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tv   The Civil War Fort Sumter and First Shots of the Civil War  CSPAN  January 10, 2021 11:15pm-12:01am EST

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viewers as a public service. announcer: located in charleston harbor, fort sumter was held in april despites in the secession. next, mark malloy describes the events of april 12, 1861 when confederate guns around the harbor opened fire on fort sumter. this talk was part of a symposium on the war in the east hosted by the emerging civil war blog. chris: welcome back to the emerging civil war virtual symposium. glad to have you with us. my name is chris mackowski. of emerginghief civil war. our next speaker comes to us from our sister site, "emerging revolutionary war." mark malloy is a historian with the national park service and he is like, what can i do that's revolutionary war? i said, this is the civil war. so we decided we would let him talk about fort sumter because
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it is as close as we can get in the war to the revolutionary war era. i say all that because mark is a delightful historian, wonderful guy, wish i could get him to laugh on cue. his most distinctive feature is his laugh. which we all like to get him pumped up and going. but we are delighted to have him come here today to speak about the first shots of the civil war at fort sumter. mark? mark: thank you so much for that introduction, chris. [laughter] it is a pleasure to be able to speak at this symposium for the emerging civil war. we would love to have done it in person, but being able to do it digitally like this is a wonderful way to do it as well. as chris mentioned, my main passion is the american revolutionary war.
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but you know, i work for the national park service and we take care of a lot of important civil war sites. i actually started my career with the national park service as an intern down at fort sumter and formal tree national historical park in charleston, south carolina. i worked there for about a year. and charleston, south carolina, if you have never been, is a beautiful town. a lot of history. most people associate it with its important civil war history. the war started there in 1861 in april. over the next 45 minutes, i'm going to kind of go over the build-up of the first shots of civil war there. i'm going to tell you about the battle on april 12 and april 13 and then i will tell you what happened to fort sumter the rest of the war. what is there today and what you can see, and i encourage you to go down and visit at some point.
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hopefully after covid, and be able to check out a lot of these important historical sites that are pretty well preserved down there. but i really love the battle at fort sumter, and there is a lot of high-profile characters and personalities involved in the opening shots of the war. and i going to go through some am of those as we talk today. fort sumter also is relly a microcosm of the civil war and how it started off as this kind of gentlemanly, chivalric engagement that was remarkably bloodless that led to the bloodiest war in a american history. and the war really devolved, especially in charleston, to where there's atrocities happening, and it becomes a very bloody war there in charleston harbor towards the end. and it is also really an important story to know and understand. if you are going to study the
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civil war, historians often are debating the causes of secession and why the south seceded. but secession did not necessarily mean there would be a shooting war. so it is important to understand how the first shots came to be fired to understand why the war broke out as well. fort sumter at its time was a symbol. it was highly symbolic, and it is still is to this very day. so it is really important to understand as well. but the story of fort sumter of course starts with the secession of south carolina, which happened december 20, 1860. after abraham lincoln was elected in november, they held their convention. originally it was in columbia but that it was moved to charleston. charleston was a hotbed for secession. there were a lot of secessionists there, and they were very eager to leave the union, and on december 20 they
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vote unanimously, 169-0, to secede from the union. that day in charleston was filled with celebrations, fireworks, bonfires, military parades, all sorts of things that they struck out on their own. i and as you can see in the broadside it was in the charleston mercury, the newspaper down there, proclaimed loudly that the union is dissolved. in order to understand the military situation in charleston harbor, you have to see what the geography looks like. you can see this map from that time in 1861 showing the city of charleston. you'll notice on a peninsula bounded by the ashley and cooper rivers. say ittonians like to is where the ashley and cooper rivers converged to form the atlantic ocean. but you could see, charleston harbor is surrounded all around by numerous islands. and there were four main
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fortifications in the harbor that were there to defend the city against foreign invasion. and so, you can see just off of the side of the city is a small little shoal with a little fortification named castle pickney. let me see if i can use the pointer here. you can see castle pickney right here. just to the south of the city of charleston, jane's island that had an old fort on there called fort johnson. in the middle of the harbor on an island was fort sumter, and over here on sullivan's island on the north side was fort moultrie. this is where most of the u.s. soldiers who were in charleston at that time were stationed. and so, this is the commander of the union soldiers. they are in charleston when south carolina seceded. his name was major robert anderson.
