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tv   John Kerry Others Discuss Climate Change Sustainability  CSPAN  April 21, 2021 7:12pm-8:02pm EDT

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mr. carey focuses on the importance of every country doing their part to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. this is just under 15 minutes. welcome everybody to our discussion. it's a pleasure to be here today with secondary john kerry, her excellency, and -- . to talk about one of the most defining issues of our time. climate change. climate change is a key priority and is key for the world bank group to deliver on our goals to reduce poverty and increase shared -- last year we delivered the biggest climate investments in our history at 21.4 billion dollars. when i'm track for this year to be bigger still, in consultation with our world we are finalizing a new climate change action plan. through this plan, we aim to increase the world bank groups
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impact on greenhouse gas emissions, and adaptation outcomes by increasing climate finance, improving and expanding diagnostics to prioritize climate-related action and focusing on climate results to deliver impact. the bank will prioritize transitions and key systems. it will use it convening power to support a just transition out of coal. the world bank group will become aligned with the principles and goals of the paris agreement. i am delighted to be here today with this distinguished panel. let's dive right in. i'm looking forward to hearing your thoughts on specific actions that we can all do together to have the biggest impact on greenhouse gas reduction, and adaptation. so with that, let me turn to secretary john kerry, thank you for being here today to lead off our climate event.
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this is a critical year for climate in the run up to glasgow. to the summit. one where we have to have a impact. i'm wondering, could you go through with the u.s. ambition is on climate and one of the specifics? what are the next steps? what are the key areas to move forward in? thank you secretary carey. >> thank you. david it's a privilege to be here. i'm glad to be with my fellow panelists. this is the critical fight for all of us. i know that sounds a little highfalutin for some people but the evidence, science is coming back at us stronger, herder, bigger, faster, and it's telling us that we are running out of time, which is what scientists say. not political people. not ideological. science. the science told us that we had left paris in 2015 with an agreement that we would all work together to fall or its
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rise of temperature well below two degrees. and aspirationally we set the target of trying to get to 1.5 degrees celsius. as of today, almost no country on the planet is meeting the target. in fact, if we did everything we said we would do in paris, the earth's temperature is still going to rise to about 3.7 degrees or higher, or as some scientists are saying when the four, 4.1, 4.5. absolutely catastrophic and not worth the fight between the differential because it's all catastrophic. so what do we do? we go to glasgow, which is the last the best opportunity we have to get real and serious. and we if we say this is the next essential threat we, have to treat it like that. which means all nations, particularly the developed world in nations, the 20 nations that are the equivalent of 81% of all the emissions on the planet, those nations must
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step up with a 2020 to 2030 targets of reduction that keep us within the range of achieving the 1.5 degrees. and then, being able to lay out a roadmap taking us through 2050, which is not zero by 2050. so all of us have a responsibility to adopt nbc's to reduce our emissions at a level that will allow us to hold on to the hope for the vast majority of nations in the world that are not contributing to this massive emissions and who are going to be many of them the greatest victims of it. so it is essential that we raise ambition, we make glasgow and the next step in divining not what we are willing to do, but what we really need to do in order to be able to get the job done. >> thank you. tell us about indonesia, what
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are the highest priorities on climate for indonesia and how can those be achieved? >> well, thank you very much. it's good to see you all today. i think we need to discuss about the climate, definitely we have a stopping point that is the paris agreement. and that means that the country that announced the national -- in reducing the co2, i think they are all agreed, specifically for many countries that there will be a corporation at the global summit. each country have their own commitment for indonesia, to be reduced by 29% for -- 42% of it is supported by the global funds. now we have this confidence, but it definitely is affecting significantly. because first, even if we are going to try to invest on
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infrastructure, which is still the bounce in this case, and clued unless carbon emission, there will be quite the constraint. first, we are now fighting to stimulate the demand, and sometimes it's stimulating the demand under consumption investment, that is on a mission. we cannot definitely transform it immediately because it will require more resources, which is now facing the latest -- there are now facing with the fiscal. so there is really a huge priority and we are really taking future results. i resigned as a finance minister, i can testify that this is really taking huge results. not only just a huge resource, but also the level of who -- you really don't know if it's -- so at least we have two years
