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tv   Trade Supply Chain Officials Discuss COVID-19 Response Medical Supply...  CSPAN  April 3, 2021 4:45am-5:49am EDT

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a few notes about our upcoming programs. next week we kick off the next phase of our series on worker-centric and inclusive trade by going back to the
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basics and trying to answer the question, why do we trade and who should trade be designed to benefit? we have an all-star panel for that event on april 8. we have an additional event on april 13. u.s. central american trade on april 14. the next event in our series on trade and the environment on april 20. information on all those events can be found at www.wita.org. we are pleased to be joined by our cosponsor women in international trade. thank you for bringing this idea to wita and all you do for the trade community. welcome to those watching on c-span and youtube. we would like to give a shout out to some of those in our audience today that you cannot see that are in community with, even if they are not visible on zoom, youtube, or c-span. welcome to michael roberts, the wto, lindsay meyer,
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victoria piazza, and natalie campus. for today's event if you are watching on zoom you can ask questions using the q and a tab. if you are watching on zoom, you should have received an event program by email with our speakers' biographies so we can skip the lengthy introductions. i would like to introduce our moderator, manager of global health at the chamber of commerce, and catherine from ups, welcome to both of you. welcome back to two guests we have had. meredith broadbent, the center for strategic and international studies and a former winner of wita's lighthouse award. jonathan campbell. vice president for trade and
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international affairs at the association for accessible medicine. welcome. madison? >> getting myself un-muted. thank you for helping to make today such a success. to give you more about me, i work at the u.s. chamber of commerce's global initiative on health and the economy elevating the importance of investing in health as a strategy for economic growth and sustainable development. we strongly believe our collective focus needs to be on conquering the pandemic today. we also believe it will be vital to strengthen our health system in order to build resiliency and prepare to meet the challenges ahead. covid has exposed a number of gaps in health systems globally. before we dive in, let me tell you more about the other event partner on today's event, the association of women in international trade.
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it is an organization that promotes the professional development of women in international trade and business and raises awareness of the importance of trade and economic development. we have a number of events coming up that you all should tune into. in april we have two on the 22nd. we have an event called, what is the role of corporate social responsibility in covid-19 and beyond. on the 27th we have trade and national security. today, the topic of today's conversation is an important one. covid has demonstrated how important distribution networks are to ensuring delivery of goods. over the past year we have experienced shortages in some critical products like ppe, which led for calls like buy america.
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some ideas on how we can enhance the resiliency of our supply chain going forward. to start out, if you could briefly introduce yourself and provide a few opening remarks. starting with meredith, then jonathan. an end catherine. meredith? meredith: it is fun to be here. i appreciate the invitation. i started at the ways and means trade subcommittee at the end of ambassador brock's tenure. i would like to recognize what he did for the field. we will miss him. i worked at ways and means for about 20 years and then ran the industry office during the bush administration and administered the generalized system of preference program there. then went on to serve on the international trade commission as commissioner and chairman. a long background in the
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trenches of trade policy. i look forward to talking to you guys. do you want me to start presenting the paper now, maddison? or should we go to everyone else in the introduction? i can't hear you. maddison, you are muted. maddison: i hate when that happens. let's go to jonathan, catherine, and come back to you, meredith. jonathan: i am the vice president for trade and international affairs trade and international medicine. first, thank you for the invitation. i appreciate the opportunity to discuss these really critical issues on how we ensure the u.s. has a vibrant and secure pharmaceutical supply chain and
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how to work with our allies going forward to make that happen. our industry, global diversity is quickly important to functioning redundant supply chain. no one country can manufacture all medicines to make sure their patients have access to affordable and accessible treatments when they need them. since it is difficult for the u.s. generic manufacturers to compete against low-priced imported products, a sustainable market must be created that creates predictable volumes and predictable prices. how do you design that system is not easy, but crucial to provide incentives necessary to encourage that investment, especially the pharmaceutical sector where price is often the driving force for market segmentation. aam has developed perspectives
