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tv   Lectures in History Anti- Semitism Between WWI WWII  CSPAN  November 28, 2021 8:02am-9:07am EST

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anti-semitism in america between wwi & ww ii. >> welcome everyone it's good to see everybody and we are going to start today's topic in anti-semitism in america between wwi & ww ii. in the last time that we discussed anti-semitism, we focused on the years between the
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civil war and the end of the 19th century which you will remember was it. the historians called emergence of a full fledged anti-semitism society so just for a second to refresh your memory, one of the events in the emergence of that anti-semitism society was the exclusion of jews from hotels in public accommodation it. and being excluded from the grand union hotel and in saratoga's and in 1877, and remember that we also look at the slides like this one where we see in this image which is from a magazine and its caption is the dream of the jews realize and you will see that we talked about how the sign of john
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smith, and this was back in 1920, was being taken down and it's a little hard to see at the top but is said that is being replaced and if you look at carefully around the other images in the slide, you will see what is the name of the newspaper and this is from new york and is now called the jewish harold and we also discussed how these kinds of images showed us that the christian anti- jewish motif that was a probably in american society continues to play out in american life and here in 1896, you can see the jews and you know they are jews in their faces are stereotypical and the features and they are this time crucifying, not jesus but uncle sam. this background is essential for
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us to understand this class because we need to know that in order to understand what happened during the high tide of american anti-semitism. one man perhaps more than any other figure in the market history played a role in disseminating anti-semitism in the years between wwi & ww ii and his name i mentioned most of you have heard of him, was henry ford. but the before he turned to henry ford's role we need to spend a few minutes on leo frank. the trial of leo frank for the murder of mary was one of the great trials at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, in which anti-semitism played a prominent role. let me tell you little bit about trauma happen, on confederate
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memorial day, 1913, 13 -year-old mary went to the factory where she worked to pick up her pay from the factory superintendent leo frank. and leo frank was born in texas but he was raised in brooklyn and that made him a northerner in this would be significant in understanding what happens in this trial. he went to college at cornell and he moved south to become part owner and manager of the national pencil factory, a business that his uncle owned and there he also marries lucille, the daughter of the wealthy and established family around 3:00 a.m., on sunday april 27th, 1913, the night watchman at the factory had gone
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down to the basement to use the toilet that was only the toilets for african-americans in the jim crow south. and he found mary phagan's mute debate and mutilated body and suspicions initially fell on newt but almost immediately then it turned to leo frank. leo frank then and forever afterwards retained his innocence but newspapers began inflaming the public over the murder. the trial was an absolute circus, executors used was out for blood any accused leo frank of sexual will listing the factory girls and when leo frank was convicted, his conviction was based on the testimony of an african-american ex-convict,
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named jim connolly hood given multiple affidavits in the case with conflicting evidence we must understand that in the south, only a jew could be convicted based on the testimony of an african-american man. after the trial, georgia newspaperman said it is the jury the case had brought in a verdict of not guilty, the defendants would've been lynched, sentenced to hanging. anti- judaism figured out prominently the trauma actually found a letter that leo frank's mother wrote to the washington post. in it, i'm going to quit her words, insult noon human nose and the slander directed not only at her son during the trial
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but also at the religion. she like in the case and this is so important for us to understand, why this perspective, she likens the case to another fairly recent international anti-semitism crisis to drive this affairs i don't know how many of you studied his other classes. in 1894, alfred dreyfus who we see here, a jewish captain in the french army was wrongfully convicted of giving military secrets to the germans. he was sentenced to not only life imprisonment but he was sent to devils island, not enough of the coast of south america where he was in solitary climate and actually changed beds at night.
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meanwhile, evidence began surfacing that the espionage was still going on and so the inference the began to argue and the arguments spilled over so much that the french writer published on the front page of a major newspaper, a letter accusing the government and the army of having conspired alfred dreyfus and which is true because the manufactured evidence against him in the name in the military officers, and he said they had diverted the troops to preserve the honor of the army and other military and that the government and he called for justice for alford dreyfus and those letters spark a trial because it's that evidence that he said was false
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then he could be sued. it ultimately led into exonerating alfred dreyfus and reinstating him in the army and we see here, his court-martial. and leo frank's mother alluded to this in her letter. she was writing of this rig trial that had sentenced her son to hang and she cried out for an american - to expose the lie that had convicted her son. another international trial also in 1911, russian empire, a a jew named - he was a russian labor was charged with ritual murder and some of you studied the ritual murder accusation before.
