tv Reel America Universal Newsreels on Cuba 1959-1961 CSPAN April 23, 2021 2:21pm-2:37pm EDT
the cia mounted a failed invasion at cuba's bay of pigs. next, on reel america, a compilation of universal newsreels from the january 1959 cuban revolution through the end of april 1961. the chronology reveals how initial enthusiasm for fidel castro turned to skepticism, then opposition as the island nation allied with the soviet union and china. ♪♪ ♪♪ from the mountains, cuba's fidel castro emerged triumphant after two years of guerilla warfare against the batista regime. he had 82 followers to be nearly wiped out by government forces ended with the fight of dictator batista and the entry into havana of rebel forces to be claimed by the city. ♪♪
the forces of castro's 26th of july movement named for the anniversary of his first attack on the regime in 1953 have grown vastly, captured army weapons. castro led an all-out government offensive with a counterattack. and in the battle of santa clara won the crucial victory. batista resigned to prevent more bloodshed, and fled the country. the first elements of rebel forces entered havana. ♪♪ at first the celebration was peaceful as shouting surged from
the city. then the temper changed and an angry mob were in the streets. six years of prosperity and government corruption and police brutality bred explosive discontent. now a new leader is on the scene, fidel castro. but certain to be dominant in cuba's new era just begun. ♪♪ ♪♪ fidel castro demonstrates his unchallenged power over cuba's masses. he announces his resignation as premiere and the response is explosive.
walkouts from havana shops and factories, mass demonstrations by workers and university students calling on castro not to resign, hailing castro the maximum leader of the revolution. president manuel shown just after the revolution when castro installed him as provisional president, then one of the heroes of the people, was ousted to be replaced as president by the former minister of revolutionary laws. but it is certain that whoever may be president or premiere, fidel castro is number one man in cuba. in an emotional four-hour broadcast that evening, he accused former president of near treason, toppling him from the role of hero to one threatened with mob violence. fidel castro's dramatic show of strength make it's clear that after six and a half months he is still riding high on a wave of turbulent mass emotion. ♪♪
1 million peasants jammed the square before cuba's national capital in response to the call of fidel castro for celebration of the sixth anniversary of his 26th july revolutionary movement. it is perhaps the greatest mass rally ever staged in the western hemisphere. ♪♪ the unpredictable castro dons a baseball uniform to pitch a full inning in a benefit game. his new president tosses the first ball, and the game is on. castro pitching is credited with striking out the three batters he faces. this one game he really has to be careful. viva, fidel! ♪♪ in havana, deputy premiere opens a counterpart to the recent soviet fair in new york city.
of more significance is the presence of premiere fidel castro at these opening ceremonies. his one-week visit and affair are part of a broad program to woo the good will of castro and cuba. havana's intelligencia led the orchestra. the soviet may have made real progress toward building up trade and re-establishing diplomatic relations, thus adding to america's headaches in our troubled relations with this caribbean neighbor. ♪♪ cuba celebrates the seventh anniversary of castro's revolutionary movement with a red chinese delegation and one from bolivia among a quarter of a million. his observance in the foothills where he directed the revolt
against the batista regime was one of castro's few public appearances. suffering from a lung infection for weeks, he was ordered to take a complete rest both mental and physical. castro's brother who was enjoying this triumphal reception in moscow at the time hurried home. he is the number two man in cuba's revolutionary red tin's government. he seems to respond eagerly to the soviets wooing of cuba. an ailing fidel castro. he delivers a typical rebel rousing talk after raving for a half hour, the cuban premiere loses his voice, but he regains enough strength to come
back and announce his latest blow against the united states, the seizure of three-quarters of a billion properties. castro promises to pay for it all in 50 years. but at the rate the cuban economy is failing, the payoff may come sooner than he expects. ♪♪ this is definitely a pro-castro crowd enthusiastically defacing the telephone company building. a day after this demonstration, senior castro charges that the u.s. in what he calls fascist priests are in a part to defeat the revolution. he says his government has been generous to the church.
