tv Reel America The Eternal Fight - 1948 CSPAN April 7, 2021 4:35pm-4:59pm EDT
story of the united states public health service written by dr. fitz hugh mullen. weeknights this month, we're featuring american history tv programs as a preview of what's available every weekend on c-span3. tonight we look at crime and forensics. bruce goldfarb, author of "18 tiny deaths, the untold story of lee" shows us several doll house sized crime scenes that are used for training classes in the chief medical examiner's office of maryland. he relates the story of miss lee, who constructed the dioramas in the mid-1940s and helped pioneer crime scene investigation. watch tonight beginning at 8:00 p.m. eastern and enjoy american history tv every weekend on c-span3. american history tv on
this has been the cry of mankind throughout all time, blinded by ignorance, filled with terror, he lashed out against the black plague with witchcraft, against typhus with superstition. in efforts to stem the 7vú too often resulted in cruel and vicious treatment of those suffering from contagious diseases. despite the raging panic of ignorance, the lurking danger of contagion, scientists of many nations went to work. they flickered the light of research into light of knowledge, using every research to share their findings with each other. it was the dutchman whose research helped provide
scientists everywhere with a new and powerful vision of the microscope. now, at last, the hidden enemy could be examined under the probing search light of science. the hunt was on for contagious diseases and their causes wherever they existed. in italy pioneered the work on the growth of organisms. he proved fermentation did not take place in sealed containers but occurred through contact with microorganisms in the air. ♪♪ jenner in england painstakingly
evolved the basic principles of vaccination, and a little british girl was the first to wince at the sting of a vaccinating needle. and pasteur in france, his was the brilliant research that resulted in the discovery of the causes of contagious diseases. he proved that microbe were at the root of such diseases and brought light to where there was darkness, hope where there had been none. and in germany they identified and identified the dreaded germ of cholera. across the sea in america, walter reed and his colleagues sought to prove that the mosquito was the sole transmitter of yellow fever. they offered their lives and won.
and so the old prejudices were smashed and the free exchange of information on the modern diseases of mankind. then in the course of the 19th century, the world underwent a striking change, gave birth to the industrial revolution, transformed man's way of life. men, women and children crowded into cities, became part of a vast machine deprived of fresh nourishment of the country, men's bodies became rusted, became more vulnerable to contagion. new means of transportation brought the world tight and close together, making it one tremendous and congested city. ♪♪ from a disease-infected zone, the traveler now became unwittingly a carrier of deadly germs.
wherever he went, the germs stayed and spread. ♪♪ epidemics break out far from the known infected areas, country to country, continent to continent. the deadly cargo of microbes is transported, breaking the very existence of humanity. mass infection and epidemics are a threat to every city, to every nation. scientific and medical work on a local scale are no longer enough. thus, in common defense, nations join an international agreement in the battle of epidemics. medical agreements and protective measures are formulated. quarantine measures extended.
frontier controls set up. when an epidemic strikes, that country is subjected to special restrictive measures. special characters are isolated, and step by step, the dangers of contagion grow less and less. war. ♪♪ the first great world war, like all wars, sucking mankind down to misery and death, and together with war, pestilence and disease. epidemics wreak havoc greater than war, wipe out civil populations. the problem is everywhere and must be dealt with internationally.
a network of medical information is swiftly organized through radio, newspapers, pamphlets, bulletins. the league of nations spreads information that all may fight the contagion of diseases. ♪♪ in geneva, this immense storehouse of information becomes part of the arsenal of embattled doctors and scientists everywhere. health reports are received, checked, filed, collated and sent out again, ready for use. because now trains are entering and leaving stations. ships leave and dock at foreign ports. millions live, work and suffer.
for the sailor, it's always hard to say goodbye. harder still when your wife is sick, burning with fever, and you have to pull anchor. there is nothing to worry about, you say. she'll be all right in a couple of days. besides, you need the job. ♪♪ but neither of you suspect typhus, the black plague. ♪♪ and so goodbye. both have become carriers of death-dealing germs.
♪♪ germs that will blast the lives of shipmates, germs traveling across seas to start a terrible epidemic at any moment, anyplace. ♪♪ epidemics start anytime, anyplace, wherever you are. wherever she is, now in a hospital, there are no doubts it is contagious. immediate action. her life at stake and she might infect or has already infected. who is she?
the kinfolk. send the alert everywhere, to every nation, every port in every language. easy enough to locate all ships that left the area before the outbreak. message to all ships out to sea. every port, every day, almost every moment, for epidemic strikes anytime, anyplace, wherever you are. ♪♪ ♪♪ ♪♪ >> a protective mechanism is set in motion.
rats are hunted out of their hiding places. cyanide gas does the trick. they fumigate the boat from stem to stern, everything fully disinfected before the ship is able to sail on to safety. ♪♪ ♪♪ such cooperation protects mankind from recurring epidemics. international cooperation provides immediate action to smash a swift striking enemy.
