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tv   American Artifacts U.S. Diplomacy Center Museum Collections - Part 1  CSPAN  January 11, 2021 7:24pm-8:01pm EST

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each week american artifacts visits. in 2014, five former eunice secretaries of state, and john kerry took part in a groundbreaking tsunami for the u.s. diplomacy circuit center. up next, we visit the centers
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artifacts storage area to learn about the history of american diplomacy. clearly carry speck art and historian allison mann selected key items from the centers 7000 items to help tell the story. >> the diplomacy center is the museum currently under development after the department of state. it will be a multi media publicly accessible engaging space with engaging programs that help the general public understand a little bit more about what is disablement saying, what is diplomacy's relevance to the lives today, and how possibly they could become involved. we are actively collecting artifacts, we are researching history, we are developing public programs, we are very busy, we have active public program already ongoing for students. >> and one of the ways that we will tell the story of diplomacy is through some of
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the wonderful things we have here in our collection. >> absolutely so let's jump right in. the first item we would like to show is actually the oldest item in our collection. it is the first treaty that the united states entered into in 1738. >> most americans and most under international folks understand that american independence was in 1776. part of the regulation upon these revolutionaries was not only did you need to have friends and allies that were going to fight your enemies in great britain, but also the establishment of economic security. this was really vital to the new nation and something that was really on people's minds. a students of adam smith and people of wealthy nations, they understood much that four nations were weak nation. so part of the negotiations with france had not only to do with funding and getting
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military support, but developing this treaty of commerce. this was accomplished in 1778. the front weren't quite sure that there be able to pull. it off but off to the battle of saratoga in 1776, it was pretty clear that the americans could do this. so arthur lee who are really americans first professional diplomats, conducted these two treaties. this treaty of commerce was essential. it granted france most favored nation trading status, and the french were very excited about the able to get into the economic trade war with great britain after the war was over. and this trade treaty would remain in effect for several years afterwards. >> it really solidified our bilateral relationships with france. the object we have here is a contemporary printing of the treaty. ali a very famous printer at the time, john done lap of
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philadelphia, created about 300 copies of these treaties. very few remain today, so we are quite lucky and privileged to have this item in our collection. john dapples also famous for printing broad sides of the declaration of independence. so our new nation is emerging with new treaties, and we started sending our diplomats out abroad. there was some debate in the first half of the 19th century about what should our diplomats look like. should they wear uniforms? or should they dress more american? what was american? because this was a new nation emerging. >> exactly, because you don't want to show up like a farmer, if you are a minister to these courts of europe. so that was a real problem. there wasn't any real serious directive for these ministers
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who were going to european countries until 1853. jefferson, as secretary of state had mentioned that you always need to conduct yourself in a very plain and simple dress. it created a lot of confusion. and then over the course of the next years, a lot of ministers had taken it upon themselves to gland them selves up, a little bling here in their. until finally in the 18 fifties the secretary of state had it. he said this is not appropriate. we need to have a full standard for this. he gave a very specific circular a directive about what you can and cannot wear. but the problem was, your symbol of dress had to be acceptable enough to appear before a king or a modern. so that was a little bit tough. so the uniform we have in our collection which i think would be good for you to speak to, and then we can go into it significance.
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>> sure, so we have an image of this uniform that we have in our collection. it belong to u.s. minister john mason when he went to france in the 18 fifties. he had its specially designed. it was made as a compromise of what allison was just talking about. you had to be presentable at the monarch court, but he did not want to get to elaborate. so you can tell it is a very simple suit modeled after a naval uniform, yet it is not a military uniform. of via corn hat made of will, simple yet elegant delegate is how i like to describe. >> very much so and because mason was secretary of the navy. he may have just taken that in relished it a little bit. one is really interesting about that circular is how specific it really is. once you had your uniform on, you are permitted when you when you went before the court was
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to put an ostrich feather and you had. >> exactly. today, obviously our diplomats do not wear uniforms, but there are still ceremonial aspects to diplomacy. and sometimes diplomats or ambassadors to present themselves at a court, a monarchs court overseas. sometimes part of the ceremony that might be arriving to present your credentials in a royal carriage. a male ambassador might be expected to wear a black tie formal attire for the event. other than that, there aren't too many formalities as far as uniforms or dress. >> we are still simple americans. >> yes we are very much still simple americans. among the steam of an emerging nation, one of the first things our founding fathers did was create a great seal. the symbol of our nation. it's a very familiar icon.
