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tv   Retired Admiral James Stavridis Discusses Geopolitical Concerns  CSPAN  January 26, 2022 4:02pm-4:58pm EST

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where you have different versions of the coronavirus delivered by an intranasal mix. this is important because this can go a long way to protecting against infection and spread of infection. i use those two examples because they are two of many that are currently being produced. next slide. the final slide is some key points. i do not want anyone to think that the pan coronavirus vaccine is around the corner in a month or two. it will take years to develop. >> we will take you live to a discussion on geopolitical threats in 2022. we join us live in progress here on c-span. >> the you and ambassador touched on several things on the global stage and talked about a number of several topics that we will get to today with our
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special guest. i would simply say to all of you, when we talk about russia and china, this is somebody who knows how to talk about these topics and scare all of us about what the future might bring if we do not take actions. demonstrate -- u.s. leadership around the world. rising to the rank of four-star admiral. first navy officer to serve as the nato team commander. he earned more than 50 and international metals. he did not ask me to say that. it is simply to say that he is somebody who has served our country as a great distinction. he now serves as vice chairman of global affairs.
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full disclosure, the president ceo and chairman of carlisle is the chair of our u.s. china center. i am sure the admiral will have much to say about to u.s. china relation. he has published 10 books on leadership, the oceans, maritime affairs, latin america. we will get to some of these topics during our wide reaching conversations today. his most recent book which i read, was cowritten with elliott ackerman it is gauging, sobering, global war. we will talk about and which i have here. i want everyone of you to read it. i am delighted that not only do
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we have our usual attendance here, i welcome in our audience from c-span. this is being shown live today and thank you for joining us as well. before we get into the big issues of the day, let me begin with a couple of questions about your leadership. you have a chance in your career to command hundreds of thousands of people, tell us a little bit about where you get your inspiration and what leaders brought you forward, gave you a sense of leadership that you wanted to impart on the people that you worked with and tell us what you think is important traits are. thank you and welcome to the show. james: thank you for having me on. it is a real pleasure. "security around the world is profound.
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it is a real pleasure to be able to speak to this kind of audience. in terms of leadership, i think it is the case for many of us, i was lucky enough to have a wonderful mom and dad. mom taught me the value of reading. she's an extra ordinary woman. never went to college, but today in her 90's, she reads two or three books a week. a love of reading and the ideas of the time. my father was a combat marine. in world war ii, korea, vietnam. at that military upbringing that served me well when i went off to the academy. you take on responsibilities and then you come out of the school and hit the fleet and you discover what real leadership is all about.
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i will tell you three things that have stood me in pretty good stead over the years. number one, focus on what your peers think of you. we all spend a fair amount of time and we should, trying to impress the boss and be loyal and get up the chain of command. i think we are underweight, many of us, and thing about our peers. they can save you. they are honest with you. they will tell you who you really are. number two, the idea of servant leadership which so many have talked about. let me give you a practical example of that. former secretary of defense, i work for him for a long. of time and was combatant commander for over seven years. much of that time working for him. he cared so deeply.
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sublimates himself and you never see him out there trying to put a shine on anything. he is honest and true. that is the kind of servant leadership that i aspire to. number three, learn from your failures. i have had too many to count. including failing major inspections when i was captain of a destroyer to reorganize southern command as a four-star and having that getting reversed on appeal. learn from your failures. those three things i try to focus on and my leadership. >> i want to get into if america is a sensible nation at this time, but let me ask you, you talked about learning from your failures. how has your leadership style evolved that? are there things you have seen yourself that have changed over
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the years? james: sure. i was very successful as a junior officer and frankly, i did not follow the advice i just gave. i was not focused on my peer groups initially. at the time i got into command of the 16 or 17 your point, we failed a major inspection. what i learned from that experience was the value of second chances. my boss gave me a second chance. i learned it is your failure that lift you up. if you take your ego out of the problem. that is how i learned that your peers can save you. all of the other captains on the waterfront called me up the day after we failed that and said, what can we do for you? how can we help? your peers can save you edit
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that failure told me -- taught me humility and i think it came just in time. that was a pivot point. as i mentioned, secondly, as a very senior rank, i learned as my first four-star command that you cannot be the one with the idea transmitting down. i failed to do that at southern command. i like to think that i learned how to do that and took that tomato -- two nato. even at a very senior stage in my development. >> you talked about humility and i think we are at a time where the united states is reflect on its values at a time when there is rising competition from china, i had former secretary on the show not too long ago and she talked a lot about if we
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have to use force, it is because we are america. we stand tall. we see further into the future. are we still that indispensable nation to the rest of the world and if we are, i was at being developed in a new era where we have a russia that is willing to cause global challenges. james: she has been somebody who was a mentor to me when i was a nato commander. i had to work with her day by day for much of the year and nobody finer. i had a chuckle when she says we are america and we stand tall. anybody who knows me knows i'm about five feet five so i am hardly standing tall.
