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tv   The Civil War Cavalry at Gettysburg  CSPAN  November 22, 2021 12:02pm-12:50pm EST

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podcasts. get c-span on the go. watch the day's biggest political events live or on demand anytime, anywhere on our mobile video app. c-span now. listen to c-span radio, and discover new podcasts all for free. download c-span now today. c-spav begins, you can find the full schedule on your program guide, sponsoring talks, our first event is dr. bradly -- bradley gottfried. we went of to have a career as a higher administration official. he retired as the president of the college of southern maryland. he spends much of his time writing about the civil war as
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the gettysburg licensed town guide and certified guide. he has released mack the mass of the calvary in the gettysburg campaign. he has written 14 books on the civil war, many are map studies, campaigns of the eastern theater of the civil war, three books will be released this year, including one later this month entitled "lincoln comes to gettysburg, the story of the gettysburg national cemetery dedication," he is married and has four children and six grandchildren. today he is going to be speaking to you about the role of the calgary in the gettysburg campaign. and i'll introduce to you. >> thanks for coming. this could take me three hours to go through it. so i am going to go very quickly
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because most people when you think about gettysburg, you think about the battle of gettysburg. you don't think about the campaign as much. and we're going to talk about the entire campaign, not the infantry. i love the infantry, but this is the role of calgary. i have written as tammy mentioned a number of books on the civil war. these are some of the maps studies, and i'm constantly criticized about this one. i love this book. i love them all. they're all my children. there's not a lot of calvary. couldn't put them in. couldn't fit. so i came out with this one that just specializes on the calvary in the gettysburg campaign. what i'm going to do today, the major thing, i've only got about 40, 45 minutes so i'm going to go fast, is going to talk about the multiple roles that the calvary played during the campaign of gettysburg. and i think you're going to
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appreciate these guys much more than you currently do. these enjoys are constantly in the saddle at least infantry got to rest. these guys are constantly in motion in a variety of attacks. you know these two gent lmen, alfred pleasanton, commands the army of the potomac's calvary tour, and jeff stuart, his counter part. they have been in command of the army's calvary for over a year. they know potentially how to one a calvary arm. the organization of the two armies calvary is very different. you can see on the union side it's much more sophisticated. you've got a core structure, you've got divisions.
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sometimes three, sometimes two, and back to three. nine brigades, almost 16,000 guys, troopers, compare that with jeff stuart who only has a division. later on he's going to have a core, six brigades, and almost 13,000. he's out numbered but what else is new. lots of issues on both sides. there's horses and horses are always a problem. there's never enough of them, and when you have them, oftentimes they're worn out from over use. there's not enough food for them. oftentimes they're sick, and how did the confederates supply their horses? were they given to them? no, they had to supply their own horse, and if your horse was killed in battle or sick, guess what, you're walking, whereas on the union side they were provided to you.
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the troopers, they're exhausted as we're going to see. now, we're going to talk about four phases, okay. don't blink because we're going to go fast. one is general joseph hooker, commander of the army of the potomac needs to know where lee is. he needs more information. who's going to provide that information. it needs to be pleasanton and his calvary. so we're going to see very quickly, the battle at brandy station and the fight for the blue ridge mountain gaps, which is fascinating that a lot of people don't know about that was really very very interesting. after the middle part of the month, then it becomes getting to the battlefield, screening the armies, a raid as we're going to see, where is stuart. the third phase obviously is the battle of gettysburg, we're going to talk very quickly about five different a actions here.
