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tv   Das Wunder von Heiligenstadt  Deutsche Welle  April 3, 2021 8:30pm-9:01pm CEST

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w. o 2 it's for your bucket list. for. some great country more years to boot. it's fascinating how different people. but research doesn't always reflect on diversity. today we look at how we can all benefit from factoring in things like to end. this coming up. welcome to tomorrow today the science show on t.w. . for every 100 resets has the natural sciences
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worldwide on average i need 28 of them are women. the ratio of men to women is almost 5050 in many latin american countries russia and in eastern europe. but western europe and the united states lag far behind. yet as the examples in our polls show women's perspectives are essential to research. this is a female turtle and this one probably to the overwhelming majority of newborn sea turtles in the great barrier reef a female posing a threat to the future of the colonies that. development only discovered when research is specifically tracked to male and female populations. so gender disparity also extends underwater sure and not just that. doing research
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wrong can cost lives and money. has spent 4 decades exploring and enhanced saying the fundamental bases of research. dependable study reveals those that take in fact his relating to sex gender and intersectionality from the outset. but what does that mean an individual's biological sex is determined by physical characteristics except chromosomes hormones and reproductive organs do not always conform to conventional binary categories which is why biologists now talk of the male female spectrum. the cultural sex or gender refers to socially constructed roles patterns of behavior and identities and they don't necessarily correlate with the biological sex intersectionality refers to the often blurred boundaries between various elements that play a role in our lives everything from disability to ethnicity sexuality class and age
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so why is it important for research to include factors like sex and gender. if we don't consider the gender aspect we're going to miss the opportunity for discovery for making something more exciting and also the companies won't be able to sell their products very well because they won't work for many many people and that can have dangerous consequences. in medicine recently the u.s. withdrew 10 drugs from the market because of life threatening. and 8 of these had worse effects for women not only does developing these drugs cost billions of dollars but when they fail they cause human death and suffering we really can't afford to get the research wrong and there are a further examples but it's been known for some time that women have an almost 50 percent higher risk of. suffering serious injuries in
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a car crash than men. the primary reason is that crash test dummies a modeled on standard sized men people with different physical dimensions pregnant women the overweight and fragile older people are not represented in standard tests . but inclusive research also has benefits for men osteoporosis was traditionally seen as a woman's disease i delay in diagnosis and treatment can compromise a patient's quality of life but men make up a 3rd of those patients who subsequently suffer a broken hip and their mortality rate is higher. unconscious bias is also embedded in so called cutting edge technology. we found out that facial recognition doesn't work for women and it doesn't work for people with darker skin so this researcher in facial recognition is a black woman and she had to put on
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a white mask. for the camera to see her so it means that we're not making technology that works for everyone. but making research more inclusive does not simply mean including an equal number of men and women the european commission has recognised this and has introduced conditions for receiving funding from its 85000000000 euros research and innovation budget. to qualify for horizon europe funding research is now have to incorporate sex and intersectionality into each phase of their work from research designed to data collection and analysis. much of our science and technology is funded by taxpayer money and if we as a society are investing in science and technology we want the results of that science to be inclusive and to work for everyone across the citee not just
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a privileged few. together with the european commission in london has published 15 case studies serving as best practice with a suitably diverse range of examples. fishing used to be a male demain in bangladesh but that's no longer the case specially designed nets now enable women to harvest fish from inland waters without getting the best saris wet and so independently feed their families. another example focuses on recommendations for urban areas to make them more family friendly and less cost centric. and one case study looks at the role of new technologies in consolidating gender stereotypes in the future. but all the areas where
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an inclusive approach is surplus. to requirements we're still discovering we're it makes a lot of sense it's possible that it's not relevant for mathematics pure mathematics and theoretical physics but we may just not have the research yet to know. and in case you were wondering a sea turtle sex is determined by the temperature of the sand its egg is incubated in global warming means 99 percent of those now born in the northern great barrier reef a female as in most areas it's only through understanding such deep connections that we can better protect our planet's complex ecosystems in future. listen carefully who know what is making this noise.
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via social media channels. 14 only t.v. it sounds like a frog before the rain starts. in a shame he wonders if it comes from dolphins. rodriguez believes it's the sound of bubbling water. it makes other problem do what they think of the bird going crazy in space well now at least we can in closer in terms of location. the stuff that when does it get a read that the noise is from neutron stones. and stevenson wonders as it sounds like outer space and yes the sound is from space from a comment to be exact thanks for your answers. and now a question from dale from the u.k. . who wants to name her can you guess someone scream in space we're certainly used to hearing spaceships hum through the void or
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seeing stars die and cataclysmic explosions but only in the movies space is a vacuum so there's no atmosphere to conduct sound waves. is wouldn't register a thing that it's like the sound is gone dead. 0 a supernova with musical accompaniment is far more impressive. but space probes carry devices that register oscillations and celestial bodies such as the sun. and the sun's internal nuclear convulsions generate tremendous shock waves nasa scientists have ways to translate them into sounds we can hear. the van allen space probes explore the radiation belt surrounding the us that zones of electrically charged particles held around the planet by its magnetic fields
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they too can be translated into sounds. that sure i'm of gerasim enco comet can even sing at least when the magnetic field in it's with the nitty starts to oscillate. the data behind this cosmic melody come courtesy of the result of space probe. arms of the solar system's largest planet jupiter when nasa probe juno recorded this as it transited the gas giants magnetic field. voyager 2 has even sent us recordings that made an interstellar space what we hear reflects activity in billowing clouds of electrically charged gas.
