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tv   The Forest Rescuers  Deutsche Welle  April 23, 2021 11:15am-12:01pm CEST

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holly the hounds tearing down the track across the finish line this only run with alger we'll have to talk about she did get a prize for a crowd pleasing sport. that's it a from me from our rebecca or just we'll have an update for you all fell in galveston as well. and you hear me now oh yes we don't need you and how the last year's general song flower will bring you i'm going to a magical and you've never tried to have surprise yourself with what is possible who is magical really what moves and want also to talk to people who follow along the way maurice and critics will join us for michael's last stops.
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forests provide us with raw materials enhance biological diversity and help protect the climate but our forests are at risk. they're threatened by climate change and are ruthlessly exploited by industry and illegal logging. but some foresters and activists who want to preserve our woodlands are taking a different approach. to the city of new back in northwestern germany has owned a communal forest for hundreds of years for the past 3 decades the forest has been maintained using what's called a close to meter approach it's a departure from what has become standard forestry practice in germany before start storm is making it work. beyond us what we do differently we have a lot of pace. and let nature take its course when you try to speed things up and
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make everything grow bigger taller baster the local ecosystem suffers that's exactly what foresters are doing their goal is to have trees grow as quickly as possible so that they can harvest as much wood as possible in the shortest amount of time. can you believe that nature knows best his approach has detractors but he gets results the trees here are largely free of bark beetles and there's little damage due to drought in other places large areas of woodland have been clear cut due to be told infestations humam yet the stars are making the same mistake they made in 1900 and in the years after the storms we trying to get rid of capsize trees and get everything growing again as quickly as possible but any time you remove a tree you get more sun shining in then you're vulnerable to what boring beetles
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you created the problem yourself managing the forest that way leads to infestations and it's pointless where there's an infestation you won't earn a thing you can stand for the. in the loopback forest the small handful of dead trees that were infested by bark beetles aren't felt canoe charms colleague your best co explains. these are tunnels and chambers made by beetles but the beatles are long gone these trees pose no threat to the forest they're useful there are good bugs and they're not sitting at the good bugs like insects that prey on bark beetles if as when we have problems with bok beetles we try to find the trees with fresh infestations we're going to find those we remove but the ones need by left standing that way we don't have any gobs on incarceration. there aren't many trees with an active bark beetle infestation
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in this forest. the 2 foresters are searching near a fallen tree. the dog lino helps. it's possible that some beetles have landed on a nearby church that's come on. or one sign is when there's resin flowing out. but we can't say for sure and usually would be a bit further out so we'd have to take the tree down was this is a vital woman. should we do. so and i'm mr hog and my story is coming with a chainsaw and will take a look all right at least on. the trees here are ready for market and would have been felled anyway it's a good opportunity to see if there are bark beetles here. go i was one of.
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the 2 foresters head over to take a look but don't find any signs of bark beetles is that. it's. the. same amount of chicks 5 metres further rob there are no bottles down here no tunnels nothing on. those trees over there if we check them we'd find tunnels under the bog from old infestations from his yeah that's what we were looking for but the woodpeckers probably finish them off at the spectrum. when they do find a park beetles they treat the trees right away. of them become from the heat we don't use chemicals or anything like that we strip off the bark. they meet and greet between the park and the wood so removing the bark destroys their breeding ground such a good. many other forestry outfits treat the felled trees with pesticides to kill the larvae in this forest dead trees that were once infested aren't term is
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a boon to the those trees that you see over there would be cut down by most any other forestry operation in germany we leave them standing because they still provide shade and when they do fall on their. they supply what's called course woody debris even when it's fairly dry this here is like a sponge. so when it gets really hot and sunny this debris helps keep things cool. that's why forests are basically nature's refrigerators. this woody debris is very important a lot of and especially during hot and dry spell to both wind and. the decaying wood is also important for nuclear. be this going all or in an ordinary year it doesn't matter much because the soil has enough water in it. but in years where there's a serious drought this dead wood breaks down and becomes humus and the water is
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released. so that helps the little saplings survive the drought the soil may be dry but the what degree is still moist is that in the 4th. storm believes that diverse forests where nature takes its course are more resistant to climate change . but others disagree they believe that fast growing khana firestorm or c o 2 and make more money. forestry management that prioritizes fast growth and quick yields is standard across much of europe the massif central region in south central france is no exception but here too there are people who are bucking the trend. demagogue went his wife susanna pound have founded a forestry collective and that encompasses 400 hectares of woodland today there relocating young saplings and replanting them. this is