♪♪ today there are no distances. today the airplane links continents as trains link cities. today the peoples of the world are one people joined by wings over the globe. ♪♪ ♪♪ today people of all races of every level move from country to country in a matter of hours. today vital medical control is established around the modern points of international exchange. the airports, the network of health information and services has been extended here from the seaport organization. but is this sufficient?
how long does it take before a potential epidemic can be detected? ♪♪ detected? from one continent to another, only a few hours flying time. but cholera takes longer to show itself and yellow fever three to six days and smallpox from seven to 16 days. passengers in a modern plane look perfectly healthy. they are. but how do we know? that little girl when she got
the doll, did she receive germs as well? some passengers may be germ carriers, perhaps already in the incubation stage. they'll reach the destination before any symptoms show. the quarentine service can't keep every plane and passenger grounded for several days to effect thorough medical control. today that system of defense is no longer enough. today epidemics must be crushed at the very source. unfortunately, in some countries, contagious diseases exist in a pandemic state, that is permanently. india for instance has certain areas that are always infected with cholera. this plague could extend to western europe. in africa, some forms of malaria
still rage. germs that might easily be transmidded to south america. and cholera in japan could strike suddenly at the west coast of the united states. permanently infected zones are localized but may cover large areas of territory, sometimes entire continents. modern transport poses new dangers of complete universal contagion. the struggle against epidemics is a global one. for the danger of death is worldwide. then what is the answer? within the framework of the
united nations, a new organization exists to promote the welfare of all people. the world health 0[ñorganizatio. in its first assembly, july 1948, dr. chisolm declared that this organization was physically prepared to raise the health level of all people and to forever destroy the human afflictions of malaria, cholera and tuberculosis and syphilis. the prime objective is the fight against disease on a global scale. the representatives of nearly every nation have signed the great charter of health. this means an organization with the authority and means to act. epidemics, no matter what part of the world they may infect, are a potential danger to all other organizations. the world health organization will make full use of every existing means, education, prevention, cure. all peoples of every race and belief will be helped by doctors
from all races and nations. a tremendous movement of world solidarity is now born. inoculation widely used to be extended. millions of people will be given prophylactic injections. a worldwide system of medical control will exist everywhere. enormous quantities of serums, vaccines and new and powerful drugs such as penicillin are also being manufactured at increasingly lower cost. crates of am puls are shipped to all parts of the world ready for emergency measures. constant flow of up to date information from every nation and every tongue makes it possible to apply the latest discoveries of modern medicine.
cholera broke out in egypt shortly before the first assembly meeting of the world health organization. the first cases were instantly reported and from cairo every nation was immediately alerted. new york was then the clearing house for the incoming orders for vaccines and equipment needed to fight the epidemic menacing egypt. dr. calderon issued orders. how about serums, needles,
syringes, anything else, anything, don't worry about the payment. the world health organization will pay. let's get going fast. the answer was swift. from france, china, indo china and soviet union and the united states, vaccines were shipped by the massive ways, planes bringing thousands of needles and syringes, in record time the egyptian government had the entire population immunized, and sick put into isolation wards and the areas disinfected. the epidemic was check and within three months completely eradicated from egypt. in the eternal battle, a
struggle has been won, by international cooperation. but there is yet a tremendous test before us. a task for all peoples by all peoples. lives of these little children too must be saved, that a light of hope may revive the courage of those who suffer, that mothers might yet smile in a new world. weeknights this month, we're featuring american history tv programs as a preview of what is available every weekend on c-span3. tonight, we look at crime and forensics. bruce goldfarb, author of 18 tiny deaths, and the invention of modern forensics shows us several doll house size crime scenes that are used for training classes in the chief medical examiner as office of maryland. relates the story of miss lee
who constructed the diagram in the mid 1940s at hard university and who helped pioneer the science of crime scene investigation. watch tonight beginning at 8:00 p.m. eastern and enjoy american history tv every weekend on c-span3. american history tv on c-span3. every weekend, documenting america's story, funding for american history tv comes from these companies. who support c-span3 as a public service. in the public interest, the westinghouse broadcasting company and the university of pittsburgh one of the nation's major health centers in cooperation with the american medical society and the united states public health service bring you "the silent invader", an up to the minute report on