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gone, because of this conflict, and as of resources with his shift into fighting against covid and the implication on social and economic. now back to this climate change, i think for a country that really has to then deliver what -- should deliver according to the agreement. of course, as i said earlier, the nbc is a starting point, but as the secretary mentioned earlier, this is not going to be enough but even on this nbc, i think what i can observe as a finance minister, david, it's first how you are going to do the transition of the business as usual, and significantly reduce the co2 emission for a country. and how we are going to get to the recovery of the economy, while we are making this commitment on the climate change agreement. and this is one that we will
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discuss. first, when we had this covid conflict, the demand for energy declined civic magically because business, industry, the only one which is picking up his household because everybody works from home. but this is really a reduction on the demand for energy. now, for a country like indonesia, who is already built quite a nice capacity, and also build some of it is from -- the means that if you are going to build a renewable, you really have to invest in the renewable and -- while the demand is so weak. so this is really unlike triple hit for all of us. not to mention that if you try to tilt this using market mechanism, that this is going to then backfire to recover the economy. so these are all legally policy
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choices, but also the policy consequence that really needs to be looking and a detailed discussion. i already mentioned secretary, many of the agreement is a long term agreement. and that means you cannot just shove it down, there will be a legal consequences. and this is why this is something that he really needs opening, very detailed when we want to comment on this global effort. so what i'm saying, this is not going to be just like our determination and then not translated into action, which then had the consequence of the choice of policy, resources and even sometimes a legal indication for many countries. thank you. >> very interesting. and you had a diversified financial services company. tell us how you see climate ambition and how does this feed
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together? what is a mean for your business? >> i might just start by saying what a privilege it is to join this esteemed panel on this very big topic. from, i start with our purpose statement, which is basically empowering people to innovate and invest for a better future and addressing this climate challenge is a big part of delivering that bit of future for us. but the way we go about doing that is empowering not just our people, but i work out to post, over communities, our government and regulators in terms of red and renovating investment solutions for the large forms of capital that they're out there in the world to address these challenges. and there are three main areas that we are trying to help in terms of all the issues that have been raised so far with bringing investment, particularly for emerging countries. the first of those is in mitigation solutions and that's in infrastructure across all areas, being energy,
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transportation, buildings, agricultural, etc. and i'm happy has we go on to talk in more detail about that, the second isn't building resilience and existing infrastructure because we were talking about events, we're even hearing australia, but climate change -- we are going to have to make our food supply chains, our infrastructure -- which will require investment and the third thing fan is in terms of helping our clients and also the communities been looking in terms of that transition, where they're in high emission industries to do that in a conceded way, so that, you know, we thread the needle in terms of the economic issues that were being discussed, impacts on jobs, blackouts, power price search risks, but we do is these transition to addressing the climate challenges. and that's going to require balancing and considered gradual transition.
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and as far as we're concerned, as part of our business in the largest infrastructure manager, and we've just recently, more one of the first asset managers to make the commitment to net zero emissions by 2040, and that's appetizing a lot of -- our industry as well, which are intermediaries before connecting capital of the world with the investment solutions to bring momentum behind this area. >> thank you. that's very informative. and so as we think about getting to net zero, one of the critical areas for countries is the nbc's. so i would do, as the world goes into a new round of nbc's, nationally determined contributions with the how do you see those working and what's the role and what's the u.s. interaction with those? >> well nbc's are absolutely critical because that is the target announced by country for what it's going to reduce. and as i said a moment ago, the
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targets that everybody put out, even if we did everything we said we do in paris and were not, we would still rise way above a level that is acceptable. so, we have to go a lot further and what we're doing right now is working with countries, the united states has returned to the paris agreement, i recently within europe working with our european friends and president cop and so forth. and we're working far beyond that. we've had conversations with my friend in indonesia, we're working with japan, with korea, with australia, argentina, columbia, mexico. and many other countries. middle east india, china. we have to be able to get everybody to raise their ambition. now i'm very familiar with the common but differentiated responsibility standard, but the fact is, that is not a block to countries stepping up