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the eagle and the shield, holding the olive branch and the arrows and its talents. one thing or one place the great seal is found most often in diplomacy is in the seal presses. these are fantastic artifacts i think. one thing most people might not know, the department of state is the custodian of the official great seal. which might be surprising, there's still some domestic duties still associate with the department of state. >> a lot of people think about 1776 that the establishment of america. when countries fight for their independence, they don't have recognition unless other countries recognize them. you could say whatever you want, whoever you are. until you are recognized in the international community, you don't really exist. part of having the great seal, it's a signature of the united states. it doesn't matter which person
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actually writes their signature, as long as that great seal is on that document, you present and internationally. you're a representative the united states but i'm telling you that this here, this is the united states of america. it carries the weight of the sovereignty of the nation. the seals, essentially do the same purpose. seals have been used since roman times are before. usually with wax or some sort of and they had screws on them, this is a little bit more modern than those earlier presses. >> these are called impression seals. obviously the seal itself are the guy is this disk that is part of this overall mechanism. obviously as you could see, the counselor officer who remember at the office is operating this would stick the document in between here, to get the front and the back and press down and create the document. that document could be a
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passport, a visa. for me, as a curator and one who collects things, these are great. because they could be markers in time. for example, there's various reasons why the seals need to be retired. for example, this one was retired or was used at the u.s. consulate which is now chennai, this seal would stem images. elsewhere in the collection, we also have a rubberstamp, that was used that u.s. embassy taipei, which is no longer embassy taipei it's beijing. you could see the changing relationships with something like that. this one was from a consulate in england that eventually closed down. you could see changing national economies, political priorities with openings and closing's of
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consulates as well. fantastic items. >> yes and we have some items here the seals would be perfect for. >> absolutely. the great seal of course appears on passports. we love passports, we have many in the collection. they tell fantastic stories. we have a fantastic story of the owner of this passport. >> we do. it is the second oldest passport we have in our collection, and unusual on many counts right? it was issued to this gentleman here, is a must samuel wall or. it was born in connecticut. he was a businessman who spent most of his time in new york city, but he traveled back and forth to bridge part quite frequently. we know that because we have his travel diary and his accounting books. what's really interesting about him, americans didn't need passports to leave the country. it wasn't required until 1941. the fact that he felt the need that he had to have one, we had to figure out why. why did he feel he really
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needed that. when he was issued this passport in 1859, back then they were for shorter terms it was normally three to six months. the expectation you are returning. he was going over to europe, because his profession as his calling card shows was he was into dry goods. he was a job or. back in the 19th century in early 20th century, a job= was someone we even use the word today, you buy things in bulk. for him, it was clothing. if you think of new york city at this time, antebellum new york city, this is where you start to see immensely wealthy people emerging. and there is a market. there's a market for fine silks, for beautiful gloves. that's what he would do. he would go over to paris, most of the time. and he would gather up dry goods, we have is accounting books showing very detailed accounting of julio's, and who owes him. it's so interesting.