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i want you to think what are those five. don't tell me but see if in your head you can figure out what the five are. and the retreat. and the retreat is fascinating. how does lee get those wagons back to virginia and how does the union army try to prevent those wagons from getting to virginia. those are the things that we're going to talk about today. okay. here we go. now, hopefully, can you all see the map back there? i'm going to try to use my pointer, too. the armies that you know were talking about after chancellorsville, the beginning of june, 1863, and pleasanton has been tasked by hooker to determine where lee is moving okay. and what's happening. they're worried about stuart,
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jeff stuart is here around brandy station. there's going to be a reconnaissance by pleasanton to find out where the heck is stuart because they're afraid that stuart is going to launch another raid that's going to be very embarrassing to the army and to lincoln. so let's see if we can't break up this potential raid, and this reconnaissance finds that stuart is right here at culpepper courthouse. and so very interesting hooker is going to say to pleasanton, this is what i want you to do and here is how you're going to do it. usually, like when it came to stewart, lee would never tell stewart exactly what you're going to do. he's going to tell him the strategy and tactics he's going to use at brandy station. he didn't trust him, basically. and this is the prelude, and what's happening then, i'm going to go through this quickly, it's on june 9th. it's a pinser action. you can see here are the three divisions, john butford, david
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greg, alfred duffy. they're going to cross at different fords, beverly ford, kelly ford, where is stewart supposedly. culpepper courthouse. he's not. he's closer to brandy station. he's stretched out all over. so he's going to be spreading his troops around. they think that they're going to march this way, and they are going to entrap stuart between these two wings. that make sense? well, it's quite a surprise in the morning o. 9th when grimes davis's bring game splashes across at beverly ford, and finds out that he's up against the 6 virginia, he's going to push back. look at this. 15 confederate cannons in between a picket line and the rest of grumble jones' brigade.
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that's not where you put artillery. he didn't expect to be attacked. anyway, the fighting is going to be around the st. james church, as you can see right here. there's going to be an attack. counter attack, as the -- as grumble jones is going to stabilize his line. and then what's going to happen is a second front is going to open up, and by the way, it's john butford, as i mentioned that is involved in all of this early action. a second front around u-ridge, as you can see. there's going to be fighting on two fronts eventually, but here's the interesting story, and this is the missed opportunity. here comes butford, he is engaging with stewart's brigades, at least those that are up. here comes kelly's ford, the other two divisions, calvary
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divisions, pleasanton is going to tell david greg. get your division up to brandy station as quickly as possible. look where he's coming. if he's fast, if he's fortunately, where is he going to be? on stewart's flank and rear, right? holy cow. it doesn't work out that way because stewart is going to respond very quickly. grumble jones is not well respected by stewart. it's a personality issue there. grumble jones is going to really save his bacon during this battle because here he is. he's going to pull his men out of line and they are going to go up to fleetwood hill where the fighting is going to occur more and more confederate troops are going to come. wade hampton is bringing his brigade, and what would have been a wonderful opportunity was a lost opportunity as greg's men are defeated on fleetwood hill. so what might have been a very
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good opportunity to, well, maybe not destroy stewart, but certainly to hamper him in the future campaign. that's showing photographs of the hill, fleetwood hill, and you can see an artist's representation. but by the end of the day, it's very clear that they are not moving stuart. and so pleasanton gets permission to retreat and he's going to retreat across -- whoops. back across the river here. whoops what am i doing here. drive me crazy. it was a lost opportunity. it did really nothing except to tarnish stuart's reputation. he was able to consolidate his men. he was able to push back the
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union attackers, but he got a lot of grief from the newspapers for being unprepared. that's what's happening there. let's keep going because i'm running out of time. where is lee going to be marching north around what route when he leaves the area of fredericksburg. he's going to be going through the blue ridge mountains, right, and there's increasing reports on the part of hooker's spies et cetera, and that's what's happening but pleasanton needs to go out and provide more information to hooker as to where lee is. and the best way to do it is by going through these gaps. you can see there's a gap at
