tv Reel America Cuba - The Battle of America - 1960 CSPAN April 23, 2021 9:07am-10:00am EDT
voice, provocative, sensible and challenging came to television last night. dr. albert burke. next on "reel america," we bring you that broadcast with educational television pioneer albert burke. using footage and interviews from cuba, burke argues that poverty, racism and economic exploitation by u.s. corporate interests led to the popularity of fidel castro who promised to make life better for his supporters. ♪♪ >> chapter 1 in the battle of america. chapter 1 was the battle of cuba. it was finished on january the 8th, 1959 here in havana. the kind of history these people
began writing here was not intended to stop here. there were 19 more chapters to follow. this is revolution. as revolutions have gone throughout the world since the end of world war ii, this one in cuba holds no special honors for distinctions. the revolutions have gone until this one, the cuban revolution is very special. it's very special for several reasons and all of them are pretty much a mystery to this fellow. he is particularly wrapped up in that cuban revolution. he doesn't really understand what happened in cuban back in january of 1959. despite the fact that no other person on this planet has a greater number or variety of ways to read about, hear about, see about, and know about things, tons of newsprint that
he's read through and the untold hours of air time he's listen to around him for years, none of that prepared him for today's cuba. he's confused. particularly so because like thousands of other americans he's been to cuba. as a matter of fact, he was there vacationing only a few weeks before that scene you saw on the screen a moment ago happened in havana. when he was there, there wasn't much to suggest to him that things would go as they have gone in that island country. what john q. american didn't see in cuba when he was there and what happened in cuba is tonight's cuba, the battle of america. ♪♪ name street in almost any large city in any country south of the border. as it happens, this is one of the main streets in havana,
cuba. modern hotels, gambling casino, exotic restaurants, department stores and office buildings. this is tourist alley. well known to most american visitors to cuba, to most american visitors, this is cuba. it's all of cuba they usually get to see. it isn't cuba at all. it's a transplanted bit of the united states from the air-conditioned hotels to the table linen and silver serving dishes in the restaurants. most of what you see on your screen was built by americans, in fact. in havana's case, much of that transplanted bit of north america was built by a very special group of americans who have given too many of the cuban people a somewhat peculiar picture of what life in america must be like. john q. had a whale of a time in cuba several weeks before castro reached that city. i'm albert burke.
i'll try to tell you how and why this was the case. he lost quite a bit of money at the gaming tables in the casino along tourist alley. many of which were built by a group of american racketeers with the profits of the crime syndicates headquartered in new york and chicago which run most of the bookie operations, dope peddling, abortion mills, prostitution and poker houses here in the states. he enjoyed the excellent food served in the exotic restaurants along tourist alley and many of them were built by the same men with the same kind of money. and although he doesn't go for that kind of thing himself, he wanted that kind of feminine companionship, havana was famous throughout the whole of south america for the quality of its red light district. and this is a business enterprise which has been set up and run by the same racketeers who shared their hard-earned
cuban pesos and american dollars with a number of cuba's government officials with a privilege of providing services to the vacations public. all of that was part of the transplanted bit of the united states in cuba that made john q.'s vacation there a delightful interlude. the cuban peasant with a peculiar idea about what the american way of life must be like over on the mainland, 90 miles away. tourist alley is not the whole picture of the american dollars invested in the economy, but it has always been the most spectacular part of that picture in cuba. and there are tourist alleys all over south america. for a dangerously long time, they've been the most important blocks that john q. american's understanding what really went on south of our border, what life was really like there. john q., you see, is accustomed
to the foam, rubber mattress, tiled bathroom kind of life. he rarely moving away from this wherever he goes in the world. there isn't that kind of world in africa, asia or south america except in the tourist allies that have been set up to cater to the people who can afford to live that way. from tourist allies wherever they are, it's been very hard to see the seeds of the kind of revolution that spilled over much of the world since the end of world war ii and most recently in cuba. very few americans are prepared now to see those seeds all over south america as castro's right-hand man in havana saw them last march when he described the cuban revolution as chapter one in the battle for america. the leaders see those seeds sprouting in 19 other south