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it is made able - the said that the jews murder christian children to use the blood through religious in the first surface and the 12th century in england, and is spread to the continent and here is another example of that ritual murder accusation it. a bailiff refused to confess and instead he spent two years in jail that was ultimately a privilege by a jury of russian peasants for a crime that he had not committed. we need to understand that american jews looking at this trial and hearing that these cases meant a new moment, they were not isolated incident and in instances they were linking them together and seeing a frightening pattern.
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the jewish leaders in the u.s., leo frank conviction proves that anti-semitism threatens all jews. after the trial ended in while leo frank's lawyers while appealing the conviction, the african-americans lawyer on us testimony that leo frank was convicted, his lawyer became increasingly convinced that his clients connolly had been lying and that leo frank was innocent and so now, the debates began raging in georgia about whether or not the governor should commute leo frank sentence from death - to life in prison meant. and doubting having doubts about leo frank's conviction, on june 21st, 1915, on the eve of when leo frank would've been
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executed, because all of his appeals have been exhausted, the governor of georgia, john clayton commuted leo frank sentenced to life in prison and i want you to look at these words. because this is what he said, 2000 years ago, another governor washed his hands and turned to jew over to a mob. for 2000 years, the governor's name has been a curse. if today another jew were lying in his grave because i have failed to do my duty, i would find his blood in my hands and would consider myself an assassin through cowardice notice and do you know who he was referring to which trial. jesus, pontius pilate and the governor of jerusalem and the child jesus the led to his crucifixion.
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this is an incredible incredible statement and we say the sentence, the two months after john slayton commuted the sentence, a mob of 25 leading citizens in georgia including by the way the source of the general who is supposed to protect the law, without firing a shot went to the prison where leo frank was being held and pulled him out and lynched him and i decided actually i decided not to show you a photo of the lynching, because there are photos that show men and boys staring at the camera with glee and watching leo frank's body swinging from the tree behind them and their many different photos that were taken and since they were soulless postcards, feeling online, you can easily find them.
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what was the response to the trial and the lynching, in 1913, when leo frank was first accused, is actually talked about, founded in the 1840s, the covenants, they created an organization called the anti-defamation league and you know from the religion under discussing his legacy organizations in class, you know the anti-defamation league still exist today and it fights anti-semitism but also fights all forms of hatred and bigotry. but another response was that they estimate that half of the 10000 jews living in georgia fled the state after leo frank trial and lynching and i think you can understand why.
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it had become dangerous to be identified as a jew in georgia and by the way, as for the man, but lynched leo frank, the called the knights of the mary phagan, the little girl who was murdered and they would evolve into the second clue clocks clan and in the 1920s, they would target only african-americans but also the catholics and the jews. so there are important underlining issues, i said that leo frank was seen as an outsider, he was a northerner so the public response to the trial really shows that under this tension between the changes going underway in south that southerners thought the northerners had bought especially the evils associated with industrialization and urbanization it.
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which were alluring for southerners to the cities where there were harsh conditions in the factories, where the children it like mary phagan, four for 10 cents an hour, ten hours a day. and they were reading these urban evils on the slums and crime and certainly these conditions also influenced the verdict in the case. but i want to bring it up closer to the modern because calls for justice to leo frank would continue to ring out over the years. in 1982, 82 -year-old - who had been an office boy at the pencil factory came forward with an affidavit and testing to new evidence in the case that would exonerate leo frank. now he had seen and he'd seen
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jim connolly carrying the body of a girl and about the time that mary phagan was murdered and connolly threatened him saying that if you ever mention this, i will kill you. he was just a teenager, did about 13 years old and he went and told his mother and she told him not to tell anyone. although some questions of the truth of his affidavit, george reported the pardons issued a pardon for leo frank, based on this new evidence but on the fact that the state of georgia had failed to guarantee leo frank's constitutional rights and ensuring his safety in prison. so people still debate whether leo frank was innocent or guilty on still to this day on the one
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hundreds anniversary of this case, back in 2013, media was all over the story and once again and at violet, a rabbi fell the service marking the event. not only did the jews come with the grandchildren and great-grandchildren of those who had lynched leo frank came to the service. so questions about the leo frank affair, questions about the trial. >> did you mention it, no one else in the south unable to be convicted based on the testimony of an enactment of african-american man, because that makes jews above or below to the african-americans in the south on the social pyramid. >> that's a great question because we need to talk about jews and racial and the
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incredible book, the price of likeness, shows how the jews in south but also the jews in general in this particular time, not seen as white and not seen as african-american, nonblack but they are seen ritually as others and that is why was making a point. first of all this is a narrow board african-american men were lynched and would be continued to be lynched into the 1960s and these men were lynched by the leading citizens of the towns in the getaway with the white man literally got away with murder. they could do that because as whites they were able to take advantage of the racial difference and of course the case the blows that open, was
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the murder of anna - and how his mother so brilliantly by keeping that coffin open and showing it with these two men had done, that she blew open the civil rights movement and of course what's amazing, another case where the two men who murdered him, they were found innocent by a jury of their peers within a few months later told her story to a magazine it and they confessed that actually done it. in the jews that is in between state in the south, really nice. >> from texas and then went to new york in the georgia. with the situation been different if he had never gone to new york just from texas to georgia and we sing like a southern jew.
