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tv   Former Secretary of State Colin Powell Joins Virtual Leadership Conference  CSPAN  April 5, 2021 1:54am-2:44am EDT

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and jobs package is not expected on the house floor until later this spring or early summer. watch live coverage and follow our coverage anytime at c-span.org. >> monday, janet yellen addresses the global economic recovery from the coronavirus pandemic and an event hosted by the chicago council on global affairs. watch at 11:00 a.m. eastern on c-span or online at c-span.org. >> former secretary of state colin powell shares some of his life experiences. this interview was part of a leadership conference hosted by the brookings institution and mount vernon.
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are here at mount vernon, george washington's famous home, and we are here with another famous general who served as a four-star general, chairman of the joint chiefs of staff, and secretary of state. >> thank you, i've been here before, i've been with you many times before. david: as we sit here today in this incredible house, it was thought over 100 years ago, this association has bought it and now they operated, but they have no men on their board. you imagine how anything can work in this world without men on the board? colin: for the last couple hundred years now, they have done a great job. they've raised money and kept the place looking absolutely beautiful. and i think you would not be successful if you tried to join the board. >> i think that's probably true. i also wonder, think about this. we had two hundred plus years of man as president of the united
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states. have you ever thought what would happen if a woman became president? you think a woman could be a leader as good as the men we have had? colin: that is such a sucker question. yes, there is no reason they can't be. we see them moving update after day. supreme court, within the senate, within the house and cabinet positions. we see them moving up and now we have a vice president of the united states-to be who is in line to be president if something happens, or if she runs for it. the answer to the question is women are coming along very well anyway i never would have anticipated. we've got four-star female generals all over the place and you had better treat them like four-star generals. so i think we have come a long way in the last couple hundred years, especially in the last 50 years. i remember once when i was a battalion commander in kentucky, 101st airborne division.
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we sometimes had some paratrooper songs that we sang from the old days. in one morning, my battalion commander spotted me with my troops, and using some language that perhaps was not appropriate, because there was a women's formation right behind me. and so later that day he called me and said never use language like that anymore in the division. and i never did. it took me a while to clean it all up, but i am in pretty david: david: good shape. we're going to talk about leadership today. something you know a great deal about. so let's talk about when you started out your career, you went to the city college of new york, where there is now a college named after you and it is operating and you have about 6000 students. and i assume you have done many things of which you are proud, i assume you are very proud that city college has named a college
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after you. >> it is part of the college, but it is about one third of the college. and it was done because when i got there after i left the state department, retired from government, somebody had endowed some money to this small little think tank that we had, so it was very interesting for a while. and after a while i said i don't need a think tank, i want a place where young students can come and we can give them an education, but the education they are getting, they have to take to the community and use. that is why they are called global service and leadership. and the academic is part of that. they really love it. and it went from just a small think tank of maybe 30 or 40 kids now to about 6000. david: the children that i saw there, the young people, are they the children of private
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equity people or hedge fund people, people who have been around colleges for a long time? colin: no, they are like me. immigrant kids. many of them were born there and they have parents, very solid parents. but it is an immigrant college and all the youngsters i knew when i went there 60 or 70 years ago, they came from an immigrant background. there were jewish kids who were there learning to speak english, in you just saw these immigrant kids who are working at it. look at my immigrant parents. my mother finished high school, my father did not. i had cousins all over the place. my sister was sent off to school and became a teacher. and nobody knew exactly what i was going to do and it caused a great deal of distress for the family. i finally finished with a c
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average, the undergraduate staff at the high school and all that, in my mother said you must apply to the high school of science. two top high schools in new york city. ok, mom, if that is what you want me to do. and they didn't accept me. the counselor said you are not ready for anything like this. so i went to the high score they had to let you in. there was no constraint on letting you in. and that's all i was able to do. it was a good time being shut down because i was not really ready for what they were offering. so i went to city college of new york. i got in with another c average, and something happened at the end of the second semester. i saw the cadets marching around the school and i said that is pretty cool. so the faculty made clear to me
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that we don't believe in c's, you have got to get a's in everything we give you. well, i went pretty high, i became the commandant of the school, for all the students. and then i went into the army in 1958. still a segregated country for the most part. and they were a little nervous about me going there. the professor of military science wanted to make sure that i knew that i was going to the south. fort bragg, places like that. that i understood the social changes i would face. and i understood, i got along fine. i did well, i was a young lieutenant. maybe i would get promoted to major at some point. but that was all i asked for. david: you never thought you would be a four-star general or chairman of joint chiefs, i assume.
