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tv   Reel America Universal Newsreels on Cuba 1959-1961  CSPAN  April 18, 2021 4:42pm-5:00pm EDT

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let me then make clear as the president of the united states that i am determined upon our system's survival and success, regardless of the cost, and regardless of the peril. [applause] ♪ [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2021] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] >> from a stronghold in the wild sierra mountains, cuba's fidel castro emerged triumphant after two years of guerrilla warfare
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against the regime. the revolution that began with castro as a fugitive ended with the flight of dictator fulgencio batista and the entry of rebel forces to be acclaimed by the city. ♪ the forces of castro's july 26 movement, named for the anniversary of his first attack on the regime in 1953, have grown vastly and larger with captured on the weapons. nearly two years of hit and run warfare aimed at the government by paralyzing the cuban economy culminated in victory as 1958 ended. castro led an all out government offensive with a counterattack and in a key battle for the center of santa clara won crucial victory. batista fled the country. his departure touched off wild rejoicing as the first elements of rebel forces entered havana. ♪
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[crowd noises] ♪ at first, the celebration was peaceful as shouting, cheering crowds surged through the city. ♪ then, the temper of the throng changed, and and ugly mob raged in the streets, its prime targets symbols of the overthrown regime on the gambling casinos, parking meters, the homes and businesses of batista supporters. six years of surface prosperity and government corruption brought oppression and police brutality widespread discontent. now a new leader is on the scene, fidel castro, in many ways an unknown quantity in politics and policies but certain to be dominant in cuba's new era, just begun. ♪
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narrator: fidel castro with flamboyant drama demonstrates his unchallenged power over cuba's masses. he announces his resignation as premier, and the response is explosive. walkouts from havana shops and factories and mass demonstrations by workers and university students calling on castro not to resign, hailing castro the maximum leader of the revolution. the president, as shown just after the revolution when castro installed him as provisional president, then one of the heroes of the people, was ousted to be replaced as president of the former minister of revolutionary law. but it is certain no matter who is president or premier, fidel castro is number-one man in cuba. in an emotional, four-hour broadcast that evening, he accused the former president of near treason, toppling him from the role of hero to one threatened by mob violence.
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fidel castro's dramatic show strength makes it clear that after six and a half months, he is still riding high on a wave of turbulence, mass emotions. ♪ narrator: one million machete-wielding peasants jammed the square at the cuban national capital in response to the call by fidel castro for a celebration of the sixth anniversary of his july 26 revolutionary movement. it is perhaps the greatest mass rally staged in the western hemisphere, a telling demonstration of castro's sway over the cuban masses. showing another aspect of his character, the unpredictable castro dons a baseball uniform to pitch a full ending in a benefit game for his agrarian land reform fund. his new president tosses the first ball, and the game is on. castro pitching is credited with striking out the three batters he faces. this is one game where the ump really has to be careful. viva fidel. ♪
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narrator: in havana, the soviet jep you premier opens -- these soviet deputy premier opens a counterpart at the soviet fair in new york city. of more significance is fidel castro as the opening ceremonies. his one week visit an affair are part of a program to woo the goodwill of castro in cuba. while he was boosting russian industrial and military achievements, havana intelligentsia heard a soviet composer was leading the city symphony orchestra. despite demonstrations, the soviet may have made real progress toward link trade and reestablishing diplomatic relations, thus adding to america's headaches in our troubled relations with this caribbean neighbor. ♪ narrator: cuba celebrates the seventh anniversary of castro's revolutionary movement with a
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red chinese delegation and one from bolivia, among a quarter of a million who will march past fidel castro's viewing stand. this appearance on the sierra where he directed the revolt against the batista regime was one of castro's few public recent appearances. suffering from a lung infection, he has now laid aside duties to take doctor's orders for complete rest, both mental and physical. castro's brother raul was enjoying this triumphant section in moscow at the time and hurried home. here at the moscow trade union house, he seems to respond eagerly to the soviets' wooing of cuba. [applause] ♪ narrator: an ailing fidel castro has top billing at the closing session of a pan-american youth congress in havana.