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he is in command of the first u.s. artillery. really only about 85 men that he's commanding that are in this -- in charleston. it is important to realize how small the united states army was at the outset of the war. you only have about 15,000 union soldiers across the entire nation at the time. they were kind of spread out all across the country and less than 100 in charleston harbor. of the 85 men, eight were musicians in the band. it was a pretty sleepy post, and most of the men who were actually in the first u.s. artillery were immigrants that came from ireland and germany. and major robert anderson is an interesting figure too, because he is actually a southerner. he is from kentucky, and he was very much against the idea of secession, but he really was not
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in favor of any sort of war. he writes that his heart was not in the war that he foresaw coming. he was kind of in a tricky situation here, because it basically came down to property rights in charleston harbor where these federal forts, these installations, were they part of the republic of south carolina or were they part of the united states government? and that is where a lot of the argument will come over as far as who should fire the first shot. but he's -- he's a -- his father was a revolutionary war veteran who actually fought with george washington at the battle of the trenton in princeton. and he had many other officers under his command who would play important roles during the war. he had lieutenant norman hall, who would go on to have an important role at gettysburg. same with samuel crawford who was a surgeon. he had lieutenant jefferson davis, not jefferson davis he was president of the confederate
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states, but jefferson c. davis, who would fight in the western theater of the war. and captain truman seymour, who would go on to lead troops at the battle of lusty later in the war. it is interesting how many of his officers have important roles later in the war. this is probably one of the officers under his command there who would have a big role later in the war too. captain abner doubleday. captain abner doubleday would have a big role in gettysburg. he is more famous today because people think he started the game of baseball. which of course is not true, but that is how he was remembered. he is interesting because most of the officers that were under robert anderson were not abolitionists and were not really republicans. but abner doubleday was, and he was very outspoken about it. a lot of the people in charleston did not like that, so he was singled out in the
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newspapers for their vitriol. but he is going to be outspoken in his defense of the union and in his wanting to get rid of slavery. well, robert anderson felt -- what happened was the south carolina militia started flowing flowed into the city of charleston. anderson did not think he would be able to hold his position at fort moultrie. and on december 26, he is going to make a bold move. he is going to move his entire force across the harbor into fort sumter. itself, somend of saw as an act of war because south carolinians viewed this installation as belonging to south carolina. so moving troops into that fort they were very much opposed to. but anderson did not think he could hold fort moultrie because it was close to the mainland and he felt that houses and things around the fort, the southerners would be able to get up in there
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and fire into his men. so he did not think he would be able to hold that position. so he moves over to fort sumter. this is an image showing them raising the american flag inside fort sumter. the painting done later, but it is very interesting because it gives you a glimpse on the inside of fort sumter. fort sumter was started in 1829, and it was still under construction when anderson moves his men there in december of 1860. they are still working on it 30 years after they started it. as you can see inside the fort, it was on was 90% complete. you can see there are imposing walls that stood 50 feet high. there were three tiers of artillery placements. the fort was pretty massive for that time. originally it was built to hold over 600 men. of course anderson does not have that many. he is not even going to be able to use all the canons. it was built to hold 135 cannons, and there are only 60
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in the fort at this time. but because of his manpower, he is only going to be able to man about 10 cannons during the actual battle. let me also show you, this is what it looked like from the outside. fort sumter was a pretty imposing fortress sitting in the middle of the harbor. and what is going to happen is once the charlestonians wake up and they see a large american flag over fort sumter, they are outraged. immediately, governor francis bacon's orders that all of the installations around the harbor will be seized by south carolina trips. you can see some of some of the south carolina militia taking over castle pickney. at this time they did not even have a symbol for their state yet. you can see they are carrying a flag with the star on it that