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bring that back to new york city, where he had a store. in current try becca. in antebellum new york, that was the area where you would not go to shop right? if you are a person who had a smaller shop of town you would go to the job or, and you take it up to your smaller boutique shop, where the wealthy people would shop. we are very fortunate to have his passport which i think we should talk a bit more about. >> you are surprised when you first saw this, at the time passports where these huge sheets of paper. but he was able to fashion his passport into this handy little booklet. very convenient for all the traveling that he did. he would unfold it, and you could see all the stamps, and the design. this is such a unique design. the eagle and the liar and the
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sun burst pattern and the united states of america wording around that is not the great seal at the time. but it is a decorative element that was applied to passports. it's much like today, your passport booklet might have a picture of the statue of liberty, or mount rushmore. something >> something recognizable as american. >> just evokes our nation in some way. also unique at the time, the secretary of state signed the passport. >> personally! >> you have the secretary of state cast a signature here at the bottom. one other thing i always love about these old passports, there weren't photographs attached. so you had to describe his features. >> himself! yes! >> there wasn't any standardized terms, answer the question of what is the shape of your forehead. or what is the color of your eyes. was the shape of your chin.
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on your nose. he said he had a straight nose, around chin and then oval face. >> what's really interesting about him, show him the photograph. >> he has appeared. >> so for the official that was identifying him with the around mouth and shin, there you go. big old beard. >> very different times than for travelers. >> photographs were not required until 1914. this practice continued for a long period of time. >> yes quite a while. a great seal appears on passports, and the great seal also appears on foreign service commissions. again we have several foreign service commissions in the collection. they're also fantastic items that tell, so many stories. our great markers in time as well. you could see the way for, with the great seal that was adhered
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to this commission. police commission belong to ambassador ryan cracker, and this is appointing him to serve as u.s. ambassador to syria in 1998. you want to talk a little bit about commissions and credentials? in general? >> sure. the first official ambassador was thomas breyer was ambassador to great britain. before that, people had those posts were called ministers. >> he served as ambassador several times in his distinguished career. not only to syria but to lebanon, kuwait, pakistan, iraq, afghanistan. >> you commission every time. >> he was no stranger to that part of the world as well as to conflict zones. interesting story what happened to ambassador cracker while he was serving in syria during this time, in december of 1998
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syrians were protesting u.s. and british military actions that were ongoing in iraq at the time. the protests grew to the degree that they ransacked the u.s. embassy, the british embassy as well as ambassador crocker's residence. and it quite a lot of damage. his commission, this particular commission made it out unscathed. it did not suffer any damage. although we do have another one of his commissions in the collection that was on his wall at the time, which was significantly damaged. is commission from 1991 promoting him to the rank of minister counselor. again, he experienced quite a lot serving in those countries during that time. we're honored to have his commission in our collection. >> all right it's time for more interesting things. >> i think will get out a new set of our facts to talk about.
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>> we talked a little bit about the 19th century, and usually ministers and ambassadors that really small staff overseas. the issues of consular and diplomats was not combined. there was an effort specially right after world war one, make sure you had a really professional american foreign service. we pass the rogers act pat named after massachusetts -- that's when they start becoming commission. that is also when they have to take various tests. most diplomats before the time where political appointees. this was nice standardized. you have to pass this test. the early test was really interesting. it shows you who they were looking for at this time. for many years, the professional foreign service in america was very white, very ivy league male educated men who graduated from harvard.
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why don't we talk a little bit about the evolution of the testing process. >> sure. of course today, it's an online environment. there's various tests offered throughout the year that wasn't of course always the case. it was really one time you had to show up. we have this great booklet from 1940 which gives information about applying to join the american foreign service. it also gives some sample exam questions. you wanted to get an idea of what some of the plying in 1940 was. >> when they first establish this professional testing, you didn't have to have a college diploma. he just needed a high school diploma. that is true today. but have to warn our viewers, if you ought to be a foreign service officers really do need to go to college. you should get a degree.
