Skip to main content

tv   The Civil War Cavalry at Gettysburg  CSPAN  November 22, 2021 6:00pm-6:49pm EST

6:00 pm
online store. browse through the latest collection of c-span products, apparel, books, home decor and accessories. there are something for every c-span span and every purchase helps support our nonprofit operation. shop now or any time at c-spanshop.org. >> i'm sponsors this speaker talk today and our first presenter is dr. bradley gotfried. he earned his hpd in zoology in 1976 and went on to have a very successful 40 year career as a higher education professor and administrator. he retired in 2017 as the president of the college of southern maryland. he now spends much of his time writing about the civil war as the gettysburg licensed town guide as an antietam certified
6:01 pm
guide. most recently he has released the book "the mass of the cavalry, in the gettysburg campaign." he has written 14 books on the civil war. many are map studies, of campaigns of the eastern theater of the civil war. three books will be released this year, including one later this month ep lytled liefrpg comes to life. he is married and has four children and six grandchildren. today he is going to be speaking to you about the role of the cavalry in the gettysburg campaign. and i now introduce you to dr. gottlieb. [ applause ] >> well thanks for coming. this could take me three hours to go through it. so i am going to go very quickly because most people when you think about gettysburg, you think about the battle of
6:02 pm
gettysburg, you don't think about the campaign as much. and we're going to talk about the entire campaign not the infantry, i love the infantry, but this is going to be the role of cavalry. i written as tammy mentioned a number of books on the civil war. these are some of the map studies. and i'm constantly criticized about this one. i love this book. i love them all. they're all like my children. there is not a lot of cavalry in there. couldn't put them in. copt fit. so came out with this one that just specializes on the cavalry in the gettysburg campaign. what i'm going to do today, i only have about 40, 45 minutes, i'm going fast, is going to talk about the mull well roles that the cavalry played during the campaign of gettysburg. and i think you're going to appreciate these guys much more than you currently do.
6:03 pm
these guys are constantly in the saddle, at least the infantly got to rest, these guys are constantly doing a variety of activities. so let's jump right into it. you know these two gentleman. two major generals, al ford pleasanton commands the cavalry core and jeb stuart his counterpart. they both have been in command of their army's cavalry for over a year. so their chaernsed. they know potentially how to rup a cavalry arm. the organization of the two wings, the two armies cavalries is very, very different. you could see on the union side, it is much more sophisticated. you have a core structure, you have divisions, sometimes there is three, sometimes two, and then back to threes. we'll see nine brigades.
6:04 pm
16,000 guys, troopers. compare that with jeb stewart who still only has a division and later on they're going to subdivide, he's going to have a core and several divisions but at gettysburg and during this campaign, six brigades and about almost 13,000. so he's outnumbered but what else is new. lots of issues on both sides. there is horses and horses are always a problem. there is never enough of them. and when you have them, oftentimes they're just worn out from over use. there is not enough food for them. oftentimes they are sick and how did the confederates supply their horses? were they given to them? no. they had to supply their own horse and if your horse was killed in battle or sick, guess what? you're walking. whereas on the union side they were provided to you. the troopers, their exhausted as we're going to see.
