tv The Civil War Union General John Pope CSPAN November 10, 2021 11:57pm-12:57am EST
of new civil war. emerging civil war. i'm here to talk about dan welch, a very long time ranger at gettysburg national military park, where i had the pleasure of meeting and working with him for a couple of years. he is also the co-author of the ecw on the gettysburg campaign, coming out immediately on ohio and -- and an anniversary series that has just come out. and so, with not too much else to say, i want to introduce dan welch who is here to talk about, the man we love to hate, john hope. so here is dan welch, the man with too many labs are not enough free time. [applause].
what good evening everyone. one thing i've not shared with you is my love of the southern rock band lynyrd skynyrd. -- i've heard from some of their former managers in crew. and one of the things that i've heard is that as was lynyrd skynyrd getting popular and their fame was rising, a lot of their acts that they would open for talks, they would say, don't let them open with free bird, we can't top that. and so now i know exactly the situation that they were in, trying to follow gary
gallagher. but i want to thank my colleagues and all the members here at ecw, at the symposium. it's an honor to be back and you have that camaraderie, to talk about this defining moment in american history. but even more of a special occasion for me this evening because growing up, my superheroes didn't wear capes. historians i got to meet, battlefield i got to go to battlefields i got to go to. the opportunities to talk about an interesting person like john pope tonight in the room of such notaries as greg ray and gary gallagher is a true honor so thank you. where do we begin this evening? we are going to begin with perhaps one of the most famous moment in john pope's career and i ask you to bear with me as i read through dynamic words written 159 years ago. military proclamation of popes would begin with this, but us
understand each other. i've come to you from the west where we have always seen max of our enemies from an army whose business it spent to seek adversary and defeat him when he was bound was policies that attack and not affect in one instance has the enemy been able to place western armies and defensive attitude. i presume i've been called here the same system and leave you against the enemies, it's my purpose to do so and that speedily. i'm sure you long for an opportunity to win the distinction you are capable of achieving, an opportunity i shall endeavor to give. i desire to dismiss from your mind certain phrases which i am sorry to find so much invoke amongst you, i hear constantly of taking strong positions and holding them, winds up retreat and a base of supply.
as part of these ideas, strongest position of the desire to occupy, one from which he can easily advance against the enemy. let us study probable winds of retreats of our opponents and leave our own to take care of themselves. but us before us and not behind, success and lori are in advance from disaster and shame work in the rear. let us act on this understanding, predicting banners shall be inscribed with many of gloria's deed and your names will be geared toward your countrymen forever. for many contemporaries of john pope and historians over the last 159 years, the military proclamation for mark john pope's military career in the united states army. [laughter] a narrative that continues into modern works, a narrative for everything after this military
proclamation for the next several weeks across july and august, 1862 that everything is downhill for john pope and will eventually lead to his banishment to the west fall from grace in which he will never recover. tonight as we make our way through this program and talk about the events that will lead to that, i'm going to challenge you to think differently about this moment in the summer of 1862, to think differently about this idea of john pope falling from grace and the eyes of the lincoln administration and the eyes of many commanding officers in the federal army. i'm going to challenge you tonight to think about that word banishment used by popes contemporary 1862 utilized by historians ever since. so where does our story begins to understand john pope and
understand the events that will eventually take place in 1862, you need to understand where john pope came from, he was born in march 1822 in louisville, kentucky and he's the son of nathaniel pope, a distinguished figure from the state, former territorial secretary and delegate from the state of illinois territory, later a prominent federal judge in the illinois territory as well. pope would receive a strong education, he would graduate from united states military academy, 17th in his class of 56 graduating in 1842 he commissioned second lieutenant in the core of topographical engineer but despite this pedigree, pope has even more connections to propel him as the war breaks out, all of those years later. first and foremost, john pope as a collateral descendents of george washington. his uncle was united states senator from kentucky, his father's is a friend of a then
growing in popularity illinois lawyer, perhaps you've heard of him, abraham lincoln. his brother-in-law is a gentleman by the name of manning force, these men will become best friends ultimately will and our story tonight. last but not least, distant cousin john pope married the sister of one liter no as mary todd lincoln. john pope has an incredible connection with the very history and fabric of society aristocracy and political greatness in this country as well as the ability to secure the appointment to west point. in the years upon his graduation before the american civil war, pope goes on to serve several years in florida and survey northeastern force between united states and canada. upon the war in mexico, the fight under zachary taylor, monterey and winnipesaukee for