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the question here is so interesting because it shows you what education was like during that time. these are sample questions what someone could expect when they take the test. do need to know a foreign language. you still don't now, it definitely helps. there are some questions in the back in french and spanish, those are the most popular language in 1940. seventies questions i don't know if you could pass them katie, i don't think i could and i'm a historian. you are expected to be able to look at quotes from famous people over the course of the 19th and 20th century, mostly politicians here. on the task, they would give you a quote. such as this. the puritan aided bear baiting, not because it gave painted the bear, but the case it gave's pleasure to the spectators. who said that? >> you have a list of names here on the side, and you have to match. >> this could be anyone from
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prime minister -- to abraham lincoln, patrick henry. yeah. so that changed. >> this is the 1996 version of the application and foreign service officer sample test that folks would use. obviously very different from our 1940 version. it gives some sample questions as well as lists of colleges and different states where you could actually sit to take the exam. >> which likely s.a.t. at the time. >> opening it up and broadening it offering it to more people and more locations around the country. >> in 1940 you had to come to washington to write it. >> it was not as widely offered. this is an interesting booklet. doesn't have a sample examine it, but it is an application. this was used by a woman named mary pendleton. she use this in 1969, to apply
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to take the foreign service officer task. you could see on the back she ripped off and mailed it in. she did join the foreign service. she later became the first u.s. ambassador to moldova in 1992. it's a nice booklet piece of history there. well the personnel forces professionalize-ing, there's also changes afoot for women. >> very much so. just as we get into this evolution to wanting american foreign officers to be more generalists, against a foreign service to get specialized training. women during the time, they weren't precluded from joining the foreign service but there was a caution, you had to be single. the first professional officer was in 1924, her name was lucy hill at your son. steele decides to get married a
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few years later. she had to resign from the foreign service. this would be the case all the way up until the 1970s, when you start to see a major change in the department of state wanting to bring on more women and realizing that was a great restriction. we also have the very interesting story of foreign service wives. men who are married went to the american foreign service, they went with their families. they won with their wife and families. their wife footers very much expected to be the host this, to be a ghana representative of the united states of america. because ambassadors would entertain that their homes. these american women, they were offered courses in etiquette and how to entertain properly. >> and they were completely unpaid. >> that was the big problem yes. you are working as a representative of the united states, but you're not an employee of the united states of america. >> i definitely changed.
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we have some documents here from 1971 in early 1972 which state in no uncertain terms, not while this tradition of two for the price of one is what they call it, some women might enjoy that in like that, others find it to be exploitative of their time and talents. these are steps in the right direction. ot more work to be done as far as bringing more equality into the workforce. of course there's still work to be done today. these are really important steps in the right direction. all right, i think that we will +m to talk about. >> who you are looking at a flash cards set. it's a beautiful custom designed box and set of over 2000 cards with the chinese
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character on the front, and the english translation on the back. and this set, as you could see also includes seven boxes of sentence cards, and phrases. which also have the chinese on the front, the english translation on the reverse. this box was used by a u.s. chinese language officer. he was assigned to what was called beijing in 1934. he used this set to master the chinese language. which back then, for services at master language as they do today. language training is a very
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vital component of training to become a foreign service officer. >> very much so katie. so much so in fact, even though you don't need to know a foreign language to join the american foreign service, clearly you need to have a certain amount of proficiency. there is the foreign institute in virginia, that's where foreign officers will go to begin to languish raining before they go to the embassy to work. they break it up and to the hard language and super hard-line which in the critical language. if you come in already speaking farsi or arabic, that is considered to be a great boon. also the language training is so important. foreign service officers to go through a level of a promotion period. you always have to demonstrate they have a certain level of proficiency before you go through your promotion. they cannot continue their language training on the embassies abroad, depending on how difficult the languages, it could take upwards of ten
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months to a year for foreign service officers if they are studying a super hard language. >> as ivan today, these flash guards in their studies as they did in 1934. so the items that we have on the table, we like to call tools of the trade. tools of the trade of a diplomat. flash cards, and we have this very curious objects here. it looks like a kerosene lantern, it was. still functions as a lantern. but you could see this protrusion here is a slide projector. the light of these lanterns and projects an image. it's portable, and quite handy for areas that did not have electricity. this was transferred to us by our u.s. embassy in singapore. they were quite literally doing some cleaning out of closets