6:05 pm
now, i want to talk about four phases. don't blink because we're going to go fast. one is general joseph hooker, commander of the army of the potomac needs to know where lee is. he needs more information. who is going to provide this information? it needs to be pleasanton and his cavalry. so we're going to see the battle of randy station and the fight for the blue ridge mountain gaps which is fascinating that a lot of people don't know about that was really very, very interesting. after the middle part of the month, then it becomes getting to the battlefield, screening the armies, a raid as we're going to see, where is stewart. the third phase obviously is the battle of gettysburg. we're going to talk quickly about five different actions here. want you to think what are those five. don't tell me but see if you could figure out what those five were. most people are only going to
6:06 pm
come up with four. and the retreat. okay. and the retreat is fascinating. how does lee get those wagons back to virginia and how does the union army try to prevent the wagons from getting to virginia. so those are the things that we're going to talk about today. okay. here we go. now hopefully, could you all see the map? way back there. okay. i'm going to try to use my pointer, too. the army as you know we're talking about after chancellorsville, they're on either side of the rappahannock river and the beginning of june 1863. and pleasanton has been tasked by booker to determine where lee is moving. okay. and what is happening. now, their worried about stewart, jeb stewart is right here around brandy station. there is going to be a
6:07 pm
recognition to find out where the heck is stewart because they're afraid he will launch another raid that will be embarrassing to the army and to liefrpg and let's see if we can't break up this potential raid. and this recognizance finds that stewart is right here at culpeper courthouse. and so very interesting, hooker going to say to pleasanton, this is what i want you to do and here is how you're going to do it. usually like when it came to stewart, lee would never tell stewart exactly what you're going to do. he's going to tell him exactly the strategy and the tactics that he's going to use at brandy station. he didn't trust him basically. and so this is the prelude. and what is happening, i'm going through this quickly. so on june 9th it is a pincher action. here are the three divisions. john buford, david greg and alfred duffy and they're going to cross at different fords,
6:08 pm
beverly ford, kelly ford, where is stewart supposedly, culpeper courthouse, he's not. he'ser to brandy station. he's stretched ought all over. why there is not enough porridge so he's spreading his troops around. but they think that there is -- that they're going to march this way, this way and they are going to entrap stewart between these two wings. does that make sense. well it is quite a surprise in the morning of the 9th, when grimes davis's brigade splashes across at beverly ford and finds out that he's up against part of the six virginia, but pushing them back. look at this. look at beckham, we have 15 cannons, confederate cannons in between a picket line and the rest of grumble jones' brigade. that is not where you put artillery. but he didn't expect to be
6:09 pm
attacked. anyway, the fighting is going to be around the saint james church as you could see right over here. there is going to be a attack and counter attack. as grumble jones is going to stabilize his line. and then what is going to happen is a second front is going to open up. and by the way, it is john buford that is involved in all of this early action. a second front around u-ridge as you could see. so there is fighting on two fronts eventually. but here is the interesting story and this is the missed opportunity, here comes buford, he is engaging with stewart's brigade, those that are up. here comes a kelly ford, and the other two divisions, cavalry divisions, pleasanton is going to tell david greg, get your division up to brandy station as
6:10 pm
quickly as possible. look where he's coming. where is he? if he's fast and fortunate, where is he going to be? on stewart's flank and rear, right. holy cow. well it doesn't work out this way. because stewart is going to respond very quickly. grumble jones is not very well respected by stewart. there is a personality issue there. but grumble jones is going to save his bacon because here he is, he's going to pull his men out of line and they're going up to fleetwood hill where the fighting is going to occur. more and more confederate troops are going to come, wade hampton is bringing his brigade and what would have been a wonderful opportunity was a lost opportunity as david greg's man are defeated on fleetwood hill. so what might have been a very good opportunity to -- well maybe not to destroy stewart,
6:11 pm
but certainly to hamper him in the future campaign. that is showing a photograph of the hill, fleetwood hill and you could see an artists representation. by the end of the day, it is very clear they are not moving stewart. so pleasanton gets permission to retreat and he's going to retreat across -- oops, back across the river here, the rappahannock. what am i doing here. sorry about that. driving you crazy. it was a lost opportunity. it did really nothing except to tarnish stewart's reputation. he was able to consolidate his men and push back the union attackers. but he got a lot of grief from the newspapers for being unprepared.
6:12 pm
okay, so that is what is happening there. let's keep going because i'm running out of time. where is lee going to be using, where is he marching north, along what route when he leaves the area around fredericksburg. he's going through the blue ridge mountains, right? and there is increasing reports on the part of hooker's scouts and et cetera that that is what is happening. but pleasanton needs to go out and provide more information to hooker as to where lee is. and the best way to -- the best way to do it is by going through these gaps. you can see there is a gap at nickersville, which is right here. now i'm not doing that. that is doing it on its own.
6:13 pm
i'm just trying to use the pointer. snickersville, which is right here. and ash by is right here. and what is going to happen is that for the next several days, there is going to be constant combat as pleasanton is trying to get through to these gaps to see where is lee's army. and what is stewart doing? he's trying to block them from getting past him so it is going to be a very interesting situation here. you could see what hooker said, it is better we lose men wut knowledge of the rebel army. and so what we're going to see is a variety of fights and it is prettyin tense and if you watch a cavalry fight, it is gruesome in terms of the sabres and splashing and splitting open heads, et cetera. but between the 17th and 21st, that is what is happening. stewart trying to top pleasanton
6:14 pm
from getting past him to look into the shenandoah valley to see where lee is. and the first attack, the first fight is going to be at aldy. has anyone been to these battlefields. so you know, they're really interested and well preserved. it is the first one basically it is one brigade of rebels and one brigade of yanks, william mupford against kilpatrick and that is a stalemate but that means what? stewart has won. he has not allowed the yanks to get through that corridor. okay. on the the 19th is another fight. this is at middlesberg. and gep you're going to see some intense fighting. this is between greg irvin and joseph kilpatrick.
