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tv   Reel America The Greatest Good - A Forest Service Centennial Film  CSPAN  April 25, 2021 3:55pm-6:01pm EDT

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culture, and our customer focus. we will continue to fulfill our mission to ensure we leave the world in a better place for generations. >> making the world safer, healthier, and more productive filtration group is one of the worlds greatest. >> that just about wraps it up for today. we covered a lot of ground and of seen some of the best world has to offer. i have learned a lot and i know you have two. don't forget to visit us online to learn even more about the people, places, and companies we have seen today. i will see you next time on worlds greatest.
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>> this is bloomberg wall street week. i am david weston. this week, ralph schloss time on how we pay for infrastructure. >> there is a big question of
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how does it get financed. >> bloomberg stephanie flanders on the diverging path from the feds. steve of bain capital on the short-lived super soccer league. >> on paper, and make a lot of sense for large pups, it will cause disruption. >> anna alpern of georgetown on how china is flexing its economic muscle. yana barton of eaton vance on the reopening trade. >> while the reopening trade is not derailed, it certainly is delayed. >> a lot of ups and downs this week. no clear direction. with concerns over the pandemic shifting overseas to places like india, nine states makes progress with vaccinations with much more to do. >> today, we did it.
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we got to hunterdon shots. >> there was a lot of talk of infrastructure, including what it means and some groping towards a compromise but prospects remain very unclear. >> that should be on the backs. that can be on the backs of the wealthiest americans who can afford it and corporations and businesses. >> u.s. corporate earnings have come in strong so far but let's be honest, i was more or less expected wasn't it? the markets by enlarged reflect the gives and he takes with equities hesitating in that reflation march upwards and the tenure yields staying just above 1.5. neither surging towards two nor falling back down. and in equity market that is searching for direction this week, we will turn to somebody who will help us find that direction. she is a portfolio manager at eaton vance. welcome, it is great to have you with us. that would emergence our wandering around little bit.
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how do we find direction? what is a market looking for right now? >> the market is up over 11% points at an average stock is going to be more worth. it is up 15 percentage points. a lot has been baked into the markets, as you mentioned the sentiment has been running high. particularly, seeming higher than anticipated earnings. earnings project rate is coming through. the direction remains the same. that is investor needs to be active and selected because changes can only be constant and while the reopening trade is not derailed, it certainly delayed because of this uneven vaccination at a second place. we are still extremely constructive on the equity markets longer and investors should be as well. >> you put your finger on it i think. looks like the reopening question was a big question on investors mind as you look at equities. give us the sense of the upside and downside there.
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what is the market pricing in terms of reopening? >> excellent question. all tilly has been brought back a little bit. i think volatility is great because it offers investors opportunities to get into stocks but -- that have gotten ahead of themselves. we saw that the mystical areas of the market. the energy side of the equation and others within the industrial space. i think right now, investors need to think about opportunities that perhaps have lagged and there are plenty of those. i think it does not have to be mutually inclusive story. we can play the gross, you can do that alongside value trades. example of that could be within the health care space. a continues to be lack -- a ladder. industrials where you have a majority of the industries that continued to trail the overall sector. there are a lot of different ways to again, invest for the long term. >> what about tech echo tech was such a gross struck stock in a
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group drove the market for so long. are there opportunities left intact at this point? >> absolutely. tech, you said it currently david, was a leader last year. we think within the secular plays. if you think about this digital economy that is just starting out, one continues to demand higher security one the man's to transition to cloud computing. -- demands. they will continue to benefit. we think there are a lot of opportunities within i.t. space right now. again, many of the winners last year actually are laggards this year. it presents an opportunity. >> you introduce me to a term, j rp. growth at a reasonable price. does that mean the tech, mega technique be valued but there are others that are more towards the middle? >> that is correct.
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growth at a reasonable price is what we employ in our focus strategy. metta is right down the middle which is we want growth because that is how capital appreciation and wealth pulling works, but we don't want to pay too much for it. which is exactly why i mentioned areas of the market like health care that offer you within five size and tools, a growth of opportunity, in excess of the market. at a discount to its fair value. other areas of the market that offer growth that might be forgotten by the market might be defensive areas of the market right now. it might be like consumer staples which have been a laggard year to date. it offers a offering trade story within >> he doubled the size of the force reserves. with a sweep of the pen. that caused a firestorm in the
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west. outraged members of congress tried to and failed to limit these reserves. while others supporters of the scientific fore street and watershed protection pushed through a law outlining their purposes. it is one thing to have some signs, something to have -- to know what to do that. that opens away or different stuff to begin the process of unit states in a very sustained way that is lasted us over a century. in 18 any seven, he was appointed special forces agent of the department of interior. it's powerful land office controlled the reserves. the scientific expertise was in the culture the permit. in 1898, he became chief of agriculture in the ministry of forestry. hewitt's plan of the foresters together. we talk about him as a
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scientifically trained american forester. he really is our first political foresters and he was a genius at that. keep in mind his parents, this moment he had this new position in washington built a home for him. a beautiful house in which he could entertain hundreds of people at a pop. this meant this chief of a lonely bureau, and permit our culture could have conger's men and senators to his home. >> had a school at yale. they can put in their -- school program. >> so, he creates the school. he creates the agency that will provide the labor for those students. he creates the journal that they would be pretty crates the professional organization that they will join. in short, he gave birth not to the forest service, but to a profession and there are very few individuals of that can be said.
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>> the assassination of president mckinley, with the new start. >> after the death of mckinley, to the result became president. the republicans helped by making him vice president and would never hear from them again. >> or he was as president. he was a strong conservationist. roast >> roosevelt had long been in conservation issues. so, when he comes into office, he was as if god had sent nana. >> how many chiefs of agencies are close friends with the president of united states. that help them enormously. he spoke in his own name to be sure on the one hand of everyone who stood behind them. >> although both men were born into wealth, they distrusted the business tycoons who rate for an
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enormous process -- profits. >> conservation was well advanced for the time teddy roosevelt had become president of the united states. he finalized it with a vengeance. >> roosevelt worked to get the force reserves out of the general land office and into the supervision of clifford. >> he hated the general land office pretty hated the interior department. he thought they were in bed with every scoundrel the company. and the many respect, he was right. >> he organized a congress in january of 1905. it provided political backing for a law answering the force reserves to the agricultural department. the bureau of fore street became the united states forest service. the force reserves were named
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national forests. >> the name change from the force reserves of the late 19th century to the national forest of the 20th century. reserve means withdrawal. he was interested in the world natural -- national. that reinforced the notion of a forest service and commission and it meant to serve the people the ad states. >> it is founded in this idealistic moment. it is in the eyes, certainly of its own staff but in the eyes of the american populace as a whole, the perfect government bureaucracy. the purely idealistic government bureaucracy, meant to do what government is meant to do.
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the people who are recruited into it are immensely idealistic and i think in a vest. sometimes, they get into trouble in eight credit context because of that. >> the forest service saw the men who are self-motivated and love the outdoors. they could learn on the job. he was one of those men. >> he grew up in montana in the gallatin valley. they were involved in ranching and farming. he had gotten wind of yale starting a school in fore street. -- fore street. -- forestry. >> they are for the spirit of this new movement and they will be dispersing all over the country but for the time being
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they were studying under the foremost field of forestry, they are special group of students. >> spurred first when he years, the graduates of yell work for the foresters. it's referred to as the yale club. >> hired upon graduation, he was assigned to zulu montana. >> these national forests were virgin territories. you can imagine what it was like stepping out the train with his young danish bride to begin work.
