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tv   Reel America Cuba - The Battle of America - 1960  CSPAN  July 8, 2021 2:45pm-3:37pm EDT

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we look back 50 years at the forces that collided on the capitol streets that spring with the journalist lawrence roberts. the author of mayday, 1971, a white house at war. a revolt in the streets and the untold history of manager's biggest mass arrest. at 8:00 p.m. eastern on american history tv on c-span 3. on november 2nd, 1960, a "new york times" television reviewer wrote, quote, an exciting new voice, provocative, sensible, and challenging came to television last night. dr. albert burke, former director of graduate studies at yale university. next, on reel america, we bring you that broadcast with educational television pioneer albert burke. burke argues that poverty, racism, and economic exploitation by u.s. corporate interests in prerevolutionary cuba led to the popularity of fidel castro who promised to make life better for his supporters.
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chapter one in the battle of america. chapter one was the battle of cuba. it was finished on january the 8th, 1959 here in havana. the kind of history these people began writing here was not intended to stop here. as the men who led this revolution see it, there are 19 more chapters to follow. one for each of the countries in south america where conditions are ripe for this. and this is revolution. as revolutions have gone throughout the world since the end of world war ii, this one in cuba holds no special honors or distinctions. but revolutions, the cuban revolution is very special. it's very special for several reasons, and all of them are pretty much a mystery to this
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fellow, john q. american here, who is particularly wrapped up in that cuban revolution. he doesn't really understand what happened in cuba back in january of 1959. despite the fact that no other person on this planet has a greater number or a variety of ways to read about, hear about, see about, and know about things, the tons of news print that he's read through and the untold hours of air time that he's listened to about turmoil andunrest and revolutions for years, none of that prepared him for today's cuba. he's confused, particularly so because, like thousands of other americans, he's been to cuba. as a matter of fact, he was there vacationing only a few weeks before that scene you saw on the screen a moment ago happened in havana. when he was there, there wasn't
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much to suggest to him that things would go as they have gone in that island country. what john q. american didn't see in cuba when he was there and what happened in cuba is tonight's "cuba: the battle of america." ♪♪ main street in almost any large city in any country south of the border. as it happens, this is one of the main streets in havana, cuba. modern hotels, gambling casinos, exotic restaurants, department stores, and office buildings. this is tourist alley. well known to most american visitors to cuba. to most american visitors, this is cuba. that is, it's all of cuba they usually get to see. it isn't cuba at all, of course. it's a transplanted bit of the united states from the air-conditioned hotels to the table linen and silver serving dishes in the restaurants. most of what you see on your screen was built by americans,
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in fact. in havana's case, much of that transplanted bit of north america was built by a very special group of americans who have given too many of the cuban people a somewhat peculiar picture of what life in america must be like. john q. there had a whale of a time in havana back in december of 1958 several weeks before castro reached that city. i'm albert burke. i'll try to tell you how and why this was the case. he lost quite a bit of money at the gaming tables in the casinos along tourist alley. many of which were built by a group of american racketeers with the profits of the crime sinned cats headquartered in new york and chicago which run most of the bookie operations, dope peddling, numbers and policy racquets. abortion mills, prostitution and poker houses in the united states. he enjoyed the food in the
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exotic restaurants served in tourist alley. many of them were built by the same men with the same kind of money. although he doesn't go for that kind of thing himself, he wanted that kind of feminine companionship, havana was famous throughout the whole of south america for the quality of its red light district, conveniently located a few blocks away from tourist alley. and this is a business enterprise which has been set up and run by the same racketeers who shared their hard-earned cuban pesos and american dollars tourist alley is of course not the whole picture of american
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dollars invested in the cuban economy, but it has always been the most spectacular part of that picture in cuba. and there are tourist alleys all over south america. for a dangerously long time, they have been the most important blocks to john q. american's understanding of what roy moore went on south of our border, what life was really like there. john q., you see is accustomed to the roam rubber mattress, tile bathroom way of life. he rarely moves away from this. there isn't much of that in asia or south america except in the tourist alleys that have been set up to kater to the world's 2 3/4 billion people who can afford to live that way. from the tourist alleys, no matter where they are, it is very hard to see the seeds of the revolution that spilled over
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into the world after world war ii, and most recently in cuba. very few americans are prepared now to see those seeds all over south america as which he guevara castro's right hand man last march when he described chapter one in the battle of america. 19 other south american countries are conditions that are ripe for castro's kind of revolution. what are those conditions? the pope john xxiii put his finger on them in his radio message to cuba's first national catholic convention last year. 500,000 cubans gathered to hear the holy father tell them, that and i quote, the face of the world could change if true charity were to rule, this is the charity of the christian man
