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tv   Doc Film - Opaque Worlds - The Struggle for Truth  Deutsche Welle  January 12, 2022 2:15am-3:01am CET

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david saudi was a man of deep face and strong convictions. everyone loved his smile and his kindness we need done you stop multi is politician. rebecca met sola is now the parliament's acting speaker. on twitter. she wrote solely had dedicated his life to making the world a better fare, replace on the written notice, and you're not able to and you're up to date here, anti w news coming up. next is the documentary on growing polarization. antiques, information around the world. maybe you can stay up to date on our website, d, w dot com and on instagram and twitter to handle there is that dw news. i'm jarrett ray, thank you for watching. ah, we're a what interest? the global economy?
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our portfolio d. w. business. beyond here, the closer look at the project, our mission. to analyze the fight for market dominance. get a step ahead with the w business beyond on you tube. ah, charlottesville, the united states summer, 2017. when i was in charlottesville, there was this euphoria, this ecstasy part fight club. it's part party. it's part riot. they were so happy to be with these people that shared the same beliefs. hundreds of right wing extremists arrived in the city. one of them drove his car into a group of counter protesters, killing a young woman. because i've done so much research on far right groups. youtube thinks i'm a nazi and starts offering me these. it's
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a promise is channels and videos to look at. and that's the power that these groups have. now they have a reach and an ability to communicate with the masses that they never had before. the extremists organized themselves on mine, further radical arcing each other on social media. like the right wing extremist boogaloo boys. one night, one of its members used facebook live to broadcast to the world from his car, which was filled with weapons. police arrested him just in time. ah, the authorities themselves had become a target. a boogaloo boys member shot at a police building, killing one officer. they were all over facebook to organize violent attacks and police officers that left to long foresman officers dead. these events
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represent the radicalization of the united states. groups like the right wing radical proud boys overlap with donald trump supporters. before january 6th, i was looking at the social media of radical extreme s. and there's claims that cove, it's a hoax. there's conspiracy theories that the election has been stolen. and then i realize the main stream of republican party is putting out similar ideas all the time that fringe and the mainstream have converged. friday boy o is u. s. society in danger of breaking apart. so tomorrow is going to be an amazing spectacular day. in january 2021 from supporters stormed congress, claiming that the election was rigged. you know, when you have that sort of, inability to agree on basic facts, i think that you face a future with a country that is very graham in germany to read position has found its way to the
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doors of government. it's a new world at this point. me in the in iraq a country devastated by years of war in 2006, a us special forces, unit storm, the solder city mosque, the strong old of a she militia. and then they gave him actually killed 16 of their guy who captured a whole bunch of it and left the thing. and they thought, well, they had done a great job until they got back to their base. so as soon as the us soldiers left the islamists sprang into action, those guys come in, took the dead bodies, fallen comrades arranged him on premise and made it look like the americans
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murdered these guy in the middle of prayer, an arm, they pushed it out into the incident all within the space of 45 minutes. so that by the time the americans back got back to their base was game over. you need to be fast, they need to have a really good story. and that's the secret. walsman worked for a long time in the us department of defense. in 2017, he warned congress that propaganda could become more dangerous than military force as a doctor program. and i was going all over the government trying to tell people, you know, i need to start taking stuff seriously. there's going to be a big issue. it's going to be a big deal. you need to start paying attention. and yeah, i got no response at all. basically. it's pretty. yeah, pretty sad. washington, january 2021. soldiers guarded congress a few days after the storming of the capital for nina jackowitz. it was a disaster waiting to happen. it's been a difficult week to be
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a disinformation research sir, to see your worst fears coming true and to see that your government, in many ways, either embraced were ignored the warning signals that were just blatantly obvious on the internet for so long. and i guess that's the most heartbreaking part, the complete lack of preparation. jenko it's and her colleagues have shown how the attackers organized themselves, primarily with the help of private facebook groups. facebook groups are kind of like the creepy basement of the internet. they are a place where people can gather out of the scrutiny of the facebook content. moderators. this is where a lot of disinformation can spread. it's where extremism spreads. it's where these groups coordinate with one another. and i think it's been our biggest blind spot. facebook founder and ceo, mark zuckerberg, testified before congress in 2018. his company would later be held partly responsible for the 2021 attack on the capital. so very famously in 2018 when
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mark zuckerberg was on capitol hill being questioned by the senators, i, one of them asked him, you know, how do you make money it facebook as a free service? well, if so, how do you sustain a business model in which user stump? if your service senator we run ads, how do they sell out? they sell ads based on the data that they're gathering of our clicks when we're using a platform or instagram or what's app. and in fact, facebook's cookies actually follow us around the internet as well. and using that data, which is a treasure trove of information, they sell that to advertisers and say, we can get people to click on your ads and buy your products. and that's why it's so important that we remain on the platform. they wanna suck us in. that's how they make their money and that's what they look after. over everything else. above our democracy, above public safety president, jo biden's administration wants to combat radicalization. i'm not wholly optimistic