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yes a set up an office and do local hires and he went ahead and do that. >> they had not been surveyed, the bounties had laid out. they did not have any structure. there were ranger stations, there weren't roads. it was a tremendous job. just to get these lands identified and under management, and under some form of protection. the term national forest itself was misleading. because, so much of the land was half of the land was grazing land. most of the peaches are in national forest and they're nothing but ice and rocks. >> to help him manage a million acres of wildland, supervisor had a handful of rangers and
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forest guards. >> initially, all the rangers were local hires. they put people of what they call high moral character. they wanted people who were already respected and admired in the communities. >> respect in the west meant the ability to handle tough characters and dangerous situations. it was said of one old-time ranger, it did not start -- he did not start any fights. he did not lose any either. >> there became a notion within american culture that the forester in the forest ranger was a symbol of the efficient new states. it was a symbol of a society that was becoming civilized. >> all forest service employees had to pass a civil service exam.
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the exam included such credible matters such as packing a horse cooking a meal in the field. and then eating it. >> every forest officer is required to keep a daily log of what they were doing and what they were working on. you can imagine these varied quite a bit. some of them that you read, go on for pages and their descriptions. others work on grazing. five days leader, worked on grazing. there is a funny entry in one of the diaries and so all -- i saw the supervisor four times this year. he saw me twice. >> what we forget in this age is the fight over timber all the time is that it was not timber fought over, in the early part of the 20 century, it was always
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grazing because that is where the west made most of its money. >> one reason for that is that timber was being -- very little timber was being cut from the national forests. the ones that gave the forest service fits. >> the fact that there were cows and sheep celebrity national forest. they range freely without charge. regulating became a major project. >> they hired arizona rancher albert potter to develop a system of controlling livestock on federal land. despite low fees, the policy meant bitter opposition. grazers claimed that access to the public land was a right. not a privilege. >> it was not certain that the forest service had the authority to regulate use or sell timber. >> colorado rancher violated his allotment.
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supported by his state ledge later, he challenged authorities in court. this became one of several test cases tried by the attorney george woodruff. >> he takes 11 cases to the supreme court. he wins all 11, 10 of them unanimously. they -- the delegation from the west are livid. they feel that he is basically writing his own legislation by using the courts. that is exactly what they were doing. >> my grandfather knew very precisely what they wanted to see happen with building the public land system. i think, yes he did steamrolled over local interests in order to get that. it made a lot of people really angry. a lot of people are still angry about that. >> in addition to the legal system, he used the press to advance his cause. >> they would write articles for
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magazines. they would write articles for newspapers. they were being interviewed all over the country. their propagandists for themselves. they were brilliant at it. >> the western congressmen were limited. they can't stand it. try to cut off the budget. you can't spend any money on male. stop, stop, stop. the stuff keeps rolling out. >> westerners also complained about the amount of land that the roosevelt administer ration was withdrawing from the public domain. congress then passed a law that said that the president no longer could simply delineate land and said that was going to be a national force. they put this in a spending bill. >> the president had 10 days to sign the bill. >> there was a set of days where pinchot and the forest service looked at maps, circumscribing areas of land, saying these would be new for us. >> they drew lines around areas
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and made them national forests. >> there called the midnight forests the term meaning this was done at midnight. both in the dark of night but also rapidly on the part of the forest service. >> teddy roosevelt would put moreland land into the public land system than any other is in. >> and his first term, he was quite cautious. he set aside 20 million acres under the furnace -- under the act. in his second term, he really went to town and set aside approximately 80 million acres of land. it is almost the equivalent of california. >> the states called the convention called the denver public lands convention in 1907, in which these western states would hopefully argue that the federal government has no rights over these lands. >> for two days during the denver convention, westerners attacked the aderholt landgrab.
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and then they called czar pinchot, held response before it. on the third day, he stood before the convention to speak. >> one must appreciate the in already of the selling that he had to do. he had to go out to a frontier and convince people that they could still have the resources even if they turned over to government management. they were finished howling, swearing in hat -- yelling at him. he turned and talk to them about why he believed in conservation. he didn't say you were wrong and i'm right. what he said was you should understand why it is going to save you. >> pinchot had become the most ardent and persuasive attic -- advocate for the conservation policy. early in this perez era, a split develop between those like pinchot who favored wise use and those who favored a stronger
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protection like naturalists like john muir. >> john muir argued that these national forests being created in the early part of the 20th century, had to be present. no cutting, no mining, no grazing. >> pinchot disagreed with the preservationists approach. the only way to save the force was conservation and careful and control use of natural resources. >> the national forest could not have been sold to the american people without the guarantee of use. the forests service said that these lands can be used for hundreds of years to come if the idea of preservation only had been advocated, we would not have the national force because the american people would not have accepted it.
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what is interesting about pinchot and your is that they come to stand for two radically different visions. on the one hand, pinchot resent himself standing for the democratic good. standing to benefit as many people as possible. we were on the other hand, stands for nature is a place for which we go to understand the creation this whole glorious duty. those are both in their way, very attractive visions. they were on a collision course. >> the two views collided in his simile park. -- yosemite park. if somebody and other western
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parks were patrolled by the army. >> the controversy is one of the most explosive events in history of conservation in the united states. it was probably the first time in which a debate over development or preservation erupted onto the national stage. at its center or two men, john muir who argued that his gorgeous valley and hetch hetchy in the national park should be preserved. pinchot said that san francisco needed a new safe reservoir. so in san francisco applied for a dam in the hetch hetchy valley, pinchot was one of those who supported. >> the eventual decision to build the dam be a crushing blow to john muir. it would lead some to create a new agency to create -- to manage the national parks. >> i started out as a john muir guy.
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i had no idea what this is all about. i do go back and read the book. the first article of conservation was development. how would that be the first prince will of conservation? it was not until i got a spirit in working in communities that the central problems of economics and you will never solve conservation if you can never address the fundamental well-being of the community and he came t -- if you can't address those parts of the equation, you can't address anything. >> he was convinced it would only succeed if the citizenry felt they were paying a dividend to them. and so, he has to figure out a way in which to articulate this and the key for him was that wonderful sentence, the greatest good and the greatest number and the longest run. >> the idea behind the greatest good for the greatest number for the lummis time is to do things for the greater public good and benefit them.
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i think what pinchot was thinking about was the role of what he called the evils of concentrated wealth and using the public resources for personal gain. to him, that was a sin. it was immoral. it endangers our national democratic way of life. >> pinchot's final battle as a chief of the forest service would revolve around such an issue. a small coal mining claims in alaska that would explode into the biggest little scandal of the era. when william howard taft succeeded theodore roosevelt, he realized there was no longer a conservationist in the white house. >> is a complicated story but effectively, what agents of the forest service came to believe his epitaph administration was releasing public lands to a syndicate out of new york city. >> richard ballenger was the
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president's secretary of the interior. pinchot and his allies indicated him in the alaska scandal. to blame taft for not firing him. >> he is basically accusing his superiors of corruption. he's basically telling the president of united states that he is not doing his job. he is doing it publicly. >> unable to resolve this rift in the admin and, taft fired pinchot. >> he should have been fired for insubordination because he was insubordinate. >> he was upbeat about his dismissal. he campaigned for conservation. at forest service headquarters, for a rallying or will speech, his employees were apprehensive. >> they understood that he created this entity and to have him leave under the circumstances was awful because it was not clear to them whether
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the agency would continue once it's charismatic creator had disappeared. >> what we have a forest service we did not have pinchot? i think yes, but it would be so different we would not recognize it. >> he was only the head for five years. he was not even a full five years. his stamp on his agency was then and remains profound. >> he invented something really completely new and became known as a conservationist. >> the summer that followed his firing provided a test for the young agency. as it set out to build a system of delivery -- delivering the greatest good. ♪
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>> 1910 was truly one of the formative events in american fire history. it was a perfect storm that came together. >> you have an extended drought, there was lots of fuel around, lots of lightning, lots of human caused fires, railroad fires. finally, it all exploded in what became known as the big blowup. >> the forest service at that time was five years old, about 400 rangers in the field. they were incapable of mounting a defense, let alone an offense. it killed 85 people. narrator: high winds fanned isolated fires into a fast-moving wall of flame. towns were evacuated just before they were incinerated. trains raced over burning trestles moments before they collapsed.
