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tv   The Presidency James Monroe George Washington  CSPAN  April 2, 2021 8:00pm-8:28pm EDT

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have been an effective change of mind in the american political culture and the american electorate. that's something that will be of lasting importance. if you asked me in december 2020, i would no longer be able to say too soon to tell. invite me back, but maybe let's make it, april 2021? may? thank you very much. you have been a wonderful audience.
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next on the presidency, in his lecture from university of washington's great live series, scott harris explains where things went wrong. he's the executive director of the universities museums. the university of mary washington provided this video. >> scott harris received his b.a. with honors and history and preservation at the university of mary washington in 1983. and museum administration at the college of new mary in 1988. in january, 2018, he was named executive director of the university of mary washington museums, a position which he currently holds. this followed six years as director at the james monroe museum, which is administered by the university. prior to that, he was director of a new market battlefield -- and director of his top of
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resources in the city of manassas, virginia. scott is a peer review or from the presentation, an assessment programs of the american museums and the editorial pfizer for white house history court, journal of the white house -- is published articles have appeared from the historical bulletin, civil war traveler, dictionary of virginia biography, white house's history, and universal history and travel complications. up on a partial note, i think that a few things will gratify the teachers to witness the success of -- so i am particularly proud of tonight speaker, i like to claim him as one of the very best to talk during a long career at mary washington. so it has been a pillar chenille pleasure to welcome a former student and good friend, scott harris.
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>> thank you, and good evening. on december 13th, 1799, george washington was dying. i throw infection that had said in after a long ride after mount vernon in the previous day with sleep and snow made conversation with the secretary to increasingly difficult. he noted in his journal that washington's mood, despite the hoarseness, was very careful. as they sat in the parlor reading newspapers allowed. but washington's demeanor changed when the subject turned to virginia politics. he requested me to read the debates of the virginia assembly of the election, senator on the governor. and hearing mr. madison's observations, respecting mr. maduro, he appeared much affected and spoke with some degree of disparity on the subject.
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what prompted washington's disparity regarding james monroe? shown here standing behind the general demand glorious, so profoundly accurate painting, washington crossing the delaware. how did these two virginians, who hailed from the same region and whose families were acquainted over generations go from being soldiers and a common cause to bitter political foes? george washington and james monroe were each born to families that had inhabited westmoreland county, virginia since the mid 17th century. evidence of there and institutions association includes unnoticed from 16 16 one, describing the investigation of a suicide in the county. john washington, the corner was georges great-grandfather. the first member of the jury listed, andrew monroe was the great great grandfather of james. as shown on a map in 1775, the
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birthplaces of washington and mineral were separated by only a few miles. yet, they had no apparent contact in their native community. by the time of monroe's birth, washington's family had moved to very farm it was still part of king george county. the washington families and westmoreland lines were expensive, with several distinct farms and a milan pokes creek. it was thus into a life of privilege and prosperity that george washington was born on february 22nd, 1732 to august in and mary washington. george washington's a youth is a stuff for legend, most notably in the folk tale popularized by carson mason about young georges chopping down of a cherry tree and his subsequent statement, i cannot tell ally he confronted by his father. georges had apparently record well before the rest of his body as a youth he worked as a
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survey here for the fairfax family and later was the official surveyor for cold pepper county. from 1749 to 1752 washington completed close to 200 surveys on numerous properties totaling more than 60,000 acres. during the french and indian war, he served as an emissary for the governor of virginia and later in combat during british general headwork mattocks ill-fated expedition washington also ran afoul of the fortunes of war when he was forced to surrender, he desperately names 14 assess eddie to the french that washington encountered an entire career. washington took it active leadership role through the going he was part of the commonwealth delegation to the first continental congress in the second congress determined, to name a commander, to leave
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the continental army, washington nominated by john adams was called to serve on june 15th 1755. now of all the general gets to know his army, let's take a step back for a moment, we considered james monroe. james maduro's road to revolution began with his birth on april 28th, 1758. while the holdings that were originally secured by andrew monroe were not as large or as prosperous as those of their neighbors, the washington's and some other neighbors as well, the family lived comfortably. and we're able to send their eldest son to one of the best local schools and then to the college of william and mary. monroe and rolled at william and murray in june of 1774. like many of his classmates, he was soon caught up in revolutionary fertile. he was part of a group of students who sees arms from the government's palace on june
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24th, 1775. and in february of 1776, monroe was commissioned a lieutenant in that third virginia infantry regiment. for the next few years, as george washington lead the continental army in victory and defeat, often more the latter, james monroe took part in the battles of harlem heights, brandy, germantown, rising to the rank of major before his 20th birthday. mineral was also a trenton, where washington's gamble of attacking an isolated outpost paid off in uninspiring victory on the day after christmas, 1776. the battle produced monroe's greatest moments of both peril and fame during the revolutionary war, as he described in his unfinished autobiography written late in his life in the third person. command of the vanguard insisting of 50 men was given