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. like i used to be. it's not gonna be a flip of a switch, and suddenly the u. s. will be this information free. the roots of this problem are now really strong. paris, juliano de emily is a political consultant who has worked from multiple governments. he studies digital . populism is somehow the silicon valley of national populace month, because that in politics is based on, on rage against the establishment than the elite. it's been like that for 20 years . for 2 decades, silvio berlusconi dominated italian politics then came comedian bet, bakery lo and is 5 star movement. basically, it's a creature of a guy who's completely unknown outside the feet. that he, he was a web marketing expert called the general beth, because only a jewel at the beginning of the year,
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2000. he understood that politics would be transformed by the internet and new technology. but he also understood that you couldn't do a virus party. you know, without the phased the entrepreneur met with grillo, a prominent comedian, and he tells him, you know, you keep doing your job, your shows and handled your blog for you. re, los internet present shattered norms. what's true, what's fake? it doesn't matter. the only criteria is what will hook people up, and that's kind of new in politics. to even says, i'm not into politics. i mean, to public opinion. the formula worked and the blog becomes the most popular blog in italy and one of the most read in the whole world, the entrepreneur end, the comedian, wanted more than 2007. the following is huge and they feel that something is
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happening. so they say we have to show our strength, we have to move on to the next level. so they call a press conference to say, look, we're going to do a big protest against the l e t v they involved. and they have to cancel the press conference because nobody shows up. italy's newspapers ignored the planned action, but traditional media were no longer important. that's where even the media starts realizing that let something happen in something that they hadn't seen at all. ah, really was loud shrill and anti establishment. the real only promise of the fights are movement was law. they will always try to trigger rage and fear because that's what works best. glows one time up start
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movement would become a governing party in 2019 and a model for politicians in other countries, those kind of movement, they don't generate all the anger. the anger is there, it's in society, it comes even from real cause as in many cases, but they bring it to the next level. hamburg is home to face books, german headquarters, internal documents show that a 3rd of the countries major. facebook groups are extremist, including those featuring races, content pro russian, propaganda or conspiracy theories. for the most part, the groups are influenced by a few highly active members who set their radical tone. political consultant, uvie shanella sees that as a danger for society ditched in. we're looking at the ruins of our communal coexistence in some we have to ask, how can we avoid drifting further apart as
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a society, clifton shanella volunteered with obama's 2nd presidential campaign, which set a new standard for its use of the internet. the long time come. but the light changes come from her to find the social media narrative was still the digitalization would change the world for the better. it was a story of home change, old and new beginnings on awful. the arab spring also promised hope dictators were toppled with the help of social media dessert. which much you have thought this silicon valley idea of ultimate progress was not question critically marked in the years that followed. i realized that technology is never good nor evil. he much, the question is always who is using it define, what do they do with it? he, i, at the end of the day it's a tool some in and back to like this means that the u. k. has voted to leave the european union. opponents of progress also used it as well,
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b veg dre, the real people of victory. but they said, ah, record and of divine from donald trump, van rickly by rex it in the election of donald trump. we're really to milestones at precisely these points. it became apparent that the public majority was blind to the incredible powers of mobilization at in social media. from the you want from mention, the of millions of people suddenly felt align. i'm not alone out there. there are tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands of millions of people who think the same way i do. it was ultimately the birth of a new dynamics that we didn't see coming. the vehicle happens comes in in germany 2017. so the right wing populist a f d, become the 3rd biggest party in the federal parliament after an unusual campaign via via the d 's, we will change this country. communications expert,
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granny's iden glance has analyzed it less fugazi in am. owens, i, what we've seen, including in our own research, is that the a, f d a was seemingly able to recognize the potential of facebook campaigning very early on food earlier than others. the a f d were able to show several faces right wing extremism on facebook, and ironic civility on tv. because of the, of the hacker of by a f t seem to have identified different groups in a very targeted way. and she did and fed different information to them. it's who wish be. facebook allows the electorate to be divided. each target group can be reached individually. you gone and politics from a they, they to, for environment, to a very theater rich environment where you can really target and granular way even fairly small groups. and that has changed the game. obviously, some realize this too late when these movement started, contradict him himself,