which he would be appointed first lieutenant and captain respectively. following the mexican-american war, john pope would work as a surveyor in minnesota, he go on to demonstrate the ability of the red river in 1850, chief engineer in the department of new mexico 1851 -- 1853. he be promoted regularly all the way up to rank of captain by 1856 and years immediately before the american civil war, he spent the remainder of those years survey for the pacific railroad. to say that john pope has performed service to his country before 1861 is an understatement. the experiences he gained throughout the 1840s and 1850s, training of topographical engineer will propel him to the front of the pack as the war began in 1861, to bring those experiences, bring the understanding of terrain and topography and commanding men on
the battlefield of the work beginning to break out. during the succession winter of 1860 -- 1861, john pope surveys on light duty. he's not the only one, high-ranking officers in the federal army will have the same privilege which would be george gordon meade. upon abraham lincoln's election, successful election in the fall of 1860, a seven-page letter to the newly elected president and he's going to start that letter by giving a lot of advice to the president elect on the state of the united states military at the time. that a lot of gusto if you will to write a seven-page letter to the newly elected president telling your thoughts on the state of the united states military but not only will he give me compact on that, include a caution if you will to be careful of some high-ranking officers that lincoln should
trust as they might be deception us. it's not just advice pope offers lincoln, it's not just advice pope has included in this letter, it's a way for pope to insert himself into incan's inner circle right at the outset of the work and it's our personality trait, a desire for promotion that will come back into pop's career time and time again, pope believes this letter will not only serve as entranceway into lincoln's inner circle but would put him in good graces of the future president to serve for future promotions for himself. pope will become ambitious starting here in the early days of the american civil war, never ending desire to rise through the ranks of his profession well i'll link back to this moment during the session when of 18615 the american civil war plays out, this personality trait will
become a double-edged blade although at times it will advance him to the ranks and glory you have a chief to set himself as well. when we can finally get a seven-page letter, i can only imagine is opening up, he sitting at his home in springfield, what is this? was this guy make me this letter? lincoln decides he's a promising upcoming officer so he sent an invitation to be one of four officers selected to escort president-elect washington d.c., the train will leave from illinois february 11 of 1861 and pope what later recall the moment i became a member, but an insignificant one, supporting surrounded kartik mr. blinken in the most wonderful journey, the like of which never made before since. at some time following his escort service washington d.c. and president lincoln, pope what
offer lincoln services as an aide to the president june 14 of 1861, instead he be appointed general volunteer with a date of blank to be effective of may 17 that year end immediately the state of illinois to recruit volunteers for the war effort. upon making his way out to ny, he wouldn't linger long in that duty of recruitment in the department of the rest under the command of major general john of vermont, pope assumed command of the district of north and central missouri in july with operational control along the mississippi river and its during this time he again you begin to seek pope's desire for promotion and glory and he'll enter a new phase, i knew trait to once again raise its head in the coming years of this work, utilization of politics to get what he desires. this moment back pope testing
fremont will utilize political connections behind fremont back to get him removed from command. the ultimate goal? do away with fremont who gets promoted to the popes, fremont is not oblivious to what's going on and he's convinced that pope has horrific intentions for fremont career and intentions toward fremont himself and it was demonstrated particular popes lack of action following fremont offensive plans in the state of missouri, that's going to sound familiar from august of 1862, a general cap box aggressive offensive actions on the plain of manassas. historian this moment, he says it's incompetent to offer a better explanation of this moment and treachery so he showed insubordinate spirit, yet another trait pope will continue
to refine as he continues to rise through the ranks continued traits of insubordination's from his commanding officers. by the end of 1861 after a minor action of blackwater missouri, pope continuing to rising notoriety amongst staff and other officers in his apartment as well as washington d.c. his latest victory, blackwater has proof to back up his claims of reputation of how good he is as commanding officer and he's going to utilize something he hasn't done yet by the end of 1861, he's going to utilize the press pretty going to bring more attention to him and press plays into how good he is, the more he makes the claims of brilliant officers beginning to work because attention is being drawn to him. all about attention will focus on replacing john fremont.