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snickersville gap, which is right here. now, i'm not doing that. that's doing it on its own. i'm just trying to use this pointer. snickersville gap, which is right here, and ashby's gap right here, and what's going to happen is that for the next several days there's going to be constant combat as pleasanton is trying to get through to these gaps to see where is lee's army, and what is stewart doing? he's trying to block them from getting past him, so it's going to be a very interesting situation here. you can see what hooker says. it's better we lose men than with without knowledge of the rebel army. what we're going to see is a variety of fights, very intense fights. they're not going to lose a lot of guys. it's pretty intense. if you ever watch a calvary fight, it's gruesome in terms of sabers, and splashing and
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splitting open heads, et cetera. between the 17th and 31st that's what's happening. stewart trying to get to look past to see where lee is, and the first place is going to be at aldi. has anyone ever been to these battlefield. so you know they're really interesting and well preserved. basically it's one brigade of rebels, and one brigade of yanks, william mumford against justin kilpatrick, and basically a stalemate. but a stalemate means what, stuart's won, he has not allowed the yanks to get through. on the 19th is another fight. this is at middleburg, and again, you're going to see some intense fighting. this is between greg, irvin
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greg, and justin kilpatrick. this is david greg's division against stewart's men. what's interesting in so many of these actions is there's no coordination you have butford over here to the north and to the south you have greg. there ut entire campaign, pleasanton is going to have trouble coordinating his various divisions. hooker is so intent on finding where lee is that he's going to send a full core, the fifth core over to gum springs to provide infantry support, and they're actually going to get involved it. not only is hooker providing infantry support. look at what lee is doing. he takes long street's entire
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first core, and he's going to stop them from marching north. this is too important, and he's going to plug them in at the gap, so if these yanks get through the stuart, they're not going to be able to see what's going on there. okay. upperville is the last fight. this is the most intense. this is the most complex. a running fight that ultimately going to lead to a lot of frustration on the part of pleasanton. he's not able to get through. but this one is interesting because you're going to have infantry actually involved in the fight. i don't know if you can see that. now, there was infantry also at the brandy station fight, and in both cases, pleasanton misused the infantry, did not use it to his full advantage. okay. so that's what's happening at this point. okay.
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albert jenkins. how many of you know about albert jenkins. he liked to visit chambersburg, by the way, so he's going to be coming -- he has two raids. by the way, albert general kin, nobody wants to claim albert jenkins and his unit. they are considered long infantry. they have long rifles, and they're kind of undisciplined. he's going to have a raid, you can see, on the 15th. he's going to ride all day to chambersburg, imagine around midnight come thundering in to chambersburg is this long line, about 2,000 rebels riding in and they're going to stay there collecting supplies, resting, et cetera, until the 17th when they decide they're going to go south again. now, there's not a whole lot of time to rest because on the 19th, a couple of days later.
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he's going to be ordered to move north again, but this time it's not a raid he's going to be screening the march to harrisburg. he's going to go slower but you can see it's much more extensive a march through carlisle, through mechanicsburg, and actually to the outskirts of harrisburg where there will be a fight between union militia, coming from pennsylvanians, new yorkers at sporting hill, and you're going to see some of the confederates from his brigade are going to be engaging. it's basically a skirmish, but still it is a fight. it is as close to harrisburg as lee is going to be getting. then they're they'll start pulling back. we have to talk about stuart and
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the raid, right, i'm probably going to get myself in trouble because some people love stuart. i gave a presentation this week on a different topic, and i had some people in the audience that loved stuart, and others that weren't so happy with them, and i made sure they were separate. i didn't want them to sit side by side, but you know stuart likes the show. he understands if he can have a raid, go around the union flank, it's embarrassing. it's embarrassing to the north. it's going to be in all the newspapers. he's going to pick up supplies. it does make sense. the problem is the route he takes. lee finally gives him presentation on june 22nd. when is the battle of gettysburg, july 1. it's not that far from it, and he says listen you've got two route, you pick the route.