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>> and therefore not an northern or an outsider not really different because he went to college, maybe, if he would have stayed in the south, this is also about the legacy of the tension between the north and the south after the civil war. it was part of the same process so anti-semitism is part of the store but it's not the only part of the story and it vena phobia we will do this in a minute, it was really rising around americans. how about if i move on to the next example. as leo frank's case okay i didn't tell you this, but as leo frank's case was appealed making headlines around the world, two
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men subsequently known for their anti-semitism called for a new trial for leo frank, one was the inventor and the other was henry ford so henry ford is responsible for publishing in the united states and then also around the world, the most intellectual anti- somatic track in all of history. how many of you have heard of this protocol. we will talk about them in a little bit, the protocols first appeared in a russian newspaper in 19 oh three, and they are clearly a fabrication it actually based on a novel that was written, a political satire about the holy in the third from france and actually translation of a french tech but the messagf of the protocol is
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straightforward and absolutely terrifying. they targeted the rise of liberalism had pried provided the jews with the tools to cement the revolutions to destroying the world's order and historic power like the nobility of the church and at the jews were about to take control of the world. here you can see a tiny tiny quote from this protocol number one, in all parts of the world, the word entered world liberty and quality and referring to the french revolution brought whole legions into our ranks. the protocols are being spoken by the elders of the jewish community and these words would ruin the prosperity of the glory sent the world for gentile has run the prosperity's ever everywhere and destroying peace and quiet and solidarity,
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undermining all the foundations of their states and if you would read in these more deeply, you would see that the protocols are century old anti- jewish stereotypes and charges about the jews controlling money and controlling exercising power behind the scenes and they controlled the media, and they control that the government's around the world. and now that the jews are succeeding in their aims, soon those are going to take over the world and control it for all times. since our focus today is on the war, i'm not going to talk about how the protocols circulate around the world today, i will just show you one example. in march of this year, not even a half a year ago or so, the u.s. capitol police officer was suspended after copy of the protocols was found near his work place so the question is
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why are they so popular, they are so popular because if you read them, you are not reading an account of a plot to destroy the world. your hearing the first person testimony of the leaders of them so you're like dropping right in on the plot to control the world so it is evidence of the plot. so our first question is how they come to american and get disseminated into america, white russians in the revolution it convinced there was a judeo conspiracy to overthrow and took this with him and then publish them wherever they went. they got published and translated and reprinted in london and paris and warsaw and in tokyo, the german version is assured you and the other side,
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was printed 32 times before hitler came to power and they were brought to the u.s., by a white russian immigrant so the question is then how does henry ford get involved with his. in his book, henry ford and the jews, baldwin thinks that anti-semitism was influenced and remember we talked about the mcguffey readers the other day and we talked about their christian lessons and so henry ford's anti-semitism was really a first traditional anti- judaism coming out of christianity. but during world war i his anti-semitism became increasingly manifested and henry ford blamed the jews what was then called the great war, it would not be called world war i until we had world war ii so henry ford it was at one point
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ran for president, was man of the year in time magazine was the most famous american of his generation. henry ford, in 1919, he went and bought a newspaper independence, it was a weekly. and then when he saw what was hemorrhaging money he told us that his horse to find and able to attack, go after it and stick with it. so the result was the series, the international jew, the world's problems, was on may 22nd, then he 20, ran for the next 91 issues of the newspaper. you have to understand that henry ford had enormous influence and reach an first of all, there was ford motor dealerships around the country,
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and a shipped stacks of newspapers to the dealership, he would into a dealership in about a car and you drove out of the car and you drove out with a copy of the newspaper independence the series of the national jew and the circulation of the paper, which was only 72000, in 1919 when he bought that, five years later was 700,000, one of the largest newspapers in the united states but the added tour wanted to make sure that their messages got to the nation's leaders. so they sent it to hundred bank presidents, 1100 rotary club presidents, 4200 women's clubs, 757 college presidents, and all members of congress. news of henry ford's anti-semitism also reached over and this is an amazing article only comes from the chicago tribune. i was in 1923, and if you can