to replace him? another henry w as pope is slowly but surely rising through the ranks, stars on the rise setting him up for even more drastic all less than a year later as historical narrative of the last 159 years would argue, pope himself is a very interesting fellow. i'll give you some adjectives to describe general pope as a person in 1861. rough, bombastic, foulmouthed, direct speech, decisive action, blunt, despondent and silenced. a native of ohio and, i couldn't ignore this from a soldier guarding at ohio describing in 1861, he set those of serving under pope, know what a universal knowledge he has of cuss words. [laughter] with what artistic he could use
them. as pope continue to rise after that minor affair. liz: , one of his first setbacks from the first fall from grace would occur early the following year in 1862. february 1862, pope or find his wife very poor health. many pre-existing health conditions and now she's suffering even more from a recent pregnancy. pope is despondent, his recent command from 1861 broken up, there's no active campaign and sites and he's giving serious consideration to resign his commission. he decides perhaps it's best to pack up his wife, take her to her parents house and ride out the pregnancy and the challenges of health there in the company of family. reporter: right to his father-in-law and said she so far from her home in her life under the circumstances would be so unsettled and easy tells me
with anxiety for her. pope is despondent and silent because he's not getting promoted. he has small victories, he got fremont out of place, his star is beginning to rise, he's giving notice from higher ranking officers in washington d.c. but where's the promotion? for this man so eager to have his star rise. pope would be recommended by two prominent illinois politicians that would press the state governor of illinois and treasurer to give pope a regular army commission up to the rank of brigadier general. it's not working. they are applying pressure in the lincoln administration in washington d.c. and getting nowhere in this promotion. the lash out of lincoln, self-respect is already startled at what i've done and i cannot go further. esther lincoln's treatment of me has been so shabby that i would feel almost humiliated today to receive an appointment from him.
what an interesting fellow. clamoring to rise and get a promotion, the opportunity may be there and to humiliated to accept it. several days after he writes about this, pope start begins to rise again, he overcomes the setbacks four days after he writes a note about lincoln, he's given a chance independent command which if successful, almost guarantees a regular commission promotion. henry will appoint pope to the command of the army of mississippi february 30, 1962. he would recall pope from his time with his time in st. louis to give commands and as pope is willing to leave and except he talks with his wife to assure her that she would be okay and so he went. pope would be given command of 25000 men, largest command yet, order to clear obstacles on the mississippi river.
commanding officer henrik wants to capitalize on parental recent victories to move federal armies deeper into the confederacy itself, he wants to open the river mississippi river as far as memphis cut off retreats of pope garrison from columbus it will lead to one of pope's most successful actions in campaigns to that time, a movement on new madrid and islands number ten. pope would capture new madrid on march 14 and upon so, his commanding officer would heap praise on this already confident general. he would say i congratulate you and your command on the success which has crowned your toils and exposures if given the fatal blow to rebellion in missouri and proved yourselves were the members of the brave army of the west. pope will continue to make his next advanced toward imus number ten forcing surrender on april 7, officially opening mississippi river as far as
memphis. pope will receive credit of his campaign was a plotless victory, he would claim 7000 prisoners, the capture of general, 123 pieces of heavy artillery, 35 pieces from a huge quantities of supplies and ammunition and for total loss for hopes meant during the entirety of his campaign and actions was 32 men. he later report that his own success that he produced delighted him profound satisfaction everyone is heaping praise on john pope for early actions in 1862 and pope will once again rely on what he did following that small victory in blackwater missouri december 1861, he'd utilize the victory and media coverage thereof to resume to benefactors in the state of illinois or regular army promotion. pope will write to them
benefactors, he says you will see from the papers and generals dispatch that we now have a great success. i think richard gates and yourself with telegraph we can at once, he will promptly transfer me as a major general to the regular army. independent of the gratification of myself who were unable me to give my staff, my staff increased rank if lincoln is telegraphed in the spur of this victory? it so happens one of his political benefactors in illinois son was on pope's staff. his two political benefactors would resume their appeal to lincoln nonetheless and right we can from a transfer matrix genre john pope to the army with his present rank as a token of gratitude to illinois. gift one of her sons a position in the united states army who's so gloriously achieved the just reward we ask for. we can buy this time has come quite accustomed to pope's
