Secret Hideouts  Deutsche Welle  January 25, 2022 1:30pm-2:00pm CET

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download it now, i mean closely, ah, listen carefully. don't know how to miss today. go. ah, feel the magic discover the world around you. ah . subscribe to d w documentary on youtube. ah, the jewish cemetery in warsaw has more than 200000 grades.
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and it's here of all places that research and natalia ramos is looking to uncover historic, high doubts concealed under great stones secret hiding places that helped to save many lives during the holocaust. ah, off the invading holland in 1939 and occupying warsaw, the nazis began forcing jews into one neighbourhood which became known as the warsaw ghetto. most of the half 1000000 people sent. they had died of starvation or disease over murdered, enforced labor and death camps. but a few managed to escape by going into hiding. natalia ramos is looking to uncover the hide out. they used more so give me just gleam since this is the last chance.
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and of course we have an antidote hiding places are fearful of erosion. so this is the last moment was the re, the last moment the think from this or he, dec show perspective how we can preserve them, how we can really deep and try to a history. and apartment block now stands on the sides of the form, a great synagogue that was blown up by s. s gods. directly opposite is the jewish historical institute. this building survived, although damage to the floor caused by fire, testifies to the devastation wrought by the nazis. the institute holds the largest collection of documents relating to jewish history in poland. they include eye witness testimony from the predominantly jewish towns. cold settle for natalia ra, make. it's a treasure trove. the lay source which we had here. they are pink us catalog books,
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book sir rose by the people who saw by clock house in the small towns. so then we can find not only testimony how that that looks like, like the emerald or bounty show, but also testimony. for example, how did people hide and where natalie, a roommate is an architect and a political scientist. her research here shows her where to get started in her search for hiding places. it's only beginning because we know like for example, where was the place in which village, but then we need to approach, i need to approach it next steps to go there. speak with the local people and not only worked with that joshi, sorry guys to jude, but also with the other institution. so it's always like a story. listen the story. it was this research that directed her to the jewish cemetery in warsaw as aka pover street. natalia is meeting with a specialist for 3 days,
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scanning. the 2 of them planned to examine the hide out beneath the grave stones. first we need to know the scale and also may be there was a kind of secret her stairs to the other small hiding place. so that was the 1st step. i would like to have like exact measurements because i would love to build to the 3 d model and not only for the model, but also to make a cost from $1.00 wall. it's a high tech approach to history that's very revealing. a 3 d lays. the scanner is used to survey the entire area surrounding the bunker. it's accurate to within $100.00 the of a millimeter. the aim is to use digital technology to 1st document the hide out in its current state. the initial results reveal a hastily built chamber beneath the grave stones, constructed at a time when jews were bain to ported daily from the warsaw ghetto to the trib link
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extermination camp. ah, with the help of anthropologists, alexandra yon was they found one of the survivors in israel. opera, hom commie, was 14. when he had here. in my view, this experience of like being with ad there was very important. he didn't say that in like con, directly. but when he was describing the that process of hiding in different places, also here, he always mentioned to other people who were with the him. so i think that was like that the core of the experience of like also being with others blue natalia will make studies video recordings of it is conducted ways up to hong kami, where nearly 80 years after his ordeal, he talks about what he experienced. ah,
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he identifies the bunker at the cemetery as one of the high downs that he used describing it exactly in the entrance was made up of jewish gravestones or massive odd that could be pushed aside. ah, the wolves were read forced with bricks that were originally intended for a most de leon, for jewish soldiers killed in the 1st world war. railway tracks formed the roof, which the massive ot or grey stones then rested on. they conceived the hide out. but what was it like inside the bunker? abraham caught him. he said that was of course quite col take during the holocaust . so some people jump inside and they use few months, a vault. he even remember exact to the name in the city name written in the month of all and they try to pull on and off. of course it's really heavy. so that was
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not easy for women and girls hiding there. and there were days. they were like, he said 30 people inside. ah, the very idea seems shocking that bunker is so small that there's hardly enough room for the scanning equipment. how could 30 people survive here? daily food rations in the warsaw ghetto amounted to just 184 calories. according to michelle ash cowski from the culture heritage foundation, that's less than a 100 grams of bread. ah, it's not known how many of those who used to hide out actually survived elsewhere. there were other even more unlikely. high doubts natalia romika is on her way to southeast and poland, where 2 jewish brothers are said to have survived the holocaust. by hiding inside