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in all seriousness, there is good news and less good news here. the good news is, if you look at the hand of congress that this nation holds, i don't think any other country would hesitate to switch with us. we have vast land area, we have a young dynamic population, were not looking at the demographic failures we are seeing across the europe and most notably in china. we have two vast oceans on either side. our universities, particularly -- we have silicon valley. we are still a highly innovative nation. we are a democracy, albeit a fractious one. we have to pause more often than we do and reflect on the
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extraordinary luck we have to be in this country. the bad news is, i think no external power in the end is going to defeat us. within ourselves, if we cannot overcome the kind of polarization we are experiencing today, the inability of the political parties to work across , i think we have real challenges. when we look overseas, what i am looking for is unity between the two parties. even today, you with ukraine, i think a pretty obvious case where across the political spectrum we should be condemning russian behavior. you're starting to see a few crack's and that stand. i hope we can come together on these points. i will close on this by saying,
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if we can speak as a unified nation, i think america will continue to be an indispensable nation. a leader among other nations. >> more and more people are talking about the polarization of our country. it is not only a threat that challenges our own being here in the united states, but the way we present ourselves. what the world needs a strong united states. it is a drawback from where we should be moving forbidden it is important to articulate. let me ask you a little bit about the russian ukrainian situation. in 2008, prudent advances into georgia and in a matter of weeks, he has assumed the role into georgia and has not been met by the west. in 2014, into ukraine.
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some resistance, some sanctions, but not enough to deter putin. now there another potentially incursion into ukraine. what can we do to stop putin from trying to reassert the soviet union? we have defeated the soviet union and today russia and putin have to be deterred. we all agree with that. we need a united front. our economic sanctions going to work? what we need to do to address the situation? james: the first thing we need to do is understand why is this happening now? you mentioned in 2008, that was just before i became the supreme allied commander and then the 2014 just after i left. i was sandwiched between these
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two invasions by russia and i studied them very closely. what i think is happening now are three things that are worth understanding and the concept of how do we reverse engineer this and stop this. number one is let's do it from the inside out. number one is vladimir putin himself. his bitterness at the collapse of the soviet union when he was a lt. col.. he is about to turn 70. he is thinking legacy. he is thinking how will i re-create some semblance of that old soviet union around the periphery of russia. number two, he is playing to a regional audience. to the nations around the periphery. he is also playing to the president of iran. third and finally, he seeks to
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divide us here in the united states. he seeks to divide the nato alliance. those are his three objectives that are at play here. to your question, what can we do about it, i think the bite demonstration has this one about right and i see a lot of republicans support for the steps they are taking. economic sanctions, the zone of the chamber, have to be stringent, highly enforceable. they have to hit russia where it is going to hurt. i think you strongly have to consider targeted sanctions on individuals in the government. strongly consider sanctions against oil and gas. that economy is a one trick pony. i think the economics of sanctions, i would say to
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vladimir putin, if you invade ukraine, there is nothing you should be allowed to besides air for a long time. militarily, get the ukrainians to go with the antiarmor or antitank. get the stingers to take the sting out of russian aircraft. it the cyber capability and high intelligence. provide the military advice. there is an awful lot we can do to make ukraine an indigestible porcupine that vladimir putin will come to regret. we need to convey that to him and keep the allies on board. we keep unity here in the states. we still have a chance at seeing him take a diplomatic climbdown. >> you talked about the rationale and motivation of president putin and certainly
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his legacy in his mind response to how he responds to this challenge in the west. it is also to deter u.s. and western expansion. let's talk about nato in that concept because you mentioned nato. he basically said it is brain-dead. president trump said isn't this a challenge for the united states to show russia we can stand together tall for western values, but also to a push back his aggressive tactics? how do we do that? i say this knowing that the mayor is in washington today to
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talk about a path for western europe. what is the state of the nato alliance if we cannot refute the aggressive tactics of vladimir putin? james: james: before we dive on that, let's do your comment about natural gas. we have been hearing a lot about the fsd. the success of the kgb. liquefied natural gas. they can come from the united states of america. nato. let's talk this organization here. the united states spends about $700 million -- billion dollars on defense every year.