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read this from afar, i can't actually highlight the part, it is at the very end, you can see that a chicago journalist and interviewed hitler this is really, 1923, that is very early in the nasi party and he praises henry ford and he explicitly admires his anti-jewish policy which is a platform. that was a quote from the newspaper article and by the way, hitler also paid tribute to henry ford in his manifesto and he called him a single great plan to the jews, to the fury full independence from the controlling masters of the producers in the nation of 1,120,000,000 people and so henry ford subsequently published the article from the
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newspaper and the protocols in for volumes that are translated into 16 different languages and because they never copyrighted the volumes, they continued to circulated probably you can still buy copies of them today. one historian has said those volumes probably did more than any other work to make the protocols famous and i just want to give you one more example of how the protocols circulated in the u.s. in the 1930s they were disseminated by an enormously popular radio preacher, father charles - any publish excerpts from them and in his radio addresses the land fast jewish and provided them with international thinkers and he said that the infamous nonstate program, the night of broken
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glass, when in november of 1938, the germans had his nationwide attack upon the jews in their homes and torched their synagogues. he said that was justified retaliation for the jewish persecution of christians. what was the jewish reaction and i will take a question. the jews virtually stopped buying ford cars. >> wasn't this conference anti-semitism also rooted in his anti- communism. >> that is an important question because these attacks and alluded to this when i talked about the ku klux klan in the 20s as well as these groups were not only attacking jews, catholics and communist and they also attacked african-american so like the white russians essentially saw that the jews
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were judeo, the highbred and that was a good question. other questions or comments. >> what was in the international in the world problems in the articles or stories, what was in actually saying predict. >> is a series of articles financially when they were published be called the international juice for most problems in case they hadn't got the message across and then it, for the writers, very much like the protocols saying that the world has become corrupted by liberal values so they added certain things and blamed the jews for them for example they attack jazz and was corrupting it and they blamed the jews for jazz so they are coded the themes of jewish world
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conspiracy, she was anti-jewish banking and echoed those traditional things and anything that is modern, that is changing also them and ignoring them, they were in newspaper articles essentially and exposes. >> and use of a newspaper the interview with hitler, the title named after heinrich ford or was it a relating him more to a german audience and german anti-semitism. >> my assumption is that the reporter is the reporter has interviewed adolph hitler is a my assumption is that he must've interviewed him hard in german or an interpreter and hitler would've called for heinrich because heinrich is henry and
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german by the way just to kind of give you the timeline of this, that was march of 1923 november 1923, hitler staged the push and try to overthrow the german government and went to jail. he not achieve the kind of level of attention that he will of achieved after this holocaust. >> i know this throughout his sort of ringing of hitler praised henry ford, do we know like the response that henry ford had throughout the years. >> that is a really good question and run off the top of my head i don't but i do know that before the war broke out, they began building ford cars and motor trucks in germany so clearly henry ford had directed
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to hitler but he had a business relationship with germans who would've had to have been approved by the in order to establish the plants on when american soldiers in germany, and europe during the war, they were like stunned that there german m&a and enemies are driving ford trucks and cars. that's a very good question, others. so let me go forward. even if henry ford was publishing the international jew and the protocols, the federal government was also enacting legislation that reflected anti-semitism tendencies and we talked about this last class but i want to install it here because it is part of this discussion. we talked about the emergency quota act of 1921, and the
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national origins act of 1924, healthy tapped into a long process dating back to the 1890s, seeking to restrict the integration of people that the genesis were doing it as racist to reportedly posted great danger to the annex in america who are descended from people who came from the british child and from the northern and western europe and according to madison grant, whose 1916, book of the passing of the great race was one of the most influential moments of this view and nordic, people northern europe were reportedly biologically superior to people who came from southern and eastern europe. so this integration was what we talked about in last class which was caught by the way from 1965, a preference to immigrants