personality and his relentless ambition. one of the things i love about how lincoln handles some situations, he does it in charm. it's very plain and easy to understand but firm. he writes back and he says i fully appreciate general poems blended achievement with invaluable results but you must know later general and the regular army are not as plentiful as blackberries. [laughter] despite this, his victories along the mississippi were enough to promote john pope to major general march 211862. pope service in the west was not done. immediately or take part in the following campaign of the siege against. publican illustrates one of those personality traits learned about, insubordination. during the campaign, siege of crime would advance his column
to quickly, disobey the structure of movie no faster than the other elements of the union army, in this case that command of the will. also disobey order from henry hallett by lawrence during the campaign about 4 miles east. this new trait that emerged constantly disobeying orders, including, not expelling one of pope's tools to promote himself. henry ordered the removal of the media and the press out of the army during the campaign and pope yet again is an insubordinate to his commanders orders. he enjoys posting of himself, he loves gossiping about others to those in the media and press. henry ford right in the moment say pope was no doubt an able man and good soldier but he talked too much of himself. of what he could do and what he ought to be done and he indulged
contrary to good discipline at all proprietary and free comments of his superiors and fellow commanders. in essence, what he's saying is pope has become consummate self promoter and i'll posit with that thought to let you know i've got some books back there the end of the program this evening for sale. [laughter] by the middle of june 1862, june 19 to be exact, john pope received a telegram from secretary of war. he sends it to pope and says if your orders will admit you and you can be absent long enough from your command, i'd be glad to see you at washington. when pope receives this, he's visiting with his family at st. louis at the time, his wife had just given birth to their first child named clara pope does not have time right now or a desire to go to washington d.c.
he's got time off from an active campaign that's wrapped up, his wife has just given birth, family are together in st. louis, interested going to d.c. pope asks for advice of his friend superior, henry, about what he should do and how it writes back, secretary of war in order you to washington if he deems proper but i cannot give you the lead because i think your services here our greatest possible self-esteem will send a second telegram from at this time orally pope to washington d.c. but throughout the exchange between pope and stanton, nowhere in their is a reason given why from st. louis to the nation's capitol. least of which does pope expect transfer to the east. as this is taking place throughout june 1862, pope men under his command take a moment to reflect on his abilities as their commander while he committed him throughout the recent campaign.
captain cyrus carpenter one day future governor of illinois write this, pope west park measures and covid it. i did not think much of general pope as a man i considered him a good general, calverley orally set general pope as i saw him appear to be like another one of those sound mind honest patriotic well-informed soldiers, i beg you to remember that as we go further in this program i learned about him if he understood his business and tentacles will pick general pope possessed the right conception of the american culture. that's to say the men in the ranks to be the real heroes of the war. sgt. and pope clement said to be sure he's given the blowing a little but reps fear and hated more than anyone else. as pope prepares to head to washington d.c., to others known to him will comment on the situation the moment pope leaves
to d.c. captain oscar jackson, a foolish brigade footnote pope's departure and regret we parted with pope for so long a time held our entire conflict as a commander. perhaps a man by the name of order ranger summed up the moment last as pope boards the train to leave st. louis. goodbye, pope. your grave is made. pope arrives to washington d.c. june 24, what he describes enthusiastic welcome, also reported in the philadelphian require, his wife wrote him a quick note and that this moment, this movement to washington d.c., this movement, this order, this meeting was perfectly, she was perfectly convinced it was leading to a greater purpose and that greater purpose was pope would not return to the west. she'd write this and her letter to her husband, i'm almost sure he will not have fremont and
perhaps mcdowell's department and you will then take the field against jackson. it is possible you may supersede mcclellan but i do not come up with my present white on the subject considerate lightly how clairvoyance was pope's wife in that moment. june 25, pope arrives to washington d.c. and he has his first interview that date with secretary of war, edward stanton. he goes and sticks stanton and there they sit, and they sit and they look at each other and size each other up, they have some faint chit chat about lighthearted topics and facet. stanton shares no reason to pope one day after being in d.c., there is a reason for it. stanton cannot say anything to pope until abraham lincoln gets back to washington d.c.
