tv Eco India Deutsche Welle April 28, 2021 10:30am-11:01am CEST
and we can read your heart. if you would like any information on the crown of virus or any other science topic you should really check out our podcast you can get it wherever you go your parkour you can also find us at. science. thanks. as humans we share our planet with many other species mammals birds fish insects and plugs it's this biodiversity that makes our would reach white pretty sight to see that at least $500.00 land that will be on the brink of extinction much of it driven by humans but we can also see of species that's what we talk
about today or equal india about a. let's begin this journey in the south of india in code nobody in. 4 years ago the farmers here faced the worst drought in nearly 150 years their dependence on grain fed farming meant that their problems were not if there wasn't a course correction all different war is helping them to have the sort of his model cooperative forest has improved the water table in the window just surrounding it and follow us can now do 2 to 3 crops cycles every year how is this transformation possible let's take a look. a few years ago would have seen much less green bile driving along this road but now there's a ribbon of trees and i mean area that's increasingly suffering from drought hill in the north of india as time allowed us to bourse to 50 acres of forest and
growing all because my newish had a dream so the dream is that to live in the jungle. so yeah all the good there are my friends is that let's create a forest and hopefully the forest will be for profit. and he's one of our around 70 supporters to help me his dream come true and that's even though the chances of growing the profitable forests here are slim it's mostly dry in that one employee district in monsoon season it rained so hard on the ground can't absorb the torrents of water a few invasive plants species are threatening biological diversity the soil has hardened as groundwater levels drop. out if it does no good make the earth spawns. back to the level that it can absorb water it can absorb moisture in that and said it will grow. so in this effort as a 1st step what we're about is we have sort of sort of a more about listing success. the region lies in the water catchment area of the
river in southern india that's an advantage for local water management members of the cooperative forest or corp as it's become known construct retention basins and ponds the group shares the water the land and the forest. now presently nor does that guarantee to people we only want people to come and put in your start their business or stop their work start living here and up and make maybe. for all those involved the co-op has been both an environmental experiment and a journey in self discovery former i.t. engineer vic nation and his wife love india see the forest has provided an escape for them from the business world having relocated to a humble dork in the forest the nation has spent the last 2 years experimenting but poultry and organic produce. needs are going to say that in the ponytail
i was attracted by the rainwater harvesting work. and the concept of farming as a community. that is why i decided to come in. it is easier to do farming in a place that has water. and not everyone can do it. there are a lot of places where the rains failed. this is a big initiative. and it gives us hope to. go to the upon going to our on the very much. hope in ever more difficult times drought flooding and cyclons have prompted many farmers to movie climate change is impacting this region hard to co-opt has also struggled but this year saw a big step forward in securing the group's future. 10 years off and now we have got electricity up so what were those were built on top of the locks the
small ponds the small structures when there's monsoon when this flow of water is good we will pump water from downstream to upstream and as we fill this ponds these he locks in becoming too small spawns us. vile the environmental impact is visible in the many water bodies and lush greenery the co-op has also developed into an economically viable model it now has a fully functional bamboo furniture unit headed by peugeot his wife monica runs of course medic unit that uses herbal products made from corporate sources like name alloa and goat's milk a number of young entrepreneurs are also involved in equal businesses the co-op has already grossed an annual turnover of one and a half car owners or just under $168000.00 euros the proceeds come mainly from the sale of its primary produce of bamboo alloa medicine and plants and whether to build. new cities profits are projected to grow now that the group has electricity
we have no ready to invade farmers farmers from all regions come. so that we can share our experience experience of doing what experience of drawing the most feasible water management plan ever you can just take the same model similar model and implemented in their e.d.s. that's pretty b.d.'s. and especially in these ngs where the government would lead to the region's green areas are growing visibly the group dreams of achieving dense fog discover and full rivers in other time allowed but with climate change advancing that dream may not come true. just because an animal species is on the brink of extinction it's not imperative that it will be lost completely the iberian links is one such example despite wants me recognised as critically endangered on the i.o.c.