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you can do a northern route this way through sharpsburg to frederick, and a southern route where you're actually going to go around the union army. whatever you do, i want you to stay close to the flank. where is yule going to be, up here or down here. he's going to be up here to the forth. which route does stuart take. of course the southern route, the more difficult one, and so he is going to be then marching south. this is simply a quote from an author from gettysburg magazine who blames lee for not being more explicit with stuart in telling him exactly where you need to go, what you need to do, and when i want you back with the army. he gave him too much latitude. okay. also remember how many brigades
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does he have. he's going to have five at this point, and you think he would leave like wade hampton behind? there's a very effective brigade commander. no, he's going to leave the two brigades that are the least effective and the commanders who he does not like, and he takes the ones that he likes with them, and he leaves grumble jones and beverly robertson behind. they're supposed to be helping lee. they're guarding, you know, some of the passes. they're helping lee. lee doesn't really use them. they're very ineffective, and it's almost like they're not even there. but the raid is going to occur on june 25th, and the problem is the second is going to move and block his path. he didn't expect that. he's going to have to do a detour. he never expected to do this wide detour, and it's interesting because he needs to get back to lee, right, but what is he doing? he's spend ago lot of time ripping up tracks and burning
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bridges and burning down railroad depots. he needs to be moving fast. he hears aboutford, it is very deep, very treacherous. he's going to use because it's not defended. the problem is by the time he gets across, it's so difficult when the horses have to spend hours just resting the horses, losing more time. i would do this. if i see all of these wagons around rockville, guess what i'm going to do. i'm grabbing those wagons, right, and so he is going to run rockville, going to attack this wagon train, which right over here, but he's captured about 400 soldiers. what he has to do with them, he doesn't want to drag them along. he has to parole them, and that's going to take hours. he's going to continue north, and look at this, sykesville, and hoods mill, he breaks his units up.
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they're going to again destroy railroads rather than moving north. he continues finally north. he's going to go to westminster, and what about corpus charge. where two companies, we're talking about 95 guys under captain corbett from the first delaware, attack stuart's column. i mean, talk about suicide. it was suicide. 2/3 of them are going to be killed or wounded, including captain corbett, but it's going to stop them in their tracks. it's going to delay them. they can't afford to be delayed. while this is happening, pleasanton wants to expand his army. he's gone from three divisions, got rid of duffy. he has two divisions but he wants three. julius stalls division.
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he wants it. this is not a soldier. he rides around in a wagon, he should not be demanding troops in battle. and so finally, he gets the go ahead to incorporate this division into his core. he now looks back to three divisions, and who does he elevate to demand this division, not a friend of mine. justin kilpatrick, who i consider to be rash as we'll see, and he's going to promote three of his captains to be generals. each is going to have a mission. butford is going to be going on the west. they're basically looking for stuart, they're screening the army and the they're moving but they're separated. you can see here comes butford
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along the base of south mountain. greg is moving forward manchester and westminster, and kilpatrick is right in the middle. okay, and it's really kilpatrick that's tasked with finding stewart. well, you're stuart. you're riding into hanover. it's june 30th. you see the yankee rear guard that's moving through hanover. what do you do, and you know you have to find lee? what do you do. do you let him go or do you attack? well, he decides to attack, and kilpatrick, justin kilpatrick, he's already with custer. he's way further north. he's going to return with more and more of his division and all day they're going to be fighting. nightfall is going to put an end to the fighting. stuart is going to waste the
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whole day fighting a bat that has no significance. the problem with fighting the battle, he let stuart get away. kilpatrick is going to rest his man. and what do you think kilpatrick says in the morning. where is stuart. and he's looking all over for him, rather than finding him. july 1, we know what happens with butford, from emmettsburg, up into, he's going to be at gettysburg, obviously getting their on june 30th. the fighting is going to start there. greg is heading towards hanover, kilpatrick is looking for stuart, and stuart has reached carlisle on july 2nd, as you can see. so on the second, here comes greg. hanover toward gettysburg. stuart finally learns where lee is, so he's going to be moving south to recombine with lee and
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just like what we saw a little bit but the reverse, what's going to happen is as kilpatrick is coming south toward gettysburg, he's going to run into hampton's rear guard at hunters town. how many of you have seen that battlefield at huntersville. it's a nice little battlefield. you can see everything there. he's going to run into the rear guard of wade hampton's brigade, and wade hampton is going to turn and there's going to be a nice little fight there. insignificant, but that fighting is going to occur on the 2nd. now, did you all figure out what the five were? how many did you come up with? most people are going to come up with four. they forget about the last one. okay. so here are the four.