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a tree that was at least the story that she stumbled on during her research. in the grounds of the mansion in the vishnu over region, there are oak trees that have stood here for centuries. the mention itself has been turned into a cultural centre. the director takes us through the exhibition he's especially proud of an old $100.00 snotty bill. it shows a tree affectionately named yoseph that's located in the grounds. and that's exactly what brought natalia ramos here. the trunk of the 650 year old tree is where the he, me brothers, i said to have taken refuge once again, natalia turns to modern technology to unlock the secrets of the past. this time, her aim is to peer inside the old oak tree to see if it could indeed have been used
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as a hide out. you're using site specific age equipment. not only this one, but also like a special a camera to find any traces. all for the moment where the 2 brothers co he, me were hiding in his play for a few years. the sense of anticipation is huge as she joins the tray specialist get a look. so the up, she gets her 1st glimpse inside the trunk. they continue their ascent. joseph is 30 meters toll at its widest point. the trunk is nearly 7 meters. horizontal plane passes right through the middle of the hollow trunk. clearly the work of humans, the higher they go,
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the more evidence they find that the tree could indeed have been used as a hide out another plank. it can't be a coincidence. we so at least 5 shelves, wooden shelves for wooden shove and one metal. and probably that a semi broad there is that still we have this se archival research is ongoing. they use as a says as elevation point to fight to just like to observe the situation. and from the holes, we have like 1234. so, and it's incredible that the, this survive the war, additional drawing footage helps to document one of the most incredible hide outs used during the nazi occupation. it would appear that this majestic looking tree helped to save lives. a bosco's camera
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could help to turn up more evidence to support the legend of the hey me, brother. this is elena jenkins at the wood because the tree is living and constantly changing the openings in the trunk that would have once provided access to the inside have grown over. in some areas, the bosco camera will allow the researcher to get a detailed look inside. the images show that the tree has been systematically adopted inside of the school from both to a federal them will shown to this one shows an ion screw. natalia is now convinced that the story of the he, me brothers is true. although she found no proof of the existence of any one under that name in the archives they survived the holocaust. one of them probably was here in a fifty's late fifty's the and then that name, in my opinion,
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that was not he, me, maybe honey beach may be other name. and then we will prove this and maybe the families still lived somewhere in either ellen states. it's a, it's a long story, but silly clothes in clothes living inside a tree was a desperate measure necessitated by a desperate situation. it's very hard to imagine our like, you know, like methodology, you know, of the surviving every day. it's like a, an ecology or the leafing that treats out of our, i think an imagination. so it's, we sort also use their different tools to, to, to, to think about it this time you tools bring to life the horrors of that time and make them accessible for new generation. natalia ramos wants to reflect on that and as come to pakenio palace for some time out. the palace belongs to the child to rescue family who are well known polish
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aristocrats. the child to risky have always been great art collectors, art and architecture interest, the researcher, because they can help us relate to events of the past. under the company's time, this place was totally destroyed and was a part of the hospital. but the family took to his key like 56 years ago, start to renovate this place and establish an art on nation which supposed to be and the will be that one of the best art foundation, working with a young artist in the future. in this castile like during the holocaust and during the 2nd little wool, everything was destroyed by the nazi so and is also very tragical story. but the like real tragical story was in a ghetto here in pen kenya, which is so yeah. change every think, like almost all juice from this area were killed. the german
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occupies annihilated the jewish community. even the gravestones at the local jewish cemetery were plundered. the cemetery was destroyed, very hardly destroyed during the holocaust time. and the 14th and the nausea also took so much a vote. summative out to the, to, to build a new part of the gestapo. a place like a offices in a, in nearby to class or in a, in the arrows. well, who yeah, it said in the neighboring town of yara, suave, natalia romeo has come across another war time, hide out nuns at a local monastery, i said to have had a secret door leading to a basement where they hid jewish children from the nazis. and here it is. hidden behind a normal door, the secret door was disguised as a storage rack. it still looks just as it did 80 years ago or
