tv Reel America The Eternal Fight - 1948 CSPAN April 7, 2021 11:07am-11:30am EDT
c-span3. tonight we look at crime and forensics. bruce goldfarb, author of "18 tiny deathdeaths, the untold stf lee" shows what was used in the chief medical class in maryland. he relates the story of miss lee, who constructed the dioramas in the mid-1940s and helped pioneer crime scene investigation. enjoy american history tv every weekend on c-span3. american history tv on c-span3. every weekend documenting america's story. funding for american history tv comes from these companies who support c-span3 as a public service.
it too often resulted in cruel treatment for those who suffered from contagious diseases. despite the raging panic of ignorance, the lurking danger of contagiant, scientists went to work. they flickered the light of research into light of knowledge, using every research to share their findings with each other. it was the dutchman whose research helped provide scientists everywhere with a new and powerful vision of the microscope. now, at least, the hidden enemy could be examined under the probing such light of science. the hunt was on for contagious diseases and their causes wherever they existed.
and pasteur in france, his was the research that led to the study of contagious diseases. he proved that micro was at the root of contagious diseases and brought light to where there was darkness, hope where there had been none. and in germany they identified the dreaded germ of cholera. across the sea in america, walter reed and his colleagues sought to prove that the mosquito was the sole transmitter of yellow fever. they offered their lives and won. then in the course of the 19th century, the world underwent a striking change, gave birth to
the industrial revolution, transformed man's way of life. men, women and children crowded into cities, became part of a vast machine deprived of fresh nourishment of the country, men's bodies became rusted, became more vulnerable to contagion. new means of transportation brought the world tight and close together, making it one tremendous and congested city. from a disease-infected zone, the traveler now became unwittingly a carrier of deadly germs. wherever he went, the germs stayed and spread.
epidemics break out far from the known infected areas, country to country, continent to continent. the deadly microbe is transported, breaking the very existence of humanity. mass infection and epidemics are a threat to every city, to every nation. scientific and medical work on a local scale are no longer enough. thus, in common defense, nations join an international agreement in the battle of epidemics. medical agreements and protective measures are formulated. quarantine measures extended. frontier controls set up. when an epidemic strikes, that country is subjected to special restrictive measures. special characters are isolated, and step by step, the dangers of
contagion grow less and less. war. the first great world war, like all wars, sucking mankind down to misery and death, and together with war, pestilence and disease. epidemics wreak havoc greater than war, wipe out civil populations. the problem is everywhere and must be dealt with internationally. a network of medical information is swiftly organized through radio, newspapers, pamphlets, bulletins. the league of nations spreads information that all may fight the contagion of diseases.
in geneva, this immense storehouse of information becomes part of the arsenal of embattled doctors and scientists everywhere. health reports are received, checked, filed, collated and sent out again, ready for use. because now trains are entering and leaving stations. ships leave and dock at foreign ports. millions live, work and suffer. for the sailor, it's always hard to say goodbye. harder still when your wife is sick, burning with fever, and you have to pull anchor. there is nothing to worry about, you say. she'll be all right in a couple
anyplace. epidemics start anytime, anyplace, wherever you are. wherever she is, now in a hospital, there are no doubts it is contagious. immediate action. her life at stake and she might infect or has already infected. who is she? the kinfolk. send a message everywhere, to every port and every language. easy enough to contact all ships before they've left. message to all ships out to sea.
disinfected before the ship is able to sail on to safety. such cooperation protects mankind from recurring epidemics. international cooperation provides immediate action to strike a swift-striking enemy. today there are no distances. today the aeroplane links continents as trains link cities. today the peoples of the world are one people joined by wings over the globe.
today people of all races of every level move from country to country in a matter of hours. today vital medical control is established around the modern points of international exchange. the airports, the network of health information and services has been extended here from the seaport organization. but is this sufficient? how long does it take before a potential epidemic can be detected?
from one continent to another, only a few hours' flying time. but cholera takes longer to show itself, and yellow fever three to six days, and the incubation period of smallpox, 7 to 16 days. passengers in a modern plane look perfectly healthy. they are, but how do we know? that little girl, when she got the doll, did she receive germs as well? some passengers may be germ carriers, perhaps already in the incubation stage. they'll reach their destination before any symptoms show. the quarantine service can't keep every plane and person
grounded for several days to affect medical control. today that matter of defense is no longer enough. today epidemics must be crushed at the very source. unfortunately, contagious diseases exist in an endemic state. that is, permanently. india, for instance, has certain areas that are always infected with cholera. this plague can extend to western europe. in africa, some forms of malaria still rage, germs that might have easily been transmitted to south america. and cholera in japan could strike suddenly at the west coast of the united states.
permanently infected zones are localized but may cover large areas of territory, sometimes entire continents. modern transport poses new dangers of complete universal contagion. the struggle against epidemics is a global one, for the danger of death is worldwide. then what is the answer? within the framework of the united nations, a new organization exists to promote the welfare of all people, the world health organization. in its first assembly, july 1948, director general dr. chisholm declared that this organization was physically prepared to raise the health level of all people and to
forever destroy the human afflictions of cholera and other human diseases. this would be done on a global scale. the representatives of nearly every nation have signed the great charter of health. this means an organization with authority and means to act. epidemics, no matter what part of the world they may infect, are a potential danger to all other nations. the world health organization will make for use of every existing means education, prevention, cure. all peoples of every race and belief will be helped by doctors of all races and nations. a tremendous movement of all solidarity is now born. inoculation widely used will be extended. millions of people will be given prophylactic injections. a worldwide system of medical
control will exist everywhere. ♪♪ >> enormous quantities of syrums, vaccines are all being manufactured a increasing cost. they are being shipped all over the world. every nation in every tongue now makes it possible to apply the latest discoveries of modern medicine. cholera broke out in egypt, shortly before the first assembly meeting of the world health organization. the first cases were instantly
reported, and from cairo, every nation was immediately alerted. new york was then the clearinghouse for the incoming orders for vaccines and equipment needed to fight the epidemic that was menacing egypt. dr. cordron issued orders. how about syringes, needles? don't worry about the payment. the world health organization will pay. let's get going fast. the answer was swift from china, indochina, the united states.
planes flew the precious fluid to egypt. they brought needles and other instruments. in record time the egyptian government had the entire population immunized, the sick put into isolation wards and the infected areas methodically disinfected. the epidemic was checked, and within three months completely eradicated from egypt. in the eternal battle, a struggle has been won, won by international cooperation. but there is yet a tremendous task before us, a task for all peoples by all peoples, the lives of these little children, too, must be saved, that a light of hope may revive the courage of those who suffer, that
mothers might yet smile in a new world. weeknights this month, we are featuring american history tv programs as a preview of what's available every weekend on c-span3. tonight we look at crime and forensics. bruce goldfarb, author of "18 tiny deaths, the untold story of franklin lee and modern forensics" show what are used in the chief medical examiner's office of maryland. he relates the story of ms. lee who constructed the dioramas in the mid-1940s at harvard university and who helped pioneer the science of crime scene investigation. watch tonight beginning at 8:00 p.m. eastern and watch american history tv every weekend on