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colin: people come up to me and say now that i was a four-star, they would come up and say wow, did you go to west point? no. did you go to one of the schools down south, the citadel? no. where did you go? ccny. what is that? city college of new york. and you became a four-star general? and that is what i had the punchline. i was growing up in the south bronx and harlem and when i was in the south bronx, it is like an educational experience. there i was, on the corner one day and as it to myself, you know what, i'm about 12 years old, i'm going to become chairman of the joint chiefs of staff. it was unthinkable.
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we are talking about a point in time in this country where segregation still existed. it had just ended for the military, but still existed for the whole country. and what my sergeants told me when i got there and was trying to adjust to it all, lieutenant powell, we don't care what color you are, we don't care where your parents came from, we don't care where you graduated from. the only thing we care about is your performance and we want to see what your potential is. you understand? yes, sergeant, i understand. and that is what i did for the next 30 years. >> for some time, you were stationed in the south where from the bases, you were treated like we are a white person. when you left the basis to get something to eat for something else, you are not treated very well, is that right? >> it happen after i had gotten
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married and gone off to vietnam. early on when we were just starting up. i came back from that tour, i had been away for a whole year. and there was a baby, a little boy named michael who i had never met, and there they were. one night i was looking for a house for us and as a came through columbus, georgia, i went up to a store to order hamburger because i was hungry. and i went right up to the front where there was a counter, because i couldn't go inside. and the young woman behind the counter asked what i was doing. i said can i have a hotdog or a hamburger or something? and she said, no, i don't think so. i said i just got back from vietnam. she said i'm so sorry, i'm from new jersey, i don't understand any of this. but i cannot serve you.
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i will take you around the back and get you something. i said no, thanks. and then i left, i went back half a mile and got a hamburger. and then about six months later, just about july 4, 1964, the accommodations act was signed. and i went down to that place and set hot dog, please? yes, sir. you got it. no problem. and that was the beginning of the end of segregation, the beginning of the end of accommodations restrictions. and what i have often said to people, they just didn't release black people from the problem, we released white people from the problem. it was a problem for both of us. so i took that attitude into my career. one thing led to another, i went to vietnam again a second time. the third time away from my family.
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and i just kept moving up. david: did you ever think to yourself that you were prepared to get the last full measure of devotion to this country, and you were injured in vietnam, do you ever say to this person when you came back, i was prepared to give my life or this country, and now you won't serve me a hotdog dog or a hamburger? how do you resist the temp tatian? colin: i didn't want any trouble, and i didn't want to fight with this lady. she didn't know why she was there. and that is the way it panned out. she tried to help me. she said we have african-american students here at fort denning. are you puerto rican? no. are you -- yes. i'm black. she said i can't serve you. >> so you rose up eventually to
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become a four-star general. did either of your parents live to see that event? colin: four-star? no. the only parent who saw me get promoted to general was my mother, and she saw me get one star. david: and what did she say, she knew it was always going to happen? colin: no, the whole family wanted me to get out of the army. all my relatives. and say they really said there is only one thing to do. the senior person invited my wife and i to lunch one day and she was just lecturing us something awful. every time you went over to vietnam, you got hurt. if you go back again, you will die. they will kill you. you had better leave now.
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and i said i am a professional soldier. i can't leave, this is what i do, this is where i go. this is my profession. and she still wasn't persuaded. and i said when i have gotten 20 years and, and i'm about 40 years of age, 20 years and, i can retire. and they will pay me for retirement pay for the rest of my life. and in typical immigrant fashion she said that is a good deal, stay. so i did. david: you rise up and one day you get a call from a friend of yours who says i would like you to come back. i want you to come back to be the deputy national security advisor. and you were in germany at the time and you said i like my job now, but ultimately he said the president of the united states wants me.
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what happens? colin: one of the dumbest things i have ever done in my life. how could i have ever believed that i had said the president has to call me? i was in a beautiful headquarters, a monstrous room, twice as large as this room, and i was going to be in a room this big, one of the smallest sections. and i had been pulled out of troops before. these jobs in the pentagon, or in the white house. they said we have got to have you back. i've just become the national security advisor, i need you here. i said, come on. he said the president wants you here. and then i did one of the dumbest things i have done in my life, as if i didn't know what the answer was. i said if i'm that important, why didn't the president call me? and as i walked away i said ok you dumb s.o.b.