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a dish to invite in in the in a forest certain species of trees like linden and fur trees serve as a kind of alkaline pound. ducted diggin it and they have deep roots which help funnel certain nutrients back towards the surface. i mean even to the few that helps sustain other plant and tree species. little things like that can make a big difference. in this part of france forests are treated like an agricultural product and fast growth cycles are encouraged seato tuvia once you fill the holes with soil then you gently put your feet around the saddling and give it a little tug. that way you give the rubes some peer and breathing space which helps them develop its own who don't even want to learn and we understood video pick of
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commit local saplings are already adapted to local climate conditions saplings grown in industrial nurseries are not but that's not the only problem it's good in the bombshell in france and is the problem with trees from a nursery is that they've been treated with so many fertilizers and pesticides and the nursery south wings are like candy for local animal species and for deer for example of our wild south wings are tougher i'm not as sugary. the mix of species also makes the would lend more resistant to storms. in food they don't destroy if you only plant one type of tree that grows quickly trees that are very tall and thin and spend really they're a bit like a pencil when there's a big storm they topple like dominos planting some deciduous trees or other species in between the very tall trees gives you a 2nd level a 2nd line of defense then the entire woodland is more resilient but if you go i
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won't be doing i just. mixed forests with a diversity of species are rare in france and that's also true of germany almost 40 years ago when i went to university we were already being taught that the best forests are mixed maurice's with a variety of species today we've only managed to accomplish that in 2.6 percent of our forests and school that would get you up bailing. it's it's a scandal really a massive policy failure it is just unfortunate. it's no different here in south central france but susana and pierre are determined to do things differently. from what i see a little this part of what land is basically what we're trying to achieve it's rich diverse and nature is renewing itself just.
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as all sides and i just assumed that we had really nice diversity here multi layered with many different phases of growth and decaying there's plenty of woody debris and lots of micro how the tax i'm proud of this i use my expertise to help kick off this process and nature did the rest. on what this is what a forest should look like and i'm a member of greenpeace and we're fighting against the forestation and illegal timber and point of the problem is that we do need would rather draw on our own forests here in france but i don't want to exploit them to the point of destruction . in romania rapacious logging practices are the order of the day the country exports huge amounts of illegally log timber. even the government admits it's a major problem. the car paid the end mountains are still blanketed in forests
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but they're disappearing at an alarming rate yohannes sonnen of the world wide fund for nature wants to change that. there are many reasons we have to combat these illegal logging and the forest station here. it's a threat to our very survival when. it's a problem that's particularly severe in eastern europe and poverty is just one of the reasons the displaced fun we're seeing everything from poor people collecting firewood for the winter to organized crime networks and major corporate structure is that feed off illegal to. organized crime is a big problem in the carpathian the trade in illegal lumber is a lucrative business profit margins are high the penalties low and the police can often be bribed. the world wide fund for nature wants to clamp down on the timber
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mafia. dusts wins we're facing a tough opponent it won't be easy to sneak. anyone here who tries to protect the forests is taking a risk and they get little support from local authorities to forresters were killed here not long ago. where we're exploring new ways to protect the forests for example we're working with in a youth project that aims to educate the judiciary state prosecutors and the police and show them that illegal clear cutting is more than just a trivial offense and i'm companies to. demonize from the car pay thing in region of ukraine and a veteran in the battle against illegal logging there. he's come here to support you hundreds sign in. similar terms and organize and people want. people who try to have a sample and we have them occasionally in the her big games. a lot of these
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was talking about the illegal logging show into germany's place where the lawyer was very superior and systematic. right that the time need the workers came to his house. i think to stop illegal logging on the international level needs to level of into an interagency and international cooperation organized crime is already working cross border there is definition this is a well established network and what we try to start here is to build up a network of authorities and the bridge builder will be into full to help this authorities to become more effective cross border. interpol headquarters in leone began investigating the illegal in. national timber trade about 10 years ago sasha