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who knows that his wealth has a social function and that it's his duty to give who is above his own needs to those who are deprived of the bare necessities of life. unquote. pope john. what pope john xxiii was talking about was the kind of south america that could be seen a short distance away from any tourist alley in any country. the visitor in buenos aires for example, is always impressed by places like republic square and streets like the avenue of the 9th of july. buenos aires has some of the widest, best paved clean, and beautiful streets in the world and they are lined with the smartest shops and hotels. but the visitor rarely sees or hears about the place called the belt of misery which almost surrounds the beautiful part of that city. in this belt, more than a million argentines live under conditions of filth and poverty,
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which few north americans alive today have ever known and even fewer would understand. this gulf between the rich and the poor in every country south of border is the stuff revolutions are made of. not the kind that were known in every south american country before january of 1959, but this man's kind, which, as revolutions have gone in the world since 1945, is not particularly unusual. but in cuba, in latin america, mr. crass troe's revolution has been very unusual. fidel castro offered cuba's miserable ones, their poor, the human peasants, he offered them a better deal, a better life than they had ever known before. this group, with their families, make up about half the cuban population. he told this group in effect what his revolution would make
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what pope john meant by christian charity a reality for them. this revolution of castro's was the first in cuban history to base its policies and its power on the peasant. and his was one of the very, very few revolutions in modern south american history that was not fought between power groups, between the military, between the upper classes. in all other revolutions the peasants, the poor, the miserable ones took no real part, they couldn't have cared less who won, who lost, because their lives never changed anyway. but castro told that group that the revolution he headed was for them. he gave them a sense of political power. he gave them to understand what political power meant, and what could be done with it. they flocked to his support. today, almost two years later, they are his main support. despite an active growing opposition from the upper and from the middle classes and from the workers this the cities. the poor are still very solidly
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with him as the backbone of a revolution new to the western hemisphere. now these are the conditions that give men like which he guevara castro's right hand man the benchmark when he says this is only chapter one yet to coming in south america. quad rows was a candidate for the presidency of brazil. during that visit to cuba, he said this he would follow the example set by castro in his country if he was elected. he also said that brazil had many problems like those in cuba, problems of corruption, problems of inflation. and he said there was a long overdue need for basic reforms. well, three weeks ago quad rows there won brazil's presidential election with a landslide majority. if his opinions about the cuban
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revolution have not changed since that visit, chapter two in the battle of america may be written with or without south america's largest nation. whatever happens to castro in cuba or to his revolution in the future, whether castro stays on as the maximum leader as he's calls or whether his revolution fails, cuba will never be the same again. it will never go back to things as they were. south america will never be the same again either. pope john warned in that talk that the gulf between the rich and the poor had to be bridged. the continent to the south of us will never be the same again because the word's gotten around that that gulf can be bridged. that for the venezuelan, and the bolivian, and for the paraguyan and the brazilian indian, better lives are possible. schools to learn to read and write are possible. that one does not have to age quickly and die young, because
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of hard work and hunger and disease. that better houses to live in than mud huts and packing cases with tin roofs -- these things are possible. this word has gotten around. the trouble is, though, that this word is not being spread by christian men who practice a christian charity, as pope john suggested. it is being spread by revolutionaries who practice a very different method as suggested mean the men who offered these goods and services to mr. castro to help him try to stabilize his revolution in cuba. these are soviet jet fighters, the kind mr. -- of the ussr has offered cuba's maximum leader. they point out a problem which seriously disturbed and concerns all americans right now, the problem of a communist controlled or communist influenced military base in the americas. there are reports that in addition to the building of air fields for planes like these soviet technicians are at work
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in cuba now building hard missile launching sites which could cover every part of the united states. there are reports, too, about soviet and communist chinese technicians being submarine pens for possible future use by submarine fleets of the two communist powers. the reports which we here have looked into and which we would like to have you look into, too, after a short time-out. what we have heard about the activities of russians and chinese in ruba today has come to us from men like ray robinson, for example, who was a pilot for cubana airlines. robinson was a first lieutenant in the united states air force before that. and a short time ago he told our man in miami, alexander roark, about soviet ambiguous planes, missiles, and submarines in cuba. >> how many missions would you say that they have there?