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and came across this. so glad they did not positive in the garbage. back in the mid 20th century, public diplomacy officers in singapore when you use this, slide projector lantern. they had a stash of slides that depicted u.s. politicians, events in u.s. history, scenery of the united states. so the diplomacy officer when you go out and engage communities most often rural communities who did not have electricity and give presentations, have discussions about what is america, when our american ideals, history. really trying to promote american abroad. >> magic lanterns were used widely through the mid 1800s
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before film projectors. that's exactly they were. they were powered by kerosene, who put slides in. they were used by people in their homes to look at visual images. one of the things when you come to the diplomacy center, not only do foreign service officers communicating their own language, they use visuals to talk to the native populace about america and its values. because that really helps with the mission of the department of state, and the mission of department of state has always been since inception to promote the interests of the united states of america. the better you could communicate with locals and politicians, the better. >> absolutely. diplomats can be deterred by something like the lack of electricity. they still have to go out and do their jobs. i think this is a fine example of going out and doing it despite your invent mental
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circumstances. >> absolutely. sometimes you have to make these calls on the ground of how they're gonna do it. sometimes they get some instructions on how to do it. >> absolutely. so, every good government job as a handbook right? and so, this is called a resident officer handbook. it was used by a unique class of newly minted officers. usually a new set of officers they go off to various parts of the world, but this class was unique. they all went to the same place in 1950. they all went to germany. why would they all go to germany in 1950? >> well there was world war ii. well we are looking at here, is really diplomatic efforts in germany. because of the political instability in germany. the competing forces during the
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communism and then bring democracy back to germany. these officers are very specifically trained by using this handbook, in a way to promote the american values, but also the values in the benefit of democratic government as opposed to adopting and a communism government. >> by their own personal example, they're representing america as well. they are instructed quite clearly to not necessarily behave yourself but to recognize that people are watching you. you are an american. the handbook does go into some detail on different programs that they were supposed to implement, as well as some of the more bureaucratic parts of your job. here in the table of contents,
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the handbook covers things like citizen participation in government. or women in public affairs. and other things like religious affairs or community councils. and edition there are programs for education and refugees and other sort of finance that type of programs. and more bureaucratic side, these resident officers were good bureaucrats to. that there is quiet reports that they had to submit regulations concerning transportation, classified material and so forth. >> it's also really interesting katie when i think about this piece is when the united states is involved in a formal war, or military conflict, if the military leaves and the diplomats going, think about the state on the ground. that american service foreign officers are dealing with.
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you are just at war with this country right. there's a country you want to maintain a very strong bilateral relationship with and establish an economic relationship with. i think this book was designed to help them. >> exactly. the diplomacy center began back in the year 2000 during secretary albright's tenure. since then, the program has really grown. it's a public private partnership. there is a private foundation that has been over the years raising money, garnering support on the state department side, the office came into being. the collection has come into being. we are moving forward in partnership with the foundation to develop the exhibitions and public programs for the future museum. continuing to collect artifact. we are looking forward to opening to the public in a few years >> you're watching
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american history tv. every weekend on c-span 3.
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today the senate armed services committee hold a hearing on civilian control of the armed forces -- retired general lloyd austin who would need a waiver to serve in the position because of the requirement of the job being felt by civilian. watch live 9:30 am eastern on c-span two or listen live on the radio app. >> those for president united states are as follows. joseph r. biden jr. of the state of delaware as receive 306 votes. donald j trump with the state of florida, as receive 232 votes. >>
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tonight, we begin a night of programs about the johnson presidency with the u.s. informations agency film describing the death and funeral of john off kennedy, who was assassinated and dallas november 22nd, 1963. and a cruise footage of lyndon johnson's statement upon u)jr' washington, the funeral possessions, the mass at saint matthews cathedral, and the funeral at arlington cemetery. it ends with president johnson's


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