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firefighters just tried to survive. >> ed polaski was the icon ranger of 1910. he was everything that an old-time ranger should be. he cared about his men and got caught by the 1910 fire. >> the winds are plucking up trees, sparks are coming down, it is absolutely dark, you can hardly see anything. it is not just the visuals, it is the noise. the enormous roar that occurs like 1000 trains rushing over 1000 steel trestles. >> he remembered an old mine shaft and led his men and put , about 40 of them, with horses and put them inside the shaft to , wait while the fire blew past. them. it must have been an absolute nightmare. there was nothing but darkness and fire and smoke.
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>> it is all panic and pandemonium. at least one guy shouts he at least is getting out, decides to he is going to run out of the cave. polaski holds him at gunpoint, threatening to shoot who would try to leave, knowing that if panic set in, they would all be overcome. >> after the fire had passed, the next morning the men , staggered out of the mouth of the mine, and there was ed's body blocking the way. one of them said, "my god, the boss is dead." ed pulled himself off of the floor of the mine and said "like hell he is." >> five died, the rest survived. the unanimously attributed their survival to polaski. polaski himself is badly hurt. could not see, suffered from lung ailments, but he managed to they managed to get the rest of the crew back into town. polaski becomes this great hero of the 1910 fires.
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♪ >> the big blowup consumed narrator: the big blowup consumed nearly 3 million acres in western montana and northern idaho. but its longest term effect was on forest service policy. >> they were conscience struck by what had happened. they vowed never to let it happen again. narrator: the fires of 1910 catalyzed the federal policy of full fire suppression. foresters labeled fires as public enemy number one, overcoming the objections of those who saw benefits from the fire. settlers used fires to clear undergrowth and stimulate the grasses. for pinchot and others trained in europe, stopping fires was essential to efficient forest management. for the forest service, fire
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suppression was clearly the greatest good. >> after 1910, it was almost impossible for anyone within the forest service to advocate for anything other than all-out war against fire. >> fire would persist and become it would become perhaps paradoxically the major index of forest service success. >> at the beginning of the 20th century, we had a horse and a shovel. that was really the way fires were fought. you could not get into the back country to fight a fire for days because you had to go by trail. narrator: the assault on forest fires required a big investment in infrastructure. roads, communications, equipment, and lookout towers. the biggest challenge, however, was finding men for the front lines. >> the fire crews in 1910 were
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stumble crews. you would have a ranger who is a competent individual, but he would go to a saloon or post office or something like that to get his crew together. there are hilarious accounts from these guys and what it was like trying to herd a bunch of guys with hangovers out onto the fire line. you would lose 20% or 30% getting out there. they would end up falling into the bushes. narrator: it was equally hard to find qualified lookouts. in 1913, after a fire spotter in california's climate national forest quit, assistant forest ranger m.h. mccarthy informed his supervisor he had three applicants for the position. one was a drunk. the second had poor eyesight. the third was no gentleman.
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hallie morse daggett became the first female fire lookout. she and others, like ellen down in colorado, were pioneers in an era before women could vote. the national forest had been carved out of the fast public domain lands, mainly the western in the western states. in 1911, a bill sponsored by representative john weeks authorized the forest service to buy from willing sellers cheap deforested lands of the east, south, and lake states. >> in the eastern part of the country, the national forest s were created out of the lands nobody wanted. these lands were purchased under the weeks act to protect the watershed. they were generally purchased for about $3.43 an acre.
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narrator: as the forest service expanded in the east, it also tried to add the western national parks. preservationists furious over the dam argued that a separate parks agency in the interior department would do a better job of protecting the parks. >> the forest service was not very pleased with the idea of -- a competitive agency to say the least. suddenly, here is the national park service saying the grand canyon national monument, which at that time was managed by pinchot's u.s. forest service, should instead now be in 1919, be grand canyon national park, managed by the national park service. >> there was a concern among some foresters particularly at the upper levels that the park service was after some of their most precious holdings. >> the eventual responsive the forest service as the park
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service begins to win the battles is "why don't we get into recreation in our own way? why don't we form our own recreational agenda for the national forest?" narrator: the race was on. as thomas edison and henry ford went on well-publicized camping trips, joined at times by the president of the united states, the park service and the forest service were opening public lands to a nation falling in love with the automobile. ♪
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narrator: as roads penetrated the national forests, more and more summer homes were built. at trappers lake in colorado, forest service landscape architect arthur carhart had the assignment of designing a group of cabins with roads leading to them. >> carhart came up with a rather modest but important idea, that rather than developing the lakefront, it ought to be preserved, that these vacation homes ought to be kept at least half a mile away from the lakefront. carhart's suggestion met with success, and it was kept from further development. narrator: at a forest service meeting, carhart met a forester who shared his ideas about the greatest good, aldo leopold. >> leopold, who i consider to be the greatest conservationist of the 20th century, first went to
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work for the forest service in the southwest in 1909. >> leopold, when he first arrived in the southwest was , pretty naive about what he was getting into. he was going to be taking his first job off the arizona territory, not even a state. like other foresters, he was starting from the beginning, getting properly outfitted, so he got his chaps and proper ranger outfit. he did have to go buy his own horse. leopold's first real job in the forest service was to measure go out and measure the apache national forest with his young crew. narrator: a disciple of pinchot's utilitarian approach to resources, leopold believed wildlife should be managed to maximize the yield of fish and game species. >> as leopold viewed game management in the early years, it was the management of habitat
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to produce a crop of game. >> when he is a young forester, leopold has no understanding, nor does anyone else, of the complex interrelationships between predators, prey, the landscapes they both live in, much less the people who also share those landscapes. narrator: to increase the population of game, leopold campaigned for the eradication of predators. >> working out of essentially old wives tales and tradition of what predators are doing to prey animals and populations. so he was of his generation in time to kill a predator with no was no big deal. and time. to kill a predator with no big deal. ♪
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>> he was leading a crew out in the apache national forest two weeks on horseback. >> as he describes it, he and his crew were looking down from the rock above the stream where a pack of wolves came up, a mother with some cubs, and he says in those days, we did not think twice. if we saw a wolf, it was fair game, so to speak. they shot at the wolves from the rock and took down the mother wolf. scrambling down afterwards to investigate what they had done, they found the mother wolf was still alive. >> he wrote "we reached the old wolf in time to watch a fire die in her eyes. full of trigger itch, because fewer wolves meant more deer. i believe no wolves would mean hunter's paradise. after watching the green fire die, i realized neither wolf nor mountain agreed with such a view."