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i get a little frustrated when people say the europeans don't spend anything on defense. that is the second-largest defense budget in the world. russia, who we are lining up on the gridiron, spends between 70 billion, maybe 80 billion. nato outspend russia by 10 to one. almost all of them are volunteers. there are 4 million reserve. we have 50,000 combat aircraft. we have 1000 ocean line ships. this is the richest, most capable alliance in human history. that is the good news. the challenges, it has 30 nations now, 30 nations who represent 56% of the world's gdp.
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it is 30 different petals on the bicycle and people are peddling at different rates and you alluded to it a moment ago. i spent four years of my life that big round nato people trying to get the icelanders to agree with the luxembourg to agree with the germans and the french. it requires patience. where i started here, capability wives, it is an extraordinary organization i will conclude by saying look at the nations that tomato undertakes. they were deeply involved in counter piracy operations off of the coast of africa. that has been largely suppressed. nato dealt with the balkans.
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those were nato operations. nato and afghanistan did not turn out the way wanted it, but we went there collectively. any future, we will have to be involved in cyber as an alliance. in the high north, in the arctic, and maritime operations . there is extreme capability and the very fact that putin is challenging this alliance is only going to strengthen the alliance, strengthen its resolve, and strengthen its credibility. >> that is very reassuring and i hope you are right. i am glad you raised the arctic we love going to ask if we should be paying more attention to russian activity in the arctic.
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the chinese are also nosing around. should we get more of a consensus with our allies about what to do with the arctic? i would similar -- similar police say, he is saying to focus on central asia and central europe. there are things we can do to remind us that we can be more in the neighborhood and engage with the traditional partners. what are the four steps and i want to move on to china? james: in terms of how we focus the alliance going forward, i put the top of my list cyber insight cyber security. many of our partners in the alliance and some of our partners who are not nato members, we should be thinking
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about this techno-democracy and how we will work together to use those tools coherently. you mentioned the arctic. what is happening is the ark -- ice is melting. shipping lanes are opening, hydrocarbons are exposed, there are huge territorial disputes between russia on one side and nato nations on the other. that is the united states, canada, the old u.n.. iceland, norway, as well as those nato partners like finland and sweden. you have a geopolitical thunderdome up there in the high north. that will require focus and attention in the alliance as well. at the moment, job one is deterring putin. >>'s is the first time i have
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had a conversation with someone of your level of experience and seniority. let me turn to china because when you talk about cyber threats, technology challenges, but i straight in the south china sea, china is a continuing challenge for the united states. as china rises as an economic power, it remains an important market for u.s. companies. the conflict between china and united states. there are other actors you talk about which we will hopefully get to, ram, russia, they play in the book, too. the conflict between china and the united states is the heart of it. what should be our approach towards china and how do we avoid military come from -- confrontation that might be.
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what will happen if we are not smarter towards our policy towards china and the united people don't find common ground to work together on the challenges and are more confrontational going forward. are we in a cold war? james: let me start with the book, if i may. it is set in 2034. you have read -- written a work of predictive fiction. this is a work of cautionary fiction. i wrote this book specifically to show that both the united states and china can make mistakes. can make miscalculation that can lead to loss of control of the ladder of escalation that leads to a global conflict. when did that happen before? try 1914 when the european nations had a missed conservation following an
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assassination in a dusty corner in the balkans and the austro-hungarian empire. the austro-hungarian empire is gone. the auto -- ottoman empire is gone. the russian empire is gone. the essence of the book is we ought to be very concerned. this book is not good guys, bad guys, good guys win in the lap -- in the end. this is a book about two nations who stumble into a war. they sleepwalk into a war. i am very worried about it. our challenge is, if we agree, we want to avoid the scenarios in 2034. how do we reverse engineer that back to the press. here is what i suggest and i think the and ministration is working hard on this, we need a strategy. we need a plan for how we will
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fix china which will be a strategic competitor for us for decades. russia is a tactical problem for us. china is a strategic challenge that will unspool as the century unfolds. to stretch it out in 30 seconds, we need a plan, needs bipartisan support. it has to have a tech component where we are competing in the race for artificial intelligence. it needs a business component that finds a way for better trade between the two nations. a military component where we deter china, we can provide the needs for continuing freedom of the high seeds -- high seas. finally, any they value based