american countries where conditions are ripe for castro's kind of revolution. what are those conditions? pope john 23rd put his fingers squarely on the most important part of his message to the first national catholic convention last year. 500,000 cubans gathered to hear the holy father tell them that, and i quote, the face of the world could change if true charity were to rule. this is the charity of the christian man who knows that his wealth has a social function and that it's his duty to give what is above his own needs to those who are deprived of the bare necessities of life, unquote. pope john. what pope john 23rd was talking about was a kind of south america that can be seen a fairly short distance away from any tourist alley in any other south american country. the visitor in buenos aries is
always impressed like the streets like the avenue of the 9th of july. buenos aires has some of the widest, best paved streets in the world and lined with the smartest shops and totals. but the visitor rarely sees or hears about a place called the belt of misery which almost surrounds the beautiful part of that city. in this belt, more than a million argentines live under conditions of filth and poverty which few north americans alive today have ever known and fewer would understand. this gulf between the rich and the poor in every country south of the border is the stuff revolutions are made of. not the kind that were known in every south american country, but this man's kind, which, as revolutions have gone in the world since 1945, is not
particularly unusual. but in cuba and in latin america, mr. castro's revolution has been very unusual. fidel castro offered cuba's miserables ones, cuba's poor, the cuban peasants, he offered them a better deal and life than they had ever known before. this group with their families make up about half of the cuban population. he told this group in effect that his revolution would make what pope john meant by christian charity a reality for them. this revolution of castro's was the first in cuban history to base its policies and its power on the peasant and his was one of the very, very few revolutions in modern south american history that was not fought between power groups, between the military, between the upper classes. in all other revolutions, the peasant, the poor, the miserable ones took no real part.
they couldn't have cared less who won or who lost because their lives never changed anyway. but castro told that group that the revolution he headed was for them. he gave them a sense of political power. he gave them to understand what political power meant and what could be done with it. they flocked to his support. today almost two years later, they are his main support despite an active growing opposition from the upper and the middle classes and from the workers in the cities. they are still very solidly with him as the backbone of a revolution new to the western hemisphere. these are the conditions that give men like castro's right-hand man in havana the confidence he felt last march when he said cuba was only chapter one in the bigger revolution to come in the whole of south america. he wasn't just batting his gums about this, was pointed out earlier this year.
at that time, this man was a candidate for the presidency of brazil. during that visit to cuba, he said he would follow the example set by fidel castro in his country if he was elected. he also said that brazil had many problems like those in cuba problems of corruption, problems of inflation and he said there was a long need for basic reforms. three weeks ago, he won brazil's presidential election with a landslide majority and if his opinions about the cuban revolution have not changed since that visit, chapter 2 in the battle of america maybe written with or without a revolution in south america's largest nation. whatever happens to castro in cuba, or to his revolution in the future, whether castro stays on as the maximum leader or whether his revolution fails, cuba will never be the same again. it will never go back to things
as they were. south america will never be the same again either. pope john warned in that talk that the gulf between the rich and the poor had to be bridged. the continent of the south of us will never be the same again because the words gotten around that that gulf can be bridged. better lives are possible. schools to learn to read and write are possible. that one does not have to age quickly and die young because of hard work and hunger and disease. better houses to live in than mud huts and packing cases with tin roofs, these things are possible. this word has gotten around. the trouble is, though, this word is not being spread by christian men who practice a christian charity as pope john suggested. it is being spread by revolutionaries who practice a very different method as
suggested by the men who offered these goods and services to mr. castro to help him try to stabilize his revolution in cuba. these are soviet jet fighters, the kind they have offered cuba's leader. they point out a problem which disturbs all americans right now, the problem of a communist-controlled or communist-influenced military base in the americas. there are reports that in addition to the building of airfields for planes like these, soviet technicians are at work in cuba now, building hard missile launches sites which could cover every part of the united states. there are reports too about soviet and communist chinese technicians being submarines for future use by the submarine fleets of the two major communist powers. the reports and rumors which we here have looked into and which we would like to have you look into too after a short time-out.
