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tv   QA Jim Byron President CEO of the Nixon Foundation  CSPAN  December 12, 2021 8:00pm-9:01pm EST

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too. that is why sparklight is working around the clock to keep you connected. we do our part so it is a little easier to do yours. >> sparklight supports c-span as a television service. giving you a front row seat to democracy. ♪ >> these are some of the letters that president nixon and misses nixon wrote to each other. these are incredibly rare. they were just recently released
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by the nixon foundation in 2012. this was a letter written to mrs. nixon. he says dearest heart, let's go for a long ride on sundays. let's read books in front of fires. most of all, let's really grow together and know -- find the happiness we know is ours. this shows a romantic side of young president nixon that was not public before these letters where the least -- were rel eased. susan: that was when we first met you in an earlier role with the nixon foundation. the foundation board shows you at age 28 to be the new head -- ceo of the nixon foundation. tell me why you took this role and what your goals are. pres. byron: thank you, susan. thank you for having me on this
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morning. i am deeply honored. we are a nonprofit, there are only 13 presidential foundations around the country. we are all about education, encouraging scholarship, sponsoring programs that engage the public with american civics and history. if i can use those tools, our mission work to deepen an understanding about richard nixon and mrs. nixon and the times in which they served, particularly among millennials, people my age. i am only 28. to come to a fuller understanding about who president nixon was, i will have done a good job in this role.
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a big part of that is continuing our very positive relationship with our partners and friends at the national archives in washington. the foundation puts on all sorts of educational programs, we have worked together to bring people together here to encourage people to come here and study and learn and make up their own minds about who richard nixon was. if i can help to -- help the foundation to build up is presence in washington with programming and fundraising support, that is a worthwhile goal. i want to institute a number of podcast series. it is millennials that are our target audience in the sense
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that if we can support scholarships and deepen the understanding of president nixon through podcast series and other digital outlets, that would be a big win. we are beginning a very successful series of conferences on a number of key legacy elements of the nixon legacy. we want to plan those out either every year or every other year to really build up awareness that there is so much to this fascinating man and his legacy and the times in which he served. if i can get even a fraction of that done over the next couple of years, i think my goals will have been fulfilled. >> at age 28, you were born one year before richard nixon died.
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what inspired your interest? pres. byron: it did not start with an interest in richard nixon. my grandfather was a history buff and he brought me into this world. we would watch news clips together, c-span together, that was how i came to have a passion for history and 20th-century history. i was a high school student and looking for volunteer opportunities. i was bored over the summer. this opportunity came up, much
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to my surprise. the people at the nixon foundation said we will give this kid a shot. through as moses, i began learning about the nixon presidency and legacy and what a legacy it is. that is how it got started. i continued to volunteer my time when i was in high school over the summers. i read every conceivable book. i read president nixon's memoirs. evan thomas, being nixon, oakes on watergate, where do you even start with richard nixon? he is so endlessly and absolutely fascinating. the more that i could soak in
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serves to benefit my understanding and that is how it started. then i learned about nonprofits, i learned about fundraising, programming and i had some very close mentors along the way that helped me out every step of the way. when hugh hewitt took over, he asked me to be his number two and run the staff. i gladly accepted. he made the decision to come back on the board and recommended that i succeed him and much to my look -- my luck, the board agreed. susan: that first distant you took at the library when you were a youngster, you were aged
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14. have any of your contemporaries were interested in presidential politics and particularly, nixon history as you are at that age? >> very few. i think it is something that set me apart. i have always been an old soul. i think it has done well for me. susan: when did you decide you wanted to make presidential history museum management, public history a career? pres. byron: rather recently. particularly with the nixon foundation being on the ascent that it is. there is such an interest in richard nixon today. he is endlessly fascinating. there are 17 books right now
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about his time and legacy. if i can help understanding of this man, i will have been doing my is what area -- i will have been doing my country service. susan: how far is it from weightier, california where your nixon was born? pres. byron: he was born in a small home that his father built. it is right here on the property and open to visitors.