6:15 pm
this is greg's division against stewart's men. what is interesting in so many of these actions is there is no coordination. you have buford over here to the north, and you have to the, you have -- you have greg and they're not really -- in fact, the entire campaign pleasanton is going to have to trouble coordinating his various divisions. hooker is so intent on finding where lee is that he's going to send a full core, the fifth core over to gum springs to provide infantry support and they're going to get involved in it. but not only are they providing, not only is hooker providingin fanry support, look at what lee is doing. he takes long streets entire first core and stop them from marching north.
6:16 pm
this is too important and he's going to plug them in at the gaps. so if the yanks get through the stewart, they're not good going to be able to see what is going on there. upperville is the last place. this is the most intense, this is the most complex, a running fight that ultimately is going to lead to a lot of frustration on the the part of pleasanton because he's not able to get through. but this one is interesting. because you're going to have infantry involved in the fight. i don't know if you could see that. now there was infantry at the brandy station fight and in both cases pleasanton misused the infantry. did not use it to his full advantage. okay. so that is what is happening at this point. okay. upper jenkins, how many of you know. interesting guy. i live outside of chambersberg
6:17 pm
and he liked to visit chambersberg by the way. so he's coming down. he has two raids. by the way, albert jenkins, nobody wants to claim albert jenkins and his unit. they're considered to be mounted infantry. they have long rifles and they are not very ruly. they are kind of undisciplined. so he's going to first have a raid, as you could see, on the 15th. he's going to ride all day to chambersberg and imagine around midnight come thundering in to chambersberg is this long line about 2,000 rebels riding in and they're going to stay there collecting supplies, resting, et cetera, until the 17th when they decide they're going to go south again. now there is not a whole lot of time to rest because on the 19th a couple of days later he's going to be ordered to move north again but this time it is
6:18 pm
not a raid, he's going to be screening the march to harrisburg. so he's going to go slower, but you could see it is much more, much more extensive of a march through carlyle, through mechanicsberg and to the outskirts of harrisburg where there will be a fight between militia, coming from the pennsylvania, their new yorkers, at the sporting hill and and you're going to see some of the confederates from his brigade is going to be engaging in a skirmish. but still it is a fight. it is as close to harrisburg as lee is going to be getting. and then they're going to tart pulling back. okay. we have to talk about stewart and the raid, right. okay. now i'm probably going to get myself in trouble. because some people love
6:19 pm
stewart, i gave a presentation this week on a different topic, and i had some people in the audience that loved stewart and others that weren't so happy with him. and they made sure they were separated. i didn't want them to sit side-by-side. by, you know, stewart likes the show, he also understands that if he could have a raid, especially if it could go around the union flank and around, it is embarrassing. it is embarrassing to the north. it is going to be in all of the newspapers. he'll pick up supplies. it does make sense. the problem is the route he takes. lee finally gives him permission on june 22nd. when is the battle of gettysburg, july 1st. so it is not that far from it. and he said, listen, jeb, you have two routes, you pick the route. you can do a northern route, this way, through sharpsburg into frederick, or a southern
6:20 pm
route where you're going around the union army. but whatever you do, i want you to stay close to the flank. where is he going to be? up here or down here? he's going to be up here to the north. which route does stewart take? of course the southern route, the more difficult one. so he is going to be there marching south. this is simply a quote from an author from gettysburg magazine who blames lee for not being more explicit with stewart in telling him exactly where he need to go and what you need to do and when i want you back with the army. he gave him too much latitude. okay. also, remember how many brigades does he have? he has five at this point. and you think he would lead wade
6:21 pm