answered red list on the vision as have been able to really classify this white cat but it's taken a lot of work to side distance spain and portugal to achieve this let's see what they've been doing. no obstacles can be in the way. today and i'd be really links is released into the wilderness of spain $63.00 mughal region. and that is special were or is that is to the reader the myth that i once went to a lecture when i was still studying veterinary medicine the so and during it i heard something that got me very worried. they said that the iberian links will form or go extinct in the next 10 to 15 years and that there was no way to avoid it not them yourself. except there was pinion is part of
a team that releases around $35.00 younglings in the region every here. if the iberian lynx is part of our natural heritage it's a species in our ecosystem that we humans must learn to respect that in the early 2000 they were on the brink of extinction with only around 94 animals left in the wild in spain and portugal this was the result of the loss of habitat the christian food sources and the lynxes being killed by traffic. now this species is being breckenridge creation centers like this one further north of extremadura gaining access here requires local government approval you have beer and i can is the symbol of nature conservation. one of the links is an umbrella species in the mediterranean woodland if it survives then also other species will survive and with them a whole habitat and a network of ecosystems. in. the team of service the
animals and their progress via cameras 247. good hunting skills are paramount for their survival in the wild. special stuff only into the reserve if necessary they don't want the links to get used to humans even more so when it's mating season like now not all repartee action efforts are success here the male this too high up. it's good that they keep trying. the mating couples are pre-selected so the next generation are 5 be reeling so strong and healthy the week before their release the felines also on the go both oral health check in the past the species fell victim to viruses and genetic diseases the veterinarian said biologists examine the physical state of the animals and take blood samples as well as swaps
everybody in a bit of the usually they're healthier but we need to make sure they don't introduce diseases into the wild creature and that they're fit for release in the wild they have to hunt and find territory we've gotten better betty. but 1st they need food rabbits are their favorite prey. and privatise states in the matter child valley there are plenty now around 100 ling's live here they free balanced the ecosystem by eliminating unfit animals and marking their territory. over the past 2 decades to come back off the iberian wings has cost the spanish government and the e.u. at least 70000000 euros road signs and tunnel diversions have been set up in the area to better protect them from being hit by cars. or that.
in the year any source of income is going to these 70000000 euros actually a bit more also finance jobs a lot of people are involved in the work on the part of the firm and not just directly with jobs like veterinarians guards the people who do the tracking work in education on this is really a few but also all the in direct jobs involved to improve the habitat get the how good your profession let me what are the i woke up. funds are also needed for incidents like these an animal in the area has apparently developed a taste for lamp and easy prey to catch the owner called the rangers to check if it was a mix. this was where it was attacked. from article about. what you can see how the links used it's clear was to catch it the distance between the teeth indicates it was a thinks also of the type of attack it was grabbed by the neck and the 6 yet it is
on the phone no it can't have been a fox they don't attack like this on the stand or go but the farmers paid the market price as a compensation at the moment it's $60.00 euros per month. and the team will also pay for today additional sheep dogs the rangers are keen to avoid conflicts between humans and the predators in the past that also endangered the next population all these efforts and populations to thrive in the wild numbers have increased tenfold in spain and in portugal the species made it from critically endangered to endangered conservationists are proud for you know they're rare and it would have been the 1st feline to go extinct since the save the tooth cats we really had the responsibility to avoid that and to have succeeded the iberian lynx is still here despite having been critically endangered it's a great achievement of an entire community. the next
step conservationists want to improve the connectivity between the links populations across spain and portugal this should make them more resilient they hope that the eye can also iberian wildlife this back for good. rewilding animals can have a lot of success as we've just seen but there are other more controversial methods being used by scientists to conserve species some are looking at bringing back that have already died out can you imagine the longer being found again and already in the will bomb and for that matter is that really possible let's find out. what need to cut who's technically been dead for 22 years. you may have guessed it kurt is a clone and he's the 1st white horse ever successfully cloned which makes him quite
a big deal. and it wasn't just an experiment scientists are now cloning endangered species to slow down the rate of biodiversity loss and even improve entire ecosystems. in one word it's just wow obviously we want to say of a species that we. welcome to the very weird world of wild clones gene banks and bringing species back from the afterlife. cloning has been controversial around the world. with legitimate concerns about us playing god or creating endless copies of species that wipe out biodiversity.
but coughed up us is the exact opposite to bring dire. back to this population of while she vols skis hasse's. on do 2000 horses a life today have descended from only 12 wild ancestor. researches use a unique gene that was frozen years ago that would have otherwise been lost from the pool and they use a domestic horse as a surrogate mother. kurt is not the 1st endangered species to be cloned and there has even been a clone of an extinct species but with limited success the barony an ibex was cloned 3 years after it went extinct using an old frozen skin sample researchers impregnated over $200.00 domestic goats only 7 became pregnant one mated to tell but the baby died minutes off that was born. less than one percent of wild clones ever survive and the lack of research and access to wild animals makes the entire
process especially difficult. with cut looking healthy scientists thought he would be the 1st clone to directly increase the genetic diversity of a population in the wild. and this is really cool because it's this represents a paradigm shift in conservation where we're no longer reacting to crisis but we're getting out to being preventative. that's been know that one of the scientists who cloned could and has been pushing the idea of cloning for conservation. the idea behind it is that we can use cloning in multiple ways to help endangered species either by increasing the size of their populations or by using it strategically to maintain genetic diversity increasing population numbers can help species recover but scientists only have a limited gene pool to choose from. but the method in use here. it's to add to the
strength of the genetic pool by bringing back genes that would have otherwise died out this could make populations more resistant to the effects of inbreeding and disease and even make them better at adapting to climate change. biodiversity loss is an existential threat we face. basic resources from pollination water and food at severe risk and poor countries are likely to be the worst hit at 1st. species numbers are in such a freefall that since the 1970 s. species populations have declined by around 60 percent to be we could be losing up to $150.00 species each day. geneticists around the world have taken notice and are collecting and preserving whatever genetic material they can in labs zoos and gene banks.