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about 6 million visitors have walked through that home. susan: where did whittier play a role in his life story? pres. byron: the family moved to whittier when he was nine. it was a citrus ranch. his parents decided to take therefore young boys to whittier where there were better prospects for a better life. they opened up nixon's market out of a converted old church. when richard nixon was 14, he would get up at 4:00 in the morning every and take the family car to downtown los angeles and he would go to the vegetable and fruit markets and pick the freshest and ripest fruits and get back into the car and drive back to nixon's market. he would peddle the wares in the markets and then go to school. whittier is foundational to
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understand richard nixon as a young boy and then as a young man. after going to duke law school, he returned to whittier, that is where he met his wife. he said on that opening night that i am going to marry you someday. they did two years later. his first law office was in whittier. it is in a building that still stands. guests can still tour through it . whittier factors very prominently into the story. susan: a good deal of the latter years after his resignation work involved in the planning of the library. he was at the dedication in 1990. we have a brief clip of some of his remarks. >> take a turn in the library. i hope that when you see there,
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you will share some of the things that my colleagues, the former president and former president bush have referred to. what you will see among other things is a personal life, the influence of a strong family, inspirational ministers, great teachers. you will see a political life, running for congress, running for the senate, running for governor, running for president. three times. won some. lost some. all in te -- interesting. you will see the life of a great nation. 77 years in which we had unprecedented progress for the united states and you will see great leaders, leaders who changed the world. they help to make the world what we have today. seeing those things will be
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interesting. let me remind you that when you go through this library, i hope you will remember that while the past is interesting, it is only important insofar as it points the way to a better future. >> what resonates with you about those remarks? >> that is exactly the mission of the nixon foundation. i hope we are living up to president nixon's call to have the library be an active place of study, debate and analysis. one of our key educational outlets that presidential libraries are in the country. what is really special about the nixon library is that it contains his whole life. he was born on this property and the and misses nixon are buried on this property.
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-- he and mrs. nixon are buried on this property. they traveled all around the world together in pursuit of american interests over a time of 50 years. you can go through the library and see it all. not only do visitors in the everyday public come to visit but the library is one of the top destinations for policymakers to proclaim their agendas. just within the last two years, we hosted mike pompeo for a major address on u.s. china relations. president nixon was the first president to go to china in 1972. we hosted the epa, the epa director, andrew wheeler for a speech on the epa today. just yesterday, for the
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inaugural nixon national conference, we had the nci director, president biden's nci director. the library not only tells president nixon's story but serves as a very active forum today for policymaking. susan: you mentioned president nixon went to whittier college, a graduate of chapman university. the president serves on the foundation board. he has taught law there. what is the connection between chapman and the two institutions? pres. byron: great question. chapman has a certain number of benefits that we enjoy together in partnership.
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they are only about 10 miles away from the library. we worked with chapman to build a presidential libraries senate with historians that study not only richard nixon but 20th-century american politics. if we can use the vast nixon archives, there are 47 million pages of documents, over 300,000 photographs, 2 million feet of film. if we can open these documents to students at chapman university, we will be allowing the students hands-on educational experience to come here and really learn something different aspects of american history and international politics. as you said, the doctor is on the board. hugh hewitt is a board member at chapman.
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the foundation is still very supportive. there is a great educational elation ship between the two institutions. >> we talked about hugh hewitt a few times already. he came back for a second stint recently. we have a flip talking about his association with richard nixon. >> how much time did you spend around richard nixon? >> a lot from 1976-1980. i was the executive director overseeing construction when he was back in new jersey. he was over -- he was organizing its content.
