tv Antarctica Deutsche Welle July 12, 2021 11:15am-12:01pm CEST
the antarctic continent of mystery and natural wonders covered with ice for kilometers, deep temperatures can drop to minus 93 degrees celsius. 75 percent of our planet. fresh water is locked up in ice sheet and yet it's classified as the largest desert on earth. this could be the only place in the world where diverse countries have rallied together in the name of peace and science to protect the environment, the part about the ice and the temperatures. sure,
but the part about peace in the environment. it's hard to believe the not just because i'm concerned about nature, but also because i live in syria in 2009. so i don't have much faith left in peace or in the international community. but i'd love to be proven wrong. we've come to point in us where the polar research vessel espied us is picking up a group of spanish scientists to take them to antarctica, already nervous alex, you'll get used to it. it's no big deal. we clean up what i can just
bring up. it's amazing, but even got a window that says a lot of bunk. it's done, it's the last night was wrong. we went to bed early, but i had a hard time falling asleep. but i must have slept just for hours because i was so nervous about the trip in the market. i embarked on this journey to explore the myths of antarctica. ah. after one day at sea, we reached the end of the world. news at the southern most chance of argentina, canada, waco is still a 1000 kilometers from the continent of antarctica. this is the drake passage. eddies and wind turn freely here, whipping up violent seas in one of the earth,
roughest waterways. but i was in bed for the 7 days, then the worst storm today. it is this year. it was our 2nd trip back from an article you said the field. we were about 18 hours from south america when a severe weather system hit us from the starboard side. we say 7 meter high wave winds of up to 50, not even though they went into think when that was every time the crew sales into the drake passage, they have their mobile phones, camera re when it comes amongst a wave the good, the tools and these are the outlines of cape horn, a notorious maritime graveyard that harbors the sunken wrecks of hundreds of ships . even today, the drake passage commands respect. everyone batton's down the hatches. it wasn't so dramatic on our trip, though. most of them will depend on which luckily technology has improved
a lot to day before setting sale, we can check the weather forecast to find the best window more crossing passage. ah, to the adventure may not be as wild as it once was the but it's still beautiful. me, i oh and article has been subject to territorial disputes for centuries. the passage with 1st sailed by spaniards, francisco the orsis in 1525. 50 years later, it was discovered by the english explore sir francis drake and bears his name to
this day. or in the early 20th century, 7 countries laid territorial claims to parts of antarctica. the overlapping claims of the united kingdom, argentina, and julie con. tensions that erupt it into armed conflict between britain and argentina in 1952. as the cold war set in the last thing the world needed was a new geo political flash point. it was that realization that gave rise to the and arctic treaty. many people, including scientists, were looking for ways to cooperate and there was the international physical year and $195758.00. and that worked out so well that there was this idea that there could be cooperation in antarctica. the
they found that there was a way and it's showing an article for the trinity to set aside the claims and to say that there would be a d militarization. but it's also, as you may know, one of the 1st arms control treaties. so it was focused on keeping the peace in that respect as well. but none of that was the result of goodwill alone. the extreme climate made it difficult to exploit the region economically. and the u. s . and soviet union stake their territorial claims quite late in the game. the 4 days after leaving printer us the s. betty this reaches antarctica. everyone is excited. we got up at 5 in the morning to catch our 1st glimpse of the coastline. what we hadn't expected was the fog.
