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tv   Frederick Law Olmsted and Land Grant College Design  CSPAN  January 3, 2022 3:59am-4:58am EST

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that became identified with america with our colleges and universities. something that is admired and envied around the world for its humanity and idealistic idealist application of community freedom and beneficial relationship to nature and its elements. transcending one of fl oh seniors more pithy remarks. and if a man is not to live by bread alone, what is better work doing the planting on trees. i'd say he planted campuses, thank you. [applause] >> recognizes because the university of pennsylvania which expands as dean, no good deed
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goes unpunished. congratulations. hope served as dean of the school of architecture in the architecture of the university of texas at austin with additional teaching at arizona state, washington for the university of colorado at denver he helped establish the initiative the first program of its kind with a comprehensive rating system for sustainable land development management. the author editor including design with nature now, nature and city ecological design, design for vulnerable planet. he will be talking to assist morning about olmsted's university and after he
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completed his presentation will have an opportunity for q&a with her to for speakers. [applause] [silence] >> the best thing about being a speaker you can take your mascot. i want to thank dede petri for the wonderful introduction of mark for remembering the paper that i wrote at the university from decades ago.
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my first faculty job was at washington state university in the palouse region of the pacific northwest. washington state, the university campus was the told terry an affair reflecting its agricultural and mechanical heritage as a land-grant college. across the street from my office at johnson hall which i just learned is being torn down. across from my office was an ancient cougar living out his years in a cage. during the long winter i fantasize about setting bunch, that was his name three as i waited in vain for somebody from the vet school to rescue the creature and put him out of his misery. as you can see butch no longer exists by the statute does which
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is probably better. surrounding were beautiful and they had lots of winter wheat and lentils but very few trees. the campus had fewer trees than the university where he studied and even though they were in urban settings in cincinnati and philadelphia, 9 miles east of tolman is a town called moscow it is the home of the university of idaho.
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moscow was by florida among charming college town in part because of the many bars and restaurants. the drinking age in the light 1970s was 19. students wanting to get far away but pay in-state tuition welcome to washington state because only a few miles away they could go to moscow and drink. you could spend the winters drinking and skiing in idaho and the summers fishing in alaska while earning a bachelors degree in between. stepping onto the university of idaho campus was a revelation. it was also a landgrab university but ignore liberal arts than the washington cousin. i wonder if 227-foot elevation change accounted for the greater
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number of trees allowed whole campus as the police gave way to the bill of mountains beyond moscow soon i discovered olmsted brothers at the heart of the campus in 19 await after disastrous fire in 1906. actually washington state had a slightly ill rear lynn idaho having begun the first courses in 1893 after was founded in 1890. washington state, the university was continuing a tradition at
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michigan state in 1863. all of the students were required to take landscape driving. at the landgrab university talk architecture and capability of andrew jackson doughty and others before the first academic department and landscape architecture at harvard in 1900. frederick law olmsted senior was offered the iowa agricultural college. agricultural college predated the 1862 moral land-grant act but it provided a major stimulus for each state to establish an institution devoted to teaching and what we will call engineering. in itself black citizens were denied access to the land-grant colleges prompting their
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champion vermont senator justin smith sponsor second act in 1990. it established 19 institutions in the former confederate states. olmsted and scientific farming was a supporter of the schools as evident by the author of ohio state and with considerable interest in energy he would become somewhat involved in the design of five landgrab's institutions, cal berkeley, maine, massachusetts, cornell and rhode island his sons were involved in another landgrab school including alabama a&m which is a block landgrab school plus they revive their father's work at the university of maine.