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the rack could just be flipped open, providing access to the basement, hide out the nuns, provided the jewish children with food, allowing them to survive the holocaust to day they catholic nuns teach school children. my question is if the children are aware they're inside of their cluster is dis, secret space and the place it's actually going to the seller and probably know so oh, so one of my goal will be to to protect this place and to renovate. but oh, so to find an idea how to make a cost again, the same, how was in a jewish them entry and the in a joseph oak tree, but oh, so here her next stop is the city of livid said near the german border before the 2nd world war, it was part of germany and known as glides. the city is famous of being the
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starting point of the wall as this god staged and attack here, which hitler then used as a pretext to invade poland. oh, for the regions lodge jewish community, it was to spell disaster to day all that remains of jewish life. he is a few buildings like the former jewish mortuary day at kindly asked me to read, designed his place and there was a big issue how we can change the place. although there are no jews in live, it's anymore. so we thought with their new function like how we can implicate a new spirit for a children, dis morty, cultural school for a pencil as yon, the jewish museum. whereas know the history is actually no, not visible anymore. making what was lost visible again is the aim of the exhibition put together by natalia. go mac, and currently now you, coven, co,
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an expert on poland, jewish history. the exhibition highlights jewish influence on society. ready one of the inventors of navy a cream, came from here for example, and many of the men fought and died for germany during the 1st world war. we should remember that to we are living in the ruins of fed jewish architecture. actually as a ghost. our he dexter mostly. so actually that we a ghost of memory. ah, ah, natalia roommate and caroline, a jak of ankle drive further east. the heading to the mining town of she menu of a sketch shalysea where there came to research and other extraordinary story of jews managing to hide from the nazis. yolanda kobylinski cigar. nick is descended from
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a polish mining family that hid jews in their home in so doing they put their own lives at risk. but she says stories of such heroism was swept under the carpet after the war. at various points, the government actively cultivated anti semitism, so there was a need to be cautious. the common is tisha propaganda. communist propaganda probably had a lot to do with why people didn't talk about it any more. my gosh, broken hobbin, and felt reluctant to share their experiences and stories in his white i came crashing. natalia ro make is fighting to remove the silence that still surrounds poland. jewish history, and to publicize the stories of jews in hiding. oh, this is the house where the kobylinski family gave refuge to jews, the 2 researches of visiting yard vega, coby, let's go who experienced that time as a child. she invites the research as into her bedroom. this used to be the kitchen,
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she says, and during the war they would often sit there together. okay, that's good. but underneath the kitchen was an underground hiding place for 10 to 15. people built by yet. vegas father in law, a pure tra could be let's correct finish. came to hello a trap door lead to the chamber with the help of neighbors, they kept their jewish guests supplied with food. that too was dangerous, as not all polish is could necessarily be trusted. with these are the arrow, those people who are like her for a money or for a different sources, they will selling basically juice yale and they will like a and of course in a, in a poly she's telegraphy, it's like still tupper and of course we should talk about it, but the family, a family of the co village, so they were, they were heroes. a representative of the family was honored by the state of israel as righteous among the nations attired who used to distinguish non jews who
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risk their lives to protect the jews during the holocaust. but yet vega could be, let's says, the family has received almost no recognition in poland. so she's came to support natalie's work. there are a lot of hiding places that nobody is taking care of. of course we are talking about the people or so metals, how that the post where really brave it's fine. but i think we need also to show the other site her back to warsaw quoted without the support of international organizations. natalia romika couldn't continue her work. germany's get a hankle foundation is among those funding her research as is the talbot center foundation for the renewal of jewish life in poland. people this centers holly said, lieberman says, commemorating the old jewish hyde outs is key. the question is, in a world like ours, in a continent of europe, where there are so many hiding places and killing places and saving places,
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how do you create memorials which really speak to people to day? give people the honor who created them for those who saved those in these hiding places. a creative approach is needed the basement refuge in a copy. let's carm, has long since been incorporated into the house and no longer exists. so natalia romika, who's also an architect plans to create a more loved the house, bringing to light the refuge that was hidden for so long and telling the life saving stories that it enabled. next we visit the neighboring town of bench in up until the holocaust, its jewish community numbered 20000 people. here to yoko ranko is committed to safeguarding the last remaining traces of jewish life. here, together with others, he set up a small foundation. in this apartment block,