what we've heard about the activities of russians and chinese in cuba today has come to us from men like ray robinson, for example, who was a pilot. robinson was a first lieutenant in the united states air force before that and a short time ago he told our man in miami about planes, missiles and submarines in cuba. >> how many would you say they have there? >> at the time that i was there, the last count was somewhere around 35. they might have more because there has been quite a few shipping in and out -- >> have you seen the russians? >> yes, i have. i've seen them on quite a few occasions and i've seen the chinese. >> what about -- we heard these rumors of rockets and so forth
in cuba. what have you heard about them? >> i understand in that area that they have actually started production of rockets in that area. i've never seen it myself, but there are reliable sources that there are there. >> have you ever heard anything about the rumors of submarines? >> yes, we have. we have heard many rumors, many of the people will talk about -- believe that. >> and the reports go on. with neil mccully next. he was an american who fought for castro, was given a farm in cuba for his services and then
pulled out of cuba to escape the communist takeover there. said mr. mccully -- >> there are a number of people there who came from behind the iron curtain. there are a number of russians and probably more chinese, chinese communists. hungarians and they always go in groups of three or four. they have to have secret policemen among the group and they don't mix with the people at all. they wear these heavy suits in the tropics and they're out of place. they just look foreign there in cuba. >> have you met any of them? >> well, i met the agricultural
team in the province. >> what do you think these people are there for? are they just agricultural technicians or do you think they have more important -- >> well, i'm sure there's a good infiltration of secret service or intelligence agents mixed in with this group. and, of course, these -- certain that they're political organizers. >> what ray robinson and neil mccully were talking about in those interviews was the problem of cuba right now as most americans see it. this is the problem of a communist-controlled or a communist-influenced military base in the americas which poses a direct, head-on military threat to our homes, factories and to our future. these are the obvious things that concern and disturb us
about a future in which the only organized political party allowed to operate today in cuba is the communist party. these are the obvious things about today's cuba. but they are not necessarily the most important things, certainly not in an age of intercontinental air power. ♪♪ intercontinental ballistic missile power. these, by the way, are soviet rockets. but especially missile-carrying nuclear submarines which are operational and part of the ussr submarine fleet. the soviet union and communist
china are just as aware as we are of the enormous importance of the missile-carrying sub, as a moving, hard to spot missile-launching platform. no base on land whether it's cuba or any place else, can compare with this in today's kind of warfare. this does not mean that military bases on land have no value anymore, but it does mean that cuba is not particularly important to a communist russia or a communist china as a military base. the leaders of those two communist powers have other, bigger and much more important goals in mind than just a military foothold in an island in our front yard. cuba is important to the soviet union and the communist china in other ways about which john q. american there and that means all 180 million of us, knows
little or nothing. mainly because it's very hard for him or for anyone else to see men like these from the tourist allies south of the border. these men, seldom, if ever, get into the hotels, bars or casino of those allies. but these men and what moved them to the kind of revolution they pulled off successfully there almost two years ago makes that island, the island of cuba, particularly important to both of the communist powers. what is there about those men and their revolution in cuba that is so special? something that this fellow is supposed to have decided about 43 years earlier as he tried to make another revolution stick and work in russia. the man addressing this crowd is lennon the father of his country. he had to face a problem soon after his followers took over
the revolution to set up the first communist state. russia was supposed to be only one of many states that would explode in revolution after the first world war. there was supposed to be a rising of workers and peasants all over the world to lead to a communist world. but this didn't happen. lennon is supposed to have decide that had the best way to bring about a communist future of the world would not be able concentrating on revolutions in advanced nations and working in the spheres of influence, britain, france, belgium, the netherlands, portugal and all the rest. he phrased it in these words, the way to victory for communism over the west lies by way of peking and calcutta in asia.