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to do what they agreed to do in paris, let alone what we now know from the science we need to do. so the stated ambition of every country, particularly that 20 major economies of the world, those countries must step up with adequate levels of reduction that we keep alive and the prospect of holding the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees centigrade. and the nbc's heart promise to do that. we will have an ambitious u.s. and d.c., and we will be announced that the president biden summit on april 22nd. and all those emotions that i just mentioned are invited to that summit. we've worked with a number of countries that have already promised they're going to raise their indices, and the key will be actually, for the financial -- through the finance world to step up and help facilitate the implementation of those schools. there are many things that the
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world bank, the imf, the asia development, the european development bank, other finance institutions, our finance development corporation and so forth, need to come together to help shape how we will get those nbc's implemented. the world bank can play a critical role in that through the expertise that you have and your teams that they can bring to the table, by helping countries to be able to figure out their finance and frankly, with all respect to my friend from indonesia, if you are locked into a contract that has onerous outcomes, legally, you have redress with respect to that and number two, nations will step up to help undo but we shouldn't be doing. the world bank and other mvps must move away from the finance of coal. and if we know that financing coal is dangerous and damaging to where we are, and in fact counterproductive to our effort to reach our goals, we need to
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help those countries rapidly transition with payment, with additional finance capacity, with concession airy money coupled with investment money in order to move rapidly towards the implementation of alternative energy, whether it's hydrogen or new fuels or whether it is simply more renewables in many cases. for more efficient use of existing plants. many of the coal plants of the world are operating at 50% efficiency, or even at a loss. that doesn't make sense economically. so we think there is a much better future to define that will create jobs, create a virtuous energy cycle and at the same time help us recover from covid-19. we're all going to be spending money to recover from covid-19. we need to make sure we're making that expenditure for this new energy future that is exciting because it will be cleaner, it will be less
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polluting, it will be more security for many countries with energy independence, and it will of course create a huge number of jobs and new technologies necessary to make it happen. >> thank you so the world bank has two things related, and thank you for raising the financing issues. we're working with now 65 countries on their nbc's. so to try to help them where they need help in terms of formulating the nbc's. and then with regard to the chest transition out of coal that i mentioned to you and he raised very well the cost of that, were able to work with the countries and how did the workers are transition in terms of their skills, so those are important questions finance minister of indonesia, thank you for being up very early this morning to join our conversation. i wanted to ask you.
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so the challenge has been mention for you of the cost of this. i'm wondering how you see the interaction with the wealthier countries. how is this all going to come together for indonesia, and what are the ways that countries around the world can help as you think about moving away from coal for example? >> thank you so much. you mentioned the world bank supported and helped countries, 65, for many countries when they talk about commitment to reduce emissions, it really does require planned action and program action. that requires a lot of technical work. this is one element needed for us to have this movement. and i think with the world bank is doing is really wonderful in
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this case. for indonesia, we did this and translated this into a national plan. -- in order for us to be accountable in our delivery. 34%, resources required to deliver the ndc is in our budget. we continue to be consistent on the commitment. 55% medication, 45% adaptation. we also try to do the diversification of the financing. and also with financial institutions. we also try our best an order for us to diversify financing
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sources on our commitment on delivering the nbc including offering green bonds, and -- bonds. we really think that investing in a younger generation by issuing the green so they have the ownership and commitment to finance, and their movement is really powerful. i think it shouldn't be underestimated. this has to be strengthened as a source itself. at this very moment, i'm sitting at the enterprises. i think indonesia also has a problem with deforestation in the forest, absolving the co2
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in this case. for energy, we now have to sit down and see what's going to be the economic out look pretty and post pandemic. demands for energy. and how we are going to then combine this with our own brand of delivering 23% of our energy into -- . for indonesia, the alternative of renewables are plenty. it's not a problem of alternatives. it's the transition cost but really like looking in the deep composition of the energy mix. and who is providing that. what kind of contract. we're also asking for the state owned electricity if this is not financial, can you renegotiate to become renewable. if this is originally coal.