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>> at the time i was there, the last count i have was 35. but there has been an amount of time since that time. so they might have more because there have been shipping in there. >> have you seen the russians? >> yes, i have seen them, on a few occasions. also i have seen a few chinese. >> what about, we have heard these rumors of rocket ways and so forth in cuba. what have you heard about them? >> i understand at this present time that they have actually started construction on what closely resemble as rocket base in that area. i have never seen it myself, but i have have various reports from reliable sources that they were there, and also an fairfield for larger type aircraft.
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>> do you know anything about the submarine building around key largo. >> yes, we have. we have heard many rumors. many people there will talk about construction and refuelling. >> and the reports go on with neil mccauley next. he was an american who fought for castro, was given a farm for his services and then pulled out of cuba to escape the communist take over there. said mr. mccauley. >> there were a number of people that came from behind the iron curtain. there are a number of russians. and probably more chinese. chinese communists. and a various assortment of checks -- czechs and poles, hungarians and euro slavs. the russians are the most
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conspeck use because they always go in groups of three or four. they always have to have a secret policeman or communist party member among the group and they don't mix with the people at all. they wear these heavy blue third suits in the tropics. and they are -- they are out of place. they just look foreign to any cuban. >> have you met any of them? >> well, i met a agricultural team in the province. >> what do you think these people are there for? are they just agricultural technicians? or do you think they have more important doings? >> i am sure there is a get infiltration of secret service, secret policemen or intelligence agents mixed into this group. and of course i am certain there are political organizers too.
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>> what ray and neil were talking about in these interviews was the problem of cuba right now as most americans see it. and this is the problem of a communist-controlled or a communist-influenced military base in the americas, which poses a direct, head-on, military threat to our homes, our factories, and to our future. these are theons obvious things that concern and disturb us about a cuba in which the only organized political party allowed to operate today in cuba is the communist party. these are the obvious things about today's cuba. but they are not necessarily the most important things. certainly not in an age of intercontinental airpower. ♪♪
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enter continental ballistic missile power. these, by the way, are soviet rockets. but especially missile-carrying nuclear submarines, which mr. cruise chev informed the world in a speech two weeks ago were now operational in part of the ussr submarine fleet. the soviet union and communist china are just as aware as we are of the enormous importance of a missile-carrying sub as a moving, hard to spot missile launching platform. no base on land, whether it is cuba or any place else can compare with this in today's kinds of warfare. now, this does not mean that military bases on land have no value anymore. but it does mean that cuba is not particularly important to a communist russia or to a communist china as a military
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base. you see, the leaders of those two communist powers have other, bigger, and much more important goals in mind in south america than just a military foot hold on an island in our front yard. cuba is particularly important to the soviet union, and the communist china in other ways, about which john q. american there -- and that means all 180 million of us -- knows little or nothing. mainly because it's very hard for him or for anyone else to see men like these from the tourist alleys south of the border. these men, seldom, if ever, get into the hotels, the bars, or the gambling casinos of those alleys. but these men and what move them to kind of revolution they pulled off successfully there almost two years ago makes that island, the island of cuba, particularly important to both of the communist powers.
