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tv   Look and Act  Deutsche Welle  April 26, 2021 9:30am-10:01am CEST

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discover the. subscribe. documentary. kids creatures or plague infested pets. for more than 15000 years the lives of humans and mice have been deeply entwined. we'll be looking at their respective evolutionary journeys on today's show. hello and welcome to tomorrow today the science show on d
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w. the formation of the sun dates back for the calls 1000000000 years. then came the us. what followed was a process known as biological evolution the 1st animals appeared some 600000000 years ago. humans are a relatively recent phenomenon our evolution has been far from linea with new discoveries often turning old assumptions on their head. now thanks to a certain long tailed creature scientists could be one step closer to learning more about the origin of mankind. this mouse comes from taiwan and this one is from iran. this one's german. well this one hails from france.
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they might look similar but they're all from different some species and genetically quite different. professor touts and his team caught the mice in their home countries and brought them to germany to the monks planck institute for evolutionary biology here they have their very own mice house with 24 rooms where they can stake out territory and. the scientists want to study how different some species undergo evolutionary development. more than window mice are a wonderful model for evolution they adapt very quickly to them together with humans they've spread all over the globe and adopted to many different climates but they also provide a biomedical model where their genetics are well known if you identify a gene in the context of an evolutionary development we can look up its function is which gives us the combination of evolutionary biology and genetics or misprision.
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community. mice have been around for some 500000 years 1st appearing in the area of modern day iran different subspecies soon developed the eastern the western and the southeastern asian house mouse. 15000 years ago they started associating with humans when the hunter gatherers settled in more permanent homes they were drawn by food stocks and food waste. from then on the mice followed humans wherever they went the southeastern asian mouse moving to india and china the eastern house most in northern nature and the western one spreading across the middle east only later did mice come to europe. the eastern house mouse came along the danube river was expelled that was about 6000 years ago the westernmost came across the meditator. on ships around 3000
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years ago ships for kiri bridges middle america common for. later they were carried by ship to the british isles and in the age of exploration to the americas australia and outposts like taiwan and the remote feral islands. the rodents down quickly to new conditions such as colder temperatures or different. studying what happens in their genome during this process has changed our understanding of evolution. from annoyances probes and there's always thought that 95 percent of the genome is junk. but we and other scientists discovered that these intermediate areas can actually be the birthplace for new genes and to an extent that we wouldn't have expected. their gross to tight as the majority of the genome keeps getting overhauled and most of it is then lost . when animals adopt a new surroundings these genes are used and retained to facilitate the adaptation
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process. another factor driving evolution is the choice of a mate the scientists decided to put western house mice from southern france together with others from the same subspecies from germany. the french and german my separated 3 millennia ago so there is far removed from each other as humans are from the. dog. but still they're able to breed and what about their offspring. with a father from southern france chose a southern french mate while the german father did for in germany that's because the genes that determine the mating process are passed on from the father. adopting to new conditions always goes hand in hand with an adaptation of the choice of the mace and switch to the rodents need to find a mate. that is best adapted to the environment that's because of my so it's always
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a coeval lucian's choice of make clothes out of taishan that's how you get different strains emerging from then on mates are only chosen from within the same strain for your body guard duty here. house mice only reached the german island of helgoland 400 years ago once again they had to adapt quickly owing to a lack of farmland the mines became carnivores feeding on worms and even other dead animals. today the helgoland mice no longer mate with new arrivals from the mainland and the different lines remain separate. the months long institute is also researching what happens when mice from different subspecies mate with each other. germany is home to both the western and the eastern house mouse the 2 are very different genetically but the scientists found they are able to me however their
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offspring are weaker and often suffer from parasites but interestingly individual genes are replaced and the offspring that can help the rodents adapt to changing environmental conditions there's enough for sunni and that's fascinating is that a gene that they have passed on can then become dominant in the other populations or examine their dismissed him about something that was also discovered in humans on the under tolls hybridise ation occurred between them and we still have some neanderthal genes today it's hard. thanks to the humble house mouse we now better understand how new some species are formed and how adaptation to a new habitat is facilitated by both d.n.a. and behavior changes it's like watching a high speed evolution before our very eyes. from hunter gatherers to set this. all the way to the office over telling our working world has evolved the latest. in the process working from home during the
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pandemic one in 5 workers around the world to put jobs home. but even before then millions of people already work from home. in countries including zambia ghana bangladesh and indonesia over 15 percent of workers work from home. now other nations like germany are playing catch up. but when the pandemic hit 10 germany went into lockdown and a whole bag had to begin working from home from one day to the next work posed a whole new set of challenges we visited her in her workspace at home. use a fino hoffman is an expert on the flexible forms of working and is researching the impact of remote work on company. and a whole bag has
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a desk job working from home means she now spends no longer in front of her computer. and you know i tried to find some potential times for a meeting with management next week i propose several options but they responded saying they could offer me an appointment at 7 in the evening. you shouldn't really be having meetings at that sort of time but you find yourself making more and more appointments outside normal working hours and i'm glad. it's become a common problem 65 percent of companies report that employees are increasingly likely to be working outside their normal working hours. being at home makes it easier to work more flexibly and there's no commute to an office. yet one international study shows that people are working an average of 48 minutes longer than they used to 56 percent of those questioned said they're working beyond.