some say lennon did make it and some say he didn't. but this doesn't really matter. because another soviet leader did say much the same thing only a few years ago. this man, shortly before he died back in 1953. stalin said that the way to victory for communism in the world lay in an alliance of the soviet union's interest with the former depressed peoples of the world. his statement has been around much longer than this man's, but both statements lead to much of the kind of history that has been made by the communists since the end of world war ii in asia. what the statements have to do with men like these, we'll get into in a moment. those statements lead directly out of the past to these men who by fidel castro's own definition are among the world's former colonial and oppressed peoples. now, according to that
definition, cuba was first made a colony of and opposed by spain. this was in the early 1500s. well, the spanish-american war put an end to spanish rule in their island country. but cuba then became a colony of and was oppressed by the united states and this was in the late 1800s. according to castro, this situation lasted until about january the 8th, 19 59d, which is when his revolution reached havana to finish chapter one in the battle of america. this may not be history as you know it from your history books, but it's the kind of history these men believe which is now being written into new cuban textbooks for the primary and secondary schools in their country. it was a kind of history that this man wanted to see end. juan had one burning ambition when he joined castro in the
mountains back in 1956 and his ambition was to see cuba free. that is free of a government and a way of life that allowed what this man called foreign interests and big landowners to take cuba's best farm lands away from cuban farmers to be worked for the benefit of people outside of cuba. what he had in mind, particularly, was seven companies that owned about 5 million acres of cuban farmland which turned out agricultural products that few cubas used and profits that few cubans saw. those 5 million acres were about half of all the land under crops in cuba. they were paying dividends to american investors way off in the united states. this was colonialism to juan. and so this man fought for what he called freedom and for land
reform in his name of mostly farmers. his friend nunes here had worked for several years as a mechanic in the guantanamo base off in eastern cuba. nunes was one of eight children born to peasants who owned no land, who made their living cutting cane for one of the 161 sugar-grinding mills on the island. until nunes was 15 years old, it reach today the general store in the village. it was home. it was a squat usually windowless shack. it was home to hundreds of thousands of cuba's peasants who lived and worked their lives away under conditions that were the rule in europe about 1,000
years back. these were primitive farms conditions under which the peasants aged fast and died young. nunes was 15 years old when his father died at 36. his father was helped to an early death by a variety of infections and decides that still effect most of his people. that is outside the cities. there were health services in cuba and good ones too in the cities but they didn't reach down to the level of this man and his family. hunger reached down to the level of this man, though. nunes new hunger every year of his life, even when his parents both had jobs during the sugar time. during the very long off sugar season when there was no other work of any kind to be had, things would get pretty desperate for these people. nunes joined fidel castro back in 1956 and he had one burning ambition by that time which was to see cuba free.
free of governments that did little or nothing for the bulk of cuba's people, the farming peasants, and free of a way of life that kept them out of the 20th century. nunes worked up this burning ambition while he worked at the american naval base at guantanamo bay, which like most of tourist alley in havana, was a transplanted bit of united states in cuba. at guantanamo saw the 20th century, he saw it in decent housing, good schools, good medical care and good wages. he heard about the good life, he saw it in american moving pictures and on television and nunes was converted. nunes took to the hills with castro to fight what he called economic reform. what he meant was the kind of economy that spelled the good life for americans. and this meant industrial development for cuba that could give them what you see on your
screen. it meant a drastic overhaul of cuba's farming set up which kept farmers back in the middle ages. nunes had no idea how this could be done. he only knew that it had to be done. and his friend jose martinez here agreed with him. jose joined castro in 1956 too because at that time, jose had one burning ambition, and that was to see cuba free. free of governments and a way of life that allowed what this man called foreign interests. jose was a miner. and although he received pretty good wages working for a cuban branch of an american company in the united states, he resented the fact that cuba's mineral riches were not being worked in cuba to make more jobs and better lives possible for his
people. instead, cuba iron ore was shipped off to places like the tide water plants of the bethlehem steel company in maryland and way off there, cuba ores were made to make more jobs and better lives possible for americans. jose martinez wanted to see economic reform in cuba too, that is the kind that would force foreign users to mine them and process them in his country. as he saw cuban history, ever since the year 1511, foreigners, first spain, then the united states, had been pulling minerals and ores out of cuba with little or no benefit to his people. it was time for a change and jose fought his way into havana with castro to bring about that change. and it was change that interested pedro here too. pedro's interest in change was not quite the same as the others.