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what is there about those men and their revolution in cuba that's so special? well,ing in that this fellow is supposed to have decided about 43 years earlier as he tried to make another revolution stick work in russia. the man addressing this crowd is lenin, the father of his country, the first communist-governed country in history. lenin had to face a problem soon after his followers had taken over the russia revolution to set up the first communist state. his problem was that russia was supposed to be only one of many states that would explode in revolution after the first world war. there was supposed to be a rising of workers and peasants all over the world to lead to a communist world. but this didn't happened. lenin is supposed to have decided at that time that the best way to bring about a communist future for the world would not be by concentrating on revolutions in the advanced industrial nations but by working for revolutions in the colonies, in what were called
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the spheres of influence for the. pir powers, britain, france, the netterlands, portugal, and all the rest. lenin is supposed to have phrased that decision in these words, and i quote, the way to victory for communism over the west lies by way of peck i think and calcutta in asia. well, the experts on soviet affairs have never been able to get together about this statement. some say lenin did make it. some say he didn't. but this doesn't really matter because another soviet leader did say much the same thing only a few years ago, this man, shortly before he died back in 1953. stalin said that the way to victory for communism in the world lay in an alliance of the soviet union's interests with those of the former colonial and oppressed people's of the world. lenin's statement has been around longer than this man's but both statements lead straight out of the past to the
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kind of history that has been made by communityists since the world of world war ii. in asia, what these statements have to do with men like these, we will get into in a moment. those statements also lead directly out of the past to these men, who, by fidel castro's own definition are among the world's former colonial and oppressed peoples. now, according to that division, cuba was first made a colony of and oppressed by spain. this was in the early 1500s. well, the spanish-american war put an end to spanish rule if their island country. but cuba then became what amounted to a colony of and was oppressed by the united states. this was in the late 1800s. according to castro, this situation lasted until about january 8th 1959 when his revolution reached havana to finish chapter one this the
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battle of america. this may not be history as you know it from your american history books, but it is the kind of history these men believe which is now being written into cuban textbooks for the primary and secondary schools in their country. for juan desperado here it was the kind of history that this man wanted to see ends. juan had one burning ambition when he joined castro in the mountains back in 1956. his ambition was to see cuba free. that is free of a government and a way of life that allowed what this man called foreign interests and big land owners to take cuba's farm lands away from cuban farmers to be worked for benefit of people outside cuba. what he had in mind specifically was seven companies that owned about 5 mlt acres of cuban farm
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land a which turned over agricultural products that cue cubans use and profits that few cubans saw. the seven companies had their home always in the united states and those 5 million acres were half of all the crops in cuba. they were big dividends to american investors off in the united states. this was colonialism to want desperado. so this man fought for what he called freedom, and for land reform in his nation of mostly farmers. his friend, nunez eye barz here had worked for several years as a mcknick in the guantanamo military base. nunez was one of eight children born to peasants who owned no land who made their living cutting cane for one of the 161 sugar grinding mills on the island.
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until nunez was 15 years old his world reached all the way from his bohillo to the general store in the village. the bohillo was home. a squat usually windowless airless shack made up of leftover palm degree lender. it was home to hundreds of thousands of cuba's peasants who lived and worked their lives away under conditions that were the rule in europe about 1,000 years back. these are primitive farming conditions under custom the peasants aimed fast and died young. nunez was 15 years old when his father died at the ripe old age of 36. his father was helped to an early death by a variety of infections and diseases that still affect most of his people. that is outside the cities. there were health services in a, there were good ones, too n the cities, but they didn't quite reach down to the level this man and his family. hunger reached down to the level this man, though.