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he delivers a typical, rabble rousing talk, assailing the united states and the monroe doctrine. after raven for half an hour, he loses his voice but announces the latest blow against the united states, the seizure of american owned properties in cuba. [crowd cheering] castro promises to pay for it all in 50 years, but at the rate of the cuban economy failing, the payoff may come sooner than he expects. have anna is, "cuba si, yankees, no." the cuban electrical company was recently nationalized by the government, along with the telephone company, also american owned. this is definitely a pro-castro
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crowd enthusiastically defacing the telephone company building. a day after this demonstration, senor castro alleges the u.s., what he calls fascist priests, are in a plot against the revolution. there are nerve -- no clergymen at the mock funeral of the telephone company. ♪ narrator: in costa rica, the organization of american states votes sanctions against the dominican republic, led by venezuela, who complained that the dominican trujillo ordered an attempted assassination of the venezuelan president. an impressive boycott and diplomatic sanctions are voted. ♪ the u.s. secretary of state takes up the next topic, calling for action to meet the threat of growing red influence in cuba. the reaction to the debate at the oas was explosive. in cuba, castro defied the hemisphere organization and proclaimed friendship with the
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soviet union and communist china. the oas took action against the dominican strongman. but even as cuba threaten to -- threatened to walk out of the oas, president eisenhower at the white house recalled common ties and interests and left open the door for an easing of tensions. ♪ >> by no means do i want to admit or charge this situation is irretrievable. cuba has been one of our finest friends. we are the ones that conducted the war that kept them free. and when they got in trouble, we had an occupation around 1908, again we got them on their feet
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and set them free. we have a long history of friendly relationships. and we try to keep our hands out of their internal trouble. we have not right to throw anyone out that we don't like. so i would think that the very welfare of the cuban people would finally demand some kind of composition of the difficulties between the american states, including our own on the one hand and cuba on the other. ♪ narrator: cuba's fidel castro arrives at new york's idlewild field for a parade of government at the opening of the united nations general assembly. surrounded by a heavy security guard, castro appeared subdued. unlike the three or four hours he delivers and havana
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broadcasts, his arrival speech is only a few words. ♪ mr. castro: i want to salute to the people of the united states. and i do not want to do -- my english is the same, like the other time, but the other things i want to tell, i wish that you -- to the general assembly of the united nations. thank you very much. narrator: the first arriving in new york are representatives from czechoslovakia. they are not greeted by any united states government representative, not being guests of this country. novotny makes his arrival speech in his own tongue. despite their status as high-ranking red leaders they
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are almost ignored by numerous demonstrators, many of them european refugees who protested the arrival of khrushchev and other arriving reds on a russian liner, on which the heads of five satellite states arrived on a dank and foggy morning, heading up the east river to the deep river dock. it was harassed by cruising parties of hecklers. one boat hired by the longshoremen's union. onshore, hundreds of demonstrators massed, despite heavy rains. ♪ on shabby pier 73, carpets had been laid by soviet emissaries for the occasion. the pier swarmed with newsmen and one of the most massive assemblies of police and security men ever gathered in new york, and kruschev could barely be glimpsed through the
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throng of protesters. the brazen visit to these shores on his own invitation promises to make a generally assembly session, already momentous on the congo issue, into potentially explosive or potentially historic international news. at least 16 new members are to be admitted. a score of representatives will be admitted. a global setting. ♪ narrator: fidel castro whips up a furor in cuba, charging the united states with arming and training mercenary forces for an imminent invasion. he calls out some 200,000 militia men at key points throughout havana, at a point to coincide with the landing of hundreds of american marines at the guantánamo base after a week end of liberty after exercises
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in the caribbean. castro enlivens a debate in the united nations on cuban charges of aggression by the united states. meanwhile, in moscow, an expert at fishing and troubled waters reels out the line of friendship to a group of news men and women in cuba. kruschev happily received a gift of the cuban flag as he lines up for a solid endorsement of the homebrewed situation of fidel castro, the soviets' sole western hemisphere ally. ♪ narrator: castro marks the second anniversary of his revolution with the biggest military parade ever staged in cuba, featuring tanks and other heavy weapons from russia and red czechoslovakia. shortly afterwards, castro demanded the u.s. embassy drastically reduce its staff to 11 persons. it was the last straw in his long campaign of provocation and harassment.
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president eisenhower broke off relations with a message read by the press secretary. >> there is a limit by what the united states and self-respect can endure. that limit has been reached. our friendship for the cuban people is not affected. it is my hope and my conviction that in the not too distant future, it will be possible for the historic friendship between us once again to find reflection in normal relations of every sort. meanwhile, our sympathy goes out to the people of cuba, now suffering under the yoke of a dictator. ♪ narrator: the assault has begun on the dictatorship of fidel castro. cuban army pilots opened the first phase of organized revolt with bombing raids on three military bases. two of the b 26 bombers then seek asylum in florida. on the heels of air raids,
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landings were affected by rebels on the cuban coast and the rebellion against the red dictator was on, with a refugee pilot claiming a full-scale army revolt here. ♪ in havana, the acting prime minister shows diplomats rockets fired from the cuban raiders, which he claims have u.s. markings. ♪ meanwhile, at the united nations, the cuban foreign minister accused united states of unleashing a war of invasion. he says the invading soldiers trained in florida, and ambassador stevenson makes a quick denial. >> these charges are totally false, and i deny them categorically. the united states has committed no aggression against cuba and no offensive has been launched from florida or from any other part of the united states. narrator: in the guatemalan
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foothills, a mysterious deco -- a training depot where some of the rebels have been based. observers have said otherwise. professional soldiers are among the teachers and once trained, the men mysteriously disappear. guatemala has held no brief for the castro regime and has aided the rebels. ♪ >> in cuba, people have pushed back the invaders and 300,000 militia men have been mobilized. the invasion was successful in the early hours with fidel blaming the u.s. is it the first chink in his armor? ♪


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