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to captain willi washington. lieutenant monroe promptly offered his services to the assistant. on the 25th of december, 1776, they passed the delaware in front of the army in the desk of the evening. so, understand he was not at the vote with washington, he was already on the other side of the river. the next morning, the battle was joined began for monroe's autobiography. captain washington then moved forward with of an in front, attack the enemies picked, it shot down the commanding officer and drove it before him. the drums would be to arms and to cannons replaced in the main street, the barrel of ahead of our columnist entered. captain washington rushed forward, attack and took possession of it. he received a severe wound and was taken from the field. the command then involved upon lieutenant monroe who attacked unlike manner with the head of the core, and was shot down by a musket ball which passed through his breast and shoulder. he was also carried from the
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field. monroe and washington were brought to a makeshift hospital, there dr. john hiker when mineral had just met hours before repaired an artery in his shoulder, damaged by the musket ball. this painting is the capture -- of trenton on aihz;jpdecember 2, 1776 and you see in the inset there, james monroe, clutching his shoulder and chest with a musket ball under his body. that bullet stayed in his body for the rest of his life. in 1779 washington noted that monroe's zeal he discovered by entering the service in that period. the character he supported in his regiment, and the manner in which he distinguished himself at trenton where he received it wound. the general concluded that james monroe in every instance had maintained a reputation of a brave an active and sensible officer. despite this endorsement and others when row wasn't able to
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protrude an troops, to have a command. he ended his service and embarked on a political career. after studying law with thomas jefferson, he became his political mentor, and serving in the house of delegates for james monroe was elected a virginia delegate. he was present when george washington resigned his commission as the conch of the continental army. and he is shown here, with the westcott. similar to washington in a way. looking right at him. when washington was chosen unanimously as the first president of the nine states, under the constitution, he was determined to govern in a manner that would minimize -- and promote the wealthier all americans. has however as the country
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evolved particularly against the backdrop of a worldwide struggle between great britain and france, two movements emerged. federalists, committed to a strong central government and economic policies that emphasized ties to britain, that was led by alexander hamilton. the anti federalist faction, who style themselves democratic republicans, or just republicans, favored the states as the principal political power base, and head closer ties to france. the french connection is based on the alliance that the united states achieved in the war, was reinforced by the french revolution in 1789. thomas jefferson, secretary of state in the washington administration, was the acknowledged leader of the republicans. he counted upon steadfast support in the house of representatives, from james madison and in the senate, from
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james monroe. as early in 1794, washington sent chief justice john j to england, to negotiate a treaty that would result in british withdrawal in forts in the northwest territories of the united states. improve the balance of trade between the two countries, and curtail -- with the removal of sailors from american ships. alexander hamilton drew up instructions, and confided much of the american negotiating position in advance, to facilitate an agreement. republicans literally opposed the overture, as worrying about british intimidation, a french anger of the breaking of the old alliance. got to modify the republicans, washington appointed james monroe, american minister to france in may of 1794. as a republican legislator, he was a declared admire of france,
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was intended to appease her ally. but removing monroe from the domestic political scene. soon after the minerals arrived in france, the new minister appeared before the national assembly, to present his credentials. he delivered a profuse of address, saying the united states support for the french revolution and commitment to the alliance. meanwhile, in england, john j negotiated a treaty, that secured some of the american objectives, but did little to address the imbalance of trade with england. but nevertheless the treaty was ratified, in 1796. republicans were incensed. that is evident, by the graffiti that appeared around this time on the wall in boston as down everyone who won't dam john j. down everyone who won't put lights in his windows and sit up all night damning john j.
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he observed that he could make his way through pennsylvania at night, by the light of his burning effigy all the way through the state news of the treaty reached. the french government, even before it was officially revealed to james monroe. washington irritated by monroe's pro french actions, and statements, instructed secretary of state timothy puckering to recall the minister. he received word of his dismissal in december of 1776 i'm sorry 1796. >> he delayed his return home, to august of 1797, partly to avoid harsh atlantic weather, and to avoid the appearance of the acquiescence to his recall. he published a pamphlet upon his return. it was literally a book. telling his side of the story. aiming harsh criticism at the
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washington ministration, and the harsh consequences that amputated the relationship with france. publication of the view of the conduct of the executive, prompted extorting action by george washington. the national archives called the most extended, and unremitting and poignant use of sarcasm and scathing criticism, in all of his writings. monroe explains his concern for maintaining the french alliance. it being known that with other members of the senate, i am opposed in many instances the measures of the administration particularly in that mission of mr. morris of france, or mr. jake of london. who the apprehension those missions were produced. relations, and the effect it would produce. washington replies, on pardon a
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bowl. when they were of different political sets from mr. monroe. the monroe wonders why his pro french statements were inappropriate. i could not conceive why, such dissatisfaction should be shown on account of my presenting to the convention publicly, those documents. which tended to prove how strong the feelings of the administration were, in favor of the french nation. the president gives the answer. the great and primary objects of the administration was to preserve the u.s. in peace. by pursuing a conduct strictly neutral. it was not essential then, or beforehand the with what a reception was supposed to be. to make a parade of sentiments. and however pleasing to one issue, which might create unpleasant feelings in other nations, for whom we are also in peace and with which to