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>> what did the cost? >> the nixon library was $22 million, probably raised. -- privately raised. there was not one gift larger than $2 million. bill simon was the chairman of the foundation but most of it was raised before i got there. the president had been very good to me. he was very good to me. he was the best boss i ever had. he would spend an endless amount of time answering questions. i was not a good writer when i started, i was a good writer when i finished. he was a great editor, he taught me how to read, what to read and invest a lot of time in young people. >> many people watching will know hugh hewitt's longtime
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radio talkshow. what does the hugh hewitt relationship do for you? >> mostly the same in the way that he just talked about president nixon. he was one of my closest friends and mentors. he taught me a lot about not only nonprofit management but media and communications, events, how to get things done. hugh has an amazing ability to get things done and think strategically. like i said earlier, i am able to absorb these things through osmosis, i believe. susan: the board as you mentioned. as you look on the website, he was a frequent moderator of events. will he be continuing in that role or will you be doing that? pres. byron: as he said, jim,
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you are the boss now. but he said he will do anything to support us and support the success of the foundation. i am going to take advantage of it. >> who is on that board? pres. byron: dr. jim cavanaugh. a brilliant mind. he got his start at hew in the late 1960's. he was brought over to the domestic counsel and ended up running health care policy. he played a major role in the nixon national conference. he is just an amazing individual. we have 24 members who served on the board. we have trisha's son,
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christopher and -- nixon, pete wilson is on the board, everett alvarez. the longest held prisoner in war. he was held for 8.5 years. he is an inspirational figure who i am privileged to call a friend. everett is on our board as well. it is a group of dedicated individuals who are passionate about american history education, civic education and i am privileged to work with all of them. susan: i want to show you this video to give you the opportunity to talk about how the nixon family members are involved. >> if my father were with us tonight, he would say to all of you thank you, men and women for
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serving in the most challenging time imaginable and for doing a job superbly and brilliantly. so many achievements in 5.5 years. he would say thank you to the bigger nixon family. the friends and supporters who came here to celebrate. sometimes i am asked what it was like for my family to defend my father during the embattled moments in the white house. my response was simple, he was the best father in the world. he loved his country and he made us out. -- proud. susan: how does the family get involved in addition to sitting on the board? pres. byron: there was a great clip. that was at the 2013 centennial birthday dinner in washington. i was at that and i think julie brought down the house. it was great to go out on that note.
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the family is involved largely by giving advice. i am in touch with patricia and julie regulate. they are close confidant. few people are able to give better advice because they were there. this is their father and their mother who played these pivotal roles in american history. what i admired -- one of the many things i admire about tricia and julie is they both recognize the need to get new generations involved. both were very supportive of me in this role. i love that christopher and melanie are involved with us on the board. represented of of that next
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generation. >> how involved are you in the details of the exhibits and the kinds of speakers that you book. does it have a gay or nay function on the direction that you take it -- ay yay -- a yay or nay function on the direction that you take it? pres. byron: it is the ceo that sets the direction. susan: for the first 17 years, the nixon library declined to be part of the system. could you tell us the history of why the decision was made to join the 12 national archives? pres. byron: this predates me but at the time we felt that it was important that the nixon
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legacy be assessed by the next generation. in the most fair and accurate way possible. 2 million feet of film, over 300,000 photographs of every aspect of richard nixon's life and career, they were held after the president's resignation from 1974 until 2004. they were held in college park, maryland. the national archives were making progress but it was decided that they really belonged in yorba linda. for scholars and those interested in american history, students writing term papers, in order to really understand the entirety of his life and career, i was told that the papers and
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the archives needed to be here. susan: nothing is in college park anymore. everything is in yorba linda? pres. byron: physical tapes are still held in cold storage in college park. but all of the copies that are available for research are in yorba linda. everything else is now in yorba linda. susan: who is the owner of all of the nixon related material? john: that is -- pres. byron: that is a complicated question. the nixon presidency, as a result of the legacy of watergate, the nixon files from the white house were essentially seized by the u.s. government. that was a departure from the past.