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propound is chief investigator of the forestry crime unit. has not been fulfilled. as you know and we have to understand that in our globalized world when consumers buy cheap wood and a western european supermarket. that might lead to someone being killed in a forest in eastern europe it. does come that's a. clear cutting is also an increasing problem in france but here it's done legally after $25.00 sectors can be felled in one go an area about the size of $25.00 soccer fields and what up there is the neighbors clear cut. what a mess. when we thought i was less than 5 years ago this was covered in 1st trees you can see from the stems that they were huge up to 80 centimeters in diameter they were just 60 years old standing on
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the. last winter they took them all down how they are all. on a pony isn't placing blame clear cutting is an accepted practice here legislate for many forest owners that's all they know and they often get bad advice just like it's the best and when the trees are mature they think they need to be harvested otherwise it's like letting an apples drawdowns a branch but actually it's fine if trees grow to be 2 or 300 years old as i don't know the all the idea. it's also a political issue the timber industry employs more people here than the car industry. it's true where industrializing are forests standardizing them along the model of a monoculture we use large machinery and produce trees that are completely uniform so they're easier to put through the sawmill. what we'll end up with is uniform standardized forests that are the complete opposite of natural biodiversity only
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for good. it's the same with industrialized and new growth forests in germany. in lubec can huge storm advocates for diverse species rich forests his detractors say that's not economically viable but storms forest does turn a profit for the city the following it is for you i'm not asking for everyone to sing our praise but even if they don't agree with our approach they should leave us be instead they act like they need to save the city of lubec from our foolishness. detractors say his sustainable forest management is a fiction and regularly file complaints with the city administration. the complaints haven't succeeded but they're not giving up. the city supports can neutrons work today he has an appointment with his boss the
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city's interior and environment minister. the lead he. is the wet dog means you've been in the woods today. lucar henson brushes off complaints about the forest of the $5000.00 hectare woodland is turning a profit and a sustainable one. could see god in here not to bits of wood i'm happy to invite critics to lubeck so they can see for themselves what we're doing to everyone who's planted fast growing trees in recent years is now seeing how an ordinary forest fire can destroy many hectares of woodland over night finish of in it's a bit crazy that they're planning to replant and make the same mistake all over again. a forest needs time to mature side even he said let's win because it doesn't have the 2 are also critical of germany's federal forestry policies storm says the agriculture ministries plans are misguided especially because they call for
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removing woody to pretty and planting more single species coniferous forests voto to the finish. when it comes to serving the public interest forests aren't the same as agricultural land forests also play an important environmental role is to forest management should call under the environment ministry not the ministry of agriculture even if many foresters nowadays see themselves simply as farmers of trees of this field. storm is critical of forestry practices in germany. but nature conservation is still more valued here than in many other countries. finland is one example the nordic nation advertises its forests as a tourist attraction but appearances can be deceiving europe's last indigenous people the sani live from reindeer herding the animals graze in the forests but
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many young reindeer herders like yourself are watching these woodlands disappear. or respect their reindeer as life and so arrive early in the new year. and i feel happy when i see them and feel lucky for myself to be or going to scald to their culture is under threat finland's forests are being clear cut to produce things like oil and pay for. the radio heard that the reindeer is the most important if. we take care of them and teach them alive so they can take care of us and keep prosper. sammy settlements stretch across the north of norway sweden and finland and into the far west of russia. about $10000.00 sami live in finland today the families share grazing areas for their reindeer. in the winter their reindeer are returned to the
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corrals and counted. on this circle is called it a look here we catch the raid and we separate them to this book so it's. all around us depending on what reindeer they are. it's an age old sami tradition that's still being observed by young herders like. the people who have inhabited this land. after end of the ice age. that's how long the herds have been here 2 and. but nowadays the forests belong to the finnish government and the government began selling large stretches of forest land into private ownership back in the 1960 s. . today's owners are out to make a profit but felling trees in this remote region is complicated and expensive the
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finished government provides a subsidy that's the only way owners can turn a profit while selling their temper at rock bottom prices to the paper industry sammy object to this practice but there. has teamed up with another activist to change that. they have taken so much from us and leave the garbage to us. to do it test to stop. this area was once a diverse species rich primeval forest under law it was supposed to be protected instead it was clear cut for the reindeer herders it's a disaster and vulnerable species are also affected of course it makes me sad to see this there's no use for us or the forest doesn't do us anything that would take him away and the modern this is our lived here. this.