abraham lincoln left for west point june 23, he kept his departure a secret from those in washington d.c., a secret from the press heading up to west point to meet with general winfield to ask my views in writing to further dispositions to be made, lincoln is traveling to west point to meet with winfield scott asked scott if pope is capable of commanding several armies in the eastern theater of the war. sounds like we can place his confidence in pope and perhaps popes record issue has something to back it up with. although lincoln does not specifically mention pope in this conversation in the suitability whether or not he can take this command and account written down about this, it was certainly discussed, lincoln on his return back had a train stop in new jersey and he
shares with the press then why he had gone to west point and he alludes to the situation that it's grueling back in washington d.c. we can set when the birds and animals are looked at through a fall, they are seen as a disadvantage so it might be with you if i were to attempt to tell you why i went to see general scott. i could only say my visit to west point not have the importance which was attached to it that concerned matters you understand quite as well as if i were to tell you about it. now i can only remark that had nothing to do whatever with making or unmaking any general i
blabbed too much, he might draw a tighter rein on me. we can for a ride back to d.c. and the following day june 26, there will be another meeting between pope and edwin stanton, meet in private chambers in the war department, stanton will finally reveal there's a fiasco between jackson and fremont stanton conceives in this meeting that we can and himself are to blame for all that developed and come across from the fallout of the most recent campaign in the shenandoah valley. stanton says we make mistakes in the following ways. first, we played political patrons in command of his armies, shouldn't have done that. we also shouldn't have tried to regulate movement from washington d.c. after these commands were defeated across public, stanton and lincoln finally given to what secretary of the treasury has been are going about four weeks what they have been arguing, what he's been arguing is these two armies in the valley and urban mcdowell's army need to be united under one
commander following the defeat, cross keys of port republic lincoln and stan given, the genesis for lincoln's trip to west point, the genesis stanton pope east. testing reveals an objective for the newly created army, several in fact, three. the first objective of the army will be to protect washington. objected to, defend the shenandoah valley and objective three, disrupt virginia central railroad in the neighborhoods of charlottesville gordonsville by accomplishing these objectives, particularly threatening the final rail link with shenandoah valley, the administration, lincoln and stan to compel the confederates around washington d.c. as opposites, richmond, around richmond and mcclellan's army favorite pull away and ease mcclellan's way into the city of richmond. stan tells pope he's been called east to carry out these objectives and accept this time in the conversation stan stopped talking and they just look at
each other. there is this long awkward silence. stan finally says you don't seem to approve the arrangements i have outlined for you. pope response, mr. secretary, i entirely concur in the wisdom of concentrating widely scattered horses in front of washington d.c. and using them generally as you proposed but i certainly do not view with any favor proposition to place me in command of them. the title of tonight's presentation as john popes reluctant rise for the last 18 months, he's been doing everything he can to rise through the ranks now he sang i don't want this command. stanton is annoyed to say the least. you should be flattered i brought you up here, but i'm offering you this command and popes as i am grateful but i don't want this command.
pope is being reluctant to rise in this occasion. he says what you mean? why don't you want this? pope begins to explain, first of all there are three generals of this disparate army and all of them are my senior in rank. if we brought these armies together and i commanded them, it would humiliate these generals, they would be resentful with the sleepy carry to their troops under their command. so pope continues to explain those things. to decide what's best and he decides not best for him, for his reputation, not best for his comment abilities, not best for his command in the west. pope was later at that moment say my assignment to clement the army virginia by the president naturally occasion dissatisfaction among number of officers of high rank and no doubt a good deal of comment was
indulged in. no one stopped to inquire whether it was by my own action or even wish i came to washington or whether such transfer of military arrangement was or was not, satisfactory to me i did not desire a transfer but he'd been summoned from another theater to add to this already tense situation if he was commanding, despair armies brought together. pope also says it's going to take a long time to organize armies and discipline them get them better trained in the role of being a soldier. pope said i should be much in the situation of a strange dog without even the right to run out of the village. for the command he was to be given, he said for long hope under the most favorable conditions possible for success. stan is unconvinced. he says i hear your ideas of why
you don't want to do this but i've got to talk to lincoln so the following day, they meet privately at the end of the conversation, lincoln concludes pope is staying in the east and taking this command. june 27, pope will soon clement the army of virginia. lincoln has chosen pope for political purposes, not for his battlefield abilities. lincoln is not at this time ready to relieve general mcclellan. his other factors are going into this decision, secretary chase and edwin stanton have chosen pope because he will fight a hard relentless contest unsparing of southern populace especially in virginia. chase argues to lincoln and stanton about bringing him east and giving command primarily on the ground of policy and doing so with patronage. stanton told objective for pope is to humiliate mcclellan. imagine them placed in a situation you told your commanding officers this is not
the command for me, it will not be successful. being placed in this position with sub context and minds and now you are expected to be successful on it. pope premieres again and says i just don't want this position, send me back west but the question comes in at this moment for historical debate, who else would be the right fit at this moment? can administration needs someone outspokenly republican, pope fits that box. anti- slavery, check. suggesting using african-americans, federal military service, check. willing to wage a hardware against civilian populace, check. a commander that aggressive. all of these things mcclellan is not. new york tribune footnote pope was not the type of man to sit around and wait, he's a man of action, a man of bold -- and bayonet.
