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tv   Kulturzeit  Deutsche Welle  February 20, 2021 11:30am-12:00pm CET

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but. make up your body. double. i am in the southwest of germany in spite of. the city of 50000 inhabitants is located on the rhine and especially known for this building.
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spire cathedral the city's main landmark 1000 years old and in the next school world heritage site. christianity has set great monuments in the city but judaism has also left its mark here in the middle ages which by that was one of the most important jewish settlements in central europe along with mines and warms the 3 cities were even called jerusalem on the rhine. spire warms and minds are considered the cradle of european judaism jewish life has shaped these 3 cities for more than 900 years and i want to know what remains of it so today's show is not just the city trip but also a journey through jewish history. in our email we also jet over the ski slopes in. we take
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a tour of the port city of haifa in israel. hands take a closer look at my house. the old town. in these 2 streets in you wouldn't guess and plan a person got a jewish reserve venture area was created 1000 years ago because jews were only allowed to settle here the houses were built particularly narrow and high in order to offer as much space as possible. the speed of museum is also located here in the you wouldn't want the jewish courtyard. in the middle ages by i was called hebrew which is how the museum got its name. warms was called. mines. for this reason these
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3 cities are called shoot communities. stands for peter for what my eyes are and for my against. the term is like a low ball it is familiar to jews all over the world. the importance of becomes clear when you go outside the museum here you can see the remains of the mediæval synagogue it dates back to 110 for. next to it was the so-called phone sure the synagogue for the women. in general women and men set apart in synagogues well in this bench here used to be for the women they were able to follow the service by at least listening.
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this mix here is particularly noteworthy a ritual bath from the 12th century. the water basin is 10 meters below the surface. let's take a look at the past the middle ages that's where the 3 cities became pretty famous. shams history begins and mines one of the oldest cities in germany the ancient romans lived here and it's likely that jews lived among them. later in the middle ages minds became a center of jewish learning and religious life. in the 10th century merchant and scholar moses clan amisse left his home city of lucca in italy and came to mind. he helped to usher in a new era here this is german rule is hope the jews would help to modernize minds
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since the jewish merchants were well connected well educated and business savvy. little one of his family produced many famous rabbis and mines developed into a century of jewish scholarship but above all it was rabbi i guess from ben yehuda who really put mines on the map. he drew students from across europe. during his tenure gash i'm introduced modern laws forbidding bigamy and making it a sin to open and read other people's mail. he also decreed that a woman had to agree before her husband could divorce her. after mines vaughn's became another center of jewish learning on the rhine. vom synagogue this study will and share serve as we mine is a famous rabbi rushy as does this modern sculpture in the in. rushy
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studied here in the 11th century. in the city of spy a bishop boudicca settled to use near the city's famous cathedral around the year 1048 he said he did it to increase the places standing thousandfold. along with mines and forms spire became the 3rd important center of jewish culture on the rhine but the jews peaceful existence here was short lived time and again they were paul graham's and during the nazi era the jewish community was completely obliterated here. you can spice of these atrocities jewish life has returned to spying vons and minds. in acknowledgment of their important jewish past the 3 some cities are now seeking to be listed as a unesco world heritage site they spend years preparing their application which was the business in january 2020.
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by left and i'm on my way towards your only drive 40 minutes north along the russian. the symbol of the city is like inspire and also minds the huge inferior coffee drilled. it was built in the 12 century. not only known for its cathedral and its jewish past but also as the setting for the famous moon legend. in one's numerous buildings are innocent of the german heroic saga which deals with hate love power and murder a dragon is also there. and this statue shows the villain haagen from truong.
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you have thrown the treasure into the wrong. well we'll leave worms for a moment because we received another viewer's video as you know you can send us your impressions of your travels here on this time the video is from louise. and he went skiing in the austrian alps so that's our weekly be made of. gold plated. gold. gold.