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in a supernova a star blasts out so much mass and energy but it bends the very fabric of space generating gravity waves. to us based ly go detector listened in to such a cosmic quake for the 1st time as it was produced by the magic of 2 black holes left behind by supernova. if our plan is right why are my only 5 years later. do you have a science question you'd like us to answer. it in as a video text over smell if we featured on the show you get a little surprise from us as a thank you. come on just us. stories from the world of science are available online at e.w. dot com slash science or on twitter. such
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as this video. these images give us an intimate look into the inner workings of the beehive. genin resettles have recorded the social lives of the insects every several months. among other things they were able to closely follow the rearing of the offspring. from the naming of the eggs by the queen. to the feeding of the larvae. all the way up to patients.
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and the hatching of the young. mother clip show how the bees groom each other. and how they clean out deceased larvae by well easing them. the researchers hope that the videos will help to better protect these fascinating insects in the future. without camera traps many exciting insights into animal behavior would be impossible. such as watching tapirs for example. video recordings also plan essential role in our next story but the 2 researchers in eastern germany also rely
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on their own and. so on were just spent in alaska and polar libya which are investigating animal tracks in the mountains southwest of dresden. like a. it was riveting with the song. is easy and quick lines like the heart of these are hairs from a small mammal and small bones and teeth could be a martin or a small fox i know what they're looking for is evidence that wolves are living around here for a long time there were none in germany but now they're back now everybody is pleased about that. but when i started researching wolves i discovered how polarizing and it's all good people can get so agitated about just a regular wild animal. and one reason for the upset is that wolves sometimes kill
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livestock so it's important to establish where they live and loss and live it have been monitoring wolves since 2019 and aka has yet to encounter any face to face but he certainly heard that. he recorded howling on his phone and in the winter they do find plenty of tracks. and. one fascinating aspect of researching wolves is that it's detective work and you hardly ever see any album and you can infer an awful lot from the evidence you gather. it's a kind of scientific quest. and those over. the 2 have set up camera traps and check them every fortnight or so they catch a lot but rarely what they crave to see.
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on the top followed we rarely see them here. folks by daylight. they're. no wolf this time. but a few months ago one of their other camera traps did catch a glimpse of a wolf a rare sighting no packed. is known to actually live in this particular area. we only know of wolves living in the flatlands in saxony really flat terrain and not in the mountains and. your good books largely it's a poem that bitch works for the 2nd bag museum of natural history in gurlitz and is involved in a german czech research project into wolves called ovide. in the project we've managed to prove there is a pack of wolves living up here on the mountain ridge but on the czech side of the border we call a division ipac because they live near vision e.
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that was in january 28th seen on what's with us. because the pack had offspring on czech territory it's considered check but the wolves do come calling on the german side of the border as well. zoologists can only declare a pack resident in a given area if certain criteria are fulfilled. when it. is a scientific activity science requires rules. to prove a wolf is living somewhere it must have been there for at least 6 months. the evidence has to involve genetic material that is samples but we're not finding any at the moment. this time today is not their day the 4th camera trap also fails to deliver on for the fun and not even aware of
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a wolf disappointed. when i set out to spot a wolf i never do the lines in and the one i'm not expecting to see one and there it is right in front of me and i don't have my camera with me nonetheless the 2 are pretty certain that wolves will be settling in the german part of the outs given the mountains it could be any day now. this is the so-called hybrid which is between operating on gasoline and battery power. neela's are a cross between a whole assented don't they also hybrids the e.u. is considered a hybrid political system and reinforced concrete a hybrid building materials. you come across things that are crossed combined all mixed up like this in many fields including on the football field. all ice here on the ball and the goal scorer. but not on the pitch
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itself it often looks like a strip of wasteland especially the goal mouth where it's objected to the worst wear and tear. one potential solution is using synthetic fibers to reinforce natural grass that's already being done by some professional football teams in germany and a recreation complex just outside munich. the natural grass pitches here are top quality but there was room for improvement and one particular area. is in the it's in the top but this is the 6 yard box which gets the worst pounding shouldn't turn here you can see the line separating the area with hybrid mussing underneath from the people a natural to. hybrid turf contains around 20 percent synthetic fibers which have more of a mat surface 80 percent is lush green and brighter natural grass. the end product feels like the real thing for footballers as opposed to purely artificial or