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they just go through a door. go around it but it won't stay here. the wood pulp is used to make paper one of the linchpins of finland's economy there is hardly any oversight over which forests are being felled and any complaints are systematically. used to state. some progress to. they're convinced that what the timber industry is doing is illegal but proving that is another matter. salmon people have been born to fight for their rights there is so many cases in sadly history that the governments people have made an agreement but then the state or somebody says why alleging that agreement yeah that has to change we just want to
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be. the one we want to live like for additionally in the modern world. it takes courage to demonstrate against the violation of agreements and draw attention to illegal clear cutting people who speak out face public hostility. paper from finland is inexpensive and many european companies would rather buy it then use recycled paper canoe to storm is also dismayed by this waste of valuable resources. to just for example india what more do we really need to use and where could we use something else with. packaging paper and would feel cutting down on that would probably allow us to reduce logging by about 60 percent eclipse and it would see a. yarmulke would like to see foresters in finland take that same approach then the sami would be spared this struggle for their way of life. and i just you know this
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person. because of the open season coming from the style the state has decided to look. a certain area where that had a cemetery and just don't accept bookings. on the other hand they are some cloths for us to come on she just go on looking in those forests forests also. it is haven't given take on scent sammy people in finland have taken to social media to call for help and denounce the timber industry its own death fart she's from new zealand. he's from norway. they've also found allies in finland yes and you are mo are in contact with tanian of greenpeace. they're going to connect and this in the book
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a lot of the greenpeace activist is 600 kilometers away in caney where there are 2 pulp mills minute the good months in and wants to prove that they are using lumber from primeval forest that are vital for the sammy. together with jani a photographer he has for a nearby lumber yard to gather evidence. was. just a thumb up article to the marks on the logs document the origins of the temper and the intended purchaser look likely many out of. the timber here comes from a company that the activists have already run across during their investigation. it was. like oh i've got to go this was
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to be several hundreds of years old so what about some of this might be coming from any old for us very you have trees with different weights you see the visit has paid off. so now we know that just one parts for every other this will be in goal and on the trees of silver at least excuses and old forest same number there and same number here so will 6 leagues but it's going to be anybody other than the 1st 'd all to secure the company to be all being sold it's it's one of them now we know that. the activists now know which companies are operating here the guard arrives too late to intervene. and build their guard asks monti what the 2 of them are doing and wants to know their names and. you should know that that much he refuses politely said but firmly she. will pick. it
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asks again but he's not getting anywhere he just. marty and jani have the evidence they need and it's time to leave them said that it isn't a place where. there are 2 pulp mills in the area they want to find out which one is using the old growth temper. we would hope as a key raw material here would in paper products make up a quarter of finnish exports finished him or companies are among the world's largest the matzoh group is one of them but they can't get past the locked gates they are planning to build a new album here it will be over 2 times bigger than the present one and it would consumes $6700000.00 safety of which are sold every year if it were to create
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trucks it would be $400.00 fully laden trucks every day. it's an incredible amount . it's a saw enough the pulp expansion in finland correctly taking place there are plans to build 4 to 5 new wells some of them bigger than what we have previously had in this country and the logging rights are going off the board imports i've been seeing the company processes tambour from finland russia and stony and lot via. finland produced over 25 percent of all the printing paper smug us in papers in the world and still we have only 2 percent of the forest resources of the world so it's it tells on intensity. chinese investors are already financing new factories just an increasing demand for paula and it looks like at the current limits mostly because of cardboard so when people are buying things online from from shops like a muscle they'll be in fact in the called fort you've got it's your home and. and