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or it's saying different things to different people. a traditional politicians were like, you know, but look at these jokers and they did on the stand that the ecosystem had evolved completely. and that now you are in such a fragmented system that you're talking through a 1000 different channels. politicians were able to use the new channels to send out tailored messages. youtube is the main hub for right wing radicals. you're not kaiser has research the phenomenon was because in hobble youtube algorithms are insanely good at identifying thematically organized clusters. in other words, in groups with similar themes, lottery indies. though large sections of youtube are completely a political and humans eat lots of music. lots of video game sleep and then you come to politics up in the u. s. you have left wing and mainstream means and then
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you have a right wing bottle of in germany. he basically only have the right wing bubbles on the record. bother. after every right wing video, there comes in other one this results in content bubbles which tend to get more and more radical of innovation dot and listen, these algorithms have to make their predictions based on some kind of data headphone. and if a platform like that is used mainly by those who feel ignored, it's a problem probably sooner or later. right wing opinions get reinforced, and right wing channels get recommended. well, even if you started out with videos from a public broadcaster infect, that's how you tube contributes to radicalization them and on own so on the are stays channel things. you don't come back to all the channels nealus, you just go further in night. all the conspiracy theory or right wing channels. i conspiracy theorists like the american alex jones are now banned from youtube.
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oh boy, you tube hut, site dean. youtube has done a lot of tweaking since then. already that this community that's grown over the years of accident. you can't just get rid of it. quick management, new youtube rules, only shift the danger. today we're in paris and we're in a state of law and in a western democracy. but let's go online. we're not in a democracy anymore. we are in yemen, we're in a failed state. ah. the full moon is, can you and accommodate these forms of escalating communication didn't come into being with the internet. you does. and we know from psychology that the concept of an enemy can, of course, lead to a very strong mobilization in defense of one's own value. so you stagger will be 0 . can often mobilize much more strongly than positive ideas of actually standing up
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for something doesn't begin this most. the, this method was used in propaganda, the 20s, thirties, and forties. yeah. and it's being used to day by populous parties were to veto the deeds. this is berlin's former propaganda ministry here, beginning in 1933, joseph gerbils developed new methods of manipulation. oh, good. not the loan from there. the indian b o. b, better and humbling that idea led to millions of deaths and the division of germany. following the war east, germany became a socialist dictatorship. the ministry for state security or starcy was also responsible for foreign propaganda. e bundis comply beverly ministry for state secures. he covered west germany with disinformation campaigns
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and with what today we call fake news. using the right dosage was key, the starcy weren't supposed to just outright lie. why is funk to and it works when things have a core of truth to them. if it is active because the called the beta is, is west german politicians who had been nazi party members were accused of direct involvement in the holocaust. the styles he falsified documents and invented witnesses, the west tried to fight back. attorney smith as can i course, it wasn't a one way street, especially at the height of the cold war. western propaganda went from the other direction. the end of a storm. in the 1970s, the west relied less on propaganda. the east, more especially the soviet secret service, the k g b, which grew more active eastern european intelligence agencies use the aids epidemic
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to damage their cold war foes. their cargo b k, g b spread the rim. it that the virus causing aids was created in a u. s. military laboratory, as part of an experiment on biological warfare agents operation. denver was about making the world believe h i. v came from a lab at fort dietrich in the eastern us. and the acton is full in secret service, reckless suggested went as far as the state secuity co financing a wish. jim and phil giving fuel to the myth again and again putting it out into the world is that west german newspapers picked up the story and it became mainstream. the mangano had shocked and didn't look closely. you can see that the conspiracy theory wasn't invented by the soviet some of emerged independently as an activist circle son, and was ultimately just taken uplift, improved and strengthened by opposing intelligence services seek notion. we see
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similar dynamics today, nomics in ohio. shortly after the outbreak of the coven 19 pandemic. chinese information ministry began telling a similar story youtube posts to rehash the myth over and over again. monica richter is an american propaganda researcher. her work has exposed the just information operation. our research showed that the very 1st claim that coven 19 was in fact, by a weapon produced by the united states, originated in t v. 's vieza, which is a russian outlet linked to the russian ministry of defense. this conspiracy theory then was shared extensively by the russians, the chinese, the iranians, one u. s. blogger with a half a 1000000 subscribers also took up the idea that us soldiers could have brought the virus to, wou hon. the blogger claims to be a concerned citizen. just analyzing facts and asking questions. i don't really
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agree with people that say that the problem is fake news because fake news only the tip of the iceberg. the environment is so rich in information that everybody can pick their own facts and live in a completely parallel universe. such parallel universes have always existed in 2001, the 911 terrorist attacks and the you, sparks conspiracy theories all over the world. the alex jones. jo, because there's a war on for your mind. i'll tell you the bottom line. 98 percent chance. this was a government orchestrated control bombing. i've been telling you this was going to happen just 2 weeks ago. they need, this is a pretext to bring you and your family martial law. donald trump also weighed in on the very day of the attack. i said, how could it play even a plain, even a 767 or 747 or whatever it might have been?