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obviously i shouldn't say one and two. butford versus heath is on july 1. we all know that. let's go through it and i'll show it to you. this needs no introduction, the epic field seminary ridge between butford, holding, delaying lee as much as he possibly can until the first corps starts coming off. brinkerhoff ridge, along hanover pike or hanover ridge coming into gettysburg. this does not get enough play because what happened at coal's hill on june 2nd, the evening of july 2nd, remember edward johnson is attacking the hill, and remember george stuart's confederate brigade, part of it is going to take the hill. well, the second virginia is part of the brigade.
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they were on the left of stuart. they were supposed to be involved in the attack on culps's hill but because they're fighting greg's men, it's a skirmish for the most part, it stopped the stone wall bring gauge from the continuing the attack on the culp's hill that had a big impact that most don't realize. july 3nd, again, i don't have to talk about what happened with east calvary field, lots of pages, lots of maps where stuart proper is going to be engaging with custer primarily david greg's division, very epic, no question about it. but to the south, we have juddson kilpatrick, and he's being reinforced by wesley merit's reserve brigade. they're going to be fighting to the south. and kilpatrick says, well, we think that lee was going to attack our flank, so we had to
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attack him. my way of thinking, it was a way to seek glory. we all know the story about elon farnsworth who is going to be attacking -- you don't attack first texas, you don't attack any rebels behind the stone wall supported by artillery. you just don't do that. the bottom line is farnsworth is going to be killed. this brigade is going to be repulsed in an attack that never should have happened. fairfield, i used to live in fairfield for a little bit. anyone been to the fairfield battlefield? isn't that neat. you can see everything there. there's not much there, but you can see it. there's a report that there are wagons, rebel wagons, and wesley mar it, he has never commanded a
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brigade, he's going to send the 6th, send them to fairfield, and they're looking for the wagons. they don't find the wagons, they find a full brigade of grumble jones, and the 6th u.s. will be almost destroyed. it's never quite the same after this engagement. okay, epic, now we get to epic, don't attack. he keeps attacking me. during the maryland campaign, they were right next to the potomac river. 2, 3 miles away. that was easy to get across. here you've got a long passageway in order to get to the potomac river, and what's really worrying lee is all of those wagons, wagons filled with goods, filled with wounded and they have to first get over the
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mountain passes, and eventually he wants to get them to williamsport, why williamsport because there's a bridge, a pontoon bridge, boom, done. these are gigantically long wagon trains, 15, 20 miles long, and it doesn't matter how much calvary you have, stuart's calvary is going to be engaged in protecting them but there's never enough. when you have a line of wagons that long, you're vulnerable. lightning attacks. and who's most active during this time, kilpatrick, of course. he's going to get a lot of glory. how many of you have been to monterey pass? that's a nice little battlefield, and when you read about it, here you have kilpatrick riding up the mountains on this very narrow path, pitch dark, they talk about if one horse lost his footing, guess what, we're right over the side of the mountain,
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but he's coming up to monterey pass. he's going to capture those wagons, and he does. there's a group of marylanders who are going to -- there's like eight marylanders in the pitch dark who are going to really create commotion. eventually they're going to be successful, and capture hundreds of wagons, they're going to burn them. they're going to capture the men, et cetera, the goods, and he's going to continue. john imboden, to me this is the most epic, he has wagons filled with wounded. these are men who are -- there aren't springs in these wagon, these guys are suffering, and he feels the weight of getting them to safety. and so what he's going to do, then, is he's going to leave cash town, actually meets with lee, on the evening of the 3rd. he's going to leave cash town at 4:00 on july 4th. he has protections, but again, you're talking about a 17-mile
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train. it doesn't matter how much protection you have, there's going to be problems. and there's going to be several attacks at caledonia furnace, at green castle, at cunningham cross roads, and eventually he makes it to williamsport, and guess what he finds, no bridge. they forgot to guard the bridge. the pontoon bridge is gone, and imagine you are this guy, imboden, and you have hundreds and hundreds of wagons of wounded men, and you cannot cross. and guess who's coming? buford is coming. and he's not there to have a little poker game with him. stuart is not happy. he's hearing the reports of kilpatrick capturing all of these wagons. he's on a trail now. and he's riding constantly with two brigades. he catches up with him at