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component. we can say to china that we think there are human rights violations. china can say that to us, and we can have that dialogue between a nation. above all, we need a plan that has diplomatic, military, tech, business, all of those components put together in a way that can exercise internationally to create the quad. india, asteria, united states, japan. if we pull those together, i think we can find a way to a situation where we can avoid the events of 2034. >> certainly hope we can find a constructive and pragmatic approach to how we address china and create less strategic framework that you're talking about. at the same time that we are trying to create that framework,
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we are sending very clear signals to the chinese that we will focus on multilateral cooperation and alignment in our own domestic competitiveness before we think about how we engage strategically the chinese. is that the right approach or should be doing it all at the same time? should we expect more from china in a bilateral framework than if we were relying on working with europeans and the administration for domestic competitors? i agree with you, but i think we have to have all three pieces of the pie. james: i think it is all six pieces of the pie that i laid out a moment ago. i agree, you cannot use one of them and except to be successful. we can't say we will put all of our eggs in a military basket in big 8 -- build a new war fleet with high and supersonic cruise missiles. dominate space, create a
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militarized ai and say that that alone will keep us out of a war with china. it will not. you have to thread these things together and you do it coherently. you have to do it internationally. yet to have an inter-agency that works together. to the point of our conversation here at the chamber, there is a private, public part of this that is important. a key thing i want to mention, and you highlighted it, a mutual friend is heading over to beijing. i think he is literally on his way rare -- there right now. i have known him for a long time. he was somebody who was our ambassador to nato. he really understands this kind of multinational consensusbuilding. he has served at very high
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levels. we need a plan that he can work on alongside the interagency and the president himself needs to be part of this. >> i could not agree with you more on all of that. i think ambassador burns is the right guy at this time. one of the defining principles for the united states today is the theme of democracy versus autocratic regimes. when i asked the u.s. ambassador at the time that's of being filmed, there was this notion at the president summit that democracy is the central theme, will it work? democracy has always been the core value and one of the key
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ways we promote ourselves around a world. we have a political and economic system. not just with china, not just with russia, saudi arabia, egypt, other countries that we do business with. how do we confront this in a way that brings nations together rather than creating a polarization that exists domestically. james: i am with winston churchill on this one. the famous quote by him is. democracy, it is the worst form of government. except for all of the other forms. i could not agree with that morbid if you went along unpacking of that team, i wrote the cover story of time magazine several summers ago. bottom line, i would not bet against democracy. i with you three big reasons. number one, look at a long
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throat human history. people are fond of saying look at russia, look at china. authoritarians are winning. wait a minute, russia and china have been authoritarian states for thousands of years. nothing new there. what is new over the last 150 years is the rise of democracy. think back to pre-1914. there were maybe 20 democracies in the world. today, depending on how you score it and you can get into some controversies about what is a democracy, but today there are 75 to 100 unquestionable democracies. human history is on alongside of democracy. people want voice. in the end, they do not want to be told what to do. they do not want to be told how to manage our lives, how to run their business.
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people want voice. i think, as i look at where we are going, there will be tension and conflict between authoritarian states in democracies. a lot of those resulting from authoritarian states who are afraid that a country like ukraine will become more of a democracy. that is to me a signal of the vibrancy of democracies. i would not bet against them. i will conclude by saying as we look at different nations, we need to realize many of them are at different stages of the democratic process. not everyone is like switzerland. we are not like switzerland. not everyone is as democratic a sweden. we are a big fractious country with a lot of disagreements, but
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our democracy is pulled together. i look at other democracies around the world, but we need to work with them to understand that. as thomas jefferson said, you should not expect carrying -- to be carried on a featherbed. there'll be a lot of twists and turns, but bottom line i would not bet against democracy because if you do so, you have to bet against human nature. never a good bet. >> i think that is a very good point to underscore. we need to not only remote moxie, but showed strength. do it in a way that others will buy into. challenge up not only government, but others inside of civil society to be part of that equation as we engage countries around the world that not only share our political model. james: i want to make one more
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point with what you were talking about. strategic communication. getting out in the world and talking about our values. modeling of values. recognizing that we are imperfect and fail on many bases. so do many of our closest allies and partners. we need to talk about our values. democracy, liberty, freedom of speech, freedom of expression, freedom of the press, gender equality, racial equality. we execute them imperfectly. they have the right values. when i say that, sometimes people say that to me, it is a war of ideas. no. it is a marketplace of ideas. our ideas can compete. they're the right ideas, but if we go forward with arrogance and try to jam them into others, we will be less successful than if we model the behaviors, we