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how could it possibly go through the feel? i happened to think that they had not only a plane, but they had bombs that exploded almost simultaneously. fury surrounding 911 became breeding grounds for people with anti democratic ideals. now, oh, i trump and the world of conspiracies. the belief that $911.00 was an inside job planned by the administration of george w bush but president bush would subsequently launch his own attack on the truth. the bush administration was making an overtly openly fraudulent case. they put colon power in a chair at the united nations to lie to promote this notion that iraq had an active
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pursuit of weapons of mass destruction. powell also claimed that a rock had supported al qaeda. it was so clear in that moment to any one who had spent time on the ground in iraq that it was a lie filled carnival that colin powell had agreed to participate in 2003 a you, us led coalition invaded iraq. saddam hussein was overthrown, and more than 100000 iraqis were killed no weapons of mass destruction were ever found. the supposed evidence was false. when the u. s. is reputation fell even further due to human rights violations and crimes like those committed at the, the grip prison. and due to drone footage like this, published by wiki lease, it shows an attack on mostly unarmed direct law fire.
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one of the victims was a journalist. the images were a propaganda gift to all enemies of the u. s. graduate claire, the days of the u. s. presenting itself as a moral role model were over. but it isn't the only country to wage war based on lies. when russia invaded ukraine and next crimea, i became increasingly interested in the disinformation campaign that ensued. i think it's absolutely accurate to say that ukraine was the testing ground. ah, it was all about muddying the information's face,
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making it impossible to distinguish what the reality was about what was happening and ukraine the ukrainians were painted as the aggressors. blaming the victim is a very common tactic. there was a lot of what about ism and so claiming that the annexation of crimea was in fact no different than the us invasion of iraq. for example, the putin pushed ahead with his goals antics and crimea. he was helped by finely tuned propaganda. no longer about simply portraying one system as superior to another. russian disinformation today has a slightly different approach. it's about leveling the playing field by saying yourself. id is just as corrupt as ours, and you don't deserve to have the moral high ground on the u. s. base platform,
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youtube, russian channels like to spread that message alongside images of protest from the west. i think there used to be a misguided belief that in open information market truth will to ultimately succeed . and that is simply no longer true, because that is not what generates the most activity. this totally unregulated and really unprecedentedly experimental, incredibly toxic brand new information ecosystem that is global, that we have built, arose and a matter of a handful of years. and we are suddenly trapped in it above all authoritarian rulers benefit from the situation and its consequences reach as far as australia. many chinese live here becoming a target for propaganda from the ccp. in sidney chung e. fong,
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as tracked their efforts during the pandemic. this, you say, typical case of missing information by the senate commissioner party. they didn't all our war to eliminate the real information and keep those information away from the public. they center the doctors and delete any information link to this outbreak. by covering up the outbreak, beijing put the world in danger. people continue to gather and then the white spret of vidas ryan had value fast for the 4th couple of weeks. and at that point, audience will meet in some people, will not be swallow tall, either part of china and other part of the walt what's behind the tactic
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is it's simply about deflecting attention from one's own mistakes. the i was considered a 1st senior official, defective publicly for 14 years, i've been working for the minister of foreign affairs. the regime under she jane pain is very ambitious. and he made a long term plan, is to turn china to be the number one superpower in the world. in 2049. with the help of overseas propaganda teaching in may the speech at a police bureau meeting. he said that in the past that china has not been effective in leading the water public opinion, and that china will do more in the future. in best more i get some information
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from reliable sauce that australia is to be the test grand. above all, china, once one thing from australia in chinese gallon, i assume is very small power slaugh, economy, small population, but to a huge resources chinese communist party funds, influential media in australia. this is the pace enforcer in australia, very effective and especially on chinese community. the most, the over low co chinese media here, generally controlled by fire china by city, pete. you know, so there is a huge army of opp, oregon, that him in here. this is tense him there walk law dip into washington society. 2 some among sydney's chinese community have staged impressive marches in the city.