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>> it would disappear in just a more short years. by the time leopold would leave the southwest, it would be essentially gone from most of the mountains of that region. later on in his life when he was reflecting back on this moment, he was beginning to see that was the place where he first began to get this tingling that his job was more than just to manage the forest. he is saying that, ultimately, the measure of our success is not how many head of deer we are able to raise and harvest, he's also saying we need to use the land as the standard. land is the ultimate measure of reflection of all we do on and with it as managers, citizens, users. >> he began to realize that there was potential for developing a new kind of
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recreational experience in the forests, what he called wilderness hunting grounds. narrator: as leopold defined it, a wilderness area should be large enough to absorb a two week pack trip without involving encountering any roads or buildings. it would be unspoiled habitat for game, while preserving an original american landscape. >> he proposes this wilderness idea, a forester in the american southwest suggesting that a large chunk of the national forest be set aside and not developed with roads, in particular. >> although he developed a aldo developed a proposal for a wilderness area that was subsequently approved in 1924, setting the pattern for the national system of wilderness areas that we have today. ♪
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narrator: as the nation moved into the 1930's, the greatest good was redefined to meet huge problems as society and on the land. >> these were tough years. the depression, the dustbowl, for that entire generation, it was another wake-up call, just as pinchot's generation's wake-up call was the destruction of the upper great lakes forests. so was this massive environmental disaster, the dustbowl. it was simultaneous economic and social disaster, the depression. narrator: in the 1932 presidential election, pinchot , who was then the republican governor of pennsylvania, supported the democratic candidate, franklin delano roosevelt. >> i just came out of the conference with the governor, i speak with every one of us we are all unanimously behind the president. >> when franklin roosevelt took
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office in 1933, one of his first initiatives was to create the conservation corps. he took scores of men who were unemployed and moved them to camps on the public lands and used them to do all sorts of things. narrator: in just four months, an array of ambitious government programs was put into place. ♪ >> president roosevelt's attack on the depression began with the his emergency conservation project, the purpose of which he clearly suppressed when he said "this enterprise is an established part of our national policy. it would pay dividends to the present and future generations." the president's profound interest in this work prompted him to visit and personally inspect several of the conservation camps. this conservation army is rebuilding the forests, one of our most important and valuable natural resources.
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narrator: the new deal workers helped the forest service develop on a much larger scale. in california, they cut a fire break of more than 600 miles through the sierra nevada. they restored totem poles in alaska. they constructed timberline lodge on oregon's mount hood. in the prairie states, they planted 2000 miles of tree from tree windbreaks on farms from texas to minnesota. ♪ narrator: as fall farm restoration project became the passion of leopold, who was a
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now a professor at the university of wisconsin. >> it was about 1935. my father came home one day and said that he had bought some property in the sand counties of central wisconsin. and here was this old, worn-out piece of land coming up in corn stubble. >> it had a worn-out old chicken coop and a foundation house, and of a house that burned down. and tore it down. they all shared this unspoken vision. if the land is worn out, try to fix it. he thought buying a piece of property for a number of reasons, where the family can spend time together. i think finally, it was a place where he wanted to do some of his own experimenting, working out his own ideas on the land. >> as we restored these abused acres, it established a sense of
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values for all of us. values much more than economic values. it really directed our lives. >> aldo understood on both private lands and public lands, we needed a common ethic of care for the land. >> aldo leopold really found his voice as writer in the late 1930's, when he began writing a series of essays. what he said in his most often quoted passage was "a thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. it is wrong when it tends otherwise." narrator: while leopold was creating a land ethic, another forester was building the wilderness system.
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>> bob marshall knew american wilderness better than anyone else in america. precisely because he had walked through so much of the american wilderness by the late 1930's. narrator: marshall grew up in a wealthy new york family. as a young man, he hiked all 46 high peaks of the adirondacks. but he yearned for even bigger mountains. >> he was an obsessive hiker. he would hike routinely 40 miles a day. i think his record was something like 70 miles in a 26 hour period. it is really out in the northern rockies where bob marshall foresees what, to him, is true wilderness. particularly after he visits alaska for the first time in the late 1920's. marshall in many ways becomes the force of the modern wilderness idea. ♪
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narrator: as the first director of recreation for the forest service, marshall worked to expand and protect the national forest wilderness areas. ♪ narrator: in 1935, aldo leopold and bob marshall helped create the wilderness society. they were concerned about the impacts new deal programs were having on the landscape. [explosion]
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narrator: roads were opening public lands to recreation and improving access for firefighters. koch, the longtime service of supervisor of a national forest was also critical of the development of the backcountry. his main concern was the use of roads for fire control. >> koch is a wonderful figure in this story because he spent 40 years with the federal forest service. he was on the scene in 1910, in charge of the lolo national forest. he becomes a voice of criticism and joins a group that says the land is worse off than when we took control of it. >> he put that in an essay and withheld it from publication for a long, long time because it was too controversial. >> at the same time, material is coming out from professional foresters in the south that suggest fire has a useful, perhaps mandatory in the southern pines.
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there is an ecological argument. that comes into play. this land on ferdinand silcox's desk in the spring of 1935. he has to decide what to do. , what do we do? the number two man in the northern rockies during the 1910 fires, silcox had written an article after the fires that they could have been wholly preventable. all it took was more trails, more men, more telephone lines. we could have prevented the 1910 fires. now he is faced with a choice, and he opts in effect to refight the 1910 fires with all the resources available, particularly, the civilian conservation corps. that yields the 10:00 a.m. policy, which stipulated as a universal standard, the code to control fire by 10:00 the morning following its report. narrator: to meet the new standard, a lookout would spot a plume of smoke and then race to the fire.
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>> in those days, they were lookouts, smoke chasers. if you were the one who can get first their quickest, they dispatch you, then they dispatch a support up. maybe the support would have to hike from a ranger station, maybe 20 miles or more. >> a smoke chaser's duties is to go to fires, from normally a guard station, or from a lookout that is being used as a guard station. now, a smoke chaser has a fire pack consisting of three days ' rations, a headset so he can get around at night, a file, a little small first aid kit, and a shovel, and a tarp. and you put 50 pounds in it and try to go off into the woods. >> the idea for the smoke choppers came out of the blackwater fire of 1937.
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15 firefighters were killed because they could not get a crew in to fight that fire fast enough. narrator: david godwin was one of the investigators on the blackwater fire. >> he said if we don't have roads, why can't we drop them in from the air? >> you are already a firefighter, and if you were as tired of walking 20 miles to get to a fire as i was, why jumping was easy. it was a pleasure to look down at that fire and say all i've got to do is get out of this airplane and then walk 100 yards to the fire. ♪
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narrator: soon, the techniques of the smoke jumpers and the fitness would be put to the test in the fires of world war ii. the second world war pulled the nation out of the depression, as industry geared up to meet military demand. wood was a significant component in the machinery of war.
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>> forming out the big sticks to club the axes, factories under the skies yellow poplar and , sweetgum for observation planes, shipyard shoring, bt boats, lifeboats, alcohol, nitrous gasoline, wood for america, for victory. ♪ narrator: lookouts served as an early warning system against an enemy attack. america was on guard. >> these americans are doing the work of fifth columnists by throwing away their matches. here is a saboteur. not a foreign agent, but he has done what an enemy agent might try to do. narrator: the attack on america's forests came in an extraordinary way.
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the japanese launched paper balloons from across the pacific ocean. >> they developed an elaborate system for these balloons to ride the winds. they were outfitted with bombs. they took three to five days to cross the pacific and drop their load on the u.s., presumably starting large forest fires. a number of them landed, they did not start fires, the season was not right. the information was suppressed so the japanese would not know whether they succeeded or not, and as to not alarm the public. narrator: the forest service had the 10:00 a.m. policy for rapidly suppressing fires, but during the war, were lacking the manpower to carry it out. help came from the army, which had adopted forest service smoke jumping techniques for its paratroop units. the assignment went to the battalion known as the triple nichols. conscientious objectors also made a significant contribution bravely battling hundreds of
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, fires. defending the home front was critical to victory overseas. in the coming years, america would experience a boom like no other. ♪ >> america needs 3 million homes. with 100,000 marriages every month, the heads of new families, veterans mostly ask , where is my house? more than 700,000 home units were started in 1946, a figure we only reached seven years after world war i. so cheer up. maybe the stockpiles will soon mean happy homes for all of us. >> as we came back from world war ii and married and began to raise families, there were tremendous demands on the additional housing. narrator: forest service research at the forest products lab responded to the housing boom by developing new materials and techniques for using wood
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efficiently and building affordable homes. >> the private forest lands in the country had been pretty well logged to support the war effort during those years. >> but with a huge boom in timber production during world war ii, much of it war related, but not all of it, suddenly the private timber industry could not fill all the need for wood products from their own lands, and began turning to public lands, in particular the national forests. >> the agency was rebuilding, and it was under tremendous pressures to deliver resources that the nation needed in the postwar years. narrator: meeting these needs was a new generation that entered the forest service after the war. many were veterans who attended forestry colleges on the g.i. bill. >> i came into the forest service after world war ii.