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coming from northern europe over those coming from southern europe, italians and from eastern europe like many jews. so establishing cordis for the number of people who would come into america from these different places, into american federal law, the notion of the hierarchy of the races in advance since the middle of the 19th century. let me be clear, there was never a quota in the of jews admitted it, the reduction in was on the countries in eastern europe, the number of the locomotives were from places like poland and russia which is where a lot of jews lived in the results you can see it in these figures, you can see that when the jews start coming in significant numbers in 1881, after the first wave of the russian - and you can see
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the numbers swell and look at the numbers from 1906, 1914, they declined it during the war and they had right back up after the war and the reconstruction it in 1921, and then the cost of 1920, and in 1921 which impacts 1922 and then the quota of the just 10000 coming in 1924. but it's important to understand the quota system, in the 1930s, the impact the german jews because the state department was instructed his councils in germany, the people that issue the visa to come to the united states, the instructed them to put as many obstacles as i could in the way of jews who were applying for visas and you see here, that the were increasingly persecuting
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the german jews between 1934, in 1937, an average of 18000 pieces a year to america they were allocated for the germans because they had a higher quota and not being fulfilled because the people, or jews. so the quotas were not only happening in several legislations some of the quotas against the jews also established in colleges and universities. the problem arose in columbia where the students were singing the songs of harvard run by millionaires and cornell as run by former sons and columbia is run by jews to give a cheer for baxter street another one for - and sheeny the native were produced, the soul will go to so columbia is deemed acknowledged
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what became the problem on the lower east side and where they were coming from their and from columbia. he said the school had become, socially uninviting students from homes respondents as of the school over the next five or six years, cut the percentage of jewish students admitted in half but the sons of the elites had not returned to columbia. so it was a lesson for the president of harvard, you can see this headline the papers the new york times, limited colleges might help the jews so he decided that they should institute a quota on the number of jews as a way to mitigate anti-semitism so limiting the number of juices going to make it easier to alleviate
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anti-semitism. in the international comparison of before the court is on the jews educational opportunities, existed in russia, established in 1982, limiting the jews depending on the level of schools to worthen five - 10 percent of the students and they existed poland and hungary. so the idea of the quotas on the number of jews admitted, spread to most of these other schools and also to the groups of the women's colleges called the seven sisters and they set the pattern for emissions and another 700 private colleges. i've always been told that american universities was not one of the schools that adopted the quotas. but the discrimination was not only that but of the graduate education but also about professional education.
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some of this quote because it is so powerful that the dean of the medical school could say never admit more than five jews and take only two italian catholics had take no lax at all. in the days of the american landscape, it was not only about quotas and education, but the jews could not get hired not in manufacturing, they cannot get hired in many corporate law firms they could not get hired in a private hospital in some area like the state department, you would not have found any jews working. help wanted ads, i don't know if you remember what they were, but they ran the newspaper, help wanted male or female you are allowed to do that, and they can also advertise christians only, they can say, in other words no
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juice may enter need apply. so head of the jews respond. the historian person found this list of distinctive jewish names in the archives and she began researching petitions to the courts of new york to change peoples names in other words make legal change to one's name. she discovered that they disproportionately came from jews. there's a myth that people's names changed but because it ships manifest in front of them and they knew what people's names were when they went to the island names were changed in the 20s and in the 30s all the way down into the 60s and beyond the jews change their name as part of the family
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strategy because either the kids could not get into college are they could not get jobs with the jewish names. >> so the university assuming that the students were jewish simply by the name, that didn't have the report there. >> what happened as they started to change the admission form and run 1900, or so, how did you get into college, he took an exam and if you well enough on the exam, but admitted to college and then they started to use the kinds of psychological tests and personality tests and personal interviews that are much more characteristic of subsequent subsequent of college admissions. so as not just the essays that you had a right to get into here but they began to ask questions of what was your father's name and your mother's name it and mother's maiden name and where the names that were changed and