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nunez new hunger every year of his life, even when his parents both had jobs during the sugar time. during the very long off-sugar season when there was no other work of any kind to be had things could get desperate for these people. nunez joined castro in the mountains in 1956, and he had one burning ambition by that time, which was to see cuba free, free of governments that did little or nothing for the bulk of cuba's people, that is the farming peasants. and free of a way of life that kept the peasants out of the 20th century. nunez worked up this burning ambition while he worked at the american naval base at guantanamo, which like most of tourist alley in havana was a transported bit of america. at guantanamo, he saw america up close, in decentess housing, good schools, good medical care,
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and in good wages. he heard all about the good life on the base radio. he saw it in american moving pictures, and on television. and nunez was converted. nunez took to the hills with castro to fight for what he called economic reform. what he meant was the kind of economy that spelled the good life for americans. and this meant industrial development for cuba that would give them what you see on your screen. it meant a drastic overhaul of cuba's farming set up which kept farmers back in the middle ages. nunez had no idea how this could be done. he only knew that it had to be done. and his friend, jose martinez here, agreed with him. jose joined castro in 1956, too. because at that time, jose had one burning ambition. and that was to see cuba free. free of governments and a way of life that allowed what this man
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called foreign interests to dig up and haul out of cuban mines such things as chromite, manganese, copper and nickel. jose, you see, was a miner. although he received pretty good wages working for the cuban branch of an american company in the united states he resented the fact that cuba's mineral riches were not being worked in cuba to make more jobs and better lives possible for his people. instead, cuban iron ore as an example was shipped off to places like the tide water plants of the bethlehem steel company off in baltimore more. cuban jobs were making lives better for americans. jose wanted the see economic reform in cuba, too, that is the kind that would force cuban users of cuban minerals and ores to process and mine them in his
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country. a he saw history, every since 1511, foreigners, first spain then the united states had been pulling minerals and ores out of his country without any benefit to cuba. he was on his way with castro to bring about that change. it was change that interested pedro jimenez here, too. but pedro's interest in change casse not quite the same as the others. this man had a burning ambition, too. and that was to see cubans treated as dignified human beings, that is as the equals of all other men. and right now, there is no subject about which practically all the world's peoples around europe and north america are more sensitive. just as pedro here is sensitive about, racial prejudice. sensitive people like pedro which changed the whole political map of the world.
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in that kind of world, people like pedro have made cuba particularly important to communist east european and to the communist chinese. because, you see, the kinds of world these men live in is shot through with the need for land reform. and this is the very thing juan desperado back there fought for in cuba. the world these men live in desperately needs economic reforms, industrial development to change the land from the poor agricultural place it is to the industrial place it could be. just as jose martinez fought for this in cuba. in that kinds of world, nunez and jose have made cuba particularly important to a communist russia and china, because those are the kind of interests which not too long ago
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joseph stalin said the soviet union should line up with in order to bring about a final victory for communist over the non-communist west. because john q. american doesn't privilege in that kind of world, he doesn't see the kind of cuba these men fought over in revolution. for which reason he doesn't really understand how serious a threat to his way of life the kind of cuba they helped to set up has back. somehow, despite the fact that no person on this planet has a greater number or variety of ways to read about, to hear about, to know about things, there hasn't been much in in the tons of newsprint that john q. pattern has read through, and the uncountable hours of time he has listened through to help him know how and why the words "land reform" have been and still are the stuff that revolutions are
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made: he hasn't read much about how and why the kinds of economic reforms that eye barz and martinez want to see are so lard for cuba and the rest of the world to get. unfortunately, for millions of other americans just like him, there hasn't really been muched passed on to him through all those ways he has to know about things, which would disprove the idea that he really is a better human being than cubans, or indians, or chinese, or negros, among others. after all, compare his kind of life with theirs. if those people had minds that were just as good as his, and if they can do things just as well as he can, why haven't they done what he has done to live so well? well, let's get into that one after we have a short time-out. about two months ago i spoke to a half dozen young people
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from different parts of south america who were in the soviet union as students here at the university of moscow. their tuition was free, their transportation was paid. all of them were from small towns and villages in their respective countries. when they finished their studies in this place they intended to head back to those towns and villages. how did they feel about this opportunity? very grateful, they told me. what kind of program was it that put them in that university in the soviet capital? it was a special program in a began two years ago in communist china and last year in the ussr to educate and train young ecuadorians, bolivians, paraguayans and the rest in the ideas and the way of marx and communism and also in the ways of specially selected subjects. those young people trained here, sent back to their villages and towns will wait for the day to
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do what has to be done to stabilize any revolution. if castro's revolution goes well and with the communism help the next 19 chapters of the battle of america is written. the students trained there will have the chance to step into power in their countries. and there isn't much doubt about this. this will happen for very much the same reasons that cuban communists are moving into power in cuba now. you see, fidel castro could fight a revolution without people trained in economics and in finance and in problems of transportation and communications, without training and running businesses industries and agriculture. but castro could not stabilize his revolution without such people. when i asked those young south americans at the university of moscow this summer what courses they were taking, interestingly enough, they were studying economics, finance, problems of