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contractual obligation it's left on a whole back exhausted she's constantly on call and feels there's no longer any clear separation between housework and her private life she's not alone a survey found that 65 percent of people say that the boundaries of blurred between work and home for parents of young children that can be very stressful so it's important to designate twerking and personal hours. or this needs to be communicated we shouldn't go around thinking they probably assume that i'm available all day so i should answer the phone immediately. i've got into the habit of putting appointments in my calendar that are just me time to make a point that i'm not always available. for. 'd 70 percent questioned in another survey said that their employers can get in touch with them even when they're on holiday working at home also takes a physical toll 40 percent of people questioned in
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a town who fit institute study reported physical ailments such as back ache for many people their makeshift offices at home deal for working on a whole bag says she also notices physical side effects. i get very cold feet. and my circulation has suffered and. that's because she tends to move around less at home than she would in the office. sitting at a table for hours on end can restrict blood flow. cold feet is a common problem among people working remotely i've heard that a lot even before the pandemic as far as this problem goes people just need to exercise discipline they need to make sure they stand up regularly and walk around the block for 15 minutes they can do things to prevent it 'd. people working from home rely heavily on technology almost 60 percent of people. in
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a survey said they could do with better equipment and would appreciate it if their employers provided laptops and mobile phones the technology has to be fail proof. tweaked during a virtual meeting there was a problem with the bandwidth so the video link didn't work. these video calls really have been helpful but this time we have to turn off the video function and. it's affects the quality of communication with. many people working from home experience technical difficulties and end up missing on line meetings for example. think of everyone needs a basic reliable set up to work efficiently from home and then they need to have backup plans just in case i can always use my own phone. or i've gotten used to giving out my private number because at least it's
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a stable connection. to the. business but people need to have contingency plans in case things go wrong. but even when the tech works 85 percent of people who work at home say they miss personal contacts. it's good to get positive feedback from colleagues. last week i managed to finish a project i've been working on for 2 years. i was very pleased with that and it was a shame no one was there to share that with. interaction with colleagues plays a big role in our working lives. with everyone working from home it's harder to maintain these relationships. as. people should reach out and share
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news and so on they need to overcome their reservations take the initiative and communicate with people share good news that needs to be done consciously it can't just be left to chance. there's also less social contact because fewer people are traveling for work. if you as a female believes we're facing lasting change in the way we work. i don't necessarily think there will be fewer business trips in the future and i wouldn't want that to happen i think there are situations in which will need to meet people and see places to get a sense of them but i don't think we need to be catching 6 am flights just for some routine meetings there are other ways to do it. many companies agree before the pandemic some 12000000 people traveled on business in germany every year in all they made 190000000 trips.
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but now 61 percent of employers say they're planning to cut down on them more often one consequence of the 19 pandemic is that remote working will become more common it will also probably lead to greater flexibility and fewer business trips thanks to video calls one way or another will never be the same again. cracking nuts as no problem for a parrot. birds with less hardy be. weeks on the other hand have to settle for soft if. the natural world is constantly adapting to its environment the process takes place over generations. global warming however is progressing at an alarming speed. prompting muhammad raga from egypt to ask. how was climate change affecting wild animals.
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global warming means winters are getting warmer and shorter in many places. that's altering plan time. with some destructive results. bears don't hibernate anymore or at least not as long as they used to when they would fatten themselves up in the full 1st 6 months rest. nowadays bears can eat well into the winter only going into hibernation when nothing was available . since it's also now gets warmer earlier they wake up that much sooner. their respirators cut short and at that time there's nothing around to eat. that makes bears aggressive even towards humans who want normally on their menu. climate change is also confusing migrates rebirths. but cups no longer leave
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germany and head to spain for the winter now a days they prefer spending the season in southern england. got birds and robins can even stay put depending on local weather conditions. long haul species like stalks and cranes still follow their genetic programming and sat out on annual migration. but the rapidly expanding deserts in africa combined with steadily dwindling sources of food are making life tough for them. among fish research showing that salmon are up to 8 percent smaller than a few years ago. climate change is the prime suspect terror as well. some and mature faster and warming oceans and return at a younger age just spawning grounds in the upper reaches of the rivers where they came from. they fertilize their eggs in exactly the same place they themselves were conceived but today they're 4 years old they used to do this that
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each 7. climate change is also threatening the green sea turtle with extinction. each season a female lays up to $600.00 eggs in the sun her offspring hatch after 2 to 3 months . temperature is a major factor in this process at $28.00 degrees celsius only male turtles hatch at $32.00 degrees only females in northern areas of australia's great barrier reef nearly all the offspring are now female and can't reproduce for lack of males. the w.w. says climate change threatens around half of all animal species in the world's prime natural habitats with extinction. if out what is right why are they buying it i mean. do you have a science question you'd like us to answer. send it in as a video text or voice mail. if we featured on the show you'll get
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a little surprise from us as a fact here come on just ask. you can get more science news on our website and on twitter. we did tend to consider cooking a high risk activity at least not for adults. nor do we think about the dangers of using so. phones and laptops but have you ever actually read the care instructions for a charger you're not alone in a new. explosions at home more common than you think. a lovely breakfast with coffee rolls some cold cuts and where's the.