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the eisenhower administration files, they were all determined to be the personal property of the president. that all changed after watergate. the files from the nixon presidency at the white house, january of 1969 to august of 1974, those are under the custody of the national archives of the united states government. prior to the nixon presidency and after the nixon presidency, it really depends on the collection. the nixon foundation is the sole owner of the post presidency papers. 74-94. the vice president of papers, it is a mix. some were deeded very famously. the early life material -- it
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really depends on the collection. if there is a researcher out there that is interested in a particular collection or reviewing the particular collection, yet in touch with us so we can help you out. susan: you can also get the federal government archivists that work with the collection. do they have purview over who it belongs to? does the foundation have its own set of archivists that looks through the family material? pres. byron: it depends upon the collection. the public will -- publicly held materials -- for the privately owned collections, the foundation really administers those and will consider requests to research them on a case-by-case basis. susan: do you ever turned down
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requests? pres. byron: we do, depending on what the request was. we want to get the full story out. we want to get books and movies made and podcasts done. if we turn down a request, we are going to work with -- generally we will work with the person who made the request to make it work. we are very supportive of scholarships and we do fund scholars who come out here to research in the national archives research room. like i said, research and support for scholarships is a major part of our mission. susan: one of our goals of this conversation is for people to understand how these foundations and presidential libraries work. how large is the staff -- the
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foundation staff and the narrow staff that works there? pres. byron: the foundation staff is about 60. all of the foundation staff are privately funded. that is through fundraising and the endowment. on the national archive side, i believe there is a staff of about 20 in yorba linda. they have a director who is a wonderful guy. he really is committed to a deeper understanding in using the powers of his agency that he can to help to get the nixon story out. we worked together on that. the way that the library complex itself is split up for lack of a better term is that certain portions are controlled by the foundation, this will vary depending on the presidential library in question. note to presidential libraries
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are alike. we split costs, it depends on the function in question. i think we have a very positive and healthy relationship all the way on down. susan: what is the annual budget of the entire operation and how much of that comes from federal funds? pres. byron: the foundation operating budget is about 10 million and all of that is private. you would have to check with the national archives to see how they are given to the nixon library itself. when it comes to the split costs that i mentioned earlier, the national archives do control more square footage in the
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library right now. they do bear a larger burden of the electrical maintenance costs and now those are public funds. the foundation recently raised 25 million two fully renovate and overhaul the nixon library museum. a wonderful guy named fred malik raised that when he 5 million to redo that library. that was all privately raised and then after the renovation, it was donated to the u.s. governor. susan: your portion of it is private donations, private solicited donations and memberships. people can belong. you also rented the facilities out. what happened during covid? you could not rent to the
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facilities out. how did you survive the last two years? pres. byron: covid was tough. for museums and institutions around the country, it changed everything but we took advantage of the opportunity that we could offer as a closed facility. like you said, our endowment was a disaster. we had no revenue from private sales or admissions. membership was our only revenue stream and that took hit. we took advantage of what we could and that was our position in the community. the fact that we could do good things for good people. the first lady try to alleviate some of the suffering until we encourage volunteers. we lost our conquering covid campaign.