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what is your religion and so it would become quickly clear who was jewish and who might've had jewish ancestry in the background. and they would also do personal interview and a number, i remember reading an article that somebody wrote 50 years after she graduated from her seven sisters school. she said she'd never learned about anti-semitism until she got to college within she remembered on her interview at one of the women's colleges, the interviewer turned her first question was, where do you go to church. and they already knew that she would not be admitted and not get into that school that's a good question. >> i hear you keep saying this is the jewish response, was
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there a group who planned these responses are reviewed individuals that happened to do the same thing. >> we talked about the legacy organization and there is no organization that calls for a boycott and after world war ii, by the way there was an unofficial boycott by the jews of germany like people who were jewish would not buy a mercedes and volkswagens, they would never officially launch but officially that was welled up from the ground and the same thing in the name changing. obviously people knew people who were changing their names and they saw that sometimes it could be split within a family but so often it was actually everyone in the family, the parents would apply and change the children's name. so becomes like a personal strategy but there are also during this time, organizational strategies and one of the important organizations we talk about the american jewish committee, has actually
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researched their file anti-semitism in education in the 20s and the 30s, and collecting and getting letters from people who were saying my daughter got rejected or my daughter about a letter that she applied to the secretarial school catherine gates school, young women who went to college in the 20s and 30s and 40s and 50s and their 60s, he wanted to get a job, you needed to know how to do shorthand and typing there's a reason i learned how to type and i was in the eighth grade. and you go to college and then you go to this kind of finishing secretarial school that will teach you the skills that you needed and they said we do not take jews. and they would like to jewish organization and the organization wrote back that they are a private school and there's nothing that we can do about it but we know how many jewish young men and women have been harmed by this. good question, others.
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>> earlier you were talking about how the missions i would ask you your mother's maiden name and your dad's name and they've changed it and if you were practicing safe christian or you are atheist we had some other heritage, how would that impact the college emission. >> that would've been more of the situation and nothing germany but if neither of your parents were identified as jews, then it probably would not have impacted you in the same way. so i'm going to turn to the last big topic for today. it is significant that this lecture coincides with the opening of the trial in charlottesville, virginia, did you your from the post today, did you see it in the news. there's a civil trial that is beginning today and will probably go on for about a month braided is in charlottesville, the plaintiff from the trial and
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the tesla trial contends that the events of august 17, 2017, i'm sorry, august 11th and 12 as opposed to the dates wrong. the white nationalist and neo- not the groups were chanting that the jews will not replace us and they were meant to ignite the violence that culminated in the death of one woman in the injury sustained by the plaintiffs in this trial. so there is a lot from 1871, called the clue clocks clan act and it makes it illegal to promote violence and so the defendants in the trial for the heads of all of the white nationalist groups that were marching there were citizens in the trial say what they were doing was protected speech and passed by the first amendment
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but it does not protect speech that is meant to incite violence and we will see what happens of the course of the next month and the trial but i bring this up because the violence that we saw in charlottesville and on the virginia campus in august of 2017, was in our time. for today, so the first thing that i want to say is that in september 1928, the blood rival that they faced in russia, made its way to the united states. they came to new york, anytown were by the way the ku klux klan burn crosses on the lawns and where is nikki kind of anti-semitism, not the open kind that you seen this much more common and a little girl be sent by her parents and an afternoon in a center into the woods to
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find a brother who had been playing with his friends. so not long after her brother comes walking out the little girl never returns. so through the night, townsmen combed the woods looking for the little girl and then when they have not found her, someone we don't know who, but someone says, you know the jews are having a holiday and maybe they need blood. and at sundown on sunday evening, the next day would begin the holiest day of the jewish calendar, the day of atonement. and sometime sunday afternoon, the little girl was spotted on the roadway not far from her house and she had looked for her brother, fallen asleep, slept through the night, woke up but she was so lost and it her a
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while to find her way out. so she was unharmed pretty but that sunday evening, the jews made their way to the synagogue and angry mobs outside of the synagogue. they were yelling, and anti-jewish word and they actually accused the jews of having been scared to give up the child. and it ended without violence but the damage had been done and the rival had left its imprint on american soil and then in the 1930s, hateful rhetoric, violence and actual violence really burst forth. remember what is going on, the onset of the great depression, the lives of fascism, the lives of the him in the tensions in the united states.