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maybe we can cook it fast in the microwave let's say. well that wasn't a good idea what happened microwave radiation heats water molecules in the egg they expand and once they reach a certain temperature they have operates. blowing up the egg in the process. a right royal mess but this kind of blast is homeless compared to other household dangerous. like the cooking oil fountain based kitchens potentially incendiary deodorant and has spray canisters and rechargeable lithium ion batteries in mobile phones so in cigarettes what's so dangerous about least things. well the firefighters from cassells fire
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brigades i had to explain. to my schmitz. tomas miller and ian's home by. being called out to more and more household incidents today we'll show you some things that can go wrong at home . that calls for some heavy equipment because things are about to go off with a bang. but it's safety 1st for these experiments. yes that's propelling gas in here and we're going to heat it up all the gospel expound on the camel burst. that's why this deodorant needs to be taken a cage to protect us from shrapnel. from at least 4 metres away a flame is applied to the pan. the increased gas pressure inside bursts the can. talk. this is something that
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can happen to any canister containing propellant gas. there's a warning on every car do not he's above 50 degrees celsius well in summer if you leave it lying around in the car it can easily reach 60 to 70 degrees that's enough for an explosion. if. pan is just a camping stove so filled entirely with pressurized flammable gas far too powerful and dangerous for us to experiment with. gas explosions in buildings it depends on the amount of gas around when it ignites as to how bad the damage is on the doors and windows blown out 1st and of gas concentrations or volumes are high than even the outer walls can go over the whole structure. was. rechargeable lithium ion batteries are another potential disaster found in things like drives mobile phones and bikes that charging capacity also harbors a capacity for hom since they're highly flammable. the positive and negative poles
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of lithium ion accumulators are only separated by a thin plastic membrane if it gets damaged because. we're going to do that to a large rechargeable battery and cause a short circuit. the immediate result is a jet of toxic smoke followed by ignition a short while later. but short circuits can also be stopped by relatively minor damage such as a knock incorrect charging it takes several minutes before the fire subsides. for you often have to do with polymer battery and especially with them visiting so many cars now everybody because one so we have fires relatively all from because they were damaged or left on a tangent while charging. the. war. now to the
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really volcanic action beginning with an every day kitchen scene with a pan full of regular cooking oil. our firefighters speed things up by heating it with a gas burner though any normal stove hot plate does the job just as well. this is basically the 232240 degree temperature range where it starts to smoke a smoke detector would sound the alarm if you respond quickly enough so it's the cooker off and get the power off to one side then the danger is over nothing will go far beyond. the what happens if the oil keeps heating up between 250 and 300 degrees it's hot enough to burst into flames and if you think pushing on the lid does the job think again it needs time to cool as well or it all goes up
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in flames again. so what should you do. you can see the far right next to it is the kitchen sink so it's natural to think of using water that's the worst thing you can possibly do with burning fossil. so why we get an impressive answer from a safe distance. anyone next to the stove could be severely burned during this experiment. it's easy to explain if water is denser than oil and sinks straight to the bottom of the pan. it's so hot that the water immediately evaporate. one liter of water is transformed instantly into 1700 liters of steam blasting the burning oil straight out of the pan as it expands what ever you do don't try this
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law as good right that's enough. and that's all from us tonight we'll have more fascinating stories from the world of science next time. until then it's but i can't take. the lead.
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the song is. only smart kids. who does digital media consumption too much the brain neurologists behavioral experts and addiction experts discuss the latest scientific research on the screen generation. in 75 minutes on t.v. . in many countries education is still
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a privilege harney is one of the main causes some young children watching my interests instead of going to class others can attend classes coming up to the finish looking. millions of children all over the world who can't go to school. we ask why. because education makes the world more just. make up your own mind. d.w. make for minds. we have important numerous. smoking healthy. sides are good for the believes global warming doesn't exist. don't believe those. not
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yet. you have made in my mind this. industry is controlling your thoughts there are tends to me seeking. science. it's not easy to spot i'm saying one thing industry is saying another. great books of the 20th century. present day hoaxes. and. behind the. manufacturing ignorance starts may 3rd on d. w. . the 1st.
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this is do you have any is live from the world mobilizes to try and turn around the current virus catastrophe in germany and they. have medical aid on the way so to the united states and britain to countries all standing oxygen and other supplies desperately needed to keep people alive also on the program. a historic night at the academy awards and the concourse. i met oh is.


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