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they want visibility, including at universities where more and more chinese students are being educated. under president teaching thing, we have seen the chinese government grow bolder in its repression of basic rights. a chinese government is trying to send a message to chinese people who are living in other countries abroad. that if you criticize the chinese communist party, you'll pay a price chinese students can wind up in trouble if they criticize the regime, including policy regarding hong kong. and then we saw this really escalate and take off i in the last couple of years, particularly as you know, the protests in hong kong have reverberated around the world. elaine pearson wrote a report on the situation and what the students told us was that they can't criticize the chinese communist party. some of them described how they were threatened over social media apps, sometimes in text messages. and sometimes the messages came in the middle of the
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night, a classmate would say, i'm watching you people are very afraid for, for their family members back home. you know, they don't want to see, you know, their mothers or their brothers or sisters hang a very heavy price or potentially even going to prison or for their activities here in australia. when it comes to hong kong, the chinese government has the little tolerance. we university approached me when the hong kong government released its national security law. and i explained how this law is extremely troubling from a human rights perspective. the it will have a huge chilling effect on free speech in hong kong, but also in countries like australia and the university published an article. and within 24 hours, i started to get text messages saying that the article had been removed from online,
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prove aging students attack their fellow students. the university bowed to chinese pressure. i was also pretty disappointed that the university you know, did not really robustly defend the academic freedom of one of its academics. part of the reason they failed to do that is because there is so much at stake. there is so much revenue that is coming from chinese students in australian universities. while austrian lawmakers are investigating the incident. i've noticed today that there has been in our reluctance from some of our government departments and also reluctance from some of our universities to use the c word. and you know, by that, of course, i mean china. i believe the free water should be aware of the nature of a c. c. p. it's purpose phase to dictated the whole whoa,
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the the did. they are not friendly in late, 2020, china commented on australian war crimes. enough. ganesh den was a tweet showing a fake damage this worse and relations between the 2 countries and australia later put its naval fleet on alert. in europe, china resorts to other means a when the chinese propaganda. i found it astonishing how caught off guard that was by russia and china in taking advantage of a crisis to push their strategic interests. we actually saw for the 1st time, the chinese adopting very similar disinformation tactics from the russians was basically authoritarian learning in real time. russia sent soldiers to italy to disinfect, aged care homes and china, sent doctors,
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and ever greater numbers of masks, along with his own supervise tv, group. chinese were absolutely hell bent on controlling the narrative internationally to demonstrate that chinese authoritarianism is much better poised to deal with the crisis like the pandemic than messy democracy. a lot of you saw modality opens the door for china. those narratives were in fact, effective. there was a period of time when italian public opinion polls showed that something like 52 percent of people, actually trust china. more than that, you in the context of, of the cobit response. ah, the e, you can't agree on counter strategy. there's a fear that angering beijing could disturb their trade relationship with china. politico had a write up that accused china, the global disinformation campaign. and so the next day we had
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e mails from the u. delegation in beijing saying that the chinese foreign ministry made vague threats about the publication of such a report voting very badly for you china relations. it's a problem for the use top diplomat joseph bureau. this basically led to a panic within the e s hierarchy, a stalling of the report. i wrote an email where i said that this amounted to appeasement of the chinese communist party. unfortunately, that whole thread of emails was subsequently leaked to the media to the new york times. specifically, richter's criticism was clear, self censorship set, a terrible president. issue says, faith is engage, been held to shape a more stable and prosperous world. foreign affairs g farro didn't criticize china,
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but instead the whistleblower who leaked the e mails out the window blah was there is another thing. we cannot work on the basis of this kind of leaps. we are very damaging for i will work for l. how to call with the check minister of foreign affairs in which he mentioned that, you know, i was of that i was a problem. and unfortunately, you know, for a variety of reasons, the checks came to this pressure. and so i subsequently resigned. the use priority seems clear trade over freedom. i'll clarify one thing. it's not that i'm asking the west to be in a war. the west is in a war and has not yet realized it in western industrialized nations. the battle for power and opinion is being fought using technology developed by british and u. s. companies. the parent company of scandal played cambridge analytic a was among those to have profit it as author, emma bryant has shown s,