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within a few months, the phone rings. hello? general powell, how are you, this is ronald reagan. i'm in the kitchen, in my underwear. my pajamas. and i said yes, mr. president? he said we really need you back here. i said yes, sir. i'm on my way. that was a turning point in my whole life, my whole career. david: you became the national security advisor for ronald reagan at the end of his term, and then later, you went back to the military in terms of commanding troops. but then you get appointed by george herbert walker bush to be the chairman of the joint chiefs. did you ever think that was going to happen? colin: no, why should i, i was just some immigrant kid. i wasn't expecting that. but i fell into a great relationship with vice president
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bush, but especially president reagan. we were having a situation -- meeting in the situation room and i was chairing the meeting because frank wasn't there. and the president wasn't there. and so schultz is there and i am presiding over it. and then suddenly, frank walks in and sits down on that side of the table. and right behind him is president reagan sitting at the end of the table. and so frank scribbles a note to me and he passes it down the table to me and i open up this little piece of paper note and it says you are now the national security advisor. and that was the end of it. there was no more army for then. i did that for a total of two
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years, national security advisor. a great relationship as i did with vice president bush. and so came to the end and frank had gone off, and so i'm free, i can get back to the army. not so fast. so i stayed for a while longer. finally, i was able to break free of the white house and go back to the army. i told them i am not retiring from the army out of the white house. i have got to retire from the army to get out of the army. and that is what i want to do, i want to go back to the army. bush when he became president, elected president, he did something very unusual. about two days after his election, we had seats right next to each other. and so he called me in.
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he called me. and he said i want to offer you a couple of jobs. and he offered me three jobs in the highest positions in the government. and i said thank you, let me go home and talk to my wife about it. and i went home, barely spoke to her about it because i didn't want any of the jobs, i wanted to go back to the army. and so i went and spoke to the chief of staff of the army and said do you have anything for me if i come back? and he said no, we have a place for you. so the next morning i went to the oval office and i said mr. president and mr. vice president, the army does want me back. enke very much, but i've got to go back to the army. and reagan kind of looked over and said that includes a fourth star? and i said yes, i'm going to get a fourth star. i got my fourth star, took command of one million soldiers.
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headquarters in atlanta, georgia. and that lasted maybe four months. and i got a call that said we want you to come see the new secretary of defense, that was cheney. he said the president wants you to become the chairman. president bush, now. i said, i'm the jr. for star. there are 15 four-stars. and i'm number 15. i've only been a four star about three months. what is your point? i said well, yeah, ok. so he reported that the president and he came back and said the president has two questions. one, can you do it? no infantry officer would ever say i can't do it. i said yes, i can do it. and then he said are you worried about having everybody jr. to
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you? army, navy, air force. and i said it's not a problem, mr. president. i said it's not a problem, we are professionals. and it never was a problem, we got along great. david: so the general public may be didn't know you as well as people in washington did, but they got to know you because saddam hussein invaded kuwait and you were given the task of figuring out how to get him out of kuwait. where you ever worried that it wasn't going to work out as successfully as we talked it out to be? colin: when we finally got the plan together, norman and i were satisfied with it, and we briefed the leadership, we went more than we ever, so i was not
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the least that worried about it. but i went and said to president bush, i said mr. president, there is no question about how this war is going to turn out, don't worry about it. we will beat them. they don't know what they are doing out there. they will just put themselves into a little circle. so they were just asking us to knock them out, and we did. we did it. and we got a lot more troops in the region then we might have needed, 500,000 americans, about 200,000 allies. it was a given, it was over. and the president said senator, sent jim baker over to talk to the iraqis. we didn't want to do this, we didn't want a war. we just want to give the land back to kuwait.
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by then, we couldn't avoid a war. david: at the time, there were predictions when the senate was voting that we would have 10,000 american casualties. how many did we ultimately get? colin: about 400, and 200 of those were accidents. we were thinking it might be in the neighborhood of 5000. some of the big shots in washington were concerned it was going to be 15,000, 20,000. we were catching a lot of flak from different parts of congress and a number of experts, but i couldn't be sure. so we talked about it very often. and we thought may be at worst it would be around 5000. it turned out to be 300 or so. and those were casualties by the enemy. another 300 killed by accidents. david: there is something called
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the powell doctrine which i don't think you called it that, but other people did. it said if you're going to have a war, have massive support and a massive number of troops. is that fair, to call it the powell doctrine? is that what you said? colin: it is perfect, except for one thing. it was the invention of the reporter. the reporter came to see me when i was chairman. we had just won the gulf war, desert storm. and he sat down in my office and was asking how we did it. and he said well, give me a simple expression of your theory. the powell theory, the powell way of doing it. i said well, it is not written in any manual. he said but i am going to write about it. you are? and he said yes, it is going to be called the powell doctrine. and i said well, in a nutshell, here is what it is.