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acknowledge our faults, we talk about those values constantly, we support those who are on their journey. i think that is the approach you want to take. >> modeling good behavior does include free markets. open markets. creating avenues for trade, investment, and moving of capital. urging star on the global stage. prime minister is trying to show it in a different light. what is the role of india in your mind in strategic terms? is it potential counterweight to china, the capacity of its relationship with china, with russia, it has a defense relationship with russia, how important is india to the future of democracy and frankly to the
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united states relationship with the indian specific region? james: it is critical. i will call to you when president bush and 43 made a historic visit to india. he said i bring greetings from the world's oldest democracy to the world's largest democracy. in the last election, 850 million people voted. think about that for a minute. it is a big fractious democracy. india has many challenges. a lot of bumpy road right in front of it. it has corruption and it has all kinds of different issues. the road smooths out in the distance in my view. i would argue that when historians 300 years from now sits down to write the histories of this 21st century, they will pick up her pin and a chapel --
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chapter will not be about the rise of china, but the rise of india. because of demographics, because it is a democracy, because it is linked to the west, it sits geographically astride the indian ocean. the last great unexploited expansive c space on this earth. there's a lot that makes you want to bet on india. i believe geopolitically, it will be of increasing importance. in the novel 2034, we put some traits on india that may or may not be where they are technologically or militarily by 30 -- 2034, but as this entry goes on, i think it will be very important in any context of china, crucial to this diplomatic idea of the quad. united states, japan, australia, india. that is a formidable combination.
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india is critical for interest going forward. >> let me jump to iran. iran is also a featured topic in your book. it ran today is a challenge for europe, for the united states. the alliance is tested with how we deal with iran but also with how we deal with russia and china. in your book 2034, it is presumed that china's relationship with the ran continues to strengthen. what kind of threat does that present what kind of response do we have to do if they were to develop their nuclear capabilities? what we need to do now to protect against the future that is protected -- predicted in your book? james: it is the next big challenge. henry kissinger said to me once,
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every time you solve a problem, every time you unlock the door to a problem, you nearly find yourself at a new door and a new challenge. every key unlocks the door and you think you have solved a problem and there's another one coming. i think chiron is the new -- iran is the new challenge. you tend to think of a as this annoying midsize power, but that is not the iranian view. they see themselves as an imperial power. they controlled the largest empire in human history on a pro cap at a basis. they see themselves as inheritors to an imperial tradition. they will continue to press across a vast area of land the runs from afghanistan to mediterranean. from the bottom of the arabian peninsula to the very top of the
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edges of turkey. they were a big, expansive country with imperial ambition in that zone and they complex -- rightly see themselves out of the west for all the reasons we know, they are aligning strongly with china and increasingly with russia. in the novel 2034, those three nations are working together. by the way, in the novel, the united states has almost no allies. again, a cautionary tale. if we do not tend the garden of our alliances, we will lose them. where china, very strategically, maintaining alliances, building the lawn -- long road modalities. what we do about it? i think every american president
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and every israeli president has committed to ensuring iran does not have possession to nuclear weapons. there is a dagger pointed at the throat of india. i think we need to stand with israel on this. we are not at the point where we need a military action as of yet. we still have diplomatic cards to turn over. this is minister's working very hard on that. dental progress over the last couple of weeks after the stalled in the fall. let's give diplomacy a little more time before we have a conversation about what comes next. bottom line, if we have to use cyber, all kinds of different covert and overt means.
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if you have few significant military action, i think all action set to be on the table to prevent iran from becoming into possession of nuclear weapons. >> wanted to ask you about the risk of overreliance on technology and foreign affairs. i will give you a chance to respond to that, but i know that we have something in common. your love of harper lee's to kill a mockingbird. we have a first edition of the book. what does it mean to you? james: first of all, the craft of fiction itself in to kill a mockingbird is a perfect model. the plot, the suspense, the story, it is remarkable. secondly, it is descriptive book. something we already were 14 years old. go back and reread that book.
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it is about race in america. it's about a young woman's coming-of-age. it is about our judicial system. it is about integrity and honesty in positions of authority. it's about taking the hard right, not the easy wrong. do you think maybe that is about 20 to anyone? 2022? i think so. they beautifully realized novel. anytime you pick up a novel, it is a time machine and it is a simulator. in the case of to kill a mockingbird, you go back to an america that seemingly has vanished, yet you meet characters there as figures you encounter today. what would i do?