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we provide incentives in terms of the taxation so that until the incentive from the non renewable and renewable. also, because into is a island country it's very different from the dense population like -- a green boat country. that will definitely require and can be used for example like the solar cell. for a big place we really need to have a more reliable, and sustainable energy source. then there's also a problem of geography. if you have the hydro, source of hydro in a big, island you really have to build a distribution infrastructure. really expensive. you have to look at all of this
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in great detail. as the chairperson, i really have to look at this so the whole transition should be credible. now from the global point of view, i think that your role in the vaccine, very, very critical. i think regional development bank, they are a very committed to finance this. the issue of global financial is -- for example i mentioned this to secretary kerry. i received a green bond. but i don't receive [inaudible] so market mechanism is powerful. as of now, i think there's still a gap between the
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commitment and the price of to pay. you know? so this requires a lot of effort. as a finance minister at the end i have to decide what's the budget every year, how are we going to manage all of this in a more sustainable and credible way. this is maybe the most important on commitment. at the end, maybe the 100 billion advanced country pumps of the paris agreement, that's really creating a constant for many developing countries to deliver one of the problems in the embassy. >> thank. you maybe you can come back to the hundred billion dollars. we have a bigger industry. -- is one of the biggest infrastructure investors. i wonder if you can comment and i wonder where you can see the opportunities for the private
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sector. she gave us some of the difficulties. how do you handle diversity of geography with small, islands big, islands hydra, how did the big investments come in with the private sector? what do you think? >> thank you. you and secretary kerry were talking about the finance to help emerging countries emerge through this. -- was saying how important it is to have the concession erie finance. but we're trying to do as a private sector is great investable projects that make it the default choice of rational actors to invest in them because they are driving financial return as well as community and comes, social outcomes. and if i can give some examples, i talked about investment and adaptation be particularly important for these emerging economies i had the fortune of being one of the -- on the commission of adaptation
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set up and we visited bangladesh. there was severe weather exposures for the country and it was very pleasing to see the investments happening there and civic awareness and early warning systems and strengthening of buildings. and also in terms of disaster shelters for cyclone's etc. all of these things ultimately drive economic value for the community. what we need to think about is how we measure and translate that into driving the sort of projects. if i could just popular a handful of places where we are doing this where this is evidence. in the philippines we have a energy business called energy corporation development. it's subject to extreme typhoons. we found it valid but and that asset to invest in early warning systems or to be modeling some of the impacts in soil degradation that have slope failure and investing in
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re-branching pipes etc because it makes the acid more resilient and dry, a better outcome for our financial investors. equally, in finland where we have 26,000 kilometers of overhead pipe, for, lines different climatic situation but we buried a lot of those grants underground so that in harsh winter conditions we can still get power to customers and the asset does better financially. the tunnel in the netherlands. we put 950 kilometers of transportation under a river. the chao river. leslie, i would say our agricultural assets, being managed, there we have 1.8 million hectares of land in australia and brazil, we are investing a lot in position technology informing because that is helping us, not just improve, yield but help to deal with land degradation and soil quality so we can get more resilience of food supply will also driving financial returns.
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so apologies to take a little bit of time to make those examples but i'm keen to understand that there is a win-win here to draw the potential market for the products that need it. i think the big challenge that we have from here to move on from it being a finn tech and our infrastructure to make it a asset classes that things like flood defenses become fanciful when we work with pocket sector partners to measure the award for it -- the private sector can bring in capital, we look forward to working with the public sector on that. >> i like that you brought in examples. those really help people understand the challenge. to secretary, carrie you know the pandemic has battered a lot of the economies. one of the challenges is how do you put together climate action and development when there is a environment of high unemployment, and of fiscal deficits in many of the countries? what is the step to put that
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together? >> the first up to put that together is to get ahead of the covid-19 pandemic, obviously. we are finally, finally making a huge leap to doing that. just today are the last days president biden has announced that we are going to have a doubt playing of our current targets. 200 million vaccinations by the first hundred days of his administration. as you know, when the quad, india, australia, united states in japan met recently, they dealt with the kovacs program and talked about getting the vaccine out. so control the pandemic is an important part of it obviously. beyond that, there's an opportunity here because we artificially shut down our economies. it's not as if there was a downturn, or an economic cycle that took place. governments decided to stop the
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economies. and they are desperately waiting to get going again. so i think that there is going to be a very fast recovery in many different places, providing that we are smart in what we are doing and talking about with respect to the allocation of capital for that. so that is the key to building back better. i'm obviously using a phrase that president biden has used. but it makes sense for everybody to think about that. as we come out of this, and we put you no money into recharging our economies, we've got to put it in the right places and into the right things. infrastructure is it critical component of that. certainly, in america it is anyway. we've neglected to refurbish our infrastructure for quite some number of years now but if we build back with a grid for example for america, with eight legitimate smart grid with investment into transmission that goes from one part of the country to another, we have why