this man had a burning ambition too. and that was to see cubans treated as dignified human beings. that is as the equals of all other men. and right now, there is no subject about which practically all of the world's peoples around europe and north america are more sensitive. just as pedro here is sensitive about racial prejudice. sensitive people like pedro have changed the whole political map of the world since 1945 in revolutions which have just about wiped out the empires and the spheres of influence of west europeans. and in that kind of world, people like pedro have made cuba particularly important to communist east europeans and to the communist chinese. because, you see the kind of world these men live in is shot through with the need for land reform. this is the very thing juan fought for in cuba.
the world these men live in desperately needs economic reforms, industrial development to change the world from the poor agricultural place it is to the better, more industrialized place it could be. in that kind of world, nunes and jose have made cuba particularly important to a communist russia in china. because those are the kinds of interests which not too long ago, joseph stalin said, the soviet union should line up with in order to bring about a final victory for communism over the noncommunist west. because john q. american doesn't live in that kind of world, he doesn't see the kind of cuba these men fought over in revolution for which reason he doesn't understand how series a threat to his way of life, the kind of cuba they helped to set
up as become. somehow, despite the fact that no person on this planet has a greater number or variety of ways to read about, to hear about, to know about things, there hasn't been much in the tons of newsprint that john q. american has read through and the uncountable hours of time he's listened through to help him know how and why the words land reform have been and still have the stuff that revolutions are made of. he hasn't read much about how and why the kind of economic reforms that martinez want to see for cuba is so hard for cuba and so hard for the rest of the world to get. and unfortunately for millions of other americans just like him, there hasn't really been much passed onto him through all of those ways he has to know about things which would disprove the idea that he really is a better human being than
cubans or indians or chinese or negroes, among others. after all, compare his kind of life with theirs. if they had mines that were just as good as his and if they can do things just as well as he can, why haven't they done what he's done to live so well? well, let's get into that one after we have a short time-out. about two months ago, i spoke to a half dozen young people from different parts of south america who were in the soviet union here at the university of moscow. their tuition was free, their transportation was paid. all of them were from small towns and villages in their respective countries. when they finished their studies in this place, they intended to head back to those towns and villages. how did they feel about this opportunity? very grateful, they told me. what kind of program was it that
put them in that university in the soviet union capital? it was a special program that began two years ago in communist china and last year in the ussr to educate and train young ecuadorians and the rest in the ideas of communism and a variety of specially selected subjects. they trained here, sent back to their villages and towns, wait for the day to do the things that have to be done to stabilize any revolution. if and as castro's revolution goes well and with communist help, the next 19 chapters of the battle of america are written. the students trained there will have their chance to step into power in their countries and there isn't much doubt about this. this will happen for very much the same reason that cuban communists are moving into power in cuba now.