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that included more than 40 blood drives with the american red cross and other blood banks in southern california. we used the east room in the nixon library. we have a full-scale replica of the east room in the white house. it is beautiful. we do foundation events in there. we brought in beds that people would lay in and blood was taken and that would go to the blood banks. as you recall very early in the covid pandemic, there was a shortage of blood. we considered what we could do to help. we acquired a million masks from a very generous businessman in new york city and we donated 700,000 of those masks to small businesses in the community, to schools. to try to encourage economic activity and get kids back in
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school and to keep people safe. that is what it came down to. we had four food drives. we had centers of worship in our community. people came through and were able to pick up food to feed their families. even though we were close, we really made the best out of it and we benefited a lot of people. susan: the challenge that you as a public historian and all museums have is operating in the digital age went audiences are much more accustomed to fast-paced digital events, often in their own homes. you talked a number of times about the challenge of reaching millennials. how are you approaching that? how do you get people through the door in the digital age? pres. byron: social media. that is the key. social media and podcasts, taking advantage of the
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opportunities out there. we have a first-rate communications department that looks at every conceivable opportunity. for example, as i mentioned earlier, yesterday, we hosted the conference with three nobel laureates that came in to participate. we had the current director of the national cancer institute. as we were interacting with these scientists and doctors and clinicians coming in from all over the country, we considered in advance how to project that out. the newest special exhibit is called a commitment to hope. in order to get that exhibit out into the public eye and to raise awareness about that exhibit, we worked with a number of these
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doctors and nobel laureates to put them on for in the exhibit. when we were in there, we asked for their thoughts. what do you think about this? what are the practical invocations of the national cancer act today? we were able to build them into instagram packages, facebook live videos, tweet them out. linkedin has a mixing algorithm for the business and finance community. it is really taking advantage of every opportunity that we can. touching those demographics. particularly under 45 demographic. social media is key and i mentioned podcast. we have a couple of podcasts we are working on right now. they largely key off of the 50th
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anniversary of the nixon years. we are going into year for of the -- four of the 50's. we commemorated the moon landing, the nixon doctrine, the epa, the great environment of movement that happened in 1970. then we are looking ahead to the 50th anniversary of the president's trip to china, russia, the 50th anniversary of the yom kippur war and the 50th anniversary of watergate. we build events and conferences around these types of programs or around these 50th anniversaries and to make them into types of programs and then
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reports them out over social media. it is working. we hear from young people who say i did not know about that or i had only heard there was this thing called watergate. i did not know that resident nixon was the first president to control this. there are real learnings that are being had. that is in support of our mission. >> it sounds as though getting people in the door is becoming less and less important and then having conferences and seminars. the mix is changing over the years that you have been there. pres. byron: they are both equally important. in order to get visitors here to the library, we have to have products for them to come see. some will become because they are history buffs like me or because they're interested in a particular aspect of the nixon
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legacy. others will come for a particular special exhibit we might be displaying. our next exhibit is going to be all on the cold war. we think that will be very popular. visitors come for different reasons so you have to have products that attract different visitors. prior to covid, we were atop destination for visiting chinese nationals. tourism and driving in tourists to the library is a very high priority. it is the changing nature of that. we have to have brand
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recognition among the groups you are trying to get to come visit and then you have to ultimately have products that people want to see. susan: in the museum itself, the ongoing most popular is the exhibit. this is a series of interviews he gave to david frost after leaving the white house. a very poignant question he got at the end was after the impact of watergate. let's give a brief listen. president nixon: i let down my friends, i let down the country, i let down my system of government, the dreams of all those young people who should get into government but they will think it is all to corrupt
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-- too corrupt. yes, i let the american people down and i have to carry that burden with me the rest of my life. >> how is this portrayed in the new, revamped nixon library? watergate? pres. byron: watergate was a crime of consequence that has repercussions today we are still experiencing, political and legal. we are still swooning about watergate. there have been new revelations. as we approach the 50th anniversary of the watergate break-in, watergate is not over. it remains endlessly fascinating. what it is revealing is this
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great thirst of the full understanding of president nixon. there are 17 books in the works right now about resident nixon. there are 3600 hours of the famous nixon white house tapes. every tape that is out right now will be it. there won't be very many other tapes coming out. about 5% of those 3600 hours have to do with watergate. a lot of the requests i am hearing from historians that they are getting about the tapes have nothing to do with watergate. there really is this thirst for a deeper understanding of president nixon. if you take the watergate gallery in the library, it is alongside a larger story. it is a key part of a larger
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story. it is the largest gallery devoted to a single subject as it was in 1991 the nixon library reopened and visitors can come and they can learn about what happened and they can contact allies it -- contextualize it. when visitors go through the watergate gallery, they start to learn about the early life of president nixon. what they have tried to do there is unit k2 viewers that one of the most difficult times in our history, it is very import to understand who he was as a man. when you around that corner, you look out these enormous windows at the home that his father built. this was a man who was a visionary leader who was committed to public service.