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smithburg. and this is the first time, so here he is, this is kilpatrick, he has his three brigades up on high ground, if you have ever been to smithsburg, you can see the high ground, and here comes stuart, and he's going to attack them. what does kilpatrick do, wisely, he pulls back, there's no reason to engage. there's going to be a fight at hagger. now it's more about protecting lee's flank. hagerstown, you're going to have infantry involved,and a variety of union and confederate calvary. williamsport on july 6th. i want you to imagine you're imboden, you don't have very many men and here comes buford with maybe 2,000 guys and you're
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going to give rifles to the wagoneers, you're going to give rifles to the wounded and you're going to do whatever you can to deceive buford into thinking you've got lots of guys. there's going to be lots of attacks. and finally, lee's division is going to come up and relieve this, but it was touch and go for a while. a fight at boonsboro on lee's flank. this is the only time that buford and kilpatrick actually worked in unison. remember, the whole campaign, all of these divisions have been operating independently. folkstown, where a fifth lee actually is going to command some confederate infant tri. you've got infantry, calvary against calvary and infantry on both sides, and again, none of these are really conclusive. it's really holding back the
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union calvary from attacking or getting close to lee's flanks, and obviously falling waters the last fight before lee is able to cross at falling waters. we know about the confusion. we know how jim's pettigrew was going to be mortally wounded, et cetera, that's going to end the fighting. whoa, i'm doing great. i'm almost to where she told me to be. so i know it was fast. but hopefully you have a better sense of what the calvary did. they're in constant motion. first, finding where lee is, and all of those activities. screening the union army movements as they're moving north. for stuart, it's collecting supplies. it's rating, and then it's simply trying to find where is lee. the fighting at gettysburg, which is monumental, and then what i consider to be the most
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important thing, i won't say the most important, but certainly very important, with what stuart's men d guarding those wagon trains as much as possible, keeping the union calvary away from lee's flanks, collecting stragglers, et cetera, so hopefully that gives you a better understanding. okay. good. do you have any questions? yes. >> i don't know if you heard the story. i have a doctorate in zoology. so i started like so many young men, i had an older brother who got interested in the civil war, and followed in his foot steps. i'm 13, 14 years old, and when i write my map books, by the way, you know who i'm writing it for, certainly for you all, and how many of you have seen my map
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books. you know there's text on one side, map on the other. i'm writing it for me when i was 13. i had no idea what was happening at gettysburg or happening at chancellorsville, and this way, if i had a book like this, i would really understand it much better, but anyway, i went off to college, i'm not going to be a history guy because i didn't want to be a ranger, no offense. but i became pre-med. i was going to be a doctor, and i said not so much. here i am, a senior in college, what am i going to do. i'll just continue on, and i got a doctorate in zoology, taught, as you heard, and then it's funny because i grew up in philly. when i left philadelphia to get my masters degree, actually when i was in undergraduate, put away all of my books, and i never opened the boxes, and then when i come back to philly, at montgomery county community college in the early '90s.
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i started opening them up, came to gettysburg, there were no tour guides back then. how many of you remember during the centennial, there was a tour guide by sack paul and nye. anybody remember that? you remember it. okay. good. you're showing your age, by the way. so i called on a whim, i called the company and i said how would you like someone to revive that book, and they said sure. i had never written a book. and we're going to give you an advance, and one thing led to another, led to another. so i don't know. it really didn't start out as being a historian but i'm the kind of person where i like to read, i like to write, i like to research, and it was perfect, especially when you can't get out in the field. i'm a field biologist, and i couldn't do it as a college president. thank you for the question. great question.