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the kind of problem that we had in texas recently. but we also gain massive efficiency in the distribution of power, which could lower costs, and also reduce emissions in a very significant way. every country will have a different mix of what it has available to it in the way in which it could address this question. the important thing is that the finances. there the wind puts out a report every year on the finance gap. if you read the most recent gap i think it's about 2.6 trillion dollars to about four point some trillion dollars per year. for the next 30 years. the gap we face in terms of making this transition, and even making a transition. investing in the new energy possibilities. i am also told that above 50% of the reductions of emissions that we need to gain are going
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to come from technologies that have not yet reached commercial distribution in the marketplace. so we have this incredible capacity to, whether it's sort of the making real the hydrogen possibilities, or gaining storage, sufficient to change the base load challenges, which changes the solar picture, or certain new technologies emerging in the solar which could be 40% more efficient, which once again could become a dramatic drop in the already dramatic drop of price of solar. aviation fuel, the population of fourth generation nuclear, which makes some people shiver. but it is allegedly capable of doing with the waste. issue doing with the melt issue. dealing with the proliferation issue, and maybe far more efficient and affordable and
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standardized and safe. if that is true, and bill gates and others are looking at that technology, building a prototype to check it out. as bill gates says, if we have a miracle in storage or efficient or fusion a lot of these problems get solved very quickly. we have to make sure that we are guarding against the potential that we don't get there with the technology. we have to build on what we know how to do now. that is prudent governance. we cannot take the risk that we are not moving rapidly there for the next ten years. and i think that much effort has to be going into that david, in order to guarantee that we are being responsible. but i'm very confident about our ability to do this. both technically, and scientifically, the issue is will we have the political well? here again, i've been working with some of the major financial institutions in the united states. they are now ready because of
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-- but also because of climate to allocate a certain amount of their investment and lending into climate sectors that will reduce emissions. most of the sectors that we need to do this and our revenue producing. if it is transportation, it is revenue producing. if it is power it is revenue producing for the users. they have to pay the fee, whatever it will be. so as long as there is revenue and a revenue stream, with a combination of the empty bees and the possibility of some concession airy money we can take some risk away and begin to build something that is marketable in a instrument that goes out 30, 40 years, and provides a capacity to raise the trillions of dollars necessary to do this. i think that that is the way
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that the mdb's have to think. it's a whole new model. it requires us to be creative, but also be bold. because the challenges are enormous. >> you are bringing out many of the problems and challenges. one of them, i think, we will see innovation in financial markets so i want to come to minister, you mentioned the green bonds spanning to narrow. -- mentioned very clearly that the goal of having infrastructure as asset class, green infrastructure as eight asset class, and that brings us together with the dnc's going along with credits in the marketplace. how do you see this all? do you have a concept of how this can come together in terms of marketable credits for the green side that helps to create
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a market class? first, on the innovation of the financing i think it is very important. i'm an optimistic person, in this case david. so when we have this commitment and at the time many of them are not thinking about being born it before we get the repair. you really need to build the credibility of the packing because you cannot issue a green bond without relating it to what you are -- i am quite fascinated with this methodology where you have light green, dark, green relatively green in this case. it gives an option for a country to be able to offer all the projects that are related to the green commitment, can be delivered. and in that project by project, it can be addressed on a
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financial side and if you combine it with a professional i think that is also very, very good. if you are issuing bonds, as i mentioned earlier, -- you know it's really tilting? the statement of power. they are really like still take the yield. rather than the commit of the green. maybe the united states can use that power, really let change in because [inaudible] discussing with many of the financial institutions but i think what's really moves globally is the statement by -- . the statement we are just witnessing. the third one i think is really trying to address the issue of the taxation david because i think when you mentioned about the asset class, we can really combine many of the renewable,
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and the financial sector to finance that is really unquestionable. really huge. the problem is on two things. the one which is not very obvious like transmission and distribution. this is usually a lot harder to get financing and it's the anti-be investing or our own resources. that is really a huge task. the third one of course is the transition from if you really want to be very ambitious, as senator kerry mentioned, either you have to stop the non renewable, and every increasing demand will only be fulfilled by the renewable one. or the choices like i saw this one in the u.s., china, japan,
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south korea, every increasing demand is going to satisfy. or if you're going to be very ambitious retiring the -- that will require a much more huge transition towards that. so these are the strategies that need to be discussed. for a country that is recovering, the country's going to recover, the vaccine can be controlled. you're soon going to have increasing demand again. and when you have increasing demand the choice is really whether you are going to fulfill with the same old way of the non renewable or with the renewable. if it's renewable then you get the choice about solar, which is technology really amazing. also it's declined, we can use of the solar, we have hydro,