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included in our blueprint for enhancing security of the supply chain in the united states. that gets to some of those requirements that our members believe is important to expand their investments in the united states. for our segment, market forces are central to the makeup of the supply chain. i am sure all on the innovative -- also on the innovative medicine side, but they have much larger margins and can absorb higher costs. that is why countries who have subsidized the production of key starting materials have been so successful. they have been able to out -- help defer costs for lower-priced products and have attracted the majority of investment over the last number of decades. all of that said, it is not that the generic industries not invested in the united states. our membership alone, 21 companies, produces 60 billion doses of generic medicine every year in the u.s. and employs 52,000 workers. to the point of the paper that meredith will be presenting, and i strongly support the idea that the united states must work closely with its allies, trusted
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partners, and promote an agreement to encourage cooperation and coordination to ensure the security of the supply chain. we can't do this alone as the united states and we must work together with our allies, who, as you know, are facing the same challenges and having the same debate as we are. thank you. i look forward to the discussion. maddison: thanks. we will come back to you to hear more about the blueprint. catherine, do you want to give a few opening remarks? catherine: thank you for inviting me to this program. i am going to dive right in. jumping on jonathan's comments with two points i would like to make opening. from our vantage point in the global express industry we share the general consensus and thesis of meredith's paper that concentration of sourcing increases supply chain risk. which is true domestically and
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when you talk internationally. covid put a very intense spotlight on that last year. different supply and demand. generally speaking our customers at ups imported and exported were attuned to that reality already, certainly most recently in the context of trade tensions with china and also experiencing disruptions from natural disasters over the past decade. so it is a thesis point where we certainly align ourselves with what meredith has captured in the paper. the second point i would like to make is specific to medical supply chains, again from the perspective on a health-care logistics provider, we've learned a lot in the past year. about health care distribution, emergency response, vaccines, deployment. as we go forward in
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understanding the best balance of efficiency and resiliency in supply chains, we want to be included in discussions, like today, and we want to make sure we are not drawing straight lines where they don't necessarily exist. a complex supply chain equals a barrier to access. it is so important that we evaluate case studies, and we look for vulnerabilities and include multiple variety of views and stakeholders, and we come to solutions that would really create the goal for stakeholders, patients, are looking for. looking forward to the discussion. maddison: both catherine and jonathan have alluded to the paper. let's wait no longer, meredith. let's take it over to you to give an overview of the paper released in december. for those of you who don't know, covid-19 demand shock and preparedness response securing
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medical supply chains was authored by meredith. it is a strong paper. if you could walk us through some of the key recommendations you put forward and we will use that as the base of our conversation today. meredith: i'm excited to talk about the research we did through this paper. csis began the project in august by convening a group of interested thought leaders and industry representatives to assess how the u.s. medical industrial base was responding to the emergency caused by the pandemic-related spikes in demand. at the time there was widespread dire concern in congress and the general public about shortages of pharmaceutical and medical devices and personal protective equipment and general angst that u.s. supply chains were failing and that the u.s. industry lacked the ability to produce the scale necessary to meet u.s. demand caused by covid. at the time, 50 or 60 bills on
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the topic had been introduced in congress. our topline conclusion is that our government mandate that manufacturing production returned to the united states will only induce higher prices and more shortages. instead, we propose a trusted supplier network of chosen countries with whom the united states would develop enhanced supply relationships. overall, we expect threats to supply chain resiliency to only increase in the future. the frequency will continue for many reasons, such as pandemics, but will include the weather, shipping, as we've seen in the suez canal, labor disruptions. political instability. mckinsey estimates that on average companies can now expect supply chain disruptions lasting one month or longer to occur at least every 3.7 years. a mckenzie survey in may 2020
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found that 93% of supply chain executives plan to take measures to make their supply chains more resilient, increasing redundancy, near shoring, and regionalizing their supply chains. mckenzie estimates 30 percent to 60% of the pharmaceutical value chain could regionalized in the coming years. overall we observed companies are moving production and adjusting to new threats for possible disruption, although we don't have a measure of this yet. for csis recommendations, we recommend that congress and the biden administration work together to enact a policy on medical supply chain security centered around diversification within a network of trusted supplier countries that cooperate with the u.s. in order to bolster and guarantee a steady supply of essential medical products in future public health crises. eligibility criteria for trusted partners status could include commitment to safety and efficacy of medical products, ip