philadelphia public legislature would write he would bring order out of the chaos and be ready at once for offensive service. now pope takes command and eventually pope is going to be called into different meetings with lincoln and various members of the cabinet and stanton, lincoln and stanton are looking for advice pope on how to help mcclellan on the peninsula. mcclellan is screaming for reinforcement, lincoln and stanton are saying no, pope is saying all of this is bad news down there on the peninsula and basically tells lincoln and stanton the reality of the situation. pope said perhaps the biggest mistake been occurring is mcclellan's withdrawal toward the james river. at this moment, for a fourth time, pope says it's a big mistake what he's doing, if you do not order him to halt press the james river, i would prefer to return to the west. lincoln says no. again pope is reluctant from man
so ambitious, why is he turning this down over and over and over again? but popes stuck with his new role and he will begin to deal with the army of virginia and getting it ready for the next campaign. part of dealing with the army of virginia is dealing with the consequences and follow from the most recent campaigns they've experienced against jackson. i am having a problem here with our slide advancer. well, we'll just keep looking at pictures of those three guys. [laughter] i've always admired stanton's facial hair so -- [laughter] as he gets the army of virginia together, what he realizes is the things he talked about our holding true, there army of virginia is in the lowest
possible sense, their supply situation is disastrous, hardly any calvary to rely on, most of the calvary men have no forces so he sets upon the task of getting them ready as bestie can for a campaign and part of that is to issue these orders become so famous. the most of which was his military proclamation. that's the opening of many other offensive orders pope will issue. including general orders number five which is going to order off the land, general orders number seven holding local citizenry accountable for damage to railroad tracks, railroad cars, attacks on wagon trains, strugglers and etc. number 11 arresting all disloyal male citizens within union army, fear of operations if you will. all of these things have great effects and military
proclamation damaged them around the army of virginia, ceric relationships with mcclellan and his command and others, these other orders pope issued his gaining respect of the men and rank-and-file of the army of virginia. these orders are not radical. john hennessey respected historian on second manassas campaign for right that these orders are calculated out with the federal government changing approach to the war made necessary by failure or at best, stalemate on the battlefield. the goal of these orders is to bring hard edge of more to the southern people as a whole. in the end, these orders pope issues would serve as a political weapon by lincoln in the lincoln administration against mcclellan and conservative approach of work. john pope is going to wage a new style of warfare in the summer of 1862 in virginia. when pope finally get command,
he's commanding from washington d.c., he's made an arrangement with lincoln, he wants mcclellan removed from command, lincoln tells him no, not ready to remove him from command so they make a compromise. pope is the one responsible for bringing henry, did you know that box pope says they won't release mcclellan how did you bring my former commander in the west, henry come out here and supervise the armies in virginia? lincoln agrees but there is text to the compromise. you are my de facto military advisor. pope will have to organize his army and organize a campaign while he is still stuck in washington d.c. to prepare for the second manassas campaign ultimately as it would become known, objectives of the campaign he's given, not his objectives, the objectives given are very limited. the first objective for this developing campaign for virginia, to cover washington d.c. number two, oppose and delay confederate offense, last
extremity to allow the army to make their way to alexandria and fredericksburg and link up with the army of virginia. number three, pope to attack critical rail line communications in charlottesville forced robert e lee to send enforcement away from the confederate capitol and mcclellan can hopefully turn the tide of campaign on the virginia peninsula. these challenges, all of these things pope is fighting against again to change him and they way on head. what a great reputation he has, we'll say this about popes challenges, how do they expect with an inferior force, with jackson? give me and my division with pope and popes army, i would breathe again. several days into the campaign, popes men are defeated at the magic and defended at cedar
mountain and pulling back from that battlefield surrender the initiative to robert e lee. lee will see is that immediately and begin to capitalize on all that it will provide him. the second manassas campaign continues to unfold, row and the army of virginia plummets brother, many men feel they are needlessly sacrificed after the defeat of cedar mountain, they are not be supported. ... >> by the middle of the month of august hope is beginning to learn that these objectives are set upon pressing his army and he began to make that series of