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this looked like the life for me, to hunt, trap, fish, and live in a cabin in the woods. >> the first job we had took us out to an area that was nine miles out of town on a highway that was closed in the wintertime. we lived in a very primitive forest guard station that was without electricity or running water. >> he worked from probably 7:00 in the morning until dark, and in the summertime, maybe one hour after it got dark, because he would be in the woods and he had to get back home. >> when you had daylight, you went after the jobs that needed to be done. whether it was a trail building job, or cruising timber, or checking for insect disease problems. >> 6:00 a.m., hubert and i
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cooked breakfast. 7:30 a.m., hubert and i left camp. we lined up some work improving the old trail. scouted ahead into the cliff area near the fall. some tough trail counts this is. 5:30 p.m., back at camp. found that art had arrived and had supper ready. 7:00 p.m., sharpened my axe and fed the stock. how is that for a nice day in the woods? >> we were the generation that had all of the baby boom thing, . all of us had big families. on a ranger station, there might be three families and 15 kids. >> the forest service career was a family business so to speak. you and the kids were in on it. >> everybody lived on the compound. in the old days, there were four or five families that lived on the compound. it was a unique experience. growing up in the forest
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service, it really was a family. work together, play together, party together, do everything together. >> we had to make our own entertainment for our families. so there was a lot of picnicking, and there was all kinds of community things we did together. >> picnics are horrible things. i gained 12 pounds on one trip. in region one. ladies were coming and keep up heap up the tables with fried chicken and pie and other goodies. they all would look across to see what i would eat. >> the wives were part of the forest service organization, really part of the functioning of the forest service. unfortunately, they really could and fortunately, they really could run the stations as well
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as we could. >> sometimes, you man the radio, even. she was the communications back at the station when the men were out on the fire line. >> the wife actually ran the ranger district as an unpaid employee. a couple of times, there is evidence of them wanting to remove the ranger, but because they liked the wife so much, they kept the ranger because of the spouse. >> when i got my first efficiency rating it was , excellent, except they said my wife wasn't very sociable. the ranger's wife had keys, and my wife did not go to them. she saw that, went to the ranger's office, and demanded she be paid or take her name out of the efficiency report. it was a very paternalistic operation. >> the forest service was largely a white male organization. >> i knew when i went to work there that it was a men's
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organization. i had no vision that i was going to end up in management. there were no women in the field except for a few that were fire lookouts, but there were no women on the recreation crews. to think there would be one in a fire crew would have been laughable. no one even imagined that. ♪ narrator: the postwar assault on fire was conducted by specialized and well-trained teams. they were known as hotshots. >> i think as a hotshot, i walked a little taller, i walked a little straighter, because i was part of an elite organization. >> when a siren went off, you stopped what you were doing and no matter what it was and you went to get your tools and got on the truck. >> to me, fire was the enemy. our job was to put the fire out.
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>> we cut fire lines just as quick as you could walk through brush or forest or whatever it was. it was a good job. talk about family, that hotshot crew was really a family. >> fighting fire looks a lot like war. you see people in uniforms with . they have heavy equipment. they are battling something that is a devouring force. but it is really not the kind of war that we are used to in the history books, where casualties are an accepted part of what happens. >> we have a whole series of really large, multiple fatality fires. blackwater, pepper run, mann gulch, rattlesnake fire, a whole series. most of the fatalities suffered, except for 1910, came during this one period of time. >> by the middle of the 20th century, you had seven fires that had killed 10 or more firefighters.
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that is a direct consequence of fighting fires no matter what. and it is quite a list of dead and injured. to credit the forest service, they did catch onto it. they were conscience struck by what happened. they called them tragedy fires. narrator: the forest service established new safety procedures. engineering centers developed safety equipment. scientists studied fire behavior. >> we mobilized modern science. going into physics and chemistry and mathematical modeling, better equipment, better knowledge, better organizational methods. specifically trained crews for fires. all of this is characteristic of the 1950's and early 1960's. >> the various equipment came along. the helicopters, retarded retardant aircraft,
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and improved things it became , efficient in suppressing fires. narrator: another weapon in the war against fire was a public relations campaign. ♪ >> smokey the bear ♪ ♪ smokey the bear smokey the bear ♪ howling, pounding, and sniffing the air ♪ narrator: during world war ii, smokey the bear was created to warn against the dangers of forest fires. when a bear cub was discovered in a burned over forest in new mexico, he became lil'smokey, the living symbol of fire prevention. >> remember, only you -- >> only you -- >> only you can prevent forest fires. >> he becomes a sensation, and a symbol of fire prevention, and a symbol of the forest service. >> smokey the bear is the second most recognized figure in american culture, only behind santa claus.
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narrator: by the mid-1960's, he smokey was receiving so much mail at his home at the national zoo, he was given his own zip code. ♪ >> ♪ you will find him in the forest always sniffing at the breeze everybody knows he is the fire preventing bear smokey the bear smokey the bear ♪ >> a sniff in the air. >> he can fight a fire before it starts to flame. >> ♪ that is why we call him smokey ♪ >> ♪ that is how he got his name ♪ narrator: after the election of president eisenhower in 1952, which marked a conservative shift in the nation's politics, the forest service increased its output of forest products. >> it was a totally different era. as the forest service was moving from the custodial period in its
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history to the management period. and management meant timber sales. ♪ >> the forest is trees. trees ready to become homes for a growing nation. ♪ >> the forest service after world war ii made this shift from thinking about selectively harvesting national forests and slowly and conservatively increasing their utility value to a new sort of aggressive management philosophy aimed at maximizing timber production. >> i was taught that production forestry is the way to go. that was the teaching process back immediately after world war ii. >> all of us were fresh out of
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the service. we were used to doing things and running things. you tell us what needed to be done, we would figure out how to do it. >> we were known in those days as the marine corps of civilian agencies. we were a can-do organization. when congress gave us money in our appropriation bills, a with a policy objective of producing so much timber, the forest service was as good as they come, in terms of meeting objectives. >> the projections were we were not going to have enough wood to meet the needs of the nation by the year 2000. so the idea was to get the forests to maximized production as rapidly as possible. >> the national forest went from about 3 billion board feet in 1935 to 11 billion to 12 billion board feet in 1960. so millions and millions of
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homes were built with timber supplied by the national forest. >> my attitude was it was the right thing to do. i often said i never saw a sale i could not make or a road i could not build. my wife and i were walking in the woods, and she said if i looked at her like i looked at a tree, she would slap my face. i looked at a tree and saw saw logs. >> it was largely left up to the rangers to make the decision. i think we did very well. in fact, sometimes i think we did it better than today because we didn't have the massive paperwork we have today, because it wasn't on the books, all of the logs. >> there wasn't the intense level of public interest in everything we did. and i think there was a higher degree of trust on the part of the public that we really did know something about tending this garden out here we call the forest. >> people saw us as
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professionals knowing best what to do and respected our decisions. and occasionally, you would run into flak here and there, but basically, the forest service and our professionals were able to manage the forest as they saw best. narrator: in the 1950's, the greatest good meant supplying resources to a consumer society rapidly increasing in size, mobility, and leisure time. >> there was always recreational use of the national forest. but after world war ii, there was this tremendous boom. they call it that the outdoor , recreation boom. >> ♪ put away the books we are out of school the weather is long but we are playing cool we are on vacation until the start of the fall vacation
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we are going to have a ball ♪ ♪ ♪ >> the national forests play host each year, really, to more recreation users, more campers, and more picnicers than even the national parks do, 160 million visitors to the national forests this last year. >> let me stop you. just one second. the national forest, the national park, what is the dividing line? narrator: as the forest service attempted to clarify the differences between itself and the national park service, the rivalry between the agencies the two agencies continued. ♪ narrator: in 1956, the park service embarked on mission 66, a 10 year project to upgrade its facilities to meet increasing demand.