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protection, and free data flow. all partners would commit to enhanced supply chain visibility, work towards a new plural lateral trade agreement for the medical sector. exemplify trust, reliability, and commit to cyclical support for supply chain security by prioritizing the flow of goods and information sharing during crises. we suggest several possible structures for the trusted partner network, including, perhaps, reciprocal negotiations with trading partner countries, or unilateral designation of countries eligible for the network similar to the gsp program could be considered as a structure. as i said at the outset we conclude wholesale government mandated re-shoring is the wrong approach. we see models indicate that wholesale reassuring would not -- reshoring would not improve resiliency or efficiency of
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supply, largely due to the lack of diversification and inability to tap into a global network of suppliers and producers. this was borne out in our case study of gilead, pfizer, ppe, and ventilator production when we looked at how u.s. industry responded at the foreign level. i will try to highlight case studies, because there's a lot of good information in this study, i think. gilead's experience with ramping up production of remdesivir through its supply chain and global manufacturing network illustrates how a company was able to respond to unanticipated supply chain disruptions and spikes in demand by adjusting sourcing, improving manufacturing processes, shifting production among global facilities, and repurpose and -- repurchasing -- repurposing and ramping up production facilities in the united states.
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by supplementing domestic manufacturing with multiple international partnerships gilead created a sophisticated network capable of producing huge volumes of remdesivir to meet a large domestic demand, as well as demand in global markets. pfizer's success with the covid-19 vaccine was defined by its ability to mobilize global research, its global manufacturing footprint, and its international network, which included an essential scientific and commercial collaborator, biontech in europe. pfizer constructed two parallel supply chains in europe and the united states to ensure scalability and redundancy. excuse me. in conclusion, the dire circumstances of the pandemic present a new opportunity for the united states to reinvigorate trade relations with allies, free-trade agreement partners, and trusted supplier countries in the form of a trusted partner network.
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we have had a bipartisan paradigm shift in thinking on trade, i think. fundamental assumptions about supply chain security and who we can rely on have changed. it is important that the u.s. policy response is developed jointly between the administration and congress to avoid a pendulum of trade and national security policy swinging too far in one direction. the first move will be this interagency team that was established under the president's executive order which is compiling research, analysis, and recommendations on supply chain security. they will need a lot input, i -- a lot of input, i think, from the private sector. i would urge the team to be surgical, focused, and above all practical in addressing the threats that have been identified. ted alden hosted a panel yesterday on foreign relations, which made the strong point that we need to take the globalized world as we find it and move from there. we need to fully appreciate that
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new government mandates will be costly, and therefore must be measured and carefully chosen. thanks. maddison: thank you, meredith. that was really helpful. i have a number of questions, number of thoughts. i think one thing that comes to mind at the top, i think it's important for those listening to understand the value. i think this is often a misunderstood point. perhaps because it is a bit counterintuitive. and so i think if we can back up a little bit and go back into the height of the pandemic, many of us experienced firsthand the effects of supply shortages. the infamous toilet paper scare and a number of other items that we take for granted. at times during the early pandemic they were hard to access. and ups was at the frontline of
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all of this. i am wondering, catherine, if you can paint a picture of the supply chain logistics challenges and hammer out a little bit more the point about diversification. again, i think it is a little counterintuitive for people to understand. if you could talk through some of those challenges that we've heard and that you experienced and maybe talk about the value of diversification through it all? catherine: sure. i agree. we should, quickly, though it is well-trodden ground to discuss if i go through briefly i think it is a good set for this discussion about solution. their massive shocks in demand, supply, and then there were separately government interventions of issues creating
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disruption. on the demand side, we had an acute for certain health care groups, ppe's we all remember. we had simultaneously a panic marketplace, and a long list of other items, and we had a shift from be to see consumer purchasing that -- from b to c purchasing. that reverberating in the world, additional rolling shutdowns in the market.