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so we see that in the u.s., the right wing and not the groups exploded like the german american they broke - all over the united states. in one town in connecticut, a minister actually on a charge, he was successful, they did not succeed in filling this camp. they were attacking the new deal, they call the jew deal, they claimed it that a country had become the jew united states and they spoke openly about how to permanently solve the jewish problems in america. the leader of one of these groups, encryption organization that hated the jews and communists and get back to your point about the hatred for both groups, he said that the jews
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were a brace and to his point about the racial otherness of the jews were race divided by the forces of darkness and evil. he calls for confining the jews to one city and every state in the union and if they dared to believe that city, they could be subjected to execution. only in this way did he think that the jewish threats, the threat of the protocol, could be averted. but such groups planned to do more than just isolate the jews. the father's christian brought another one of these organizations, ticket to jewish owned stores in a went to the synagogues in a tactic jews on city streets in boston and in new york. by one estimate, in 1941, there were 48 anti-semitism groups
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just in los angeles, somewhere national but there were 48 ones and los angeles rode and the book in hollywood, stephen rock shows what these groups were plotting the 1930s. they plotted to connect 25 prominent hollywood jews and hang them. and he hoped it would spark a program against the jews. they plan to shoot poison gas into the homes and synagogues in the jewish neighborhoods and they were quite well defined in los angeles printed a plan to firebomb jewish houses in the conspirators only got cold feet because an this was a jewish organizational response to the leaders of the anti- defamation league in los angeles and actually hired spies to infiltrate these networks and when the conspirators realize
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the networks had been infiltrated, they got cold feet and the never went through with the plots but they were there in part because bo said. salome concluded then we will take final questions. in 2020, the peer research center reported the astonishing figure of 84 percent of american adults, able to identify the holocaust, and knowing referring to the persecution of jews by the but were not focusing on this class and the holocaust yes, when americans talk about anti-semitism they talk about it that led to the holocaust and the talk about what they think was only an old world problem, not a new world problem. this lecture about anti-semitism in america between wwi & ww ii,
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as i hope proven and anti-semitism is an american story, one that is all too rarely recognized and told in the story of our past, and as know, all too well today, the trial, the very moment that we are talking is a story of our present. final questions or thoughts or anything. >> i am curious what is the legacy of the portuguese jews that we talk about, the different naming said i don't know if the name change and the changes would've similar printed one category. >> is such a great question, earlier remember that we had talking about who work portuguese and juice other names with a man quite different in
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that list of names identifiable to the jewish names that i showed you. by this point, the ashkenazi of the jews come from eastern europe from germany but they were so overwhelmed the portuguese jews and also coming in from europe that we don't see them as major players either in this issue or in the national jews organizations that are respondent and i'm not saying that there weren't any but they didn't seem to figure it in the same way at this time and this is such an interesting question. something that i actually need to look more into that's a good idea. >> my impression it is it's a small minority party and how much overreach did they have like say like coughlin or probably not but like charles
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koplin braided. >> so he actually ran as a president of the united states pretty ... necessarily been anti-semitic but it drew them from people who fought in world war i, people of german descent. they had burned houses where you could go and they function as a beer hall and you could hear certain speeches. the other thing we see is they are getting funds and material
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from nazi germany. there are a number of reason to focus on la but coming into the ports, the harbor in la and also into new york. >> talking about how often they see anti-semitism as an isolated incident in germany because the holocaust. what i learned from the -- anti-semitism existed around the world before. this was embedded into public school, is there a push for that, anything going on with jim crow or in the united states today. i driven organization is pushing for that? >> no one is pushing to expand information about anti-semitism in the public school system. as you know and this happened to many of you when you were in
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school, 19 states in the united states mandate holocaust education. everything from reading the diary of answering to what individual teachers lesson plan is but no one is talking about expanding education about anti-semitism but i do think i like your comment about jim crow because it is something i think should be taught alongside the racism that we see in jim crow and it is part of the same ideology, they are so deeply enmeshed and intertwined. good question. any others? >> i will see you on thursday, thanks. >> thank you. his
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elevation to the presidency. >> watch this program and thousands more online, c-span.org/history. >> welcome to the washington times for this special episode of history as it happened podcast, for people who want to think about current events historically, it is available where you get your podcasts, at historyasit happens.com. we are joined by james james grossman of the historical society. excited to have you here for an important discussion about divisive concepts, the past, how it is study, whose version of events games ascendancy. ys

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