you see, fidel castro could fight a revolution without people trained in economics and in finance, and in problems of transportation and communications, without training in running businesses and industries and agriculture. but castro could not stabilize his revolution without such people. when i asked those young south americaens at the university of moscow this summer what courses they were taking, interestingly enough, they were studying economics, finance, problems of transportation, communications and the rest. it's an important characteristic of revolutions that they leave political, social and economic vacuums. because the people who run revolutions find that they cannot trust the people they revolt against and in order to make their futures secure, they use very effective methods to make sure that people like these will not endanger the
revolution. this fellow on your screen may have been trained in some important field of government work but to these men, he's the enemy. and in dealing with such enemies, the way you are about to see -- what you are about to see is the stuff that vacuums which follow revolutions are made of. ♪♪ you're witnessing an execution, an execution of a former military commander in cuba. he's been given a choice of giving the command for his own execution. and so enemies disappear in
revolutions. it's an important characteristic of the vacuums created by revolutions. it's an important characteristic of vacuums as any good physics textbook will point out, that vacuums can be filled and filled easily. who was there in cuba? among those castro and his revolutionaries could trust, and by that, i mean not from the upper or the middle classes or from the workers either. those groups had been in the government castro threw over. from those small towns and villages, who could step in to fill the vacuum after castro came to power? where were the noncommunists people from those small towns and villages to fill that vacuum? in other words, what force have we prepared? what force are we thinking about preparing now as the soviet union and communist china are now preparing those young south
americaens in special schools. what force have we prepared against the day of revolution that was written all over cuba to see for years as it was written all over asia and africa to see for years and as it is written all over south america today to see too outside tourist alley, that is. those training programs for south america students in moscow and peking are communism's investment in the future and this is the future that mr. stalin laid out through places like cuba as the way to a communist future for the world and this is the same future which they assure the whole world will someday be theirs. what investment have we made? or are we thinking of making to see to it that that future will
not theirs. this is a meeting in miami, florida, in that city's park. this is a group of cuban exiles who call themselves the alliance for liberation. these people have one burning ambition today and that burning ambition is to see cuba free, but this time, free from castro. there are all kinds of cuban groups like these, most of them disunited, disorganized but holy committed to counter revolutions against castro. [ speaking foreign language ] >> i was commander of the base. when communist was sent to teach at the school, i reported this to fidal. i then realized that he was a communist. i had to go underground and took
refuge in the brazilian embassy in havana. after three months, i went to brazil and then came to the united states. i'm a member of the anti-communist christian front and the alliance for liberation. i am ready to join those who are fighting castro. >> this is dr. antonio verona. he was prime minister. today he is an exile and a counter revolutionary and his group is called the altetico party. he saw receipts sent to agents working for castro and other agents in south america. he escaped from cuba and today is with the democratic revolutionary front. and this doctor, once minister
of cuban education. he was a strong man. today he's preparing to fight castro. this is a captain who left medical school only to learn about castro's plans to move cuba into the communist world. he heads a group called the counter revolutionary movement of revolutionary recovery. the doctor who went to school, then college with fidel castro today is the brains behind the christian democratic movement. the fastest-growing counter revolutionary movement in cuba. and pedro the former head of castro's air force. he was the first cuban official to defect. he came to the united states by sailboat and warned the united states investigating committee about a communist takeover in cuba. to back up the hopes of those counter revolutionary groups, tools like these are being collected, second-hand weapons of all kinds, which are loaded
into small boats like these for dangerous trips to cuba, bringing out refugees and fugitives have castro's police. in this way, many exiles have gone back to cuba to fight and many of those exiles have died, many more will. at this point, john q. american, you and i, face a problem. are those highly emotional, disorganized, many interested counter revolutionary cuban forces with no clear-cut program to meet the problems of the cuba that those men fought under castro to correct. are those people armed with the latest weapons, weapons like these, put in their hands where they practice the use of these weapons, not far from miami, florida. are men like these with this
kind of training later to be carried out of the united states in american ships, are these men and these weapons to turn cuba into a battleground again? the question is, are those groups you saw, and the message you saw there, to be our investment to keep the battle of america from going communism's way in the other 19 countries south of the border? the question is, is this an effective answer to communism anywhere in the world? how does this solve the problem of land reform? how does this solve the problem of economic reform, of industrial development? how does it solve the problem of race prejudice? as these things are the stuff revolutions are made of in today's kind of world. let's go to mr. mccully again to get a view of this.