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that's waiting all this -- exasperating all of this was capacity. by april last year 16,000 passengers that were grounded. -- passenger jets were grounded. in that month in april, there was an 82% reduction in air cargo capacity. not -- they would like to fill that demand, but there was not anywhere near the redundancy to make up the lost air capacity. ups alone ships 6 million kilos of ppe to the united states.
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although we have caught up most certainly on that, there was an environment of extreme stress and shipping as well. cover also to other things going on, one was airport restrictions and what government things were happening and how they had an impact, but no question it played a role in slowing down the allocation of the central good that we needed. the second issue with his one not salt today is we are still navigating the health articles related to essential workers moving across borders to facilitate air cargo. the timing and conditions is
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precise, we are still operating in environment today of challenges and unpredictability because we don't have a common standard there. it is not often thought of as an important part of the supply chain, but it certainly is. the only think about the landscape that we can and can't change, from our perspective the concentrate and -- concentration of sourcing had a major impact on the successes of the supply chain and that can be changed. the export controls were a major impact that can be addressed internationally.
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that should be fixing could be fixed through some of what meredith is proposing. that is how we look at last year , static problems in sourcing. in the supply chain we look at the impact of the pandemic from a health perspective and the limitations we had in the logistics industry. i be happy to talk when we are ready to get to that part. >> thanks. i think the export controls is something we all witnessed firsthand and something i was thinking about when i was reading the paper. one thing that came to mind for me is we have concentrating partners already in the form of nato, and countries we do -- we
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have trade agreements with. what would stop countries from resurrecting export restrictions, it even if they were in our trusted trading network to protect their own citizens for a health crisis. can you talk about what is different here from what we already have? that is a really good question -- >> that is a really good question. how do we make a trade agreement that will increase security in this area, and i don't think anyone in that room was saying they are going to have a guarantee of no export restrictions ever being supplied, but the benefit and improvement will be the ability to set forth principles that your only going to risk --
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resort to export restrictions in the most dire situations in a manner that is targeted, transparent, and time-limited. it sets up a lot of good government discipline. and procedures -- different elements to be considered. in the paper we did a case study with candida, and early on there were some export restrictions are put on by the united states and these we were able to work off i just courting where the supply was in the hemisphere and figuring out where we could act each other up. a lot of this is just communication and thinking through what responses are in trying to limit the panic buying , panic export restrictions, but there always be political pressure product -- for that but we try to moderate that.
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>> i want to talk also about -- one thing that also surprises me that the conversations we are having today is if had a lot shortfalls and supplies, we did not have these sorts of shortfalls in pharmaceuticals. come to find out that 70% of our value comes from the u.s. already. i was wondering if you could talk about the genesis of by america and the pharmaceutical chains. how did they drop in to this conversation as well?
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>> you saw on the summer between 19 increase tension in congress and the trump administration about the perception that china was playing too large of a role in the pharmaceutical light chain. there were members of congress who expressed concern and wrote -- that conversation and debate was already ongoing when the pandemic it. what we saw early on is policymakers across the spectrum expressing real concern about what impact coronavirus and the weight that shine -- china shutdown manufacturing would have on the supply of medicine in the united states.