hampton behind who is a very effective brigade commander. no. he's going to leave the two brigades that are the leastective and the commanders who he does not like. and he takes the ones that he likes with him and he leaves grumble jones and beverly robertson behind. they're supposed to be helping lee and guarding some of the passes and helping lee. lee doesn't really use them. their very ineffective and it is almost like they're not even there. but the raid is going to occur on june 25th and the problem is the second corp is going to move and it is going to block his path. he didn't expect that. and so he's going to have to do a detour. he never expected to do this wide detour. and it is interesting because he needs to get back to lee. right. but what is he doing? he's spending time ripping up trucks and burning bridges and burning down railroad depots. he needs to be moving fast and
6:22 pm
he doesn't. he hears about rouser's ford which is just south of edwards ferry. it is very deep and it is very treacherous and but he's going to use it because it is not defended. the problem is by the time he gets across, it is so difficult on the horses they have to spend hours resting the hors losing more time. i would do this. if i see all of these wagons around rockville, guess what i'm going to do? i'm grabbing those wagons, right. and so he is going to rockville, to attack this wagon train, which is right over here. but he's captured about 400 soldiers. what he has to do with them. he can't drag them alone. he's going to parole them at brookeville and that will take hours. he continues north and look at this. sykesville and hoodsville. he breaks the units up. they are again going to destroy railroads rather than moving
6:23 pm
north. he continued finally north. he's going to westminster and what about cashet's charge. are you familiar with corbett's charge. they're two companies. we're talking about 95 guys under captain corbett from the first delaware attack stewart's column. talk about suicide. it was suicide. two-thirds of them are going to be killed or wounded including captain corbett. but it will stop them in their tracks. it will delay them. they can't afford to be delayed. well this is happening, pleasanton wants to expand his army. he's gone from three divisions and he now has two but he wants three. he want this is guy, julius stall's division. he's part of the washington and and he wants it. this is not a soldier. he rides around in a wagon. he should not be commanding
6:24 pm
troops in battle. and so finally he gets the go ahead to incorporate this division into his core and he is now back to three divisions and who does he elevate to command this division? not a friend of mine, justin gilpatrick who i consider to be very rash. and he's going to promote three of the captains that do very well later on. each of these is going to have a mission. each division. we know that buford is going to be going on the west. they're basically looking for stewart, they're screening the army and their moving but their separated. you could see that here comes buford along the base of south mountain. you could see that greg is moving over toward manchester and westminster.
6:25 pm
and kilpatrick is right in the middle, okay. and it is really kilpatrick that is tasked with finding stewart. well, here is stewart, okay. you're riding into han over, it is june 30th. you see the yankee rear guard that is moving through tanover. what do you do? you know you have to find lee. what do you do? do you let them go or attack? well he decides to attack. and kilpatrick is already with custer, he's way further north. he's going to return with more and more of his division and all day they're going to be fighting. nightfall is going to put an end to the fighting. stewart is going to waste a whole day fighting a battle that has no significance.
6:26 pm
problem with kilpatrick is when stewart leaves, he should be follow him and he doesn't. he lets stewart get away, kilpatrick is going to rest his men. and what do you think kilpatrick says in the morning? where is stewart? and he's looking all over for him. rather than finding him. july 1, we know what happened with buford. from emmitsburg up into -- he's going to be at gettysburg, getting there on june 30th and the fighting will start there. greg is heading toward hanover. kilpatrick is looking for stewart. and stewart is reached carlyle on july 2nd as you can see. so in a second, here comes greg. hanover toward gettysburg, stewart finally learns where lee is so he's going to be moving south to recombine with lee and
6:27 pm
just like what we saw a little bit, but the reverse was going to happen is as kilpatrick is coming south toward gettysburg, he's going to run into hamilton's rear guard. how many of you have seen that battlefield at hunterstown. you could see everything there. if you haven't seen it, you really want to. he's going to run into the rear guard of wade hampton's brigade and wade hampton is going to turn and there is nice little fight there, insignificant, but that fighting is going to occur on the 2nd. now, fire fights. did you figure out what the five were? how many did you come up? most people are going to come up with four. they forget about the last one. okay. so here are the four. obviously i shouldn't say one and two. buford is on july 1st. we all know that.