decisions that are going to be to what will happen at the end of the month. but by the second to the last week of august, john pope starts make mistakes but he said pretty well in this campaigns of our other areas held at cedar mountain and he is holding some of the strategies and some of the campaign objectives that houston gave him but by august 25th of 26, he has gone completely off the rails and the stress of this command and the stress of the objectives, all that subject that we talked about is weighing on him heavily. john pope is uncertain about lee's intention no reinforcements about how he's been promising for the last two weeks and they have arrived is receiving no specific order from washington or him telling him what to do next as a relates to his campaign objectives and the only thing that he's getting from washington dc are the following instructions from pallet and impossible to attack the enemy and, do so and possible to get in the rear, pursue with vigor.
[laughter] i mean,, what is he supposed to do and by august 26, john pope is already starting to look at ways to get out of the predicament and the only thing he can think of on the 26th to retire but if he retires he believes he would be reduced in command as he would be demoted his actions by the following morning on its way seventh john pope comes up with two other ways to get out of this predict event and he believes that one of the things he could do again is to retire the fredericksburg link up with a command but he feels that if he doesn't his army will be straight from straightfrom him. and then transit on this campaign and in detail he speaks out of this and secure my reputation and and and my start and continue to rise it leads to the battle of the second and john pope admittedly will commit
numerous blunders. his biographer peter will say at times he was erratic during the battle that john pope continued in wishful thinking rather than claim reasoning and continues to dictate gabby petito enter john pope's actions in choosing to disregard about his senses that his better judgment. and there in the field lt. when saying that general pope seemed wholly at a loss and what to do and what to think and he said that he did not know where his own men were or where jackson was buried we all know how the battle of the second played out. pope would retreat back to washington dc and eventually he would be relieved of command and we moved to the end of this program this evening talking about that moment where everyone in the historiography is about 159 years, the most and even his canterbury argues that he defeats his replacement of command and is banishment to the
west, ultimately we's fall from grace in the eyes of the lincoln administration but it couldn't be further from the truth. and late august of 1962, as they were playing out of virginia, abraham lincoln and edwin stanton are ignoring desperate pleas for help from the governor of minnesota. there is a serious serious war waging out there, an uprising of the dakota war of 1862. they need help and lincoln and stanton had been focusing all of their energies on virginia and john hay one of lincoln's private secretaries and got out there months earlier he comes back and tells lincoln that this war is growing more extensive other than they need help. now if pope had lost confidence in lincoln, and instead in and he's being banished out was would you send someone that is so inept that was defeated the second to go to be in charge and carry out a war by themselves in
minnesota. where would we call ago, he would back to new jersey, not a whole lot going on there. in this guide went to another theater of the war that is been forgotten about an pope thrives once again any handles the war the dakota war of 1862 with brilliance in a continue to the star rise through 1863 into 1864 and he continues to impress all of his superiors to the point that as the opening movements of the campaign began printed you know grant called post and an pope east and congratulating him for everything is doing have them cancel print on how to deal with the situation in the west. it doesn't sound like some videos loss in confidence with the higher echelons of the military or the lincoln
administration. over the next several years, pope is going to continue to rise in congress and he will really rewrite how the united states government deals with indian affairs in the 1860s, and the 1870s and the 1880s. in addition to that john pope is going to be asked about his thoughts on and largely based on the british models, based on aristocracy and his hundred percent right and pope said that listen, that is direct opposition with this country stands for and will begin to issue number of changes that will radically change the armed forces in this country. pope and start continue to rise and at one point in hopes command on a share with you is a war is one by february 3rd of 1865, of takes command of the military command of missouri command of 41000 men and has the
largest geographic command in the united states. civil war are still in as a who star has fallen. in march of 1855, he ends to the department to his command and without pope is now in command of half of the size of the united states in march 1865. as he truly fallen so far from grace this command stretches from the red river north to the canadian border from the mississippi river west to the humble mountains of nevada. an pope has lived in very long life and dedicated a large majority of it to service of this country. so finally, retired from the military in 1866, as wife had passed away in 1888 and rarely left the house of the evidence obtained in september he went from st. louis to ohio to visit with his close friend, further lot was recorded the beginning of the program.