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you look at the diplomacy of it, you know what you are going into. and if you can't find a diplomatic way to get out of it and you have to go to war, and you go to war with overwhelming force and i used the term overwhelming, i just said decisive force, that you would win. and then desert storm came along and that is exactly what we did. david: eventually, you retired from the military and you published a book on your life story, which was a bestseller, the list to say, but it was so popular the people said may be the author of this book should run for president himself and you didn't look at it. why did you not run for president in 1996? colin: because i was not a politician and i wasn't meant to be a politician. i thought about it for about two weeks. because i was getting such pressure.
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and i realized, you know what, this isn't you. you are a soldier. you can't be a politician. you are a good politician as long as you are not one. i was not bad sorting out political issues, but when i face a military problem, i always had to look at both sides, not just it is going to be this way. and i had spent over 35 years at that point just being a soldier. and so i gave it serious thought and one morning i woke up, put my feet on the floor of the bedroom and shook my head and said this is not due. this is not you. and so i went downstairs to see my wife who was in the kitchen and i said i'm not going to do it. i'm getting a press conference tomorrow. and she just looked at me and said, what took you so long? she knew that i would not do it.
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and what she also knew, i think, is that if i wanted to do it and she didn't want me to do it, i wouldn't have done it. david: you said to your wife you want to do something and you disagree, who wins? colin: it depends on what the issue is. if it was going to war or something like that, or running for political office, that was not in the game for her. david: you eventually went back into government service and another doctrine was named after you, the pottery barn doctrine. this came about when you came back to secretary of state and when you became secretary of state under george w. bush, eventually he wanted to invade iraq. by the way, if you go in there and you break it, you own it. like the pottery barn. the pottery barn people, did they like that? colin: it was another reporter, another journalist that got me
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on that one. i never said that. but one of our colleagues at the press did say it. a great line. so everybody started blaming me. the theory is right, but the language is not something i made up. it is a pretty good line, i am making money on this one. not inulin -- any military magazine, not in any military manual. people said, did you come with -- up with this thing out of nowhere? i said no, it goes back to the days of chinese imperialism, it essentially says if you want to go to war, make sure you have
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tried every alternative to satisfy your political objective without going to war. and if you are faced with an enemy who is determined to fight you, make sure you have put together a force that will win. david: so for much of your public career, there was a thing called bipartisanship where republicans and democrats would actually come together and maybe passed ills together, talk together, socialized together. that seems to have gone by the wayside. do you have any reasonable hope that with a new administration, bipartisanship can come back or do you think that has come and gone? colin: in the first part, you are absolutely right. i have a lot of arguments over political issues. all kinds of things. but it was always with people who would argue back and who would argue with balance arguments. right now, we don't have that kind of government. and i'm not quite sure what will happen in the remaining time with the government and i have a
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hunch that president-elect biden will be more inclined toward that way of doing business. the current president during his term, he didn't see it that way. and so we are busy getting out of agreements and i don't think it served us well. david: announced that you were a republican when you were maybe thinking of running for president. you supported president obama when he was running and you supported joe biden when he was running. and i think you supported hillary clinton when she was running. right? so have you ever thought of maybe becoming a democrat, you have supported a number of democratic candidates. colin: i live in the state of virginia where you are not registered as anything. you just decide what you want to do.