6:28 pm
well let's go through it and i'll show it to you. and this needs no introduction. the epic fight per ridge summary ridge between buford holding delaying lee as much as he possibly can until the first war starts coming up. the ridge on the 2nd where this is right -- it is along hanover pike or hanover road coming into gettysburg. this does not get enough play. because what happened on july 2nd the evening of july 2nd. remember edward johnson is attacking. and do you remember george stewart's confederate brigade is going to take the hill. well, the second virginia is part of the stonewall brigade. they were on the left of stewart. they were supposed to be involved in the attack on cult
6:29 pm
hill but because they're fighting greg's men, especially it is just a skirmish line for the most part, it stops the stonewall brigade from participating in that attack. which had a big impact that most don't realize. july 3rd, again, i don't have to talk about what happened in east cavalry field. a lot of pages on it, a lot of maps. where stewart proper is engaging with custer primarily david greg's division. very epic. no question about it. but to the south, we have judson kilpatrick and he's reinforced by the wesley reserve brigade. they're fighting to the south. and kilpatrick said, well, we think that lee was going to attack our flank so we had to attack him. my way of thinking, it was again a way to seek glory.
6:30 pm
we all know the story about elon farnsworth who is attacking -- you don't attack first texas. you don't attack any rebels behind a stonewall supported by artillery. you just don't do that. and you know, the bottom line is that farnsworth is going to be killed. this brigade is going to be repulsed in an attack that never should have happened. fairfield, i used to live in fairfield for a little bit. anyone seen the fairfield battlefield. there is not much there but you could see it. but there is a report that there are wagons, rebel wagons. so wesley merit, he has never commanded a brigade before. he was a captain. he's going to send the fifth u.s. cavalry, this is a crack unit. he's going to send them to
6:31 pm
fairfield and they're looking for those wagons. well they don't find the wagons. what they find is a full brigade of grumble jones who has come up and this unit, this sixth u.s. will be almost destroyed. it is never quite the same after this engagement. okay. epic. and now it gets epic as i feel. don't attack. he keeps attacking me. and during the ant eat am campaign, the maryland campaign, they were right next to the potomac river, two or three miles away. that was easy to get across. here you have a long passageway in order to get to the potomac river. and what is really worrying lee is all of the wagons, wagons filled with goods, filled with wounded and they have to first get over the mountain passes and eventually he wants to get them to williams port. because there is a prij, a
6:32 pm
pontoon bridge right there, boom, right there and done. these are gigantically long wagon trains. we're talking 15, 20 miles long. and it doesn't matter how much cavalry you have, stewart is engaged in protecting them but there is never enough. when you have a line of wagons that long, you're vulnerable. lightning attacks and who is most -- most active during this time? kilpatrick of course. he's going to get a lot of glory. how many of you have been to monterey pass. that is a nice little battlefield. when you read about it, you have kilpatrick riding up the mountain on his very narrow path, pitch dark, they talk about if one horse lost his footing, guess what? right over the side of the mountain. but he's coming up to monterey pass and he's going to capture those wagons and he does.
6:33 pm
there is a group of marylanders who with going -- there is like eight marylanders who are in the pitch dark who are going to create commotion but eventually they are successful and capture hundreds of wagons. they're going to burn them, they're going to capture the men, et cetera, the goods. and he's going to continue. john, to me this is the most epic, because he has wagons filled with wounded. these are men who are -- there aren't springs in these wagons. these guys are suffering and he feels weight of getting them to safety. and so what he's going to do then is he's going to leave cash town, he meets with lee, on the evening of the third, he's going to leave cashtown at 4:00 on july 4th. he has protection but again you're talking about a 17-mile train. it doesn't matter how much protection you have, there is
6:34 pm
going to be problems. and there is going to be several attacks at calla doana furnace, at green castle, at cunningham cross roads and eventually he makes it to williams port and guess what you finds? no bridge. they forgot to guard the bridge. the pontoon bridge is gone and imagine you are this guy and you have hundreds and hundreds of wagons of wounded men and you cannot cross. and guess who is coming? buford is coming. and he's not there. they have a little poker game with him. stewart is not happy. he's hearing the reports of kilpatrick capturing all of these wagons, he's on a trail now and he's riding constantly with two brigades. he catched up with them at smithberg and this is the first time that -- here he is, this is