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transportation, communications, and the rest. it's an important characteristics of revolutions that they leave political, social, and economic vacuums. because the people who run revolutions find that they cannot trust the people they revolt against. and in order to make their futures secure they often use very effective methods to ensure that people like these will not endanger their revolution. this fellow on your screen may have been trained in some important field of government work. but to these men, he's the enemy. in dealing with such enemies the way you are about to see, what you are about to see is the stuff that vacuums which follow revolutions are made of. you are witnessing an
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execution, an execution of a former military commander in cuba. he's been given the choice of giving the command for his own execution. and so enemies disappear in revolutions. >> you see, it's an important characteristics of the vacuums created by revolutions. it's an important characteristics of vacuum as any good physics experts will point out that vacuums can be filled, and filled easily. who was there in cuba that castro and his revolutionaries could trust? not from the upper and worker or military classes because toes were in the groups they overthrew? who was there in cuba, among
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those farming villages, who could step in to fill the vacuum after castro came to power? where were the non-communist educated and trained people from those small towns and villages to fill that vacuum? in other words, what force have we prepared? what force are we thinking about preparing now, as the soviet union and communist china are now preparing those young south americans in special schools? what force have we prepared against the day of revolution that was written all over cuba to see for years? as it was written all over asia and africa to see for years. and as it is written all over south america today to see, too. outside tourist alley, that is. those training programs for south american students in moscow and in key king are communism's investment in the future. and this is the future that mr.
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stalin laid out through places like cuba as the way to a communist future for the world. and this is the same future that mr. crew chef and mao tse-tung now assured the world will some day be theirs. what investment have we made or are we thinking of making to see to it that that future will not be crews chef's or mao tse-tungs? is this our investment against a communist future for the world? this is a meeting in miami, florida n that city's flagler park. this is a troup of cuban exiles who call themselves the alliance for liberation. these people have one burning ambition today. and that burning ambition is to see cuba free, but this time, free from castro. there are all kinds of cuban groups like these, most of them disyou united, disorganized, but intensely wholly committed to
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revolution against castro. >> i was commander of the base. i was chief of the army school there. when communists were sent to teach at the school i reported this to fidel. this was last march. i then realized that fidel, too, was a communist. i had to go underground and took refuge in the brazilian embassy in havana. after three months, i was transported to brazil and then came to the united states. i am member of the anti-communist christian front and the alliance for revelation. i am ready to join those already fighting castro. >> this is dr. antonio verona. he was speaking of cuba's
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senate. then he was prime minister. today he is an exile and a counter-revolutionary. and his group is called the thennico party. then this man headed cuba's development bank where he saw reetsds for money sent to agents working for castro and the communist in other countries in america. he escaped and today is the head of the democratic revolutionary front. and this man was once minister of cuban education. he was a strong antibattista man. this is a captain who left cuba. he heads a group called the counter-revolutionary movement of revolutionary recovery. this man who went to school and college with fidel castro. today he is the wrans against
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the driven revolutionary matter, the fastest growing counter-revolutionary movement in cuba. and pedro, the former head of castro's air force. he was the first cuban official to defect. he came to the united states by sail boat and warned about a communist takeover in cuba. to back up the hopes of those counter-revolutionary groups tools like these are being collected, second-hand weapons of all kinds, custom are loaded into small beats like these for increasingly dangerous trips to cuba bringing in supplies and bringing out refugees and fugitives from castro's police. in this way many exiles have gone back to kouba to fight. and many of those exiles have died. many more will. at this point, john q. american, you and i face a problem. are those highly emotional, disorganized, many interested
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counter-revolutionary cuban forces with no clear-cut program to meet the problems of the cuban -- of a cuba that those men fought under castro to correct -- are those people armed with the latest weapons, weapons like these, put in their hands where they practice the use of these weapons not far from miami, florida -- are men like these, with this kind of training later to be carried out of the united states in american ships? are these men and these weapons to turn cuba into a battleground again? the question is, are those groups you saw and the methods you saw there to be our investment to keep the battle of america from going communism's way in the other 19 countries south of the border? the question is, is this an
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effective answer to communism anywhere in the world? how does this solve the problem of land reform? how does this solve the problem of economic reform, of industrial development? how does it solve the problem of race prejudice? as these things are the stuff revolutions are made of in today's kind of world. let's go to mr. mccauley again to get a view of this. >> do you think that the united states should intervene or just what do you think is the solution? >> i don't have a solution. this is a tough problem. i would like to see some steps taken. i don't know what the united states can do as far as aiding the cuban people and ridding themselves of the communist dictatorship. i think something more has to be done than we did in hungary.