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astroturf. hybrid turf has at least double the lifespan of its 100 percent natural counterpart but when it needs renewing what's left over is not compost as seen here at wire munich's ground but tons of plastic waste which eventually degrade into micro plastic the artificial mat underneath the natural grass should ideally be biodegradable. and that's where the scientists come in. faded echo is a postgraduate student munich's technical university. he wants to develop eco friendly synthetic turf for football pitches last year he buried a range of samples here in order to study how they degrade. but where on earth is his test patch again. with a mesh fence and bright orange road steve they were there to mark the location of
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my samples and prevent and most from digging them out for the most of being somewhere around here you can with what i. mean while sports scientists at the technical university face problems of a very different nature this great flooring covers a number of measuring plates they will later be placed underneath the new hybrid turf the researchers want to record the forces exerted between players boots and the ground and hence on the player's joints to rule out any mishaps they 1st conduct preliminary tests. we attach markers to their legs for example they take precise measurements of movement between the bones they often fall off rendering those measurements invalid so we don't have to start again was with this with. the real test comes when an athlete runs across the measuring plates. hopes and we have an early exit one
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not so scientific insight here is that the leg in question needs to be clean shaven prior to the tests. researchers from 2 different faculties at the same university conducting 2 different experiments with much common ground both part of a project looking into hybrid turf. the sports scientists want to know how different surfaces impact on players joints muscles and ligaments the chemists meanwhile are tasked with ensuring that the bio plastic fibers degrade at just the right pace. félix echo has now found the spot where he buried his treasured samples he chose an outdoor location to ensure the same kind of exposure to the wind and rain as a football pitch. spun and exciting thing now is what the samples look like after they've been buried for over a year of a kind i still find them all have some biodegraded perhaps they're now discolored
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or moldy. here's number 100 percent p l a and still transparent no real change. he buried 14 byo synthetic samples in all 7 of them transparent and made of pure p.-l. a poly lactic acid used to make plastics. the other 7 had algae mixed into the p.l.o. a. here we see a big difference it's spent in 2 places it feels like cardboard news colors change significantly originally it was dark brown now it's yellowish green so in terms of degradation we can see far more change than with. it remains to be seen though what this will mean for bioplastics in terms that will
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need years of further testing. we go back to see if the sports scientists are on the ball they are using a special physical tracking device to look at how the number of studs affects football boot performance. why is that issue here when the research as such is about the new hybrid pitch surface. football is news different boots depending on the pitch our research will actually enable us to say which is the most suitable for the respective tough 'd that involves looking at performance related criteria for the footballer because they have to be able to play well and secondly safety and injury prevention. postgraduate student félix echo claims and ways the samples he's retrieved. they're then left to dry out for 2 more weeks before further analysis subsequent tensile strength tests will indicate how brittle they've become. for comparison he 1st
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tries out some brand new test rod. as his dissertation advisor says this is no luxury project to benefit a few footballers the results could help to stop the planet from choking on plastic waste. your christmas blue moment all of the bigger problem is that we have 50 percent of all plastic ever produced lying around on landfills and it's gradually spreading into the world as micro plastic and other fragments leading to a growing mass of trash. that's why it's vital for us to make and use synthetic materials that are at least made from sustainable resources and definitely have to be bio degradable. which is why felix eckel and his colleagues from munich technical university will continue with their experiments. and this progress continues with the new bio degradable fibers synthetic pitches are going green on
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a world beating level. that was it for tomorrow today. we hope to see you again next time until then stay healthy and stay curious .
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the search for the last. banking business the much. harder to vinci's masterpiece wrote artist. art restorers made a sublime thing discovery. oh my fod a mysterious will copy exists law. 15 on d. w.
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. the amount of plastic is increasing every year many i'm gonna fucking on the. holiday destinations and drowning in customs might. be coming. in from here during the big schools 1000000 tons of plastic waste. is the another leg. down after all the fun is interest cyclable. make up your own mind. w. made for mines. the fight against the corona virus pandemic. has the rate of infection been developing. measures are being taken.
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what does the latest research say. information and context. the coronavirus up to the code of special monday to friday. as the times are good for the. warming doesn't. go into the most will not yet. the industry is controlling your thoughts the great books of the 20th century. present a hoax those. raising the money. starts may 3rd.
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this is a detail you use live from berlin germany's president tells people to pull together as the nation spends his 2nd easter under coronavirus we're not pandemic well champions but we're not enough fadia we're the federal republic of germany we may often have our doubts but there's plenty we're capable of and it's our capabilities not opt outs which batson out and thousands of coronavirus skeptics rally in the german city of chicago so far the gathering of the so-called lateral thinkers movement has.

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