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a year later, the four service countered with its own recreation initiative. >> the forest service in 1957 announced operation outdoors, which didn't have the same sex appeal as mission 66. >> the forest service is busy these days with operation outdoors, a program to modernize existing recreational improvements to keep up with the ever-increasing use. >> so recreation, which was the chief recognized was becoming more important, he still could not get adequately funded. and i always have attributed part of that to the fact that the word national forest meant timber, and it didn't mean the multiple uses that actually existed on the national forest. >> one of the things we wanted to do was to get balanced use on the national forest, what we call now multiple use.
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narrator: the multiple use sustained the yield act of 1960 recognized five major uses of the national forests and mandated they be given appropriate attention. the multiple use principle also applied to the newly created national grasslands. like the eastern national forests, these were created from abused and abandoned lands, mainly in the prairie states. the multiple use law called for balance, but the budget was still tilted towards timber. >> it was easy to get budget approval for money for timber sales because timber sales produced revenue. it was difficult to get money for such things as recreation , wildlife use, watershed protection because they did not produce much revenue.
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>> the heat was on to get the cut out. timber was king. it paid the rent. it ran the fleet. it did everything. >> you see this strong emphasis on getting forest lands converted from old-growth to productive young stands under scientific management. >> generally, when you are growing trees for an economic purpose, you need trees to grow relatively fast, and the trees that grow relatively fast tend to be trees that grew in open sunlight and not slowly under shade. >> this forester is choosing a small patch of forest in which all the trees will be cut. this is called clearcutting. it is another kind of tree farming. clearcutting is necessary because some trees, like these douglas firs, cannot grow in the shade. >> fir cutting became official
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policy in the four service in the 1960's as the best civil cultural way of regenerating the forests. and it is the most efficient, if you want to regenerate commercial trees and grow the most timber. >> as we entered the activity of more extraction of resources than development of resources on the forest, we recognized we needed a road system to support public access to these things. >> as we developed these drainages with new road access, we opened up a lot more country to the public to see. >> as you developed better access, some folks thought that was terrible, that it was giving too easy access to the forest they wanted to see preserved. narrator: visitors to public lands who confused national parks with national forests did not understand that the conservation mission of the
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forest service included timber sales to commercial loggers. >> at the very same time the timber industry is saying we want more and more timber from the national forest, recreationists, especially weekend vacationers, where were increasing use of the national forests greatly. they were going to run smack dab into each other. ♪ >> bob stokes? i'm cory stewart. got a message you wanted to talk to me. >> that is virgin timberland you are going to destroy, like you already done half the country. >> what we are doing is harvesting a timber crop. replanting for the future as we go along. it is called reforestation. it has worked very well for a long time. >> you say it is working. >> the facts say it works. >> facts.
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>> easy, lassie. >> the conservation organizations, who had all been allies with the forest service for the first half of the century, started stepping back and saying, what are you doing? you are starting to engage in this industrial sized clearcutting practice that the private industry is engaged in that you used to criticize, and now you are telling us that this is a good way to manage forests, what happened? so the conservation community and forest service began parting ways. >> here is this agency that is used to thinking of itself heroically, used to thinking of itself as doing the best possible service to as many americans as possible, suddenly finding themselves very surprised to see themselves characterized as villains. >> it's strange, isn't it? we fight for conservation acts , , we try to manage the forest in
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the best public interests, we even plant trees for posterity, and we get kicked in the teeth by the bob stokes'. narrator: frustrated with forest service management, organizations, such as the wildebeest society, turned to the political arena to protect the nation's wild land from development. at the time, the forest service was managing billions of acres as wilderness. but preservationists feared this status might change. >> the forest service was opposing the wilderness because bill because it was a restriction on their ability as an agency to designate which land would be wilderness, which lands would not. >> in their minds, the wilderness act was a single use. it was undermining the whole doctrine of multiple use service it had been based on, yet from the point of view of wilderness advocates, the only way to protect that aspect of the forests was to make sure it was only used for wilderness. narrator: in 1964, president johnson signed the wilderness act. the establishment of a
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wilderness preservation system was a turning point in the history of conservation. ♪ narrator: this was a victory for the followers of john muir, who opposed the utilitarian ideas headed down to the for service from pinchot. >> what i often find kind of ironic about what ultimately happened with pinchot and his effort to preserve natural resources actually ended up setting aside vast chunks of land that would become the core of the wilderness preservation system in the united states. it was employees of pinchot's forest service who became among the prime advocates for john muir's vision of primitive lands preserved in their own wild natural form. he led what we have today, many starting with him in the forest
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service -- national force. narrator: the debate over the wilderness act was a relatively peaceful prelude to a new era of environmentalism and social protest. ♪ >> people became more outspoken, wanted to get more involved, unwilling to trust the government. >> the plan is to spray new brush and tree sprouts with chemicals. ♪ >> our western campgrounds have been taken over by what may best be described as colonies of people, hippie types. >> it is a time of crisis, i guess you might say. a time of uncertainty, anyway. ♪ >> i now turn to a subject, which next to our desire for
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peace, may well become the major concern of the american people in a decade of the 1970's. it is a cause of particular concern to young americans, because they more than we will reap the grim consequences of our failure to act on programs which are needed now if we are to prevent disaster later. clean air, clean water, open spaces, these should once again be the birthright of every american. [applause] >> the love affair started ending in the 1960's. but the divorce didn't occur until the 1970's with the bitterroot. narrator: two national forests, the monongahela and bitterroot, focused national attention on the forest service. on the bitterroot, cutting on steep slopes and then terracing hillside to retain the soil. >> they thought to maximize
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future growth, let's terrorists let's terrace the land like rice paddy fields almost in china. >> the people wouldn't settle for tearing down the mountain to get the trees to grow. >> in the early 1970's, gifford pinchot, though he died in reentered the political stage 1946, once more, and did so through the voice of his only son, gifford bryce pinchot. he stood within a clear-cut watched by the forest service and denounced the forest service in his father's name. >> he went to the bitterroot and they took him to a crew cut, called the oh my god clear-cut because when you come around the corner, and you look at it, you go "oh my god," because it is high on the hill, the road comes right into the middle of it. it is the most awful looking thing. >> i had been back to those terraced landscapes. the fact is they worked, but
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they just looked terrible. they looked very distracted. destructive. narrator: in west virginia foresters planned to regenerate , valuable hardwoods by removing lesser quality trees. >> people in some of these very critical communities could see these clear cuts out of their kitchen window. >> culturally, it made a lot of sense. but it was like poking the public in the eye. >> some local hunting groups were really angered at an extensive set of clear cutting that the forest service was doing. these were turkey hunters. >> they would go out to this favorite hunting spot and they would find it'd been completely clear cut and the administrators at that time said, don't worry, we know what is best. just let us do it. in five years, we will show you
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an improved forest. that didn't sell. >> so, the turkey hunters got together with a couple of our wildlife groups and sentence go to court and sue them based on an 1817 act. >> they went back to that 1907 act and said the forest service does not have any authority to cut down trees. narrator: the 1897 organic act essentially ruled out clearcutting. >> it didn't reflect modern forestry. that was one of the problems. so we said, we're not violating that. >> the judge's decision was that the forest service was in total violation of the 1897 act. the court held it may not be good law but congress has to fix it. >> the forest service lost big and had to go back to congress and have its whole organic act rewritten to authorize timber. narrator: beginning with the
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wilderness act, congress passed a series of laws that shaped national forest management. >> there were a whole set of laws passed that had a powerful influence on the agency. one that i pick out, the national environmental policy act. narrator: nepa open to the decision-making process to the public. it required that projects on public lands be studied by a variety of specialists to determine their environmental impact. >> we had to stop just hiring foresters and engineers and really begin to hire people from a breadth of fields. >> you have to have a multidisciplinary approach. whole other kinds of ologists involved. >> i was in the camp of the quote we call them ologists. they were not of that same mindset. they came from different schooling. they came from different backgrounds.