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which i think each of them has their own place and usually investment is quite big. this on this to be addressed in a real, real way. how you are going to overcome first loss absorption. how you are going to deal with sustainability and intermittent between the people out and off peak load. these are the real problems that require a lot of thinking on the financial applications and then we can discuss with the -- and how the market can. support the markets very powerful. but i have to say that at this very moment they're not really signaling the differentiation between the commitment on the climate and that non climate. >> these are two problems that we need to work through. secretary kerry mention the importance of a revenue stream. that creates than the bases for
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a asset class. do you also want to comment on what we just heard from the finance minister about the narrowness of the spread? i'm wondering about your thoughts on carbon credits as a market. how can this come together from a financial sense? do you see signs of light on these issues? >> look. in keeping with what i have been saying i think really the secret to drying private finance to all of this is creating a environment where it makes rational sense to invest. as well as being part of the global commission on adaptation i worked with michael bloomberg's commission for leadership in finance for emerging countries, the thing that we found -- emerging countries are three big things we think are needed. one is the setting of clear
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targets. the other is policies by sector. and then the third one is critics stability in terms of law and currency etc. if that's done we are seeing that the market will step up and brink -- to those areas, distribution, etc, if i could use the example of taiwan where we have been working for quite some time in 2015 they had 80% of their power coming from coal and gas. and they made a commitment in 2017 within the next 80 years to take renewables from 5% to 25%, which was a 5.7 gigawatts increase and we're going to add another ten gigawatts after 2035. we've been part of that project and delivered 22 gigawatts of energy in taiwan through investable projects where the private sector actually bought money at incredible cost of capital as well. early stage, returns were higher. we had to take the developed and all of the construction
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risk now that the projects are approaching completion we are able to sell -- at great profit for people to come into the sectors once you catalyze them. so i think it is an example where the public in the private sector can be working together to try to bring the much needed capital to this area. and you know, this other examples as. well i know it's happening in the philippines, indonesia is considering, it america, we as private sector i think kevin obligation to create these investable projects but also to be a active sponsor which we are doing through having taken over the green investment from the uk government and also the uk finance initiative in india creating a yield co-fund creating renewables in south africa power initiative. so there are some examples. i think that the carbon market and offset market are important
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aspects in this private sector participation. commodities and trade businesses are working actively in developing this market but i know david that we are right running tight on time so i might say this related discussion, give the other speakers more. time all headed back to you. >> super. your point, those are very interesting and practical aspects of developing these markets and i think that has got to be a critical part. i wonder if we can end with secretary carey. maybe on the same topics. how do we make progress on this? how big is the problem that we are facing? and how do we make progress through markets, through public, private partnerships, as was mentioned? any final thoughts for the grip and for the panel? >> i look forward to following up with -- i am interested in what she
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said. there are ways to build out on it. look this is as big a challenge as any of us have ever faced. but we are looking at the opportunity to take part in the largest market that the world has ever known. four and a half to five billion users today, already multi trillion dollar markets in double digits and it is going to grow to nine billion users in the next 90 years with huge sums of money that will be invested in, and ultimately made in the marketplace by those who are investing in this future. that is happening. you are seeing already, i think those 500 billion plus that was invested last year. that protections in the united states from the labor statistics are there are three job categories that will grow more than 50% this last year, and america. the first, at 62% is winter
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been technician. the second is a practitioner. nurse practitioner. we know why that is growing. the third is solar panel installer. it's happening. already the market is moving. that is why, i think it's gonna be that difficult to create this new financial instrument. i'm not a financial engineer, but i know that we had about 13 to 17 trillion dollars sitting in that negative interest dollars, that negative interest, paying for the privilege of being somewhere when there were obviously things to invest in and do around the world that could have earned you a decent return on investment so we have to get real and serious about this opportunity. it is the challenge of our generation, with the next generations. they are the ones that have been calling us to account, asking as why the adults cannot get the stand.
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so i think that the challenge is clear. i think that the opportunities are equally as clear and what we have to do now is some in the creativity and personal energy of our countries to commit to doing
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coming up some of the american history tv programs aired every weekend here on c-span 3 tonight oral histories with people who served in the vietnam war we start next with pilot clyde romero and then joseph galloway a correspondent for united press international followed by david vassar taylor on his experience as a black us army soldier during the war. and later camilla meyerson on her time as a red cross donut dolly women who volunteered to help soldiers recover and deal with war zones. clyde romero served as a pilot during the vietnam war in this
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oral history interview. he recalls his first tour as a us army helicopter scout pilot and describes what it's like to be shot down. he discusses the high risks associated with the job and remember some of his fellow pilots who didn't come back. he served a second tour in vietnam with the us air force. this interview is from the veteran's history project and it was conducted by the atlanta history centers, kenan research center. i'm originally from new york city. i'm a ghetto kid born and raised in the bronx single parent household went to public schools. i went to queens aviation high school where i first got my toe wet in aviation. but it really started before then when i saw my first jet fighter on a television program called the man and the challenge when they were and the the show was about ejection seats and fighters. and i said hmm, i get back to do that for

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