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and so i have also voted for lyndon johnson. so i have voted for both republicans and democrats and when i am asked about it, i say, examine both sides. see which makes the most sense to you. see which one you think is right for the country, and that is who you vote for. i don't know any other way to do it properly and i'm always trying to do it properly. in alabama one time after i got back from vietnam, segregation was still in that part of the world, sylacauga, alabama. i was driving a volkswagen, german car. i came to sylacauga and a cop was waiting. state trooper, he pulled me over. and he looked at my license and my license plate and came back to me and said i noticed that
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you've got this little german car. i also noticed that you got an lbj sticker on the side of it and a new york license plate. son, you get out of here as fast as you can. yes, sir. david: george washington, who built this house and lived here for many, many years. of course, he passed away at the age of 67, can you imagine what it was like to be the general in the revolutionary war with very few troops, fighting against the best army in the world? if you had ever had a chance to meet with george washington, what would you like to have asked him? colin: i would like to have asked him, how did you analyze these situations? how did you decide to make a change here? he was a remarkable soldier. and he lost quite a few battles. but he kept coming back. being in different parts of the
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army, different sections of the security system. but he improved with each exercise and he never lost faith in himself. he never lost faith in the country he was running for. and that was remarkable. what i have been the same kind of person? i have always tried to be the same kind of person, but never with the situations he was facing. but he had the country. our president at the time, george washington, if he got trapped, he could always move to somewhere. go off to new jersey or somewhere else. reassess the situation, and bring the troops back. the french health, the germans help. and finally, he overwhelmed them. and the british had to give up.
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david: as an african-american, what has been your view of the black lives matter movement, and how do you think people should look at george washington? he was our first president, a leader of the revolutionary war, but he was a slave owner. do you think we should still honor people like george washington, even though they were slaveowners, and do you think that the black lives matter movement will change race relations in the foreseeable future? colin: i think black lives matter is a reasonable statement of the situation we are in now, but i would also say to my audiences, black lives matter, but you want to know something, all lives matter. so we have to think about all americans. black lives matter is resting on sound ground, but i just can't look at black lives matter, i have to look at white lives matter, too. i have to look at all sides of an issue.
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and we will face this. i think things are improving. you know, how the devil did i ever become secretary of state or a four-star general or commander of the largest group of soldiers in the united states army? it is because i demonstrated professionalism and i demonstrated potential. and so in my talks to young people, i always tell them you have got to be your very very best and you have got to make sure that you are also showing potential. people say how did you get promoted to four stars? and i said i just did the best i could. and guess what, they never promised me anything. they never promised me four stars.
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the only thing they asked me to do and i did was every night when i went home, i said to myself, did you have a good day today as a soldier? and as i became more senior, i would answer it this way. they're my soldiers, i have to take care of them. i have got to be the best i can be. did i make mistakes? yes. did i screw something up? yes. was i criticized by my superiors? occasionally. that is part of growing up. a young student raised her hand and said have you ever failed at anything, general? i said, yeah. are you ever afraid? i said, yes. you can't live without being afraid. something at some point at some time, you fail, you have to fail. it is part of living. i've failed. the question is, what do you do about it? you figure out what you failed about and what to do.
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how to fix yourself. not to start pointing fingers at people. what you really have to do is figure out what did you do wrong? and fix yourself. and once you have looked at that failure and you have corrected yourself and the rest of the organization, don't ever touch it again. david: i said i don't care what happened to you in 1952, what happened to you last year, and how did you fix it? was i afraid, sure. my first day in combat in vietnam i was going down the trail and i was the third person in the column and a fight broke out. and when we got over it, there was two people in front of me, vietnamese soldiers, one was dead, he was killed.
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and we wrapped him in a poncho and carried him around for a couple of days to get him out. that night as i went to bed or went to my blanket, i said to myself, my god, we have got to do this again tomorrow. and we did. and we just had to learn to deal with fear. fear is a natural thing in you. and so we have to learn about have to deal with sadness and how to deal with fear. and i worked on that for a long time and my failure sometimes held me back. i had a habit of telling people what i thought and i would get in trouble, occasionally. one of my bosses said to me, you know, you spoke too much the other day. i said, i have to. i'm the military advisor to the president.
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i cannot ignore what i felt. but you've got to hear what i believe in. david: so the president of the united states president-elect biden, and said i need some advice on how to bring the country together, what would you tell him he should do to bring the country together and get rid of some of the partisan divide? is there any one or two answers you would have? colin: yes. first answer i would have is to start reaching out to the whole country and not just to a group of people who are your buddies, your gang. and get people on your staff who will argue with you. get people who are working with you, who will challenge you. otherwise, you are not going to get the best. and the next thing i would tell him to do, we have so many friends and allies in this world.