6:35 pm
kilpatrick. he has his three brigades up on high. if you could see the high ground and here comes stewart and he's going to attack them and what does kilpatrick do wisely? he pull the back. there was no reason engage. there is a fight at hagerstown. by this time the wagons have all all about reached the potomac river. now it is protecting lee's flanks. hagerstown which is a battle just like hanover in the streets and you're going to have infantry involved, iverson's brigade and a variety of union and confederate cavalry. williams port on july 6th, now i want to you imagine you're -- you don't have very many men and here comes buford with maybe 2,000 guys. and you're going to give rifles to the wagon ears, you're going
6:36 pm
to give rifles to the wounded and you're going to do whatever you can to try to deceive buford into thinking you have a lot of guys there. there is going to be a lot of attacks. finally lee's division is going to come up and relief this. but it was touch and go for a while. a fight at boonsboro. again on lee's flank. this is the only time that buford and kilpatrick actually work in unison. remember the whole campaign, all of these divisions are operating independently. bumptown where they are going to command infantry and cavalry against cavalry and infantry. on both sides. and again, none of these are really conclusive. it is really holding back the union cavalry from attacking or getting close to lee's flanks
6:37 pm
and obviously flowing waters, the last fight before lee is able to cross at falling waters. we know about the confusion. we know how jim's pedigree was going to be mortally wounded. that will end the fighting. wow, i'm doing great. i'm almost to where she told me to be. so, i know it was fast. but hopefully you have a better sense of what the cavalry did. they're in constant motion. first finding where lee is and all of those activities. screening the union army movements as they're moving north. for stewart, it is collecting supplies, it is raiding, and then simply trying to find where is lee. the fighting at gettysburg, which is monumental, and then what i consider to be the most important thing that -- i won't say the most important but certainly very important with what stewart's men did guarding
6:38 pm
those wagon trains as much as possible, keeping the union cavalry away from lee's flanks, collecting stragglers, et cetera. so, hopefully you had a better understanding. okay. good. you have any questions? yes. >> [ inaudible question ]. >> yeah, so i have a doctorate in zoology. i started like so many young men, i had an older brother that got interested in the civil war and i followed him in his footsteps and i was studying on 13, 14 years old. and when i write my map books, by the way, you know who i'm writing it for. certainly for you all. and how many of have you seen my map books. these are my map books. so there is text on one side and map on the other. i'm writing it for me when i was 13. hi no idea what was happening at
6:39 pm
gettysburg or chancellorsville. and this way, if i had a map like this, i would really understand it much better. but any way, i want off to college and i'm not going to be a history guy because i didn't want to be -- no offense. but i became pre-med. i was going to be a doctor. and i said not so much. so i said here i am, a senior in college, what am i going to do. i'll just continue on and i got a continued on and get a doctorate in zoology and taught as you heard. and then it is funny because i grew up in philly. and when i came back, when i left philadelphia to get my masters degree, when i was graduating, i put away all of my books and i never opened the boxes and then when i come back to philly, i was no montgomery community college in the early 90s and i start opening them up and i came to gettysburg, there were no, believe it or not, there were no tour guides back then. how many of you remember during
6:40 pm
the centennial there was a tour guide by back pole and nye. do you remember that? okay. you're showing your age by the way. and i called on a whim, i called the company and they said how would you like someone to revise that book. and they said sure. i had never written a book before. we're going to giva royalty, an advance and one thing led to another that led to another. so, i don't know. it really didn't start out as being a historian. but i'm the kind of person where i like to read, i like to write, i like to research and it is perfect. especially when you can't get out in the field. i'm a field biologist and i couldn't do it as a colonel president. but thank you for the question. great question. go eagles. yes. okay. you understand. yes.