now we are doing a half miles away and you can't see anything. oh, a few hours later, the fog lift, and at last we can see antarctica. the news that it is 1st stop is king, george island. the spanish team is delivering supplies to the oregon lion station. i take us and our cooperation is running smoothly. and so i want to see what the antarctic treaty is very effective. under its turns, this location is devoted solely to science. you saw late a key role in getting all countries to set aside. there are other interesting at least publicly, and it's been that way for
a very long time. and if not fully yes. unfortunately, the same is not true in other parts of the world that are usually economic interests. take precedence, oversight, cooperation. whenever you come up with this model be exported beyond antarctica, when those are some that when that's a good question, is something many on the planet would not ord, which of the planet because king george island offers the easiest access to antarctica. it has the greatest concentration of stations on the entire continent. there are facilities here belonging to uruguay, russia, chile, argentina, brazil, china, poland, peru, ecuador, the czech republic, south korea, and bulgaria. the antarctic treaty regulates how many new stations can open so that it doesn't get too crowded. if it's always entered to exist peacefully with your neighbors and get along. the 1st thing we did was to establish good
relations with all our neighbors. cooperation is vital in antarctica when their attention is between the united states and russia. that's it affect the competition. you know, i wouldn't say there's no effect, but by and large, the cooperation has continued. and it doesn't mean that those tensions aren't in some respects in the background somewhere, but at least in terms of the antarctic programs in the arctic programs and the work of the scientists together by enlarged that, that continues. in 2004, russia imported wood from siberian pines, its national tree to construct a small orthodox church. here in antarctica, critic say its a sly way to take a territorial claim. the
land station has its own church to. it also has a school for the children of soldiers stationed on the base around its the closest thing you'll find to a settlement and antarctica. in the 1970 s argentina's military dictatorships and pregnant women to give birth and antarctica to underscore its territorial claims. july dictator, august open oshea copied the tactic, but it was widely viewed as provocative. and after the birth of 8 argentinians and 3 children and both countries ended the policy today. more subtle strategies are used to submit a territorial claim as seen on chalet and television. ryan will be because we partially call these guys when it's july and i talked to july and talked to be mostly sunny. what did you lay and think about their countries claims to antarctica?
i would up and then call us, you know, it could be on there isn't much public debate on the topic, don't record when i was little people did talk about it a bit later on the political discourse subsided that day when people primarily associated with environmental protection like where that's the trend i've observed, especially among young people who don't really suck in dense and they sit in the hole in it for the city. well, i mean williams, my 130 for us. it's simple. we stay in touch with places where many nations come together from the same data. no, there's no reason why we should be more entitled to anyone else so they can escape . what do you think we can save antarctica if we fail to do the same and other places you're going to? i think it's exactly because we've made with mistakes and other places that we have a shorter saving antarctica. the
the spain has 2 stations in and doctor car, it's national research center operates the one carlos the 1st station on livingston island. it was built in the late 1980 s, and remodeled in 2008 into a modern facility. that looks a bit like a space station. the the station is summer, it doesn't need to with the hoss conditions you'd expect to encounter in an attack ticker.
any wind, but 2 days ago we had 18 kilometers an hour which tries the wind chill factor down to minus 20 degrees celsius. had only lopez and his team study to continents geology, which they say is of essential importance to the rest of the planet. and article affects the whole world climate. doesn't it love public either free or no, it's the planets cold factories will be on a lot of it's really cold in the arctic to but not to the same again. and there's a lot more ice. and then then in the architect that dr. water reaches as far as the iberian and insulin and continues to circulate around the northern hemisphere. these waters sometimes blow all the way up to the arctic getting where they cool back down again. a motor driving the circulation
isn't arctic one of the most important projects at the one carlos the 1st station. is it study of the heard and johnson glaciers? and this would be really nice. this is angie with the state, the mass balance. then she found the gains of us been granted that in the senior director opposite is the though, is it getting colder and, and arctic out see system for the under of yes it is getting cold, but our measurements are limited to the last 15 years following the system we are on to the studies need to examine the period of at least 30. if we look closer, we can see that there was a gradual temperature in a day and a temperature drop in the subsequent 15 years. but globally, the trend is towards warming and i'm in the one with the on our trip we didn't see much snow. but the year before there was
so much snow that the 2 meter high stakes used to monitor the glacier. this appeared to find them. the spanish team had a big oh, and dig and dig located next to livingston island is half moon island. ah . we made a discovery in this miniature sized antarctica. the weather here changes very suddenly.