i was in the common ohio soldiers and sailors home. and during the evening of september 23rd, after dinner pope asked away in his sleep. the on-site sarge said that the cause of his death was a complete breakdown of his nervous system and letting loose of all vital force which is been very happily styled nervous prostration. he would be buried at the end of the week back in st. louis next two fields wife with full military honors in the war by 1870s and 80s have started to turn their thoughts about pope as the minor affair with john porter continue to plague his legacy as second manassas. and so upon his death the general hopes death causes an eminently useful patriotic and distinguished career barely half a century in his service of his country. and with all of program today, erected rise in the unavoidable all of john pope in this
ambitious man of 1851 and 1862, told lincoln standard this month command for me in this enough command of my abilities can doing nothing command they can carry out the objectives you want to give it. but yet he was forced to take a position in he did the best he could within any clearly made mistakes during the second analysis campaign and he became practically unraveled during the battle itself as fall from grace is not as far as historiography would tell you. and upon hopes death, the editors of the army and navy journal perhaps summed up his contributions. and try to restore his reputation of that fall battle of second manassas in august 1862 and are close our program this evening with military critics, may dispute is a general post capacity as a general in command of armies in the field and none however can deny that he was a faithful servant of his country and patriot and a scholar deserving
of the false commendations in a place in the hearts of his countrymen it with those who ultimate success make them for most of the leaders of their time. thank you. [applause] [applause] [inaudible]. please introduce yourself. [inaudible]. in your opinion if you thought john pope was conservative in his political appointment of an appointment brightest obviously has the pedigree just by the nation of his birth, the seven-page letter definitely puts him on the agenda of
lincoln and keeping in mind in his name bear for future promotions and i think that it is a method pope definitely has some political aspirations and political connections will make part of his higher promotions related politically as we heard from chase and stanton as for the promotions of the army of virginia but clearly pope is a pretty good officer and has a very good understanding of how to wage war in a successful in the west and obviously he has a setback at battle of second manassas in august 1862 but upon his return he's really overhauled the whole way the government deals in indian affairs not only to quelled many of the indian wars that are raging out there but also to overall military system in the postwar era so think that it's a 50/50 balance and he is definitely a capable officer but he also has some of those political connections to help his promotions.
>> excellent presentation dan. i'm curious in your opinion, who was the author of the generals five - seven - 11 pretty. >> so there's a contemporary sources as well as the review of some modern historians that say that the military proclamation as well as the general orders were not written entirely by pope himself which would then go really to rehabilitate some of his responsibility and they follow the effect of those orders and when it comes down to the military proclamation, many believe that general or edwin stanton had dictated a large portion of the military proclamation and also accounts to say that lincoln had refuted the military proclamation before pope and public rated and those same sources point back to general five - seven it 11 as
well the pope is not necessarily 100 percent of the mastermind behind his those individual orders and i think the truth lies somewhere in between. certainly pope is not issuing these orders without effort without somebody knowing the context and funding that would be stanton or lincoln or the very least but i would generally say that the war department and the lincoln administration had input on those orders. >> one more question. all right. last question. so general lee had contempt and was it well-founded rated. >> yes 100 percent and that is a result of the military proclamation and when the military proclamation comes out, and misleads robert e. lee labeling him and it's at that moment, many historians will argue that pope's army and commanded becomes lee's
objective in the leap they have had other plans for the summer of 1862, but upon the pope is lee's primary objective and we are going to wipe pope's army at the map and get him out of virginia and then we will deal with mcclellan's army back on the peninsula. [applause] [applause] our next speaker is tom at mellon. he is a lifelong student of history of the civil war. up until this year yet