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in addition to the campus planning project father incense carried out correspondence with several other land-grant institutions and often mining for work and sometimes they yielded the specific design and planning commission. the intention of the landgrab institutions was largely noble and that's pretty much how i thought of them until fairly recently. the goals were to extend higher education publicly beyond the existing private elite universities. they offered practical subjects such as agriculture engineering and home economics. they sought to advise and advance applied research and they sought to extend knowledge to informers and others. as senators commitment illustrates an opportunity was intended to include black people
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and in addition most of the schools open their doors to women much earlier than their private elites counterpoint. however, as robert lee revealed in the high country news about a year ago and expert indigenously and of the foundation of the landgrab system decided to build the new schools provided through grants in the public demand states and total it had to report approximately 10.7 billion acres taken for nearly 250 tribes, bands and communities through over 160 violent land successions. the return on the landgrab institution to receive were stunning and contributed to
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their development. i would say most americans probably including the homesteads were not aware of the landgrab from native people and more focused on the benefits for working and black people and women. these slideshow, this is immoral on your left in the land that was taken from indigenous people, some of the institutions the landgrab institution benefited more than others and the 35 from one treaty alone or to treaties benefited quite handsomely and these are the schools that benefited the most from the landgrab's from
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indigenous people. with that note and understanding we will get back to more of the positive aspects of the landgrab institutions and as lori indicated before fighting landscape architecture frederick law olmsted i'm also interested which one of us view similar images of our presentation. both lori and i chose the young olmsted in the old. we both chose a younger olmsted. but before fighting the landscape architecture hit farmers for several years. he also became an architectural arthur writing for among publications, andrew jackson, magazines and as a result
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olmsted was well aware of the movement toward scientific and effective farming techniques. he was part of the networks of agricultural to spread the word about best practices. in fact olmsted, part of the movement and he would become an association with planning five of the new land-grant colleges and would influence many others. here's a shout out to andrew jackson, downing and the influence with the horticulturalist, part of it the whole idea of the land-grant institution was not only teaching but also extension and that started in agricultural societies enter publication like the horticulturalist. the first lien grad was a
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college of california berkeley which had begun as a private institution. in olmsted attempted to convince the trustees to consider the campus comprehensively. in 1866 campus park proposal suggested taking advantage of the sites enter rain and strawberry creek which runs through the campus, olmsted also advocated consideration of the semi era of climate and native plants and he spent several nights on the ground that the campus, studying the microclimate. in addition to the campus itself he and his work also addressed planning for the city of berkeley which did not exist at the time. in his plan for the city olmsted sought to create a community of family houses that was safe and
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attractive. again he saw the potential for strawberry creek and its canyon for the neighboring adjacent campus. writing about canyon road olmsted identified the mountain gorge to create waters as commodities. here is a quote. as the road follows the stream of water from the open landscape to the bay region into the midst of the mountains and offers a great change of scenery within a short distance and will continue a unique and most valuable appendage to the general local attraction of the neighborhood. also olmsted was mentioned after possible candidates for the presidency of the college of california but his plan was never realized as apparently was lost. his sons will also become
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involved in several of the subdivisions in berkeley so there would be a lasting influence on the city. unrealized plans become a repeated and olmsted seniors explained to the land-grant schools. >> this is what strawberry creek looks like in the berkeley campus looks like today and as laurie mentioned as one of the features from his proposal that is maintained. >> after a failed 1866 attempt to convince the trustees of the massachusetts agricultural college to pursue his vision
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that a campus becomes an ideal community to demonstrate the latest agricultural innovation local to farmers, olmsted made a report of this one for the new main college, however, the trustees there rejected his plan in massachusetts olmsted had been asked by the leaders of the new school to layout a road but olmsted had bigger ideas he prepared to give them another roadway but in an analysis of the philosophy that you govern the formation of the college and the training that would accord with the philosophy. a large ability had been proposed which olmsted objected to in addition he proposed two-story houses each with
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special specific uses. in addition olmsted proposed to rearrange the configuration of the college and away that affirmed the relationship of campus and community. he believed the college should do more than teach students how to farm that had a live he advised that the housing could be used for aid the student in education at making a farmers home cheerful and attractive. in december of 1866 olmsted revised, expanded and published his massachusetts report for a broader audience it is a really shrewd move, he takes his proposal and repackages it for a
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broader audience and lands a commission at the university of maine. olmsted essay and pressed the trustees of the university of maine who invited olmsted in their new school in december of 1866. as olmsted noted about the visit the ground was covered with snow, not surprisingly. he borrowed many aspects of the massachusetts report such as a specific uses. i was going to use the same slide that laurie used but i like this rumpled one instead. it also shows elevation which i thought was interesting.