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if i was asked to defend a black man falsely accused of rape in the prewar south. he makes the right choice, but boy is it a hard one. it is a gorgeous novel about everything that matters in our country today. >> even though i liked gregory peck in the film, do not go to the film. read the book. james: 100%. let me close, if i can, under technology question. i think it is an important one. i will do this fast. one of the themes in 2034 is the overreliance on technology. in it, we see the united states very secure in its technologies and yet we find ourselves dropped very quickly to our knees because our opponents have moved ahead of us. the battle and history that
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illuminates this for us was 600 years ago. this is the one where henry the fifth leads his tattered bands of british archers to victory. the battle from which the speech and hint -- shakespeare's henry the fifth, we few, we happy few, we band of brothers. what happens is that the french knights, the cream of chivalry, are the highest technology of the age. they are in armor. top to bottom. they are invulnerable. they know they will destroy this ragtag army of longbow men. except, when they start across the field on a muddy day, 8000 of them go out on their armored horses and their suits of armor, 6000 of them die within several
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hours killed by a bowman. that is overreliance on technology. not being prepared for the next case. >> it would be a great way to end, but i want to end. the graduate, that scene with dustin hoffman in the pool and the guy leans over and says, i have one word for you, plastic. what is the thing we should be thinking about and what is the second and third book that you're about to write, what will be the central theme? what shall we be thinking about that we have not talked about today? james: 2034 is about the danger of u.s. and china sleepwalking into a war. the strategic challenges of china. 2054 is the second novel in the trilogy and is set in the year
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2054. it deals with artificial intelligence. 2074, as you can probably guess, is about climate. clot -- cautionary tales. what happens if we do not understand the full impact of artificial intelligence. if we do not overcome the civil conflicts, that is 2054. 2074 is what if we don't solve the challenge of climate. the three kind of fit together as a cautionary tale for the 21st century and we are deep into the second novel to be out within the year. and then 2074 become after that. >> it has been a pleasure. first of all, what a distinguished career you've had for 37 years serving this country with great honor and distinction. now you are serving this country
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by giving us warning shouts about what the future holds up we do not take corrective action and we need to lead to take those actions. not to settle the backside, but the front side of history. going to think you and the crowd on c-span audience for joining me with the session. i look forward to interviewing you to see the revolutions of this book came through. the bottom line is, thank you for your contribution you're making today and into the future, for geostrategic debate. thank you all for joining us for the session. that's a wrap. james: you. >> michigan governor delivers her state address. watch live coverage today at 7 p.m. eastern on c-span. online at or watch full coverage on a new video app. c-span now.
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>>'s reports indicate that stephen meyer will announce his -- he passed senate confirmation by a vote of 87 to nine on july 29 of 1994 and was sworn in as the 105th justice of the court on august 3 did. use age or dust judge on the u.s. court of appeal. he served as first judge. before that, he worked and federal governments in various positions including an the justice department of antitrust office. and as a special assistant prosecutor on the watergate special prosecution force. he also spent time as a staffer in the u.s. senate and as a special counsel to the senate judiciary committee. he talks about the importance of
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listening and reacting to the differences. >> you mentioned another point. one of the things she did was that you had to learn -- she had groups of four or five and you work on a project you got a single grade. i always thought that was important. you had to take into account if you're going to get the grade you wanted. you had to take into account what the other three or four people in the group were thinking. i thought, that is a part of education later i think. that is a part of american education. it helps us, and i think we're pretty much doing, getting people who do not agree with us and work with them. we can get them together.
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if you deal on a court where people think quite different things, you better listen. you better understand, they are coming from a slightly different place, but we have the same problem, we have the same effort to resolve those problems, we are all approaching these legal problems most of the time unanimous, but we are approaching it with a lawyer, judges, human beings point of view and we will talk this through. we will try to get as close to unanimity as we can. that requires listening. it requires taking in what the other person is like, you are thinking, why they are saying things, and working with that. i learned that from senator kennedy. >> released a statement on the retirement of supreme court justice stephen breyer. his work and his -- on the
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biggest issues over time. including building rights, the environment, women's reproductive freedom, and most recently, health care and the affordable care act. america owes him in norma's debt of gratitude. he went on to say that president biden's nominee will receive a prompt hearing and the seven -- senate judiciary hearing. something knows i could buy judiciary chair.
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>> unload c-span's new mobile app and stay up-to-date with live video coverage of the days events. from live streams, to the house and senate floor. even our live and interactive programming. we hear your voices every day. c-span now has you covered. , the app for free today. >> and now a conversation with a member of ukrainian parliament about tensions between russia and ukraine. german marshall fund hosted this discussion. >> on behalf of the trans limit task force on ukraine, i want to welcome my


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