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he had bipartisan achievements. he was the world and the nation's preeminent strategist. in that clip that you showed, he said that he let down a number of young people who may have wanted to go into government but there were a number of young people he brought into government went on to enjoy wildly successful careers. many of them remain personally bound to president nixon. many of them have told me that you and ambassador george h w bush. colin powell was a white house fellow in the nixon administration. alan greenspan was on the 1968 campaign. fred malik went on to become president of marriott and the cochairman of cbre.
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barbara franklin, bobby kilburn, henry kissinger, paul o'neill. president-elect nixon brought henry kissinger in. our ghibli, today he is the world -- arguably, today he is the world's preeminent international statesman. susan: do you believe that no matter how many efforts you make, there are for some people that watergate will be the defining moment of the presidency which trumps other commerce meant -- accompli shments? pres. byron: it is part of a much larger story. when he eulogized president nixon in yorba linda, president
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clinton said made the day of judging nixon on one day in his 25 year career come to a close. abby -- i believe that is only beginning to happen now. susan: you reference the mystic policy achievement. i wanted to play a brief clip of tricia nixon cox talking about some of president nixon's domestic policies. >> in a turbulent time, peace in the world and justice at home where the twin pillars of my father's initiative. initiatives that integrated all americans into the promise of the american dream. initiatives that preserved our water, air and land. initiatives that were ahead of their time in welfare and health
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care. >> during his 5.5 years, president nixon deregulated to look at medications and created the epa, osha, occupational safety, he signed the clean air act, the endangered species act. i am wondering whether or not richard nixon would be considered a conservative by today's clinical standard -- political standard? pres. byron: probably not. i don't think he was conservative then. evan thomas, the former editor of newsweek says nixon was conservative in many ways but he was an activist. i think that sums it up. he created the epa. he was a key part of the body environmental movement. he signed title ix.
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he created landmark cancer legislation that paved the way for incredible advances in research and technology. dr. stephen hahn of the fda, now with moderna drew a direct line between the national cancer act line at the devolving of mrna technology that is the bedrock of today's covid-19 technologies. to say that president nixon was an accomplished president and the foreign policy field, you have to say that. you have to say he was in a normal sleep a compass president in the devasting policy field. many of his domestic achievements really stand the test of time. susan: but they are very different than the direction of the contemporary republican
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party and i am wondering where that puts the nixon foundation's program ideologically given the direction of the republican party. pres. byron: i will leave the comparisons to the party today to the historians but i wasn't in terms of the foundation's programming, we are all about emphasizing that president nixon operated in a bipartisan spirit and has real bipartisan achievements to show for it. president nixon was the first president to come into office since zachary taylor with both houses of congress against him controlled by the opposite party. yet, he was able to create the epa, sign title ix, create osha, pave the way for a new relationship between american indians in the u.s. federal government and restore tribal
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lands to american indians. particularly in the town of blue lake. he revolutionized cancer treatment and research. i would argue that he was not a conservative. i would argue he was not a liberal it up. he was about pragmatic moderation. if that puts him in a no man's land with today's republican party, i don't know if it does or does not but i think that is a record to be proud of and that is what we ought to be emphasizing and pushing forward from an educational perspective. >> you have an ongoing series of programs in the foundation in the nixon seminar.
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the goal seems to be exploring conservative realism. could you tell me what that means in terms of is a compass meant -- his accomplishments? pres. byron: president nixon was the ultimate realist. that is how he set foreign and how he and dr. kissinger operated on a geopolitical scale. he really is america's preeminent geopolitical grant strategist. they did this all through philosophy rooted in realism. what the nixon seminars do is provide a pathway for the republican party today and the democratic party today to say this is what worked then. here are a set of policy prescriptions that may work that
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we would recommend would work now the former national security advisor, robert o'brien. it has 15 members from the bush, obama and trump administration's , national security experts. we set the topic working with the moderator and we said that president nixon did it this way. here is how we recommend it be done today. it is meant to guide and recommend. it has become one of our many key educational programs that we hope members of this administration and whatever the next administration is -- and might be the same administration.