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you troll with the way and. that's the spot for climate on the spot but for everything. germany is still the biggest consumer of the future products from. a new paper. boy if it comes from finland it might involve problems for the. it might involve problems of biodiversity and i'd say that people should be more conscious as more what will they use. in france susana and pierre are investigating a promising idea of sustainable houses made entirely of wood when they're built well they can be very long lasting they have an appointment with architect. it there. tonight what's that you know it's a portable home you can live in it and if you meet someone a girlfriend you can put a 2nd one right next to it. if it doesn't work out you just take them apart again
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out there so far you know. this is the design everything we see here is wood from the of the near forest we are really proud because we know where our raw material is being used the wood is story c o 2 and it's being used locally. when wood is used for construction it binds c o 2 longer than if it's made into paper the architect has a new commission for that. i need you. say you need douglas for yes along with other kinds of wood. right otherwise it all looks the same aspen would be fantastic for the cladding. palmer will get quite a bit out it should be enough for the house will get about 300 cubic metres just tell us how much and what kinds of wood you need we'll set it aside i was reserve it for you 300 cubic metres that's 200 mill so
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a 140 cubic metres to. a local buyer and no middleman susana and pierre are pleased with the results. using the wood sustainably is important but so is the way that the trees are logged in the back they'll be felling some old oaks today. it's a job that requires a fair bit of skill and they're planning to sell this tree at cherry trees in the way though. they debate which direction the oak should fall to minimize damage to surrounding trees. and its tight quarters if they're hoping to spare a nearby oak there was a block with things but the beech tree will have to come down. the hill the forester's try to do as little damage as possible when they're felling big trees and anything built in should the young trees nearby could easily be operated. by
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canoe charm carefully selected the oaks that will be felled today they only harvest trees that will command a good price the forester's long term plan is to double the amount of oak in this forest and he's well on the way. of the i think if you had this is when an oak comes down i feel like i can hear it scream. that may sound nuts but an oak is a living being just like an animal we need to treat them with care for a cat eats a mouse and we humans need wood but it pains me every time i have to kill an animal or a trade to meet my own needs for mind i may be doing some comment on that reside on the loggers are still debating how to fill the tree via. the oak is a heavy weight and it's tilted slightly in the wrong direction the loggers are using a winch to guide it in the other direction you notice. nothing is rushed here but
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the forest still earns the city a tiny profit. now the trainee is given a recap. to come as you might wonder if all this effort was worth it the oak was already too thin and we could have just let it go down in. that direction but those young trees are the future of these forests to the next generation also want to sell high quality wood this tree has been here 200 years and so we should respect that and take the time to do our job properly we don't want to just yank it down wanted to fall in the right direction walt. even though there's sometimes collateral damage this forest is densely wooded and thriving.
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the loopback forest draws customers from far and wide these buyers came from minster more than 300 kilometers away they want a high quality yoke for their veneer workshop the cubic meter price depends on the woods quality the price of every log is negotiated separately one of the buyers points out a flaw in this section of the truck he's aiming for a good price or for good old. order. but canoe to storm stays unruffled he's used to these kinds of negotiations. like the buyers are also debating exactly how much of a lock to purchase. what they'd prefer is 3 meters 50 with a minimum of knots of toys from all for that they'd be willing to pay
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a premium of $600.00 and it's yours as well that was painless well you're going to be. washed up on your what if we take 664360 that i will but that's not enough. in the end they buy several truckloads the price is a trade secret. by the way connotes doom runs these wars is pretty much unique in germany if you avoid it if they let the trees get old and fat. you want to find trees of this size in places where they felt the trees much sooner than the rat here the trees grow old old and study. that's what we want to share your statements with one of them i never did for me it's a nice market but a lucrative one i. want to think of the i don't need to get support from the customers are also willing to pay a premium because they know they're not getting a legally harvested timber. that.