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olmsted proposed construction of 30 college residencies for students who were deemed responsible for each building and it's gone. the idea was to involve the students in their living environment. the student houses were to be organized in a village like arrangement in a public road was used as what olmsted called the street village to locate the presidents house farm buildings, model fields and orchard pasture and woodland and election classrooms in museum and library and chapel and student faculty housing. as laurie indicated a large parade ground overlooking the stillwater river in the 1867 plan indicates he paid special attention to military training
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which is logical given the recent and silverware. from the report it is clear the goal at the time was solely on the education of young men. in this case olmsted had been hired by one group of trustees who replaced in the new trustees shows not to fully implement the plan. this is the university of massachusetts plan where a few elements of olmsted's idea were incorporated. which gets us to cornell and although engaged after significant building decisions had been made olmsted was able to have a positive influence on cornell's campus.
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it's hard to imagine what the campus might've looked like if olmsted would've been called earlier to plan cornell's first building group and he continues. it is greatly to his credit that he is willing and able to dissolve the bridge approaches and preserve the order and beauty of the cornell quadrangle which is people enter picture here. he was able to establish a relationship with cornell's founders and continue to consult with them about building the ground of academic matters. even for a short time serving as a trustee for the new school. , while olmsted direct influence was on berkeley, massachusetts and maine and limited at
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cornell. according to schuller, these plans constitute the earliest and comprehensive statement of his philosophy of campus design, his work also informed other realized campus designs and campus planning more broadly olmsted and those who succeeded him did much educational work across the united states and canada. he notes that this reflects an ever increasing importance the education came to occupy in american life after the civil war. frederick law olmsted was in the generation of social thinkers who gave credence to the notion that the physical environment planning buildings and grounds in the success in higher education. one of the strongest influences,
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one of the strongest influence at landscape architect in the late 19th century came not so much in designing not inviting welch who was the president of iowa agricultural college which became i was the university in welch used the native prairie everyman president for a long time he taught a course in landscape gardening. i think the early land-grant if we look at the most fully realized plan from olmsted moore from iowa state. this is welch's idea this brings
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us to the 1890s, olmsted as laurie indicated has added his son john as a partner and charles elliott and the firm was named olmsted olmsted and elliott. during this time olmsted seniors health was declining and elliott would die young at 37 years old in 1867. as a result the practice was in transition it in 1894 the firm began several years of involvement with the campus planning for the rhode island college of agriculture. now the university of rhode island. which continued with the emergent of the olmsted brothers in the 20th century.
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the olmsted and elliott plan organize the rhode island campus. i found this particularly interesting especially in the light of lori's remarks. in the 1890s remember there was a plan for washington university and stanford which emphasize the use of the quadrangle and laurie had a wonderful quote some angles can be good. what you see here is a shift in the orientation of the olmsted senior curbing road approach. to the quadrangle. it's before-and-after what was called college hall burned down and replaced by davis hall in
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this represents a change where we see more of an emphasis of quadra angles. the covariates remain but it also reflects john olmsted's contribution. like the other work the olmsted's provided very detailed design to realize their plan with the rhode island campus for example this concluded plaintiff designs and scientific and popular name plants and for the land-grant institution, they also specified areas, here we see a chicken yard, not something that would be fixtured on stanford campus. in his later years olmsted
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communicated with leaders of other land-grant university of the university of tennessee and north carolina state and he was doing work at biltmore and stumbled on the campus and wrote a letter to the president which was called the north carolina college of agricultural and mechanic. these are some ideas for your campus and you should hire me, but he did not. so i think homesteads will significant, senior most significant contributions to land-grant schools came from his writing rather than his designs his 1866 report for the massachusetts agricultural
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college in its expanded version were rightly read among the land-grant institutions and is likely to be the first statement about land-grant campus planning. in all likelihood is probably the first presentation by a landscape architect about campus planning for a general audience. in olmsted's ideas were to have a more lasting influence on campus design, most directly through his sons. and of course charles olmsted was the nephew of frederick as will as his son frederick after olmsted senior married his brother's widow in homestead junior was a half-brother and