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c l was set up in the wake of the iraq invasion. their 1st attempt to really get a contract was at the dfcs of big homes are in london, and they set up a sort of james bond style room and they use their to when really important defense contracts made them a hell of a lot of money. emma bryant can prove that cambridge analytical illegally used facebook data to influence voters. originally, the company's aim was to influence the rockies and afghans in the interests of the u. s. o ration companies that came out of the war and tara and then when the money from the wall went away, they then know, working, ah, you know, doing contracting in, you know, places around the world, doing elections and actually abusing data, working for, you know, human rights abuses,
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the researcher hoped her revelations would deter others. but these methods are being copied around the world and you know, all government so desperate to try and acquire, you know, tools to counter dis information. they have got the idea that they have to join this arms race around ah propaganda. how do you motivate, monitor and regulate your own population? the pandemic has given added urgency to these questions. right wing populists especially are adding fuel to fire like extra advisor, steve bannon, a star comparison, a study shows that 10 of the most popular fake news, facebook pages have been viewed 300000000 times as opposed to 70000000 views for the w h. jo and other health organizations. just 12 influencers are responsible for 65 percent of the false information about vaccinations,
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including an activist from the q and on movement. in alex kaplan as research the digital world of conspiracy theories. i kept seeing you are on supporters. repeatedly shop is like major apple fires of misinformation. you are seeing eddie backs influencers. they were starting to go on this. karen shows where they had a friendly audience. urines borders within the united states and internationally by including germany attended anti lockdown protest. ah, when protesters stoned germany's parliament building the right stop, the q symbol was among those on display. this one is in the colors of imperial germany's war, flat, q non followers believe in a so called deep state that of wps children and can only be stopped by donald trump
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. then i'm a family dr. hayes, be democrats. we will knock our dock even where americans everyone is appointed. they have more time to serve the internet and you know, with that, i think people were scared, people wanted answers for some q and on provided a way to get those answers. ah, you were not. supporters were among those storming the u. s. capital? many were injured, and a female follower died after being shot by a police officer. we twitter after insurrection. they really went after like all the big huron influence on the platform. they're almost all gone on twitter like that, suggested to me that they knew who the influencers were. and until, and just up to that point, didn't take action on them for use. twitter is made money from q and on. it was kinda a bit late. i mean, this infrastructure had grown so significantly that it already had tangible impacts
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on society too. only after the jest says, the capital. did politicians react no one took responsibility. this isn't just about stupid people believing things that are not true. this is about, um, you know, self interested people utilizing this as a way to keep themselves rich regularly everywhere on your alex gene i will read. you can hardly turn on the news that it without hearing somebody say the word mis information. it is. okay. then what i'll do is talk, and at the end of the day i, well, the citizens, at least certainly in europe in the united states are on their own because nobody is coming to help them. oh,
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you have to be proactive. that means you have to get out there and you have to be messaging yourself. there's no mechanism to decide who's going to decide what the messages. but we can't even do that. you need to understand that people looking for a recognition to be seen, to be acknowledged to be part of something. and you need to provide that for them. if you're not capable of doing that, i mean, there's no amount of regulation of or, or, you know, or criticizing that will, that will solve the problem for you. mm hm. in with a, in a globalized world, where everything is connected, all it takes is
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a score to set things in motion. local hero show how their ideas can change the world. global 3000. in 30 minutes on d, w, a, go africa. there are pros and cons to inhibition transportation project. the new standard gauge way away in can yeah, with a problem for motor is a threat to endangered wildlife. how a low emission tree line is creating a bad atmosphere. echo africa in 90 minutes on d. w. ah,
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