6:41 pm
exactly. >> i had a question. at the time stewart decided to go south, i know he's supposed to be on the flank, but at that time hooker was in charge. and it is not like his cavalry was on top -- he didn't have a lot of energetic people hence the upgrades once lee took over. did art ever imply because hooker was in charge he thought he could probably get around up and over a lot faster with hooker in charge compared to not knowing that mead had everybody moving within a day. >> i've never read anything or ever heard about that, that he decided on that route because of hooker. one thing i that i could tell you and it is fascinating, i didn't know this until i was writing the book, when mead became commander of the army of the potomac, it meant the downfall of pleasanton. because pleasanton would always ride with his divisions in the field. well he -- mead didn't believe
6:42 pm
in that. he wanted pleasanton right next to him, wherever he had, he wanted pleasanton right there next to him so he this could communicate. and that changed the style of pleasanton. he no longer could have direct command of his men. which is kind of interesting. i didn't realize that. thank you for the question. any other questions? and by the way, remember hooker was a very aggressive commander. he had a problem at chancellorsville. never really recuperated from it. but he was a very good -- at least as a corp commander he was very effective. any others? yes. >> [ inaudible question ] criticized for having burden the the army with too many wagons. i think there is even a line from the movie they are a burden to me now. but in reality, didn't they need those same wagon to evacuate the wounded so wasn't that -- >> yeah, i mean, one thing i try not to do, i don't -- did you
6:43 pm
hear the story about being burdened by the wagons in one thing that historians is we look at hindsight. we sit in our comfortable chair and say lee should have done this and stewart should have done this. but if you are outside of washington and you see 200 brand-new wagons and fat mules, are you going to say ah, no, i would grab him. he didn't know they would become an albatross around his neck and they did. and but he couldn't -- he could have cut them loose but he understood how important that's wagons were, how important those mules were. but they did become a real burden for him later on nt campaign. and probably in retrospect, he probably would have said no. but again we can't do that. yes. >> so what percentage -- that they had already captured? >> well, what is going to
6:44 pm
happen, they're going to get rid of quite a few of the wagons. some of them were damaged and those that -- because it wasn't just they stopped, what happened is many of those wagons are going to run as fast as they can back to washington. they're going to ride after them, many of them are going it be destroyed and the goods in those wagons were going to be destroyed. they couldn't carry those. but those wagons that they captured, they're going to bring everything with them that is in those wagons. now what is going to happen is many of those wagons are going to be captured by kilpatrick and he's going to destroy the wagons and all of the materials within them. so in the end result, you know, still there were quite a few of the wagons that made it back into virginia with lots of goods in them that they really needed. yes. >> yeah, one of the common areas about -- is that stewart was surprised, got his ego hurt and went on his ride because he got
6:45 pm
his ego hurt. >> yes. >> how much do you buy into that explanation or did stewart really think he was going on a raid? >> did you all hear the question? so, again, we'll never really know. but there is no question, if you read the richmond newspapers, they trashed him. i mean he had never been other than the darling of the press, of the southern press. and i think part of it indeed was to get that reputation, rehabilitate it. but also as i mentioned before, there were -- so it wasn't just one reason. there were a plethora of reasons that he said to lee, look at what coy do if you let me go on this raid. and long is communicating to stew arpt and he thought that stewart would take the northern route. and he was shocked and surprised that lee did not tell him to take the northern route because that would have been -- i think
6:46 pm
the story of gettysburgs would have been very different if he took that northern route. am i out of time? okay. okay, well thank you for coming. i appreciate it. [ applause ] into you could be a part of the national conversation by participating in c-span student cam video competition. you're opinion matters. so if you're a middle or high school student, we're asking you to create a documentary that answered "the question how does the federal government impact your life. that effects you or your community. using c-span video clips which are easy to find and accessed at c-span.org. c-span student cam competition awards $100,000 in total cash prices and a gand prize of $5,000. entries must be received before
6:47 pm
january 20th, 20 e. for competition rules, or just how to get started, visit our website at studentcam.org. c-span offers a variety of podcasts that have something for every listener. week tays washington today gives you the latest from the nationez capitol. and every week book notes plus has interviews with writers about their latest works while the weekly uses audio from our immense archive to look at how issues of the day develop over years. and our occasional series talking risk features conversations with historians about their lives and work. many of our television programs have also available at podcasts. you could find them all on the c-span now mobile app or wherever you get your podcasts. download c-span new mobile app. and stay up to date with live video coverage of the day's
6:48 pm
biggest political events from live streams of the house and senate floor and key congressional hearing to white house events and supreme court oral avrgs even our live morning programm washington journal where we hear your voices every day. c-span now has you covered. download the app for free today. hello, everybody. thank you so much for joining us today. it is my honor be here with you. my name is tane casserly and i'm with the sanctuary and today we're talking about world war ii and america's doorstep, u boats. i represent noaa, and we're part of the office of national sanctuaries. the monitor of one of 15 sanctuary system. this system encompassed more than 600,000 square miles of great las

40 Views

info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on