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this was not the first supply chain challenge that our industry face. you saw china up to the beijing olympics shutdown manufacturing as well. he saw the earthquake have an impact on pharmaceutical main fracturing in puerto rico. all of that the a robust regime of contingency plans they were able to act upon early in 2020 when the covid crisis was ramping up. we expressed concern that we saw from policymakers and others about the potential for supply chain shortages. when the main reasons it did not come to fruition is because the industry was spreading. the industry had backup supplies on hand. we were surprised at the amount of stuff the industry kept on
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hand. they were ready for this type of supplied description, and so what we saw was while the transportation crisis had a significant impact in march and april, the data we analyzed showed by early me the amount of pharmaceutical flowing back into the united states had reached the same level that they had prior to covid. those based on a lot of preparation industry that we had put into place. the genesis of why five air is still critical to full -- focus on from sue industry, we are seeing a lot of members of congress the he has this issue. i think it has involved and
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where i think of send now, is gone from u.s. crews and everything here in the state. the idea that yes cannot do this alone, we have to work with our allies, we have to find trusted power -- partners who can help us secure our supply chain and then secure the surprised -- supply chain. it is valuable to the u.s.. we think about it, in this is an idea my association is also promoting. it's the idea that there could be situations where congress may not make sense for the united states to manufacture all of its own api, but with partners they can focus on where they have a comparative advantage. that is greater cooperation,
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communication, and transparency around that there we can leave to a place where the u.s. has a larger supply chain with its partners. >> yeah i was wondering if you get a little bit more into the blueprint for supply chain's as i think that is a valuable area that -- that pertains to this conversation. as we decided to move forward in getting that pharmaceutical industry to expand investments in the united states, what would be some of the posted challenges or changes in need to have to enable the investment here at home. it hit on both points. >> wanted a big concern for the
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generic industry is how do you have a sustainable marketplace? the supply chain is involved in the generic space, in response to the market conditions that exist. in the united states we have very low price generic medicine. that is because of market-based pressures where purchasers don't want to pay much, and because we are a commodity-based industry, competition helps lower the price. if you're bringing them manufacturing back, or starting manufacturing, you need to ensure there is some predictability in the marketplace. so that one does not as out at the expense of new -- are necessary to build out the marketplaces.
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the list would basically be an essential medicines list and the way the fda defines it. we might do it a little differently, but basically getting a subset of all the 6000 plus medicines on the u.s. market, where u.s. really need to have greater manufacturing? so the list that came out on october 30 is a good place to start, but we believe grants, and the biden administration and congress is approved funding to confide grants to help build up u.s. factory, -- to equal out the marginal costs, and a predictable market. we think that where the u.s. as a direct purchaser of medicine
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and we are over -- 5% of the overall light -- it is not large. in those instances, there should be long-term contracts where the price is guaranteed a price that. of time and the volume is guaranteed over a set. of time so that country -- they know if they are expanding or they can extend off that low price competition for a certain. of time -- certain period of time. and finally, and again this is very close to what meredith was talking about, we believe there should be the conclusion of the international pharmaceutical supply chain agreement, which is the idea of the u.s. partnering with allied countries. the national stockpile should be expanded to include all of the
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medicines on the essential medicine list. >> i'm seeing a number of q&a questions come through in reaction to some of the ideas you just put forth, jonathan. i will leave it to the audience to hammer out some of those questions and for some of those who did not have a chance yet for a direct question, please on the lower half of your screen hit the q and a button and type your question. one more question for you, which has to do with where we are now. on the top of our minds is vaccine rollout. last week biden mark the milestone of 100 million shot stirred.
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whatever the challenges we will be facing and what are some of the additional hurdles as we move towards the rest of the world? and you are also, feel free to add any last comments the panel on some of the proposals that meredith proposed. >> yes, thank you medicine. i think one observation for us was the u.s. experience in delivering the vaccine. and of this might not be everybody's personal experience and getting access to it in the city, but from an operational perspective it has gone very well. we speak to that from the perspective of the public-private partnership that was in place. a couple elements of that that
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have really driven efficiency and effectiveness include transparency, collaboration. it has allowed it to be a very productive environment, taking lessons week by week on where there have been success in distribution and make operational changes in other areas to apply those, and we consider it to be an achievement to have gotten where we are today with operation warp speed, knowing what i am long way to go. this something we would like to see replicated around the world. just want to give ups credit for the environment the right as the vaccines.
