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tv   Reel America Universal Newsreels on Cuba 1959-1961  CSPAN  April 17, 2021 10:42pm-11:00pm EDT

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where disappointment will often accompany us. for i am convinced that we in this country and in the free world process the necessary resources and the skill, and the added strength that comes from a belief in the freedom of man. and i am equally convinced that history will record the fact that this bitter struggle reached its climax in the late 1950's and the early 1960's. let me then make clear as the president of the united states that i am determined upon our system's survival and success, regardless of the cost, and regardless of the peril. [applause]
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♪ >> from a stronghold in the wild sierra mountains, cuba's fidel castro emerged triumphant after two years of bitter warfare against the tester regime. the revolution that began with castro as a fugitive ended with the flight of dictator for nco batista -- dictator batista and the entry of rebel forces to claim the city. ♪ the forces of castro's july 26 movement, named for his first attack on the regime in 19, have grown vastly and larger with captured on the weapons. after nearly two years of hidden
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warfare aimed at the government by paralyzing the cuban economy culminated in victory as 1958 ended. castro met a government offensive with a counterattack and in a key battle for the center of santa clara one crucial victory. batista fled the country. his departure touched off wild rejoicing as the first elements of rebel forces entered havana. ♪ at first, the celebration was peaceful as shouting, cheering crowds surged through the city. ♪ then, the temper of the throng changed and and ugly mob raged in the streets, targets symbols of the overthrown regime on the gambling casinos, parking meters, the homes and businesses of batista supporters.
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six years of surface prosperity and government corruption brought police brutality and widespread content. now a new leader is on the scene, fidel castro, in many ways an unknown quantity in politics and policies but certain to be dominant in cuba's new era, just begun. ♪ narrator: fidel castro with flamboyant drama, demonstrates his unchallenged power over cuba's masses. he announces his resignation as premier, and the response is explosive. walkouts from the bennett shops and factories and demonstrations by workers and university students calling on castro not to resign, hailing castro the maximum leader of the revolution. the president, showing just after the revolution when castro installed him as provisional president, then one of the
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heroes of the people, was ousted debbie replaced -- was ousted to be replaced as president of the former minister of revolutionary law. but it is certain no matter who is president or premier, fidel castro is the number-one man in cuba. in an emotional, four-hour broadcast that evening, he accused the president of near treason, toppling him from the role of hero to one threatened by mob violence. the show strength makes it clear that after six and a half months, castro is still riding high on a wave of turbulence, mass emotions. ♪ narrator: one million machete -wielding peasants jammed the choir at the cuban national capital in response to the call by fidel castro for a celebration of the sixth anniversary of his revolutionary movement. it is perhaps the greatest mass rally staged in the western hemisphere, a telling demonstration of castro's sway over the cuban masses.
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showing other aspect of his character, the unpredictable castro dons a baseball uniform to pitch a full ending in a benefit game for his agrarian land reform on. his new president tosses the first ball and the game is on. castro pitching is credited with striking out the three batters he faces. this is one game where the ump really has to be careful. viva fidel. ♪ narrator: in havana, the soviet deputy premier joins a counterpart at the soviet fair in new york city. of more significance is fidel castro as the opening ceremonies. the one-week visit are part of a program to woo the goodwill of castro in cuba. while he was boosting russia n industrial and military achievements, a soviet composer
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was leading the city symphony orchestra. the soviet may have made real progress toward link trade and reestablishing diplomatic relations, thus adding to american headaches in our troubled relations with this caribbean neighbor. ♪ narrator: cuba celebrates the seventh anniversary of castro's revolutionary movement with a red chinese delegation and one from bolivia as a quarter million march past castro's viewing stand. this appearance on the sierra where he directed the revolt against the batista regime was one of castro's few public appearances. suffering from a lung infection, he has laid aside duties to take dr.'s orders -- doctors orders for complete rest. castro's brother raul was enjoying this triumphant section
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in moscow at the time. here at the moscow trade union house, he seems to respond eagerly to the soviets' wooing of cuba. [applause] ♪ narrator: an ailing fidel castro has top billing at the closing session of a pan-american youth congress in havana. he delivers a typical, rabble rousing talk, assailing the united states and the monro doctrine. after -- monroe doctrine. after railing, he loses his voice but announces the seizure of american owned properties in cuba. [crowd cheering] castro promises to pay for it all in 50 years, but at the rate the cuban economy is failing,
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the payoff may come sooner than he expects. cuba si, yankees, no. the cuban owned electrical company was recently nationalized by the government, along with the telephone company, also american owned. this is april castro crowd enthusiastically defacing the telephone company building. a day after this demonstration, castro alleges the u.s., what he calls fascist priests, rn a plot against the revolution. ♪ narrator: in costa rica, the organization of american states votes sanctions against the dominican republic, led by venezuelan who complained
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trujillo ordered an attempted assassination of the venezuelan president. a boycott and implementing sanctions -- and diplomatic sanctions are voted. the u.s. secretary of state takes up the next topic, calling for action to meet the growing threat of red influence in cuba. the reaction to the debate at the oas was explosive. in cuba, castro defied the hemisphere organization and proclaimed friendship with the soviet union and communist china. the oas took strong action against the dominican strongman, resulting -- but even as cuba threaten to walk out of the oas, president eisenhower at the white house recalled, ties and interests and left open the door for any easing of tensions. ♪ -- an easing of tensions.