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members of congress can key off of it as they are formulating key foreign policy prescriptions and agendas. susan: you recently opened an exhibit of correspondence between richard nixon as the next president and donald trump. can you tell me about the letters that you found? pres. byron: they were amazing finds. we discovered these letters. we uncover them. anyone who goes searching through the archives knows it is like you can find a needle in a haystack and we found a few needles and these haystacks so we peace to these letters together. what we were able to determine is that former president nixon and donald trump had a friendship. they would bounce ideas off of one another from everything from football to the legacy of the vietnam war, politics today.
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it is absolutely fascinating to read this correspondence between these two men and to have presented that. he put that in a special exhibit at the next library which is now no longer open. it was called the presidents club. it took a look at elation shifts between a series of -- the relationships between a series of presidents. historians now have to wrestle with the fact that these two men had a relationship and how does that factor in to historian's understanding of these two men? we presented some really interesting and compelling new history? susan: have you opened the doors to the public again? pres. byron: we have, thickly. we reopened after 14 very long months and we hope that we state open long into the future.
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like many other museums, it is not -- the traffic is not what we would like it to be. we talked about the huntington library, the reagan library. everyone is seeing that it is a little bit slower. a lot of that is due to the fact that international travel has not picked up. prior to covid, we were one of the top destinations. right now, it is a slow trickle but we believe we will be back and we have a lot for the public to come and see. we have a lot to offer. we have a new special exhibit. if you have questions about cancer, we encourage you to come . susan: jim byron and the new ceo of the nixon foundation on
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connecting with millennials. we appreciate your time. pres. byron: thank you, susan and thank you for the opportunity. ♪ >> all q&a programs are available on our website or as a podcast on our new c-span now a pp. c-span is your unfiltered view of government. we are funded by these television companies and more including -- bridging the digital divide one connected and engaged student at a time. cox, bringing us closer.
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>> cox supports c-span as a public service, giving you a front row seat to democracy. c-span's washington journal, every day we are taking your calls live, on the air on the news of the day and we will discuss policy issues that impact you. coming up monday morning, the government accountable the office discusses a new report on bullying, hate crimes and other hostile behaviors since schools. we have a new report on how to improve the u.s. public health system. watch washington journal live at 7:00 p.m. eastern on c-span or c-span now, our new mobile app. join the discussion with your phone call, facebook comments, text messages and tweets.
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announcer: this week on the c-span networks, congress returns with a shorter workweek because of the holiday break. the senate takes up a bill increasing the nation's debt limit. the senate also continues work on the defense bill. on monday at 7:00 p.m. eastern on c-span, a house committee invest getting the january 6 attack on the capitol meets to consider citing mark meadows for criminal contempt of congress for refusing to cooperate with the investigation. tuesday at 10:00 a.m. eastern on c-span 3, the confirmation hearing for commissioner of the food and drug administration before the senate health education labor and pensions committee. wednesday at 2:30 p.m. eastern on and the c-span now mobile video at, airline ceos discuss the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the industry before the senate commerce, science, and
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transportation committee. watch this week on the c-span networks, or on c-span now, our new mobile video app. also head over to for scheduling information to stream video, live or on-demand, anytime. c-span, your unfiltered view of government. announcer: before members of the house of commons, british prime minister boris johnson apologized for a video that surfaced of parties being held at his home which were in defiance of covid-19 rules during last year's lockdown. next are his remarks. >> we now come to prime minister's questions. >> may i begin by saying i understand and share the anger up and down the country essay number 10 staff seeming to make light of lockdown measures. and i


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