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remain so. >> monroe reflects on this his departure from france, and upon but your reflection therefore it appeared that i had no alternative, which is to remain where i was, and continue with the functioning of my office. as not withstanding the embarrassments to which i might personally be -- . we i result there for, to stand firm in my post. washington replies with disdain. curious and laughable, that you remain under his circumstances, talking seriously in the style, when his recall as was the second -- . the two men never spoke again, following this rupture in their relationship. perhaps each desired a conciliation. washington was annoyed, when monroe visited alexandria had 1798, and did not pay a call on him in mount vernon, as
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lafayette had done years before. when washington died the following year, the first president was venerated throughout the country. monroe by now governor virginia, the cause of washington's asperity in the little days, he instructed as members to join him in wearing morning ribbons. during three successive one year terms, overseeing construction of the state's first penitentiary. in august of 1800, he took a sort of action to suppress the operating uprising of enslaved people, led by gabriel -- . monroe was elected once more to the office, and signed a legislation to build a governor's mansion still in use today. but he never presided there. as monroe went on to other roles in government. thomas jefferson sent him back to france in 1803, to join
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robert livingston in the purchase of new orleans from france. instead monroe and livingston, accepted the surprise offer to buy the entire louisiana territory, and over 16,000 square miles for the united states. monroe became secretary of state and the administration of his friend james madison and april of 1811, and briefly served simultaneously a secretary of war during the war of 1812. he was president with madison at the battle of planes for ghana august 24th, 1814, where the british quickly rounded an american force of regulars and poorly organized militia. monroe personally re-deployed at least one unit and the american ally, with little apparent effect on the outcome. this cartoon implies the medicine fled and panicked from field of battle, he and the cabinet including monroe state on the field until the end and narrowly avoided capture.
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the british moved on to cap puddle washington d.c., where they burned public buildings, including of course, the white house. mineral was elected president in 1916 and his wife elizabeth, undertook the restoration and refurbishing of the white house, a project that would continue throughout his two terms in office. elizabeth monroe's experience as first lady was characterized by european style for salons were not always well received by washington society. she also wondered a range of physical ailments that prince prevented her from being white house host, with her daughter taking over many times. but in both her social circles and re-furnishing that they did at the white house, the man froze set a standard for white house style that we still appreciate today. during his presidency, monroe and took to initiatives that consciously or unconsciously -- and 1789, washington had conducted a full week toward of
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new england, acclaim wherever he want. in 1817, monroe also went on tour, visiting not only new england, but all of the northern states and territories over a period of 15 weeks. he cruised the chesapeake region in 1818 and in 1819, spend five months of visiting states of the south and west. the popularity of these presidential excursions, particularly the first one, produced one called an era of good feelings in the country. determined jurors asked and rose administration. and foreign policy, monroe a philosophical closeness to washington, whose farewell address and 1797 cautioned his country to avoid the coming untangled in european power struggles and political and military alliances. of all the advice that washington left, this is the one that endured the longest,
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certainly the one about political parties did not. but, his commitment to keeping the united states out of permanent alliances in europe, he felt was the only way to secure the nation's security and independence. in the most famous policy statement of his presidency, monroe declared and his annual mission to congress in 1893, the doctrine that bears his name. while the warning to europe against interfering in the affairs of the western hemisphere, is the best known passage. minerals complimentary statement later in the document is essentially a real statement of what could be called, the washington document. and this term actually exists, i have to admit, i did not know this before doing some research for the top. the washing shenzhen doctrine of unstable alliances that would derive are ironically from thomas jefferson's first inaugural, in which he articulated in a very similar viewpoint, having picked up on the wisdom of that and the washington example.
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it is not worthy the -- washington admiral regarding permanent foreign alliances were largely followed until 1949. and the united states joint and north atlantic treaty a organization. as an impressionable young man, for whom the revolutionary experience was life-changing, james monroe developed a deep respect for george washington. and those have days, washington's affirmation and encouragement aided monroe as he began his public service career. overtime, as domestic politics and international relations involved in a new republic, and washington and monroe got involved. their differences on policy became a personal estrangement, never to be overcome while both a lift. the last words that washington spoke in regard to monroe, as we have seen, where anger. or perhaps they were in frustration tainted with regret. 23 years have passed from the start of their war service together and to washington's
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death. and an eerie symmetry, 23 years after washington's demise just six years before his own, monroe eloquently described the indelible impact of his former commander had on him and possibly, with sorrow himself for wooded passed between them. let it be a benediction of sorts for this presentation. i saw him in my earliest youth in new jersey, at the head of a small man, or rather and it's rear for he was always near the end. and his countenance and manner made an impressionable -- time can never have faced. that department so far, so magnified, so exalted but yet so modest and composed. i have never seen in any other person. thank you.
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next on american history tv, historian scott harris talks about james monroe's life. we are about fifth presidents revolutionary war service, his work as a lawyer, his path to the presidency and the that carries his name. mr. harris is director of the james monroe museum and memorial library. the most be heritage area association hosted this 45 minute event, which was part of a symposium called james monroe, presidential inauguration. bicentennial commemoration and reflection. >> our first speaker that were privileged and honor to have your today as scott harris, who is the director of the james monroe museum and memorial


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