>> do you think the united states should intervene? or what do you think is the solution? >> i don't have a solution. this is a tough problem. i'd like to see some steps taken. i don't know what the united states can do, as far as aiding the cuban people and ridding themselves of the communist dictatorship. somebody more has to be done than we did in hungary. we have to give these people some kind of help, what help i can't say. >> what about the possibility of cubans within cuba and the exiles from outside doing something, dew do you think they have much of a chance? >> frankly, i don't think they have much of a chance. the situation gets worse as time goes by. the chances of overthrowing castro diminish with time. the russians are getting a
strangle hold on cuba now. they're sending in the arms, the equipment, the planes, the tanks, everything castro needs to put down any rebellion. >> more to come on this subject in just a moment. we live in the world of the juan and joses, from indonesia around the world to cuba, it's a world of exploding populations, desperately in need of land reform, economic reforms, in agriculture and setting up industries. and a world sensitive to the point of explosion about the idea held by too many white skinned people that they are somehow better than dark skinned people. these are some of the more important things revolutions are made of today, but communists didn't create them. these problems showed up in human affairs before the first bull show vick was out of
diapers and the problems would be around to spark revolutions in human affairs if every communist on earth conveniently were to kick the bucket and die off this minute. communists didn't create the stuff today's revolutions are made of, but they have fed on that stuff. from russia to cuba. russian revolution was not a communist revolution back in 1918, but it became one. and nothing did more to keep the communists in business in that country about 40 years ago than the idea that was tried then, by this country and others in europe, to deal with the stuff of revolution there by backing russia counter revolutionary groups with bullets. more than three years of bullets and counter revolution in russia did not destroy communism there for two reasons. first, the bullet hasn't been made yet that can shoot our way
out of the kind of problems that exist in the world of men like juan and the martinezes. second, that was the easy answer, the problems that have no easy answer. cuba is not russia. with today's weapons, that country, that island could not only be overrun, it could be wiped out in minutes but cuba is like russia in the sense that bullets and counter revolution are no better today for the problems of land reform, economic reform, and exploding populations than they were 43 years ago in russia. look hard at history as it happens, particularly during the past 15 years. 15 years and some $90 billion after world war ii, despite all the military pacts, the treaties, and the defenses alliances we've put through in the best top hat, cut away coat
and stripe trouser kind of diplomacy, despite assistance, economic aid and programs, communists have fed on the stuff that makes revolutions, have taken over other people's revolutions, right into cuba here in the western hemisphere for two reasons. first, a dollar hasn't been printed yet that can buy our way out of the world the juans live in. and second bullets and counter revolutions are still the easy answer to problems that have no easy answer. there are no easy answers to deal with the stuff revolutions are made of. there are no easy answers to communism. there's only hard work. hard work by each individual thinking and voting american. who must work hard to understand
that the key to the survival of our way of life today lies in dealing with the kind of world those men live in, not just understanding it, but willingness to work in it. away from the tourist alleys and the bathroom kind of life to defend america, and not just in the battle of america, which mr. castro has in mind for south america but the battle of the world that communism has in mind for this whole planet. this means hard work to face head on and deal head on with the problems of exploding populations, land reform, economic reform, but most important, the demand by human beings everywhere, even here at home, for dignity, to do this by other means than bullets and blank checks passed around by blank minds, until we do this, it will not be communism that
american history tv on cspan3, exploring the people and events that tell the american story every weekend. thousands of people visit washington for the annual blooming of the cherry blossoms, sunday at 6:00 p.m. eastern on american artifacts. we look at the history of the cherry trees and the washington d.c. tidal basin. and sunday at 8:00 p.m. eastern on the presidency, a behind the scenes tour of the harry s. truman library into museum in missouri.
exploring the american story, watch american history tv sundays on cspan3. as he approaches his 100th day in office, president biden makes his first address to a joint session of congress on wednesday. watch live coverage beginning at 9:00 p.m. eastern on cspan, online at cspan.org or listen on the free cspan radio app. next on history bookshelf, a history of the bay of pigs crisis. the failed invasion of cuba in 1961, that resulted in the capture or death or more than a thousand men. this was recorded at books and books in corals gable, florida in 2011. it's about an hour. >> this evening, books & books is pleased to welcome jim rasenberger and his new book, "brilliant diaster." jfk, castro, and america's doomed invasion of cuba's bay of pigs.