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georgian forces just isn't and that's what makes german forestry appealing this is new it's not like romania or ukraine when it comes to observing regulations you know they're too lax for our tastes isn't lush's the. yohannes sonnen of the world wide fund for nature and alexandru a romanian police investigator are heading out to take a look at illegal logging practices in the area. and they drove us quite far away to show us illegal logging then they said oh it's not that bad really there's no illegal logging anyhow everything's great at this from to. you know and everyone denies there is a legal clear cutting in the area they feel like they're being stonewalled. job well that's an example all right i should be. there told only
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a handful of trees have been felled and there's no clear cutting alexandru is frustrated with the local police. takes a sample of the wood to see the well you know you see it's obviously i've taken a specimen so that we can send it to the isotope lab as a reference to see if illegal timber turns up we can compare it to the sample and for. sonnen isn't just an activist he's also a specialist in wood forensics he helped develop this investigative technique he's used it a number of times to prove that supposedly legally felled word was actually illegal timber. here. in the sea and it seemed. really not skits we have to go forward sort of to me it's because something like. ok let's continue. along.
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as they hike up to the peak yohannes talks to the local police officers. nearly every road that crossed. the street there were a lot so locking is every list but a how to live a day how little control them maybe they have out there is a sion for death then sure they force yeah 99 percent have papers. after a 2 hour hike uphill they finally arrive at their destination most of the lodging here is clearly older but a few of the trees were felled recently. it's close to 2 years. with leap year forest as told that they still around $1000.00 priests in this area.
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we have forest those there are badly paid and you know you go to the houses of the forest us and they have the cows says how can you have suits house where you earn only very little money it's an indicator that something is wrong. because i believe our experience was rather mixed use it's almost amusing at times as clearly they didn't want to put romania in a bad light but with all the illegal business going on there you'd need an awfully big blanket for that cover up. to today. sign and says the main problem is corruption that's why he and his fellow activists have taken up the fight to save the forests. can you to shoreham has also seized the initiative together with thorsten valor of the
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natural forest academy he wants to refute the claim that young conifer forests bind more c o 2 than older mixed forests this fall will stay in i'll set up the laser scanner this is the center of the area we want to scan if they have any idea. skinny lawyer . storm is convinced that mixed with winds grow faster and find more c o 2 than most researchers believe. we've got a mixed forest with trees of different ages our theory is that enhances growth he is. setting up the bulls of reference bulls. the 3 d. scanner shows how much the trees have grown since the last measurements were taken and. look i'm off until now i press the button and it will measure everything. i have the device is always the same height at chest level of it makes few errors
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than a human would because people make mistakes every now and then. scooters ended up this gives you solid dots of that you can report and you get numbers measurements that you can show people the international studies of showing that a high level of species diversity for a large variety of trees in a forest in heads is productivity and growth and. that's exactly what we see in lubec this forest isn't unique it was the this is how ecosystems work and it would be nice if forestry operations were to take that on board itself so i'm going home via the. canoe to storm hopes that one day he'll be able to convince his critics. did so on the numbers are on our side and not just our economic balanchine but the ecological data we're seeing species return to our forest that only live in primeval forest including insect bat and bird species that's quite
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a success. responsible woodland management without corruption and without reckless over exploitation. that's the future these activists are fighting for. to the point of strong opinions clear positions international perspectives. who are in place are going to maximize germany's leader all to september's election they're all new candidates conservative stalwart i mean last chance and the green party is young and inexperienced but much too it's a bounce and alina back soon to be joining us on to the point to the point. of putting the 2 minutes on t w. how does
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a virus spread. why do we panic and when we're almost trying to do 3 of the topics covered in the weekly radio program. if you would like any information on the coronavirus or any other science topic you should really check out our podcast you can get it wherever you get your podcasts you can also find us at dot com slash science. ready to get a break she. says places in europe are smashing all the records to step into a move to ensure. just don't lose your grip. it's a treasure map for trotters discover some of europe's record sites. also in book form.
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this is due to the news live from the travel bans on india kick in as the country keeps posting record numbers of. india's health care system is reaching the breaking point many hospitals are full and capital is faced with mass promotions for those people ready to die. also coming out to rescue teams race to find them in the nation's submarine that vanished with $53.00 crew on board these believe there's just a few hours left before they all sit in on staff.

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