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go eagles. >> you understand. yes, exactly. >> i had a question, at the time stuart decided to go south, i know he's supposed to be on the flank but at that time, hooker was in charge, it's not like his calvary was on top. he didn't have a lot of energetic people, hence the upgrades once me took over. did stuart ever kind of imply because hooker was in charge he thought he could probably get around up and over a lot faster with hooker in charge compared to not knowing mead, mead had everybody moving literally within a day. >> i have never read anything or heard about that, that he decided on that route because of hooker. one thing i can tell you and it's fascinating, i didn't know this until i was writing the book. when mead became commander of the army of potomac, it meant the down fall of pleasanton. because pleasanton would always
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ride with his division in the field. well, mead didn't believe in that. he wanted pleasanton right next to him, wherever he had a tent, he wanted pleasanton next to him so they could communicate, and that changed the style of pleasanton, he no longer could have direct command of his men, which is kind of interesting. i didn't realize that. thank you for the question. any other questions. and by the way, remember, hooker was a very aggressive commander. he had a problem at chancellorville, never recuperated from it. he was very good, at least as a core commander, he was very effective. any others? yes. criticized for having burdened the army with too many wagons. i think there's even a line from the movie, they're a burden to me now. but in reality, didn't they need the same wagons to evacuate the
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wounded so wasn't that -- >> yeah. i mean, you know, one thing i try not to do. did you all hear the story about being burdened by the wagons? one thing that historians will do or we will all do is we look at hindsight. we sit in our comfortable chair, and lee shouldn't have done that or stuart shouldn't have done this but the reality is if you are outside of washington, and you see 200 wagons, brand new wagons, fat mules, filled with all kinds of stuff, are you going to just say, eh, no, i would grab them. nobody knew. he didn't know they were going to become an albatross around his neck, and they did. but he could have cut them loose, but he understood how important those wagons were, and those mules were but they did become a burden, in retrospect, he probably would have said no.
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but we can't do that. >> what percentage of goods did they have to abandon that they had already captured. >> they're going to get rid of quite a few of the wagons. some of them were damaged and it wasn't just they stopped. what happened is many of those wagons are going to run as fast as they can back to washington. they're going to ride after them. many are going to be destroyed, and the goods in those wagons were going to be destroyed. they couldn't carry those. but those wagons that they captured, they're going to bring everything in the wagons. many will be captured by kilpatrick, and he's going to destroy the wagons, and all of the materials within them. so the end result, you know, still, there were quite a few of wagons that made it back into virginia with lots of goods this them that they really needed. yes. >> one of the most common areas
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is that stewart was surprised, got his ego hurt, and went on his ride because he got his ego hurt. how much do you buy into that explanation or did stuart really think he was going on a raid. >> did you all hear the question? again, we'll never really know, but there is no question, if you read the richmond newspapers, they trashed him. he had never been other than the darling of the press, of the southern press, and i think part of it is he was to get that reputation rehabilitated. but also as i mentioned before, it wasn't just one reason. there were a plethora of reasons that he would say to lee, look at all the things i can do if you let me go on this raid. what's interesting is long street is actually communicating information from lee to stuart, and he thought that stuart was going to take the northern route. in fact, he was shocked. in fact, he was surprised that
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lee did not tell him, take the northern route because that northern route would have been, i think the story of gettysburg would have been very different if he'd of taken that northern route. am i out of time? okay. well, thank you for coming. i appreciate it. [ applause ]. you can be a part of the national conversation by participating in c-span's student cam video competition. your opinion matters so if you're a middle or high school student, we're asking you to create a five to six minute documentary that answers the question how does the federal government impact your life. your documentary must show supporting and opposing points of view on a federal policy or program that affects you or your community using c-span video clips which are easy to find and access at c-span's student cam competition awards $100,000 in total cash
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