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john became an apprentice for his stepfather's firm after he graduated from yale in the scientific academy and rick followed suit and became a partner in the firm after graduating from harvard in 1894, together the olmsted brothers continue the legacy of their father taking on scores of planning and design projects including many college and university campuses. and they advance the work, although one thing to differentiate them from their father is the father had a very deep knowledge of agriculture in the sun had an appreciation for agriculture but did not have the background and farming that the seniors had. the father did not lay out the
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original plan for iowa state, the brothers did report the plan and the report laid out the future of the campus but was not adopted like your father's plan by the trustees continuing a trend established by their father of trustees rejecting their plan, however, the olmsted brothers did have an influence on the location of several buildings and sometimes i think campus planning involves small tweaks. this brings us to the 1908 university of idaho plan where they definitely had a bold impact led by john, the report suggested a holistic vision for the grounds and buildings together, the plan had been
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especially important in the real lasting influence on the heart of the campus. this area is called the administrative mont today and it was designed with a collegiate central building through what they called a naturalistic style. john c homestead was 18 years older than rick into the early 20s it was far more experienced in the early 20th century was far more experienced designer. this leadership is evident in the design of another pacific northwest land-grant, the oregon, this is another one another university, isn't it lovely, it blew my mind away after crossing all these lentils and winter white wheat and he
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comes at the heart of the campus which is really gorgeous. oregon state, in 1909 president william jasper invited john homestead to visit the campus and make a report. at this time they mention the olmsted's had a couple of railroad cars and would drive around to the pacific northwest designing parks and campuses. the initial visit resulted in the ongoing relationship between olmsted, this is john olmsted and what is now oregon state university, this relationship even involved olmsted mentor rating on a faculty member arthur lee was a fresh graduate
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of the massachusetts agricultural college. and he would go on to become a full professor at the oregon state and a leader in landscape architecture education west. john olmsted was engaged in other oregon campuses, he observed that oregon state university more of olmsted's direct imprint remains in the other oregon campuses. he attributed a lasting legacy of john olmsted with the importance of surrounding students with simple beauty. this is a view of oregon state. also in 1909 the olmsted brothers produced a master plan for the ohio you state
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university. in columbus. building on corresponded between the firm and the university that have begun in 1905 which resulted in helping to define the schools honorific space called the oval, john wrote about his vision for the ohio state university yearbook. he advocated abandoning the informal arrangement for more formal organizations a trend that differentiates his design from his father's. he advocated preserving the central lawn and building a library. john olmsted recommended a more systematic approach to campus planning and specific areas for different studies and services.
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he suggested whatever the architectural style for buildings that they be harmonious in appearance. john olmsted promoted buildings were dormitories for women, he paid special attention to the central lawn and its relationship, you can see somebody who produced the olmsted plan was clearly not the olmsted because they use the spelling of fred olmsted the chicago white sox player within a and not the correct spelling of olmsted. but this influence or relationship of the oval which many of you know through columbus, he foresaw that that was going to continue and connect to the university in establishing the town connection
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in the olmsted plan helped institute important campus places most notably the oval and mirrorlike. in 1904 they became involved in the planning that the michigan agricultural college which is of course michigan state university. which actually had been founded a few years before the moral act they were founded in 1955. more notes the michigan agricultural college was geared toward a different type of student and his predecessors and represented a shift in the direction of amara gala terry and form of education. in bearded the broader democratic social movement in the country. earlier planning of the campus was influenced by the landscape design ideas of downey and olmsted, with olmsted we see merging more into practice at the time, rick olmsted presented
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a plan for expending the campus in may of 1915 and the plan attempted to balance the growth and preservation that suggested as a more formal plan with larger buildings. this is really unpopular with the alumni and school officials. they did not like the formal approach. as a result the michigan agricultural college ended its relationship with the olmsted brothers in 1922. again after john dies covid-19 20 rick olmsted's firm leadership and campus design more fully emerges. he prepares a plan to the louisiana state university in baton rouge beginning in 1921. and classes began on the new campus in 1925 and formally
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opened in 1926. they called it a pulmonary plan and the olmsted brothers preliminary plan incorporated the sites existing trees and topography and the vision for a continued expansion. perhaps his most significant contribution to the lsu campus was to convince the university leadership to move from downtown baton rouge to its current location on the plateau of the mississippi river. this was especially important for the expansion of lsu's agricultural research and activities. the olmsted plan responded carefully and creatively to existing conditions in