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that we have put at risk to being friends and allies of us. that is not the way we gained ascendancy in this country. we gained ascendancy as the number one nation of democracy in this country by talking to friends, by trusting people, by giving them what they needed if it is reasonable. so many times in my career as a national security advisor i would face some problem from a friend and i would just sit and listen. i don't have time to tell you all of them. but the spanish prime minister cosby, i have never met him. she just got the job. she says you have got to help me, i said what is wrong? we have an island just off the coast of north africa.
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and the moroccans took it. and we saw them. we had to go and take it back. and we did that. one is the problem? now they are coming back. so if you help us get a deal between us and the other side? and i said, that is in my business, why don't you talk to the e.u. or nato? and they said yes, they've turned us down, you've got to do it. and so that is what i did. i worked up a gradual agreement between these two countries and my lawyers were not happy with that, but i solved it. the only crisis was that they had two different names for the island. one was the african-asian name, the other was a european name.
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so they said we can leave this place with two names. we will never get an agreement. so i called out to my geographers in the state department and i said give me the exact place this island is located. what is the latitude and longitude, tell me exactly what it is. and that is where we came to the agreement. there is no name, just latitude and longitude. you have to work hard and find solutions for your friends. david: you and your wife have led america's promise for quite some time, an organization you helped start, designed to help young people become active citizens and leaders as well. for people who talk to you and say i want to be colin powell, i want to be a leader, i want to help my country, what do you think are the most important leadership qualities they should have? what makes somebody a leader and somebody not a leader? colin: don't worry about being
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colin powell, worry about being yourself. america's promise, we've isolated this into five promises that we want every child in america to get. promise number one, to make sure you have an adult in your life. irresponsible, loving, caring adult should be in the life of every child. hopefully a parent, a relative, a mentor, somebody who would put this child on the right path and not get in trouble. we don't have enough of these. the second promise was to go play. you need to have boys and girls clubs. and then the third one, every youngster should have responsible health care. we don't do enough of this. the whole country ought to have health care. i've spoken out about this repeatedly. there is room for every american. and the fourth promise was a
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quality education. you cannot survive in this world, in this country, without some kind of quality education. make sure that you give back, that you are giving, some kind of service back to the country. it works if you put people to work on it. people like you, people like me. that works fine. david: the highest calling of mankind is to be an equity professional. some say the highest calling is to be a four-star general. john allen, you are a four-star general. why do you think a four-star general is more important than private equity people? colin: i have never presented myself as being more important than private equity people. if you think i can do something
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for you, let's talk about it. and if i can, if we can, i will do it. in many occasions in the military, we didn't get that kind of action. you are now a core commander in germany with 70,000 troops. when i left the army, i was a little different. i had choices. i had choices that i had to take a careful look at with my family, with my children, and it served me well, and it served those people well. the people who taught me everything i need to know where the chinese military experts from 2000 years ago and german experts.
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they are the ones that teach you about politics and make sure if you are going to war, you do it well, and you prevail. david: so you are a four-star general, secretary of state. you have grandchildren. do they call you general, do they call you secretary of state? colin: they don't care. it's a family. when i was a jr. officer, it didn't make any difference. the more senior i became, ok. i didn't want to be anything special to my children. one quick story is when i was promoted to be a general and i was stationed at fort carson, colorado, we just changed to these new camouflage uniforms. that was cool. and i put it on one day when i got it and i went home wearing a
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camouflage uniform. this was maybe 25 years ago. and as i walked in the house, my youngest child, she was about 10 or 12 at the time. and she was watching tv and she turned around and looked up and saw me and said mommy, g.i. joe was home. what are you going to do? david: i want to thank you for your service to your country for many years, thank you for doing this interview, and i'm sure if george washington was here in person today, he would say thank you as well. colin: and i would say thank you to him for what he did to the country not just as a president, but as a human being. who taught us that being a human being is all about. he didn't look for war, but if one came, he would fight it, and try to win. and he left us with a message i will never forget. his farewell speech, his
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comments about don't look for war. he left us with a vision. and when he could have been the king of america, or the special president of america, he just wanted to be president. and that is all he is, president. and then he decided to leave, he could have stayed longer, but he had stayed long enough. and he warned us about spending too much money on the military and he warned us about getting too cocky and he left us with a great set of rules and i know them well, i have read them over the years, i have used them repeatedly as i have
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and i thank you for joining me this morning. it's an important conversation on diplomacy with north korea. here to kick off a conversation is secretary of state bernard korean defense marc knapper. i'm member of the partner partners they had served as deputy assistant secretary for curry and japan. prior to assuming his position mark was

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