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what's really at the top of our minds right now is that 2 billion does target around the world. the pressure of 2021 are going to be on scaling supply and measuring preparedness in countries. we are a fraction of a single percentage point away from 100% on-time deliveries. it says a lot of government support behind that. so the indexing now, the programmers and procedures are still rated it. there is a lot of support in supply chain right now movie vaccine, and that has been
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successful for arranging some of the roadblock we were anticipating. most difficult challenges still ahead of us. that is reaching you and giorgio the roads of elation with a plan is 90 a.m. place. but we are for more collaboration from the private partnership between governments helping spread the expertise we have. and managing supply on a just in time distribution effort now and ways that are going to hurt is the nicest three i think it is
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it your retuning productivity that we are who we are today and factoring this will bounce us across several regions lynched -- moving to country being for finishing, and treats eve just finishing team for finishing, and has an arrow this. in so the learned superjet vulnerabilities in the industry. and say that with the reminder that we are very much in the beginning of the vaccine rollout locally. >> thank you to all of our
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panelists today for your thoughts and comments. thank you madison, catherine. we don't like to look at big picture issues, we like to drill down into some of these topics. this has been really insightful and informative. we have some really interesting questions from the audience. when is a big picture question that you may be redirected at all the. now that we have a better understanding of demand shocks how you think the biden administration can better shape their supply chain that remains in effect as effects and impacts
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on some seo rent. anyone want to grab that one? >> -- we are at a place where we need a more cohesive, big picture policy that takes into effects what is on the government. german mark it. our national team needs and medical device area think wcl has rejected the government for
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cure in the u.s. for medical products, so i think as we get into discussions with other countries so you might deem to be trusted partners, they may want to work with us in a better, cooperative license event of the government code, and that will be clear was who start talking to sunnis and future that i think it is something that has to be looked at holistically. >> anyone else what to jump in on that one? >> there is a two-part question has come in. we saw the focus in the last
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week about the prices of the soon. it blocks maritime traffic between the red and train. huge problems there, diverting ships around the world. what does that mean for the "just-in-time have since your what are some of the ways we can fill resiliency? -- resiliency? >> supply disruptions are common and take many forms. bruker thousand unfortunate unfortunate but very impactful example of what can you on air.
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john mentioned hurricanes, they're importing from single market and something like this impacts, it is a primary products that they are building their business around and in impassioned way to be devastating. very cool thing as sin finished in. i think diversification we don't
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need jesus averred diversification as a risk. that is the only insurance she fear visits going in these kind of another pushing came in and we've had list focused on vaccines and medication, he directed 72 speak about the movements of pp devices during the pandemic, and what might be going forward. other some policies after soon
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as as elizabeth the two, who is in ventilators that were and ppe and work on some of its international partners solve and may be that for vehemence is of move -- we notice you pharmaceutical industry my gosh sophisticated bioengineering that they're doing. whereas, ppe was basic in terms of the production process needed and it was a matter of knowing
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where was this insight i think there are differences in the different here versus the sectors. >> i think ppe does provide an example of a problem to be solved. though we were able to ship an enormous amount of ppe from china to the u.s., when the world regulatory delays because it was a single market, and delays related to pp are vulnerable to counterfeit
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because they are allowing best low manufactured goods, and we do not have as many trusted manufacturers as we needed. we were exposed in the pv response and solutions around dissertation recently and bring that efficiency and resiliency mono makes test takes place. >> meredith, did you want to jump back in? >> no, i am good. >> a question comes in from peter mark -- martin, did the surge in commerce affects the
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ability to fascinate you deliver certain pharmaceutical products. individuals and institutions may have been trying to access those which could've been a blessing and a curse at the same time. >> a blessing and a curse, and i don't think ups looks back on the days of having to establish a watch tower try to bring some parts sensation to shipments for your the clear and present -- capacity for aircraft, it is a difficult position for company to be in to decide what is most essential.