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we have to give these people some sort of help but just what help, i can't say. >> what about the possibility the cubans within cuba and the exiles from outside doing something? do you think they have much of a chance. >> frankly, i don't think they have much of a chance. the situation gets worse as time goes by. the chances of overthrowing castro diminish with time. the russians are getting a strangle hold on cuba now. they are sending in their -- the arms, the equipment, the planes, the tanks, everything castro needs to put down any popular rebellion. >> there is more to come on this subject in just a moment. we live in the world of the juan desperados and the jose martinez. from indonesia around the world to cuba, it is a world of exploing populations desperately in need of lands eform, economic reforms, in
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agriculture, and in setting up industries. and a world sensitive to the point of explosion about the idea held by too many white-skinned people that they are somehow better than dark-skinned people. these are some of the more important things revolutions are made of today. but communityists didn't create them. -- communists didn't create them. these problems showed up before bolshevik was out of die first and would be around if every communist on earth were to kick the bucket and die off this minute. communists didn't create the stuff today's revolutions are made of. but they have fed on that stuff. the russian revolution was not a kbhunist revolution back in 1918, but it became one. and nothing did more to keep the communists in business in that country about 40 years ago than
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the idea that was tried then by this country and others in europe to deal with the stuff of revolution there by backing russian counter-revolutionary groups with bullets. more than three years of bullets and counter-revolution in russia did not destroy communism there for two reasons. first, the bullet hasn't been made yet that can shoot our way out of the kind of problems that exist in the world of men like juan desperado and the martinezs. second, that was the easy answer to problems that have no easy answer. cuba is not russia. with today's weapons, that country, that island, could not only be overrun, it could be wiped out in minutes. but cuba is like russia in the sense that bullets and counter-revolution are no better solution today for the problems
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of land reform, economic reform and expelosiing populations than they were 43 years ago in russia. look hard at history as it happens, particularly during the past 15 years. 15 years, and some $90 billion after world war ii, despite all the military pacts, the treaties and the defense of alliances we have put through in the best top hat, cut away coat and striped trouser kinds of diplomacy. despite military assistance, technical assistances economic aid and programs communists have fed on the stuff that makes revolutions, have taken over other people's revolutions right into cuba here in the western hemisphere for two reasons. first, the dollar hasn't been printed yet that can buy our way out of the kind of world the juan des practiced owes live in.
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and second, bullets and counter-revolution are still the easy answer to problems that have no easy answer. there are no easy answers to deal with the stuff revolutions of made of. there are no easy answers to communism. there is only hard work. hard work by each individual thinking and voting american who must work hard to understand that the key to the survival of our way of life today lies in dealing with the kind of world those men live in, not just understanding it, but willingness to work in it, away from the tourist alleys, and the tiled bathroom kind of life, to defend america. and not just in the battle of america which mr. castro has in mind for south america, but in the battle of the worlds, which communism has in mind for this whole planet. this means hard work to face head on and deal head on with
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the problems of exploding populations, land reform, economic reform, but most important, the demand by human beings everywhere, even here at home, for dignity. to do this by other means than bullets and blank checks passed around by blank minds. until we do this, it will not be communism that wins the world. it will be democracy that loses it. i am albert burke. we haven't finished with this subject. we'll be back. but thank you for being with us tonight. and good night. ♪♪
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tens of thousands of anti-vietnam war protesters converged on washington, d.c. in may of 1971. more than 7,000 of them were arrested in a single day. tonight on american history tv, we look back 50 years at the forces that collided on the capitol streets that spring with journalist lawrence roberts. he's the author of may day 1971, a white house at war, a revolt in the streets, and the untold history of america's biggest mass arrest. that's at 8:00 p.m. eastern here on american history tv on c-span3. next, on american history tv, international spy museum yum

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