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you. know you. can tackle this special love spots in. her. back in the morning at the highly doesn't always sound symmetry. suzanne orbán is
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the managing director of the show. which looks after the preservation and communication of the jewish history of buying up warm spent months men must wear headgear in the cemetery. how old is the cemetery now i cannot tell most a 1000 years old it dates from around 1030 or 1040 the same time as the jewish community settled here so it's a really old jewish cemetery so you can also see that from looking at the stones it's a sea of stones. you bow to your are of course particularly eye catching his national your clothes are there not only right at the entrance of the cemetery but also covered with notes and with stones so that you can see this is a living memorial. the reason tells me is that a famous read by and from you is buried here. as i was once the tradition of placing stones on tombstones and if you look around you can see stones lying
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everywhere on individual graves all tombstones and the important thing is simply that you honor the memory of that person you don't have to know them this country this whole area contains about 2500 visible gravestones from many many centuries if we briefly stop here and look at the small green island you will see the 2 oldest gravestones we know of. a 1000 years old 1000 there a 1000 years old innocent one is an unknown young man and the other on the left is the yard called probably a town with student we don't know for sure in all the international visitors here. they are 40 to 80000 visitors a year and very many people visit this cemetery for them this is an important place for stablish in a sense a player cation finding their own family history consulting scholars it is just an incredible amount happening here for jews. on our
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way to the synagogue we passed many stumbling blocks. socialist i have seen stones like this here in many other cities what is this all about this is just close to it this is the largest essential ised holocaust memorial in existence there are tens of thousands of stones all over europe this was inspired by an artist from cologne who in the 1980 s. and ninety's i asked how can you actually best memorialize someone and the best thing is actually to stop as you did and ask what is this disturbance in the ground that's something different and there are names on it and numbers and places and suddenly you realize that there are stories behind these stones. they tell of the victims of the nazi regime and are embedded in the ground in front of their former homes during this time the jews from here were harassed deported and murdered as in many parts of europe. we also find stumbling blocks in the you wouldn't. the course of the street today is the same as it was in the 12th century and in the center
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that she sure the warm synagogue. now the school board of the building may not be large but it has an incredible history it dates back to the 11th century it was burned down several times in the wars the crusades attacked again and again and the jews informs always said we will rebuild it we belong here and we want to stay here this is testimony to an extraordinary resilience and a desire to be respected and. the building was also destroyed during the nazi era and later rebuilt in 1981. services are held here again today. we continue with our meet the local slot where locals show us around their hometowns and this time we were invited to the port city of haifa is located in israel the only country in the world where the majority of the inhabitants are jews . hi welcome
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to high 5 my name is through a star and i'm very happy to show you my hometown one of the most beautiful theaters in israel let's see if. i slice very charming because in one hand you have a modern cd right to the border of the mediterranean sea big buildings in the street but in the other hand is a close into that place where you find people actually enjoying the atmosphere like me. welcome to the german colony this place was stylish in 869 by german templars the german temples was a group of religious people they came from south of germany and you can still find a lot of historical places of the german heritage here in haifa.
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this is one of the german houses there just and diebold spoilage i don't know what it says but i know that it became a post office. day movie called me. i think it means the kingdom of the lorries coming. this is the most important religious interest place here in haifa it's called the behind gardens the behind gardens are the center of the behind faith and it was recognised as a heritage place for the only school. look at this is not the best view. from the behind gardens you can see all the ports of the far you can see the ships if you look over there the accuracy in my opinion is the best view of. this is the shrine of the bob and bob was the founder
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of the behind faith. my next stop in my tour through haifa isn't what he needs and what he means is it's a neighborhood very colorful where jews muslims and christians live together to prove the existence existing in israel that's visited. and. this is a very typical r.-o. place and we have here in the book club the book club is based on the stash kushal and also not that's right it's good.