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we were able to understand what the government demands for pp was, but there was a whole list of categories of other goods, not related -- that are still essential. it is very difficult now. commercial goods that were not health-care related out of one's over percent during the time. that is where he experienced a lot of delays. there is no doubt it created confusion and challenges. and i think there are lesson for the u.s. domestically in the way we handle that as well as the other countries and i know i'm being reviewed. >> talking about challenges, jonathan's questions drink towards you.
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-- jonathan, this question is directed toward you. what were some ways we were able to get ahead of that crisis? >> i think the cause was an unprecedented level of demand for these medicines. what we have is diversified distribution network in the united states where -- what you saw places like new york when they were facing the toughest time in the pandemic, you saw a greater number of drugs in that division being used. there were refill shortages, but we did run into a situation where it was much -- it was as
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much of a distribution issue as anything else. we work very closely with researchers -- what we saw again last less instances regional shores. >> thanks, jonathan. got the last question coming so far, and i'm going to use that as a set up question. for all the panelists jump in, including madison as well. what proactive actions should the u.s. government take to help build trust with our trading partners, who may be skeptical given the recent announcement.
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especially for vaccines in their ingredients and inputs? in a related question, there is been a lot of talk about what steps we should take in advance of the next pandemic. most people believe it is nice question of yes, but when. but should we do now pair on supplies inside so that the next time he hits we are able to act with more quickly. jonathan, joyce eu are ready to jump in? >> sure. one thing we do is generate trusts. there was a withdrawal from engaging in our partner countries. the biden administration has
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rejoined. show -- biden administration has rejoined countries around the world. it is re-engaging in this partnership, showing that the u.s. is not isolated and is response. i think there going to be significant more of this as the u.s. reaches critical mass survey -- in terms of vaccination. i think that is going to be critical >> the second question, i think to build out and how do we prepare, more transparency as
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well as putting in place incentives that can help increase the footprint of the manufacturing in the united states is part of the global supply chain. >> we need to give up some discussions with our trading partners so that we can engender some trust. i think there is a pre-trade commission meeting coming up between mexico and canada, and i think usmca is a good place to start to see what kind of tryst of relationships will work with other countries, and this will depend a lot on what countries like mexico or planning on doing. i think there are lots of opportunities and we need to start sitting down with countries and talking. i think a lot of the solution is going to come with the
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interrelated trade room product world. they're going to be -- much more transparency to wear their supplies are coming from, where there inputs are coming from, and how to anticipate if you're going to have a shortage where you can duplicated in other production sites. >> any last four on -- any last words on this topic? >> there are lessons and expertise to be shared. and i think that will go a long way to helping facilitate some of these conversations about a trusted supplier network, and i agree wholeheartedly with meredith on the opportunity to make more permanent some of the
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public and private sharing and transparency as they are moving around the world and understanding where there is -- where there is capacity in need. we should keep that in place as a point of preparedness for the next event. >> madison? >> yeah, and i would echo everything that has already been said so far. just say that our health systems are going to be under a lot of financial pressure. in investing for pandemics to come. of course, working to address covid and bring this to an end while not letting other parts of
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our health system fall to the wayside. >> thank you both, very much. thank you, thanks to those of you who have been watching. a reminder, next week we are having the next event in our series of events. we do have an all-star panel next week. it's moderated by david lynch of the washington post. that is on april 8. we hope you'll join us for that event. thanks as well to wit, women international trade. for those of you who are still watching, a reminder to please wear a mask and get the shot
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[applause] >> and we have a special guest here today. and i've had the honor of linda and i of being with senator scott before -- right before the event. and senator scott is going to be -- i know he's going to talk to us about the things he's going to do for iowa and specifically for our senate seat here. and i've asked several people including two of his colleagues. i talked to senator grassley earlier today. and senator ernst. and i have talked. and you may live in the sunshine state, senator, but i think joni, you have the final word on this, but i think -

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