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tv   Reel America Universal Newsreels on Cuba 1959-1961  CSPAN  July 7, 2021 10:34pm-10:55pm EDT

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60 years ago on april 17th, 1961, exiled forces backed by the cia mounted a failed invasion at cuba's bay of pigs. next, on real america. a compilation of universal news reels from the january 1959 cuban revolution. through the end of april, 1961. the chronology reveals how
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initial enthusiasm for fidel castro turn to skepticism. then, opposition. as the island nation allied with the soviet union and china. >> from his stronghold in the wild sierra mountains, cuba's fidel castro emerged triumphant after two years of guerrilla warfare against the bautista regime. the revolution that began with castro a fugitive, practically alone landing with 82 followers, nearly wiped out by government forces and did with the fighting viktor bader and the entry into havana of rebel forces to be a claimed by the city. the forces of castro's 26th of july movement name for the anniversary of his first attack on the regime in 1953 have grown vastly. the power in largely concert by
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surrendered army weapons. nearly two years of hit and run warfare aimed at toppling bautista's government by paralyzing cuba's economy, culminated victory as 1958 and it. castro man in all of government offensive with a counterattack and in the battle for the key rail center of santa clara on the crucial victory. bautista resigned, and fled the country. he's rejoicing in the capital, as the first elements of rebel forces entered havana. . i first, the celebration was peaceful as shouting, cheering crowds entered the city. . he then are nine oddly mob hit the streets. this targets the symbols of the overthrown regime and the counseling casinos are homes and businesses that bautista
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started. six years of surface prosperity and government corruption brought police brutality and widespread content. now, bautista has flight, a new leader is on the scene. fidel castro, and many ways and unknown earnest politics in police but certain to be dominant in cuba's new era, just begun. fidel castro with flamboyant, trauma emits traces unchallenged power over cuba's masses. he announces his resignation as premier and the response is explosive. walk outs from havana shops and factories, mass demonstrations by workers and university students, calling on castro not to resign. telling castro the maximum leader of the revolution. the president, shown just after
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the revolution when castro installed him as provisional president, then one of the heroes of the people was ousted to be replaced as president by office volatile. former minister of revolutionary laws. but it is certain whoever may be president or premier, fidel castro is the number one man in cuba. and unemotional for our broadcast that evening, he accused the former president of near treason, toppling him from the rule of to one threatened by mob violence. fidel castro's dramatic show of strength that makes it clear that after six and a half months, he is still riding high on a wave of turbulent, -- 1 million mulling president trying to square before cuba's national talents, in response to the cult of for you gayle pastoral for celebration of the six than you are three of his 26th of july revolutionary moment. this perhaps the greatest mass rally ever staged in the western hemisphere. i telling demonstration of
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castro's way over the cuban masses. showing another aspect of his character, the unpredictable castro towns of facebook uniform to fight your full inning in a benefit game for his agrarian land reform and. his new president tosses the first ball and the game is on. castro pitching is credited with striking out the three batters he faces. that's one game, where he really has to be careful. viva fidel. in havana, soviet premier, opens a counter part of the recent soviet affair in new york city. of more significance is the presence of premier fidel castro at these opening ceremonies. his one week visit and affair are part of a broad program to move the goodwill of castro and cuba. while he was boosting russian industrial and military achievements, his
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intelligentsia heard soviet composer, leading the city symphony orchestras. despite isolated and demonstrations, the soviet may have made real progress towards building up trade and reestablishing diplomatic relations. thus, adding to americas headaches and our troubled relations with this caribbean neighbor. cuba celebrates the seventh anniversary of castro's revolutionary moment with a read chinese delegation and one from bolivia along the court of 1 million who march past fidel castro's reviewing stand. the servants in the foothills of this heroes trip, where directed the revolt against the bautista regime, as one of castro's a few recent public appearances. suffering from a lung infection for weeks, he has now decided his duties at doctors orders to take a plea rest both mental and physical. although doctors say his recovery is assured, castro's brother, raul, who was enjoying
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this triumphant -- hurried home. he is fidel's prime minister, the number two man in cuba's revolutionary government and here in moscow's trade union house, he seems to respond eagerly to the soviets wooing of cuba. an ailing fidel castro has caught feeling of the closing section of the pan american youth conference in panama. he gives a funny, talk -- and the monroe doctrine. after reading for half hour, the cuban premier he loses his voice. but he big gains enough strength to come back and announce his latest draw that against the united states. the seizure of three quarters of a billion dollars of american owned properties in cuba. ♪ ♪ ♪ castro promises to pay for it
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all in 50 years. but at the rate the cuban economy is failing, the payoff may come sooner than we expect. the court -- yankees, no. american owned cuban electric company, recently nationalized by the government, along with the telephone company, also american world. this is definitely a pro castro crowd enthusiastically defacing the telephone company building. they do have the -- coaches that the u.s., when he calls fascist priests or to defeat the revolution. he says his government has been generous to the church, but there are no questions that the funeral of the telephone company. in costa rica, the organization of american states vote sanctions against the dominican
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republic, led by venezuela we complain that the dominican trio had orders and attempted at assassination on venezuela's president. not presented and diplomatic sanctions are voted. the united states secretary of state takes up the next topic, calling for action to meet the influence and cuba. the reaction to the debate in the oas was explosive. and cuba, castro to the hemisphere organization and at friendship for the over the soviet union and communist china. the oas took positive action against dominican strongman rule by joint efforts of the american states to cope with infiltration by political compromise for the castro regime that resulted in worsening. but as even as cuba threatened to walk out of the oas, president eisenhower and his white house press conference recall tom and ties and interests and left open the