ah within minutes the snow fall turns into a blizzard clocking winds of 80 kilometers an hour the league city. this next stop is deception. island home to the station, gabrielle, the cafeteria. this island is the caldera of an active volcano, last erupt in 1970 huge glaciers are concealed beneath the ash
gabby, the cast station is run by the spanish army. wait, didn't we say the antarctic treaty bands all military activity? this time i said, when i speak with the lies, le, due to the eyelids difficult terrain, and the danger posed by the location of it was denied it that the army with best equipped to operate the station, we must put it. but understand our mission is to make the visiting scientists feel at home and that they come for a very specific time period to work on research. i take samples, do experiments and collect data data. and i think our job is to ensure all the logistics are in place so they can concentrate on their work. i'm in the laser and so there are no weapons here. no, no, none that i know was i deception island is home to a large colony of chin strap penguins and race barbosa has been studying these animals for 20 years. i expect that one of the thing we know other species,
like the other late penguins those populations have decreased dramatically on the antarctic. an insulin by about 60 percent, the penguin is also threatened by extinction. but it also species like the gen to penguin have profited from present a condition that i saw. our populations have been increased by about 15 to 20 percent. and that's basically what's been happening over the course of 4000000000 years on our planet. it's called evolution. and the policies and species the thrive under positive conditions is the new vanish and are replaced by others. yes, so me the andre installed a camera to monitor the penguins all year long. the images track the birds and their offspring as they gradually flee the onset of cold temperatures. mm. with the eagles fly by the drifting icebergs. the arrival of storms that bury the camera and snow
and then blow it free again. the long, lonesome winter. the formation of ah sunsets that no one else sees. in october, the penguins return, soon they begin to lay their eggs. and a few weeks later, chicks are born ah, in one of the spanish navies tasks is to map the undersea topography around these island. the drive a deeper 08 feet. the lake is
because the arctic coast is so i'm in less than one percent of the area underwater . it's been properly out of the for example, you have to change your ships because of an iceberg. and it can be dangerous to leave the zone for which they are accurate. they have a lot more. so we need to produce more maps to prevent shipwrecked oil spills or other ex, i think it's owned by the not just to protect human life, but also to prevent damage to the environment. here. we really have lots of work at home. it will take every country with the ability to cooperate with me. and i think what i, what i'm told me, the british captain william smith made the 1st recorded landing in an article in 18 . 19 an accident after he was blown off course by powerful winds. spain claims the honor for gabriella castillo, who says, discovered the continent in 16 o. 3, though that's never been proven. it's probable that feel hunters set foot on these
islands before william smith, but they kept quiet about their discovery, so as not to have to share its treasure trove of fir the assembly of organisms from the widow sea. and nobody knows what family genius or species they belong to. they have yet to be classified, which is true, lots of completely different types of animals on my list come to commentary in dos me despite its remote location, far removed from almost all human life on or the southern ocean is a vital and precious region of the planet the team of modern day explorers has been dispatched to the region by the university of barcelona
i got more people thought that because it's so cold with cheese resources in terms of food. it would be little phone or on the c bed. that's not true. additions are harsh, but organisms adapt to speaker systems to then talk to the oldest on the plan. the species had a long time to adapt the species that are in fact unique to the system here the most. do you feel a bit like explorers and what? well yeah, i do. the explorers of antarctica today. and in times past
in 1911 norwegian explore rolled amans of norway and britain's robert falcon scott race to be the 1st to reach the south pole. ominous and triumphed while scots team perished trying to return. though his expedition ended in tragedy, scott was celebrated as a hero. on his way back, scott had picked up a fossil from a tree also found in south america. and india. defined supported the theory that the continents were once joined and had drifted apart. so the race to the south pole contributed to a better understanding our planet's evolutionary history. ah, the remnants of an old whaling station can still be found on deception island. long ago the location was referred to as bred bay because of the bloodstained water or
stinking bay. due to the stench of rotting meat and processing oil. it was shut down in 1931. an international ban on commercial wailing came into force in 1986 japan was allocated a quota for scientific research purposes. it was long suspected of violating the terms of this quote by pursuing commercial wailing and antarctica. we support sustainable use. we'd like to see waves forever in the future. it was the only way possible,