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>> by no means do i want to charge this situation is irretrievable. cuba has been one of our finest friends. we are the ones that conducted the war that kept them free. when they got in trouble with an occupation around 1908, again we got them on their feet and set them -- got them on their feet and set them free. we have a long history of friendly relationships. we have not right to throw anyone out that we don't like. so i would think the cuban people would finally demand some kind of [indiscernible] between american states, including our own on one end, and cube on the other.
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♪ narrator: cuba's fidel castro arrives at new york a bunch of us idlewild field, for a parade of government at the opening of the united nations general assembly. unlike the three or four hours he delivers and havana broadcasts, his arrival speech is only a few words. ♪ >> i want to salute the people of the united states. and i don't want -- my english is the same, like the other time, but the other things i want to tell, i wish that you --
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to the general assembly of the united nations but thank you very much. narrator: arriving in new york are representatives from czechoslovakia. novotny makes his arrival speech in his own tongue. despite status as high-ranking red leaders they are almost ignored by numerous demonstrators, many of them european refugees to adjusted the arrival of khrushchev and other arriving reds on a russian liner, on which the heads of five satellite states arrived on a dank and foggy morning, arriving at the east river and harassed by hecklers, one boat hired by the longshoremen's union. onshore, hundreds of demonstrators massed, despite
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heavy rain. ♪ on peers 73, carpets had been laid by soviet emissaries for the occasion. the pair swarmed with news men and a massive assembly of police and security men. chris jeff could barely be glimpsed through the throng of protectors -- kruschev could barely be glimpsed to the throng of protesters. his visit promises to make a generally assembly session, already momentous on the congo issue, into potentially historic international news. at least 16 new members are to be admitted, a global setting. ♪ narrator: fidel castro whips up
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a furor in cuba, charging the united states of arming and training mercenary forces for an imminent invasion. he calls out militia men at key points throughout militia to coincide with the landing of working hundred american marines at the guantanamo base after a week of liberty after exercises in the caribbean. castro enlivens a debate in the united nations on cuban charges of aggression by the united states. meanwhile in moscow, an expert at fishing and troubled waters reels out the line of friendship to a group of news men in cuba. kruschev happily received a gift of the cuban flag as he lines up for a solid endorsement of fidel castro, the soviets' sole western hemisphere ally.
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♪ narrator: castro marks the second anniversary of his revelation with the biggest military parade ever staged in cuba, featuring tanks and other heavy weapons from russia and red czechoslovakia. castro demanded the u.s. embassy drastically reduce its staff to 11 persons. it was the last straw and his long campaign of provocation and harassment. president eisenhower roque off relations with a message read by the press secretary. >> there is a limit by what the united states can endure. that limit has been reached. our friendship for the cuban people is not affected. it is my hope and my conviction that in the not too distant future, it will be possible for the historic friendship between us once again to find reflection in normal relations of every sort. meanwhile, our sympathy goes to the people of cuba, no suffering
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under the yoke of a dictator. ♪ narrator: the assault has begun on the dictatorship of fidel castro. cuban army pilots opened the first phase of organized assault with bombing raids on three military bases. two of the light bombers then seek asylum in florida. on the heels of air raids, landings were affected by rebels on the cuban coast and the rebellion against the red dictator was on, with a refugee pilot claiming a full-scale army revolt here. ♪ and havana, the acting prime minister shows diplomats rockets fired which he claims have u.s. markings. meanwhile at the united nations, the cuban foreign minister accused united states of unleashing a war of invasion. he says the soldiers -- he says
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invading soldiers were trained in florida, and ambassador stephenson makes a quick denial. >> these charges are totally false, and i denied them categorically. the united states has committed no aggression against cuba and no offensive has been launched from florida or from any other part of the united states. ♪ narrator: in the guatemalan foothills, there is a mysterious training depot where some of the raiders may have been based. the government there denies cubans are among soldiers being instructed, but observers upset otherwise. professional soldiers are among the teachers and once trained, the men mysteriously disappear. guatemala has no beef with the castro regime, and has aided the rebels. in cuba, the people have been exhorted by cuba to push back the invaders,

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