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door for an easing of tensions. >> by no means do i want to admit or charged cut this stipulation is a reputable. cuba has been one of our finest friends. we are the ones that conducted the war that set them free. and when take caught in trouble, we had an occupation back in 1908, and set them free. and we have had a long history of relationships and we tried to keep our heads out of their internal, political estates. we have not tried to throw out or anything like that. so, i would think that the very welfare of the cuban people finally demands some kind of composition between the american states and to the
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unknown on the air. >> that includes nearly every iron curtain nation and russian alive. all on hand for the opening of the united nations 15 general assemblies surrounded by have a security guard, castro appears subdued. unlike the three or four oration that he delivered in havana's broadcast, his arrival speed is only -- ♪ ♪ ♪ >> we want to salute the people of the united states, -- i don't want to do... the other things that we have to tell you, i wish that you prayed to the
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general assembly how the united nations, thank you very much. >> the first satellite to revenue york are the litany of joe silica and poland. they are not greeted by any united states senator, but the guest of this country. what makes their arrival speech in their own tongue. >> despite their status as high-ranking leaders, both novelty and coca are ignored by the numerous tickets and demonstrators, many of them east european refugees who protested the arrival of khrushchev and -- the russian liner on which they sailed with the heads of five satellites states arrived on a tanker on foggy mornings. going up the east river, it was harris a -- hecklers. hundreds of demonstrators met
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despite heavy rain. ♪ ♪ ♪ on shabby appear 73, soviet misses areas where there are the occasion. the piers swarmed with massive security men and police man seen in new york. he could not be glimpsed through the screen of protectors. mr. kaye's brazen visit to the shores on his own invitation promises to make a general assembly session already on the congo issue, into a potentially explosive or potentially difficult interaction. at least 62 members had to be admitted, a score of governments who would be present for a dramatic setting, the gullible stage.
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>> fidel castro whips up -- alarming, training mercenary forces for an imminent invasion. he calls out some 200,000 militiamen for training in duty at key points at a move timed to coincide with a landing a 1400 american marinas sea guantánamo naval base for a weekend of liberty at training exercise in the caribbean. castro's forces lineup in the debate the united nations on human charges of the united states. meanwhile, in moscow, an expert official-controlled waters wheels out the line of friendship to a group of news men and women from cuba. present at the invitation of the soviet journalist needs. khrushchev happily -- cuban flag. as he arrives for the solid endorsement of a home brewed -- a soviet soul hemisphere alive for the soviets.
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>> castro marks the second anniversary of this revolution with the biggest military parade ever staged in cuba. each bring tanks and other heavy weapons from czechoslovakia. castro demanded the united states embassy reduce its staff to 11 persons. the last straw for the long campaign of harassment. however as an hour broke off diplomatic -- with prosecutor we haggerty. >> with the united states in self respect can, endure there is a limit. that limit has now been reached. our friendship with the cuban people is not effective. it is my hope and my conviction that in the not too distant future, it will be possible for that historic friendship between us, once again, to find reflection in normal relations of every sort.
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meanwhile, our sympathy goes out to the people of cuba, now suffering under the yoke of a decade. dictator. >> the assault has begun on a dictatorship of fidel castro. cuban army pilots opened the first phase of organize revolt on three military bases. three of the b 26 lie bombers seek asylum in florida. on the heels of the air raids, landings were affected by rebels at several places on the cuban coast. and the rebellion against the dictator was on, but the refugee pilot planning at full scale army revolt. >> in havana, the prime minister chose diplomats rocket fired -- with claims on a human workings. meanwhile, at the united nations, given prime minister roma accused the united states
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of unleashing a foreign invasion. he says that the invading soldiers trained, but there is a quick denial made by stevenson. >> these charges are totally false, and i deny them categorically. the united states has committed no aggression against cuba, and no offensive will be announced from florida or any other part of the united states. , and the guatemalan foothills, there is a mysterious training depot where some of the raiders may have been based. the government there are denies that humans are among the soldiers being instructed, but observers of set otherwise, professional soldiers are among the teachers. and once trained, the men mysteriously disappear. guatemala has held no hope for the castro regime and has aided the rebels. and cuba itself, the people have been extorted by castro
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and a push back against the invaders. and 300,000 michelin list men have been mobilized. evasion was successful in its early hours with castro of course blaming the u.s.. it's the first chunk in his arm or,?
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>> tens of thousands anti vietnam war protesters converged in washington d.c. in may of 1971, more than 7000 of them were arrested in a single day. thursday night on american history tv, we look back 50 years at the forces that collided on the capitol streets that spring, with journalist lawrence roberts. he's the author of may day 1971, a white house at war, revolt in the streets, and the untold history of america's biggest mass arrest. that is at 8 pm eastern on american history tv, here on c-span 3. >> c-span shopped outward is he spends online store. >> on november 2nd 1960, a new
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york television reviewer wrote, quote, a unexciting to voice, provocative, sensible, and challenging. came to television last night, doctor albert burke, former director of graduate studies at yale university. next, on real america, we bring you that broadcast with educational television pioneer robert berke. using footage and interviews from cuba, berke argues the poverty, racism and economic exploitation by u.s. corporate interests in pre revolutionary cuba led to the popularity of fidel castro, who promised to make life better for his supporters. >> chapter one, in the battle for america. chapter one was the battle of cuba. it was finished on january 8th 1959, here in havana. the kind is


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