and it is free for any nation to have any to have particular ways of dealing animals in the nation and culture. in 2014 the international court of justice in the have ruled against japan's wailing program. the court concludes that the special pam is granted by japan for the killing taking and treating a whales in connection with jar 2 are not for purposes of scientific research, but it's john to article 8, but i'm going to run over the convention. japan complied with the court decision, but only for one year after which it ships were back out wailing and the southern ocean again wailing is not the only problem we should be concerned about. the patagonia tooth
fish is an antarctic treasure. it's subject to catch limits, but i'm in high demand. poaching is a lucrative business that basically ignore closures. and i'm only on fishing technique just because mandate the long line in which allows you to select efficient ways to my address that should indiscriminately killed the homes of other fish as well. the in 20142016 spanish police, interpol and the new zealand navy took joint action against to be done out of my daughters. a spanish company accused of illegal fishing when it went out on me and span. yeah. but it was a milestone internationally because i'm saying issued a public acknowledgement saying, we admit this is this client fission company. and we know there are many others, but this story didn't have a happy ending to dial, amador was appealed level conviction of the supreme court decided to do it,
this is the argentinian station primavera. but then that would be the way that the printer very station is run by the army here that i was like other station system a has a system of raise walkways. so we avoid trampling on fragile plan including mosse and algae, as to cause the least possible feeling. why is it that international cooperation works here, but not of the un loan? they know nothing what you and which are, but i'm not a foreign policy expert. so i can't say allow that, but the antarctic treaty works very well, because you asked me why i can't really say it just does that. but again, i say i wish the rest of the world this way, but probably there's more egoism in other places. here for about another part of the mind really is there cooperation between argentina,
sheila and the united kingdom to law. yeah. yeah. in fact, when i arrived to the fray station, there is no problem in that respect. and the guy here in an article, it works perfectly. officially, i'd be happy to show you a bit more of the station that i go. my us and the commander mentioned the phrase station which is to lay in but nothing specific about the u. k. it may just have been coincidence. or maybe he was avoiding a sensitive topic. in 1982 argentina and britain went to war over the falkland islands. for many, it left wounds that never healed. for days we watched other worldly scenes unfold before our eyes. ah,
ah. during those weeks we discovered antarctic as infinite beauty and one of its biggest threats that we saw rank or face it numbers in 2008, 2009 with some 46000 tourists because the financial crisis hit, the tourism industry and numbers dropped to below 25, i thought recently they were back up again. 6000. whatever the numbers keep rising as go don't, we don't know what will happen. i think numbers will increase these trips on cheap and cost a cost between $5.10 euros per trend. yet you would say no,
i am not a lot of people can afford such luxury and low quality they need for every researcher in antarctica, there are now 10 tourists. it's a business that breaks in some $400000000.00 euros per year. a few years ago and n g o opened a new them here inside a british station, dating from the 1950s bought out up lateral rules of conduct visitors, but more needs to be done and it would help if tourists were required to make a monetary contribution. to regional conservation up, it's currently only 10 of the 521-0000 heroes. they pay for their water raising their footprints. but what goes conservation management? and like often the tourist to file
a complaint against the tour operators to cloud regulations via do you think tourism may have a negative impact in antarctica? personally, you know, we were, we were able to have a lot of time to walk and track and there's been a lot of time walking around the islands. and so far we've found some trash, which is very surprising in a way because you know, in our mind, at least in my mind, i thought an article will be a very mean and remote location would be untouched. but they're looking at, you know, a milk carton from china and i'm trying to, i can read that and then looking at different water bottles and waste on beaches and it just is shocking and away me. it's not just tourism. any human presence in an article can pose a threat that they were looking for aliens
for sally in the last alien species that didn't exist in the region before they arrive, check out the local conditions. and if they meet their ecological requirements, they settle and propagates. in fact, we want to identify the invasive species of displaced local population. c, last, the temperature rises even slightly. maybe she previously had been unable to propagate, 50 can invade occupied the happy dance of native patients in the palm of the open. okay. and how do these invasive species retained arctic? why not in but they arrive through different natural channels, either on the women or tree trunks or on a floating object or on animal natural root. the main civil asian human inadvertently carried on vehicle wheels or actually stopped by the many species die in the harsh conditions which are that other more hardy one is become