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♪ >> until the late 1960's, the forest service was characterized by a palpable uniformity in gender, ethnicity, background, education, and profession. they were of one mind. and you could not turn to the person at the next desk, and say, what do you think of this and get a different answer. narrator: as women entered the industry they began to diversify , the workforce in many ways. >> and so, there was this double whammy of trying to fit into the workforce the new technical specialists and the females and minorities that were coming at the same time. so, there were some social adjustments that had to be made. >> the focus was on hiring of women and minority persons and that was a time when we were just starting to bring on women firefighters.
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>> probably in the 1970's, we started to see the integration of women into the crew. [radio feedback] >> i often wondered what a woman wanted to do to fight fire to come down grubby, teeth all black, bruised shins, sore muscles, and finally my wife said, what do you want to do it for? ♪ >> you were always being tested. >> they decided there should be
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women's uniform. patch -- there was a smaller patch than the men's uniform. >> i daniel: -- i guess i'd -- i did not look at it as history. since then, when i have told people about my background and i said it was 1985 and i became the first forest woman supervisor. i got reactions like, did it take that long? >> at the same time new voices were coming into the agency, the environmental laws required the forest service to open its planning and decision-making process to a broader part of the public. >> this group wants to do this,
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this group wants to do this. they all have a right to voice what they want to do. they are the owners and they are coming out and seeing how you are managing their land. >> the forest service is really good about reposing to do new things. provide resources to different constituencies. saying to the recreationists, we are happy to build you a new recreation area. the timber industry, we are happy to provide you with a little bit of temper. the ranching industry, we are happy to provide grass for your cows. we are happy to have habitat for elks if you want to go and hunt them, or turkeys, or fish. in the post-world war ii period, you can't provide everything everybody wants all the time without there being some conflict.
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>> forest service planners correlated input from the public with data. they help the computer would help determine the greatest good. >> i think the argument was you could have everything. the greatest good. social benefits, economic benefits, environmental benefits. >> the question of which roadless areas to include provided an early test of the public involvement process. >> the forest service i would have to say was pretty stingy with wilderness areas in the beginning. we had a rather strict view of what wilderness was. it was pure. >> the forest service argued that only the crown jewels of american nature should be protected. if we protected the lesser areas, it would tarnish the whole wilderness system. but it was also because they did
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not want any areas that had exploitable resources in them -- protected as wilderness. >> once you have wilderness, it is pretty easy. you manage on the side of the line one way. this side of the line another way. drawing lines on a map solves a lot of conflicts if you can agree on where the line is. >> there were 62 million acres of roadless areas on the national forests. conservationists proposed only 35 million acres to be studied as wilderness. essentially we were willing to let half go. but the forest service proposed only 15 million acres. we felt betrayed and were very upset. and that is one of the reasons i left washington, d.c. that's actually what led to the formation of earth first. i salute you. i celebrate you. i love you for being fellow warriors.
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[cheering] >> at the same time that earth first was using progressive tactics to stop logging and role -- and wrote building, a natural event leveled an entire forest. >> we had a major abruption at 8:32 this morning on mount saint helens. the first report we actually got -- >> get off this bridge.
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>> the eruption with the question of the greatest good. was it better to salvage the fallen trees and replant the national forest or use the event as a unique show less text 01:40:22 and we went into that tremendous disturbed area and lo and we hold there was all of these organisms that had survived, all this structure that had survived. even though we knew better, we were still thinking in terms of disturbances is destroying things as laying waste, as eliminating everything from a place.
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and it doesn't. >> the research branch, which had long been an independent part of the forest service, prevailed when the volcano was declared a national monument. the area would provide important information about how landscapes recover from major disturbances. (music) show less text 01:41:23 -- >> sweeping environmental and social changes of the 1960's and 1970's brought a conservative shift, including the election of ronald reagan in 1980. >> the president was elected to bring about change. i was appointed to bring about change. >> we had a new administration and they felt that we should have a lot more timber harvests than the forest service had proposed in the plan. >> the forest service probably could cut about 25 billion board
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feed a year off the commercial forest lands within the national force in perpetuity. 01:42:08 but when you got out on the ground and you oh, well, there is a rare and endangered species. over here, there is only two inches of soil, if you cut six trees, it will fall into the creek. they formed a group within the forest service, and sided with environmental organizations in challenging the agencies timber program. >> the first loyalty of these new professionals was not to the agency but to their profession. >> it made for an interesting culture that a lot of people referred to as the combat biologist era. as you were really there trying to have a say in a large organization in the system, in the way it did business and yet, you really weren't welcome at the table, and the advice you're giving was not the advice they wanted to hear. >> it was about a 10 year battle
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in the 1980's between people -- between environmentalists, the timber industry, between people within the forest service itself who wanted to get the cut out and other ones were saying, we should not do this, we can't should not be doing this. show less text 01:43:16 we were -- >> we were beginning to feel the pressure from industry and communities to do what it was we were doing beyond maybe what we should be doing. >> we're going to be short maybe three or four million board. >> we are only talking about 250 acres additional per year. >> i'm very happy to try. and if you can within these constraints do it, but i'd rather leave it open ended. >> i will be very honest with you. the agency got caught up in that scenario. and we went to the dark side. we began to be driven by our budget. and we began to be driven by the political pressures. >> the drive to get out the cut
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is, it's a funny thing. i don't think, i mean, a loud -- a lot of people would say it is because you are getting paid off. no one got paid off in the forest service. there was an attitude, an ethic, that was very pro-logging. >> we peaked out when i was chief. and i think one year, i do not remember which 1, 1987, 88, somewhere there, we harvested over 12 billion board feet. and that was the high year for the forest service. >> we were a culture that believes that engineering and science could get us around it. if they did not like clear-cuts, we could use lead strips along the highway. if a mountainside cannot regenerate timber, we could fertilize, we terraced. we did all of these mechanical things all in the spirit of the utilitarian philosophy of man over nature. >> and by the mid-1980's it was apparent that, no, you needed to
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start from a different philosophical base. >> we stretched the multi-use concept as far as we could to wrap our arms around these things. but it just wasn't big enough. that is when we had to go to a bigger concept of ecosystems management. ♪ >> the scientific basis for a new approach to management came in part from research on the west side of the cascade mountains in oregon and washington. the national forests there contained large trees that had been spared during loggings westward expansion. environmentalists call these ancient forests. timber managers called them over mature and decadent.
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to the public they were known as old-growth. ♪ >> the policy towards old grove from the forest service when i got started in the late 1950's as a full-time professional was liquidation. >> and they were in a sense decadent, there were trees that were falling down. rotting and falling apart which we now look as ecosystem attributes. at the time was viewed as huge waste. >> and these old forests, what we have been describing as decadence, was in fact in many senses niches, places where different organisms could live. >> one organism inhabiting the old-growth was the northern spotted owl.