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the group has managed to rescue a former jewish prayer room. the original frescoes are still largely intact. the place had been due to undergo major innovations. had the work gone ahead, the very last trace of jewish life invention would have disappeared. but the foundations intervention changed all that small plan with her natalia is now working with them to preserve this last piece of living history from benjamin's jewish past. good will that we believe that this is part or important part of bench in history. this is important. part of polish history in the tree were benji. they were about 80 such places and in the, in the, in the area had to be hundreds of such places. in poland there,
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there was thousands of such places and almost everything was destroyed with people during the war. together there working to challenge the culture of denial, refusing to let the past be forgotten any longer to handle. the foundation has produced a map showing sides that highlight benjamin's jewish history that natalia wants to know if any war time hiding places may have survived in the town. lots of your through jak, of and co believes there's unlikely to be anything in the town center. for one simple reason a, all the population was re settled tool to the ghetto. a which was that the poorest and neighborhood of engine mostly before it was before it became became ghetto. it will say. and they were hood of a polish workers, very poor fella, kind of part of the city sent home just can i go. so going to have a so the 2 of them head to the former ghetto in benji in beginning in may 1942 jews
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were deported from here to outfits. ah, piazza remembers hearing one story from a polish woman whose family was allowed to continue living in this house. while more and more jews were being re settled in the neighbourhood. she was just a small child at the time table. she was sink and these jewish people going in and out to their barn family barn, which was sending over there and taking some box full of something from the barn. and she was asking her mother what these people are taking from our barn. and her mother told her, do not ask this question, this is dangerous, this, this is not none of our business. let me bear not to ask. and later on she did, she understood that these people were constructing a shelter,
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a hiding place under the barn. the barn has long since disappeared through yucca vanco thinks it probably stood where the garage is today. a few old bricks in the hedge could have been part of it, but with so little to go on, it's impossible to know. one thing is certain in august 1942, the germans began deporting people from here on an ass. the whole area was searched every house and all the people were deport. it's those who are and who were not cooperating were, were killed on the spots. and is this, these hiding place was discovered by germans during the act? soon? one of the 2 entrances was through the oven and one of the german soldiers i accidentally pushed her the one of the tails of the
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oven. it, it fell down and it, and some, some voice from dancers was kurt. and that's what, that's how they with this cart. then a watcher and gas was palms into the, into the indigenous hiding place. and all the people were, were murdered. a brutal and tragic ending natalia is determined to try to locate the hide out. probably will be possible to in the out, in go radar to try the traces. and the caller could also show us where it was exactly the hiding place. with creative ideas. natalia ro, making those around her are seeking new ways of making the past accessible even for those who don't want to hear about the holocaust. yet vega could be, let's get needs no convincing. i instead natalia's here to show her the model of her home with the basement hide out but they
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planned to exhibit this model to the public and tell the stories of those who survived. thanks to the hideout, talked i got up with one up to 30 papers, squeezed into the bunker twice as many as it was designed for he but here downstairs was they had very little air and whenever they heard an unfamiliar voice at the door, they were gripped with fear of the cellar, had they been discovered? would they be betrayed? ah, natalia romika says the high dance are the architecture of survival. her role is to bring them to life. whether it's a 650 year old oak tree. the ground beneath the barn and bench in poor an underground bunker at the warsaw jewish cemetery, concealed under the grave stones. ah,
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natalia roma has come here with a colleague to produce a silicon mold of one of the walls. and the walls provide a protection from the dock threats posed by the world outside. she says no and threats to freedom and human rights still exists today, right here in europe. so natalia roaming is an interested in creating monuments that simply look back to the past. instead, using her imagination, she wants to illustrate the parallels between the past and the present day. they will be like an open book says of the memory and together with the archive i research, they will show us not only the fear, the tragedy of the hollow cows, but also this architectural tools that they used during the time. and the specific her narration that to we not only from the down deep down the
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mold of the wall, doesn't just symbolized the horrors. natalia ramos says it is also a testament to courage, results, fullness and sheer determination to survive. and the altruistic actions of a few taken at great personal risk. ah, ah, hello guys, this is the 77 percent. the platform for africa to the faith is use and share ideas you know, or this channel. we are not afraid to happen delicate the tub. because population is growing and young people clearly have the solution. the future if you love you a 77 percent. now every weekend on
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