so merriment i mean today is too late for many species i'm sure i mean storing the d.n.a. is like a last resort. before they're going to so at least have the genetic. ed louis call founded a british gene bank run by public universities museums and zoos their consortium has collected over $48000.00 found so far. at least having an information. use saving any species and are. worth. owning is only one part of assisted reproduction which also includes artificial insemination in vitro fertilization and more recently gene editing. scientists think these offspring one just hope there own species but their
impact will extend on to ecosystems. some species like wild horses or even elephants are essential for the need to ecosystems to survive. without the horse for example some grasslands of the step have been invaded by moss and trees this means other species that depend on the grass are dying out completely upsetting the balance. once the losses return researchers hope they will back down to graft and bring the original step ecosystem back. and this isn't just an obscure example similar changes are being observed around the world. the e.u. has demarcated on a 1000000 hectares of land to bring wildlife back along with countries in asia and north and south america. cloning could is just one small step depending on the species we may need up to 500 diverse animals to build
a healthy wild population. at the same time conservationists the trying to bring attention back to the massive number of other species we continue to lose it's a real tragedy you know where we're losing. even if we have the technology no one is interested in. resurrecting some of these technology tends to focus on the large mammals the other things that are the charismatic but where we're losing lots of other things bob smith is a member of the un and firemen program with cost of such technology and rewilding still unknown he insists that more conventional approaches are still the main option it's very. attractive to think that we can have a sort of technological fix but the reality. much. cheaper
and more sensible to just go through and try and conserve things. rather than assuming all the go extinct and we can bring them back in. the race to conserve genetic diversity is on as a final attempt to cvs species. of course biodiversity is not just about animals around 40 percent of the world's long species are estimated to be at the risk of extinction many of them could help us with the help like here at the bancroft in west bengal which are not secret weapons against wider says that bacteria could be found one be a good reason to protect their the potential of mangrove swamps in indonesia it's already been researched in germany and the findings are very promising. the development of new antibiotics is
a race against time most antibiotics were derived from substances produced by soil dwelling microorganisms at the helm of the center for infection research in germany 70 octavian is studying sediment from mangrove swamps to isolate bacteria that produce antibiotic substances the samples come from a nature conservation area in indonesia. the microorganisms in this house have adapted to their tidal environment to thrive in the sediment and brackish water they've evolved to produce a variety of novel unto microbial compounds. something. but then we all know the world needs new antibiotics then. a growing number of pathogens are developing resistance to the antibiotics used in medicine today. well that's because so many antibiotics are being overused
and misused. but. the biologists have been trying to find as many microorganisms as possible that produce antibiotic substances i know work is paid off she's already isolated 28 previously unknown species mostly mix of bacteria. and bacteria produce a large variety of antibiotic substances. some of them can even produce compounds that are effective against malaria or viruses. and. the mixer bacteria found among grove ecosystems have also attracted the attention of a biologist you're watching think. he believes that indonesia which is home to about one 5th of the world's mangrove ecosystems could be a rich source of useful microbes. don't you has done a very interesting work with this mix of materials that this is
a special group of victoria we are. working on and she has isolated a number of novel specious and characterized them and is now on to states that she can look for bioactive compounds which are produced by a unique are by crawling this and. sending octavia on his initial findings showed that the mix of bacteria among groups once include many recipe she's. the point of compounds they produce will be screened to see if they have until microbial properties which could help stem the rise of super books that have become a global health crisis. yes so impressed that. you were very surprised to find that nearly every species we identified was a rare one. i only had. actually we only read about them in books or online
but here we've been able to work with them directly but i know i'm very proud that indonesia has so much potential. city of tokyo and i will soon complete her project at the helm on center then she plans to return home to indonesia where she'll continue her work a mix of bacteria and a mission to find new antibiotics. the oath belongs to the idea of links the bamboo forest and everything and everyone else just as much as us as the most intelligent species on the planet it falls upon us to do all that we can to protect it for ourselves and for every other living organism if you don't stop harming the planet the planet will find a way to sow wife with or without us think about that and i'll see you again next week for all of us in india and germany goodbye.
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is coming to life from india's code 19 death toll surpasses 200000 at its darkest hour of the pandemic so far shortages of medical supplies and hospital stuff compound the problem of infections tearing through the country. also coming up $5000.00 music walking europe's biggest indoor search since the start of the pandemic organizers say it was no spread or event we took a look at how it worked.