innovative. it gets on come up. what he does, i got what i mean by the that's why we were required by the spanish polar committee to carefully vacuum each one of the items we took with us to antarctica. can you solve the problem alone? no, that's what i want to get. you know that to be honest, but the great thing about it article as a cooperation between the many countries active here on what is a good example is our success in eradicating and invasive species. 2 years ago, when i go to the not the on that it was a coordinated effort to spanish, british and argentine polar communities, me to pull out of the know. and that despite the fact that britain and argentina have a history of conflict in the region, but i mean they're going to be a radical database and not all the money actually got youngling. my thought follow us on maybe ecologists or dr. jacqueline, we've diagnosed it is now the only society to follow the doctor's order and medical
me after a week on the gala straight. the sb this makes its way back to the spanish station . from there it will return home. but i couldn't leave antarctica without investigating the world, single, biggest threat to peace and the environment, government and the data. without a doubt, there are mineral resources in your hand. there's always with all you gotta be and they're not just hydra covers in the form of the natural gas petroleum, but also minerals like nickel, gold, and silver. i think the recent application, or even the finding of the time that may harbor diamond if the amount this covers as much fun come increasingly easier and cheaper to reach and articles. because there can be minerals here with a value so great might justify their exploitation as yet. and even in such
a remote location, hostile environmental split, split up, you know, a lot of pamela. i know, even when i'm going to still do this, mr. prestige oil spill, and we conducted research to determine the impact along the entire cost of nose and sign in the findings. devastating oil isn't just hard to remove. it's impossible if we take off the upper layer. but the rest of state where the customer will spill in hancock to turn on the scale of the prestige would be a total auto catastrophe. if, if the oil impact on the sheep would be far more dramatic in any of the effects you can have in other regions and not to do this. but why was the 1st of all be impossible to reach all of the areas that you have an effect when freeze is the oil? the ice answers will be much harder for marine company in the last
4 years. in 1989 signatories of the antarctic treaty were poise to open the door to limited oil and mineral prospecting that had new countries lining up to join the club. but then once again, a miracle happened to be there today saw the signing of the madrid protocol from one of the agreement names to protect the environment of antarctica. the only remaining christine territory on our planet went to stay enforced for the next 50 years. gwen daniels at the our last know often the wellness powerful countries were divided. men most around erupted between the more environmentally conscious european nations in the united states and also via union china and britain in the southern. maybe i'm be with them and don't know who to pay us in the end all agreed to a 50 year moratorium on the exploitation of mineral resources,
the ban can only be lifted with the unanimous agreement of all signatories, which is virtually impossible. i'll receive a protocol was a compromise between the 2 sides and the exploitation of resources and cause of the pollution or irreparable damage to talk to them. and but it found to impose a permanent plan this process. probably the madrid protocol will be subject to review in 2048. what happens then that she'd been consensus heard anything, is a very hard thing to do. so as long as you haven't convinced all of the countries that the change from current policy is needed than the current ban on mining continues as a legal matter. that may be. but some are still tempted. in 2007, britain asserted new claims to a vast area of the sea bass off antarctica. it says 4, so it's
a reason why countries go to great shipping results and people to open stations in antarctica. i'm glad you said that they were not able to insure they'll be there when the continent is did even if no one will say so all of the done the couple of the company as a researcher, do you feel you're being exploited for that end? no, but i know that no, not at all, but a shallow lives. i have always believed to join with your enemy. but i prefer to take advantage of all that back and see the best the course the most through our research week, and it will help protect now a lot of later, but i guess april 7th, i believe that best option is or, or theory. let me call me back if i missed them. i don't know investing news.
and so the spanish researchers and military personnel take leave of the southernmost continent. the news . shortly before we reached the mainland, we received footage of the penguin colony on deception island. the chicks were born 20 days ago. the embryo in this egg is dead. its parents can't lay another until next year. it's hard for them to let it go. ah, human kind also tried desperately to protect the things that lot. and science has
in december, 2019 the european councils. a new president show me shows embarked on a ground breaking mission fuel to make sure the 1st time it's, it's just planted by 20 but not all new member state supported and some persuasion is required. the a surprise, the glimpse into the very heart of power negotiations among the flattery incentives but best laid plans often go astray who will win the game of diplomatic poker. the entry power please. and the lines behind the scenes of the climate summit starts august 5th on
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