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the forest service, it was >> dawning on them that at the rate we were cutting against the old-growth supply and at the rate we were fragmenting habitat, that we were going to have a collision with the endangered species act. it was probably going to be spotted owls. if it was not that it would be something else. >> the program was enjoined by judge dwyer as a result of concerns over how the spotted owl was being accommodated on the national forest. >> and of course that just terminated the timber sale programs on the west side forests. >> i can show you a graph that shows you a high level of sales until 1991. then judge dwyer issued his court decision. implements down near zero. >> the sudden drop in timber supply devastated the rural economy in the northwest.
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>> some communities, the forest service employees were looked upon as the enemy because we are part of the reason a part of the government that led to the reduced timber volumes. >> the reality was that that owl really didn't create most of the problem that the timber industry was having 01:48:26 in the end, it is not about spotted owls, it is about ecosystems. >> as science revealed the complexity of ecosystems, ideas about forest management began to change. understanding fire's role in the forest was an important lesson. after decades when full fire suppression was a federal policy , they began to recognize the benefits that fire brings to ecosystems.
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>> yeah. >> fire is not going to go away. it is going to be with us. in fact, we need it. it is an ally. not an enemy. it does ecological work in many systems that nothing else does and you have to have it. >> the national park service has been a leader in changing fire policy towards the end of the 20th century. it began with a let burn policy. if a fire was started by lightning, that was nature. let it go. that policy was severely tested in 1988 when about 38% of yellowstone park went up in flames. >> the conflagration in yellowstone national park which resulted from too much fuel built up over the years, dramatize the dangers of just preventing fires. yet, controlled burns could also be dangerous, like the one that got out of hand in the year 2000
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near the los alamos nuclear laboratory. fire management became a complicated issue. quotes smokey bear had a midlife -- >> smokey bear had a midlife crisis in 1994 in the south cannon fire. he was 50 years old. in a year when 34 firefighters were killed. ♪ >> sometime in the middle of the night, the phone rang. and it was the deputy chief. he said, chief, we may have lost 45 firefighters in a place called south canyon. >> and fire suppression, the policy of fire suppression was blamed in part for those deaths. >> it was a tragedy. the real question was, should we have even been there in the first place? wehat was there to protect?
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>> the problem with smoky is not that his message is bad, but it that it only addresses one part of the problem. we want to prevent the fires we don't want. it does not address the other side which is to promote the fires we do want. for which there is often some ecological necessity. ♪ >> the wildland-urban interface is growing and where you have fire and people mixing, you have people injured and killed. >> living with fire is a greater challenge as the population grows and more people live in or near a national forest.
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>> you are not going to cut your way out of the problem. you will not burn your way out. certainly not going to suppress it. can't walk away from it. what we need are mixtures of those things applied to particular places. >> fire was not the only complex issue that land managers faced at the end of the century. with the public tugging from different sides, it became difficult to answer the question, what is the greatest good? >> finding the greatest good , of course, is a tremendous challenge because it changes over the years. >> whose greatest good is it now? whose greatest good will it be later? >> when gifford pinchot was chief there were 700 people.
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we have almost 300 million people. different interests of the american public. >> if the era of intentivsive resource extraction was over, what would define the next stage? >> i believe the future of the natural forest -- the national forests in the next 10, 20 years will be more of a restoration and a declaration -- when i say restoration, i'm talking about watershed restoration and fire-adapted ecosystems. we've been taking from these national forests. they have built so many of our communities, provided a tremendous amount of goods and services. but it is time to reinvest for the next generation and that is what the restoration is all about. >> community forestry in the united states happens in rural communities and in urban communities. it is about local people getting together, bringing in competing interests and saying, let's take care of the forest and let's take care of each other as we do that. the common ground is restoration and maintenance of these ecosystems.
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>> forestry in the united states has been a tremendous success story. the forests in the east and south were harvested before the turn of the century but they have grown back. at this point we have almost the same 90% of the land base we had at the turn-of-the-century or shortly thereafter. so, the forests have come back. they are not the same forests as before, but the land base is a pretty stable one. >> in the eastern united states, the lands that nobody wanted are now enjoyed by millions. >> the forest health issues, i think, are beginning to resonate with the general public. they are concerned about having healthy forests, clean water, and wildlife habitat. if it means man managing the resource to keep it healthy, i think they're going to be very accepting of that.
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>> cutting trees on public lands remain controversial. but society faces a difficult choice. >> there's pressure on the other side that says perhaps we should have no commercial harvests from federal lands and no manipulation and no management and nature will take care of itself. you know, i think they split the baby a long time ago. we had national parks and we had wilderness areas which are, there is a place for preservation. in the larger sense, we have to exploit our environment order to live. that is not a question. the question is how do we do that exploitation? whereby the generations that follow us will have the same opportunities we have today. ♪ >> as a nation, we have increase our consumption of paper and wood products by about 1% per year per capita since 1950. yet we seem to spend all our
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time fighting about the supply side. yet, we are consuming more. where is this going to come from? i say to the environmental community, is it ethical to export your environmental debt to another country? >> as population puts new demands on the global biosphere, forest research investigates climate change, biodiversity and the impact of foreign species and disease on native species. as scientists learn more about forest ecosystems, the national forests are increasingly valued for their ecological benefits. ♪
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>> recreation continues to expand as visitors place new pressures on the landscape. yet, the wilderness system now now', provides a place of solitude. ♪
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>> a wolf, a symbol of wilderness for leopold's others -- and others, is returning to the land but not without considerable controversy. >> people have concerned about conflict and disagreement over public lands but to me that that is the normal state of affairs. there have actually been relatively few periods when we have been free of conflict. in some respects, we would not have such a rich legacy today if we had not had the conflict we had in the past. >> we own them. so, of course we are going to disagree about how they should be managed. the public lands become the way by which we know we are democratic. we know the system is working because we are arguing about them. >> if you're going to find maybe not the greater good but at least the common good then you need all of these interests at the table. when the community treats the forest as though it is part of the community, then you have a long-term, sustainable system
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for natural resource management. >> forest is a long-term process -- managing a forest is a long-term proposition. you are looking at a 60 year time horizon. at public forest lands you may be looking at several hundred years. >> and we must be managing for the future out 100 years. >> leopold said we need to have an ethic that no matter what the changing circumstances, as our science changes, as our politics changes, that would still be there, still be driving people to ask, how can i live in this land without spoiling it? >> the work of the forest service can and should and must continue into the 21st century and beyond because, in a way the issues that this agency has been struggling with since its creation are at the very core of what it means to be a human
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being on the planet and what it means to build a sustainable human society. and, it is the struggle, not just of the united states, it's the struggle of humanity. ♪ >> we shape the land in the land shapes us. for 100 years, the u.s. forest service has grappled with the issues of how best to use, manage, and protect the public lands and waters of america. and throughout the next century we will continue to seek the greatest good. ♪ [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2021] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] ♪
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>> you can watch archival films on public affairs in their entirety on our weekly series "reel america." saturday at 10:00 p.m. and sunday at 4:00 p.m. eastern, here on american history tv. >> on american history tv, you can watch lectures in college classrooms, tours of historic sites, archival films, and our series on the presidency and the civil war. all are archived on our website, where you can also find our schedule of upcoming programs.
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3 as a public service every spring thousands of people visit the washington dc tidal basin to see the cherry blossoms memorials to thomas jefferson franklin d roosevelt and martin luther king jr. stand on its banks the tidal basin started as an engineering project but is also served as a swimming hole a protest ground and the scene of a political scandal. mike litterst national mall and memorial parks communications chief met us on site to talk about the area's history and famous japanese cherry trees. we are at the end of the tidal basin in washington dc home to the world famous cherry trees which blossom every

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