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particular tree groupings, topography and taking into account native american ground but the german born engineer architect theodore was brought in for the building design into redesign the preliminary plan, he felt that the tablet was required for what he called landscape work, he argued against hiring the olmsted brothers to refine their plan, he would going to do the master plan himself adapting the homestead plan. one observer notes the choice of the olmsted brothers in the first place was brilliant, not hiring the firm to continue full service was a tragic loss. the architect plan was more self
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ignoring the indian mound, the magnolia to the mississippi river. in 1925 florida at gainesville retained rick olmsted to prepare plans to improve the quadrangle which is later named the plaza of the americas in 1931, 21 folks were planted on the quadrangle, one for each of the republics in the america at that time. concurrently the university created the center for latin american studies. this is what the quadrangle looks like today. something really interesting happened, a lot of interesting things happen in alabama in the 1920s. but for the purpose of our story
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in 1928 led by the governor alabama engaged in the olmsted brothers in a statewide planning of the segregated colleges, all of the universities at that time and colleges in alabama were involved except the university of alabama and that is a separate story. in the land-grant universities were included. the alabama polytechnic institute which is auburn now had been founded in 1856 as the east alabama male college, then renamed after the agricultural mechanical college of alabama in 1872 as the states first land-grant to school and again, in 1899 as alabama polytechnic
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local institute. the brothers began their work in 1928 and completed their plan in 1929. at this time it's really important to notice john olmsted, rick olmsted is a very busy individual teaching and national parks and doing all kind of wonderful things. the others start to play lead roles and design. alabama work was a man named james frederick dolson. i minute say the olmsted brothers, but in many cases there are others and i will try to note them as well. among other elements their plan relocated 20 fraternity houses, something students on my campus would love to not only relocate 20 fraternity houses but probably eliminate them. they also were advocating
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certain buildings and this was rejected by the trustees because of cost but the plan did help direct campus expansion including the siting of a new football stadium which is making the plan very successful at auburn. the olmsted were brothers and were involved in the design of three historically black universities. this is an understudied aspect of campus planning, the olmsted brothers were involved in three. they were involved in the private hbcu and national, they were involved in jackson state teachers college, originally jackson state women's negra college teaching women's negra
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college in the deferred was alabama a&m and knoxville. actually alabama anam had been founded in 1875 before the passage of the second bull act and after this law passed in 1890 and became the state agricultural mechanical college for negros in an area known as normal on the fringes of huntsville. the university had been located in central huntsville and moved to a hill 4 miles north of the city reflected attention between the county for many. and this is reflected at others historically black colleges and universities especially in the first jim crow south.
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and an essay about hbcus was a focus on alabama explores the financial and security reasons why black schools were often move from prime locations in town to roll places or resource sites such as hills. he notes the hbc included the land-grant did not receive the same level that they support in the south as their white counterparts. for the benefit of land-grant universities, land-grant universities in the south did not benefit like their white counterparts. in general they were much more underfunded, alabama anam in
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1891 to move out of town had to be dubious at best. other hbcus a&m located their campuses where they will be less likely to confront those with uncomfortable with their mission educated black folks. the in the olmsted firm became involved in alabama a& as part of a statewide initiative. as alabama college building program. according to the national register of historic places registration proposal, the olmsted brothers conference a plan for the university of landscape scenic drive, walkway, plazas, walls, building sites and they had to report to indicate that this is the campus designed to encourage a profound
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appreciation for the campus walk. through this activity they confirm the olmsted brothers lead a&m students to realize the value to domesticate his environment. the plan was to be underneath the university of the past and present and future by encouraging harmony between the buildings and the trains. as a result several buildings were clustered this is normal in several buildings were flustered on the hill with agricultural building below on farmland. in the application to become a national historic district a strong case is made of the campus significant to history. and part of that case is olmsted
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plan sought to promote a strong sense of community among students, faculty and staff. the plan was organized around the topography of the site normally the hill. in the authors of the historic district information note the alabama a& played a crucial role in emergence of the african-american education in alabama. after slavery ended. they also observed a&m was broader than agricultural loan they sought to expand opportunities for african-americans by including the preparation of teachers as well as the training of leaders and various branches of domestic mechanical and agricultural industries pre-displayed an important role in the education of black people during the separate but equal.