but there are no clergymen at the mock funeral of the telephone company. in costa rica the organization of american states votes sanctions against the dominican republic led by venezuela who complained that the dominican trujillo had ordered an attempted assassination of venezuela's president. and diplomatic sanctions are voted. united states secretary of state takes up the next topic calling for action to meet the threat of growing red influence in cuba. the reaction was explosive. in cuba castro proclaimed friendship with the soviet union and communist china. the oas took positive action against dominican strongland rule but joint effort of the american states to cope with red
infiltration by political compromise for the castro regime apparently resulted in worsening the crisis. but even as cuba threatened to walk out of the oas, president eisenhower in his white house press conference recalled common ties and interests and left open the door for an easing of tensions. >> cuba has been one of our finest friends. we are the ones that conducted the war that set them free. and when they got in trouble we had an occupation, and again we set them on their feet and set them free. and we have had a long history of friendly relationships, and we've tried to keep our hands out of their internal political effects. we have not tried to throw out
someone they didn't like or anything like that. so, i would think that the very warfare of the cuban people finally demand some kind of composition of the difficulties between the american states including our own on the one hand and cuba on the other. ♪♪ >> cuba's fidel castro arrives at new york. the first of the parade of heads of government that includes nearly every iron curtain nation and russian align all on hand for the opening of the united nations 15th general assembly surrounded by a heavy security guard, he appears subdued. his arrival speech is only a few words. i want to salute to the people of the united states.
about the other things that i want to tell, i wish -- to the general assembly of the united nations. thank you very much. >> a first red satellite to arrive in new york are czechoslovakia and poland. they are not greeted by any united states representative, not being guests of this country. makes an arrival speech in his own tongue. despite their status as high-ranking red leaders both of them are almost ignored by the numerous pickets and demonstrators. many of them east european refugees who protested the arrival of khrushchev and other leading reds on the s.s.
baltica. arrived on a dank and foggy morning heading up to the east river closest to headquarters, it was cruising parties of hecklers. the shore hundreds of demonstrators amassed despite heavy rains. carpets had been laid by soviet emissaries for the occasion. it swarmed with newsmen and one of the massive assemblies of police and security men ever gathered in new york. khrushchev could barely be glimpsed through the throng of protectors. promises to make a general assembly session already momentous on the cargo issue on a potentially explosive or a
potentially historic international meeting. at least 16 new members are to be admitted. a score of heads of government are a dramatic setting with global states at issue. ♪♪ fidel castro whips up a fuhrer in cuba charging the united states with arming and training mercenary forces for an imminent invasion. he calls out some 200,000 militiamen for training and guard duty at key points throughout havana at the guantanamo naval base. castro's invasion scarce also enlivens the eve of a debate in the united nations on cuban charges of aggression by the united states. meanwhile in moscow, an expert reels out the line of friendship to a group of newsmen and women
from cuba, president at the invitation of a soviet journalist fleet whose job receives a gift of the cuba flag. the soviet's and the western hemisphere align. castro marks the second anniversary of his revolution with the biggest military parade ever staged in cuba, featuring tanks and other heavy weapons from russia and red czechoslovakia. shortly afterwards, castro demanded the united states embassy drastically reduce his staff to 11 persons. it was the last straw in his long campaign of provocation. president eisenhower broke off diplomatic relations with a message read by press secretary haggerty. >> there is a limit to what the united states in self-respect can endure. that limit has now been reached.
our friendship for the cuban people is not affected. it is my hope and my conviction that in the not-too-distant future, it will be possible for the historic friendship between us once again to find reflection and normal relations of every sort, meanwhile, our sympathy goes out to the people of cuba now suffering under the yoke of a dictator. ♪♪ >> the assault has begun on the dictatorship of fidel castro. cuban army pilots open the first phase of organized revolt with bombing raids on three military bases. two of the b-26 light bombers then seek asylum in florida on the heels of the air raids, landings were affected by rebels at several places on the cuban coast, and the rebelan against the red dictator was on.