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for our livestock 1 i would like to take you for a beautiful weekend come on. ah it's called. with this nice refreshment i want you to say goodbye it was a very nice day. and i had north again 40 minutes to mines. there are hardly any remains of the jewish past left but there is a new synagogue architecturally exceptional building. the jewish journalist and volunteers to guide visitors through the synagogue which was inaugurated in 2000 as the board of building has an unusual shape why is that
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because there's this whole thing as a word sculpture and the word is cattle shark i brought the architect's draft with me. holiness it's the name of an important observant jew say 3 times a day and the letters of the care to show are inspired the outer silhouette. this unfolded like that fall down like that right around the corner. and here's another special thing. the remains of the pillars of the old synagogue which stood here until 938 it was one of 3 inner cities synagogues this one here was the liberal main synagogue which had close to a 1000 members it's an exciting testament to the old switch shows that mines once had a great jewish tradition. of course. yes there ceramic tiles are also quite interesting they changed color when exposed to
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lots of light today it's unfortunately dollar amount and then all of these tiles a light green now in winter they're more dark green at night they turn black. i was very important to the architect as he wanted to use it to express the liveliness of judaism. now we go into the synagogue. there he is that these are the keepers or camps the people always go tom and they go into the synagogue all while praying in every day life. why do we where one. it is a mark of humility towards the north. one simply cannot go bareheaded. it's a mark of reverence towards the lot to. this place of worship is impressive the gold colored walls are decorated all over with hebrew characters they reach up to the top of the tower. even the benches form
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a letter that meets the hebrew l. . in front are the torah scrolls with the 5 books of moses. you know when you read the torah with the ritual pointer the yacht which is hebrew for hand that's very important because the east is vegetable based and so in summer if you run it by a sweaty finger over the torah scroll that would smudge the writing and it's also a sign of respect to god not to point a finger directly at me and instead you use the ritual pointer to travel along that line. but. of course there is more to discover here in the synagogue so here's a brief overview of.
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mine says the capital of the state of rhineland. some 220000 people live here. the. best place to start your tour is mine's cathedral also known as st martin's cathedral it's over 1000 years old but the area around it is still buzzing with life. 80 percent of the inner city was completely destroyed during world war 2 however many of the town houses built for mines his wealthy merchants were later rebuilt. mines is one of the german cities that celebrates carnival in a big way. a colorful festival is a tradition that dates back to the 16th century there's even an entire museum devoted to it large paper mush a heads or a fixture of mine says carnevale during the rose monday parade there want to provide some comic relief. mines his most famous son is johann a scootin bag the inventor of the movable type printing press. it sparked
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a media revolution in the 15th century. mind says gutenberg museum also owns 2 of the $49.00 original gutenberg bibles still in existence. in the demonstration workshop visitors can witness firsthand how gutenberg sped up the printing process through the use of movable type printing presses. say let's pull this out. if it's turned out wonderfully. to better understand the mind's way of life you need to get to know it's wine culture which dates back to roman times. and the old town from the region have revived the minds tradition the wine tavern. along with the wine tasting the bit there can also teach you some poll that need
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idioms. like that could get it also be so good wine. back in the new synagogue. there are many jewish traces in this room cities are they tourist attractions or are they places that are filled with jewish life. very important for the world heritage application as well it's a very important and decisive factor that jewish life has returned to these places and luckily jewish life is evident in the warm sun mines thanks to immigration from the former soviet union. vom why do synagogues in germany actually have police protection. this applies to all synagogues in germany just 100000 jews in germany are registered in jewish communities of hard dangers have
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increased due to the radicalization in the islamist scene and in secular society think about the terror attack in berlin or ones in paris and. then there's also the right wing extremists could say by the attack of a assassination of a christian politician has who was murdered by a right wing radical political. order if you what extent are still a part of your everyday life luckily i've had a few negative experiences but i know of community members and school children who've had some not so nice ones. of course the desecration of jewish cemeteries is also a reality for the jewish community as are the terrible threatening emails that many communities receive. ality that people are no longer so free to openly practice their. many rabbis and the central
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council are jews in germany advise people not to wear in public. because of the bad experiences many jews have. that's the gist of what you hope for the future also for the. i would hope that jewish life simply becomes a given becomes normal and for the citizen i wish that they'd regain the significance they once had for judaism here and around the world as well as the religious and spiritual importance. of simply that they receive recognition and people see that they can be proud of this piece of german jewish history. yes definitely these are unique 3 wonderful places with a jewish history that goes back hundreds of years and it is still visible today and
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see you next on. the field. for.
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1700 years of jewish life in germany on 20 minute. journey from berlin to munich to meet coltrane leaders. preserving memory means taking creative risks and. 1700 years of jewish life in germany march 20. 3rd. w. country where anyone can start their own religion the united states
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this is do you have any news live from but in the end alexei valley is to stay in jail a court upholds the russian opposition latest sentence saying he violated his parole by seeking life saving medical treatment in germany we'll get the latest from moscow also coming up as germany plans to ease lockdown restrictions one city sees an alarming rise in coronavirus can.

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