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from 1896 into the 1960s and greatly from division of these three individuals, the president counsel was the first president and parker and drake were important because parker was there when the plan was being developed and they should get credit for implement the most of it. they follow the plan for sometime. where olmsted seniors plan had been rejected in the previous century. it addresses future growth it
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remains the most enduring contribution. i believe the designer for this plan was carl parker who had began his career as a draftsman for the olmsted brothers. but they continue their work on the main campus well into the 1940s. it is a continued ongoing relationship. even in their files there is a clipping from 1953 i think. in the campus. it just shows the impact of where their influence at the university of maine. like their father john cin rick olmsted promoted their services to many other land-grant
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universities. including the university of kentucky, illinois, minnesota as well as mississippi state college, a few of these projects resulted in campus growth plan for the mississippi state in the beginning years of the firm. earlier in 1906, these are the plans for the university of maine done by the olmsted brothers. and just to give an indication of their work, earlier in 1906 john c homestead teamed up with architect charles c blackwell to design a formal and symmetrical plan at the university of illinois. which remains a very important
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part of the university of illinois campus. when reviewing the experiences of the olmsted of the planning of the universities in the late 19 in early 20 century, some teams are currently many hard-working landscape architects today they were always out there pitching their firm to do work. were also reminded by the power that can be welded by a strong will president trustee or administrator, the town got relationships were and remain important. we see how building architects and landscape architects can bring conflicting incompatible visions. we see how some building architects undervalue the skills of landscape architects while inflating their own. there is idealism and inequity.
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we also reminded about how a strong vision such as idaho's administrative ohio state florida's plaza the america alabama a& norma hill can create an identity or a place that is remembered and celebrated through time. it is also amusing to learn about the universities that rejected the olmsted plan only to report now that it was designed by frederick law olmsted which happens a lot a few cases. this is charles elliott the senior. charles elliott was probably the individual who made harvard university the great university who is today and of course the
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father of charles elliott the landscape architect who worked with the homesteads. i will return to senior elliott in a minute. what makes the land-grant work different than other campuses. first frederick law olmsted had a deep interest in agriculture and as a result he was drawn to the basic land-grant mission. second along these lines their goals were appealing. in this regard, he disagreed with his friend in harbor president john w -- charles w elliott. as i mentioned in laurie did as well his son was his partner and
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the senior elliott and the senior olmsted disagreed about how the land-grant university should be established. according to him elliott expressed this view in the nation in land-grant money should be used to found chairs already established institutions. something i could certainly densify with. olmsted disagreed with elliott and elliott's antagonism to land-grant concepts had been documented by several including hawken. the third traditional elite universities did not have shipping yards they did not have areas for livestock and cornell would be an exception because it's a hybrid. at the time of the enactment of the moral act. if you offered courses in engineering, home economics or veterinary medicine.
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these subjects presented additional design elements from the universities that were rounded in religion and humanities and eventually science. finally and thanks to some degree from taking the indian land the indigenous land the land grants were better funded than a private counterparts, for instance in the introduction to john olmsted's ohio state article the editor noted the university superior education facilities although the land-grant continued to reap benefits from indigenous land grabs, sadly the state and federal commitment to funding high-quality public education for all has waned in recent years. in a broader sense the senior
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olmsted laid out principles for campus planning and his writing that have had a profound and lasting influence. he aggregated the liens and grounds become the essential part of the students education. olmsted understood that it campus landscape can see memories and values that last a lifetime, thank you.university k law olmsted late 19th century master plan. >> we are going to zoom in and look at a few campuses in particular. our next speaker is kathy the fellow of the american society of landscape architecture

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