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they took off a boat. but quickly, the south carolinians are going to adopt as their symbol the palmetto tree, and that is fort moultrie , which was a sight of a famous battle in 1776. it was made out of palmetto trees, and the soft wood of the palmetto tree absorbed the shock of british cannonballs, and a british invasion force was pushed back in june of 1776. and south carolina is going to adopt this as their symbol. and you'll still see it to this day on the south carolina state flag, is the palmetto tree. that harkens back to this revolutionary war history. this is the actual flag carried by the palmetto guards which was a local charleston militia group that will be stained on morris island during the initial bombardment of fort sumter. so this just kind of gives you a good map. this gives you a good view of what it looked like in
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charleston harbor in 1861. you can see sullivan's island, they took fort moultrie. they build a raft and they put cannons on it, and it would float in the harbor and they could fire on the fort from their. this island down here on the south, morris island, would play an important role, not only during the first battle but later on in the war as well. and that position they're going to fortify that island as well. and there's a battery there that's manned by some students from the citadel. there was a military college there in charleston. and in january of 1861, president buchanan is going to send a ship to resupply and reinforce fort sumter. as the ship is entering -- the ship was called star of the west. as the ship was entering charleston harbor, the citadel cadet battery fires on the ship
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and they are going to fire a few rounds as warning shots, and then they fire and actually hit the ship. the ship does not fire back. it is going to turn around and leave. but some -- and this is a drawing of the citadel cadets firing on the star of the west -- some people claim these are the first shots of the civil war. that would probably be citadel cadets and alumni of that college. but there is no return fire. so what basically happens is it goes back to a stalemate in charleston harbor. trying to figure out what is going to happen next. so basically what happens as the stalemate continues, six more southern states are going to secede from the union in january, february, and march of 1861. they come together in february in montgomery, alabama to form the confederate states of america. they are going to create their own constitution, create their own government, elect jefferson
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stephens asexander president and vice president, and they start forming an army. the new confederate states are going to appoint this man, pierre beauregard, as the general in command of the confederate forces in charleston harbor. he is a really interesting character as well. he actually resigned from being superintendent of west point to join the confederacy, and when he was a student at west point, who was his professor, none other than major robert anderson. so now you have the pupil and the teacher on opposite sides of this, what will turn out to be the first battlefield of the civil war. now, sumter is going to continue to sit there as a symbol of the impasse that's happened in the country at that time. there is a woman, mary chestnut, who has a wonderful civil war diary that was in charleston during this time.
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and mary chestnut writes, in april of 1861, that there stands for sumter and there hangs peace or war. one'se's heart is in mouth at all times. there was this constant fear that war would break out in charleston harbor. basically, what's happening is nobody's sure of what's going to happen with the situation once president lincoln becomes president. and that happens on march 4, 1861. abraham lincoln is inaugurated president of the united states. now, how was he going to handle the situation differently than buchanan? now, there are numerous political attempts to try and avert war. there's a peace convention in washington, d.c. there are numerous compromises to try and push off war. a peace delegation from the
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confederate states is sent to washington. but all of these are rejected and lincoln is going to reject acknowledging the confederate states of america. believing that secession was illegal and they had no actual authority, so all of the communications between the united states government and south carolina and the confederates is going to be through governor francis pickens, who they viewed as legitimate. but lincoln believed that the united states should hold the fort. now, something was happening on the ground there though, because anderson and his men were running out of food and supplies. he was not going to be able to stay there forever. so he is running out of food and supplies. so what is lincoln going to do? lincoln is going to come up with the idea to send a relief force that would just deliver food and supplies to anderson's men. but if they were opposed, if they were fired on, they were going to bring reinforcements as well. well, the confederate government views this, delivering the food. an act of war, because again, they didn't believe they had the right to the fort.
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so on april 4, the relief expedition is sent by lincoln to charleston harbor. on april 10, president jefferson davis tells beauregard to tell anderson to evacuate the fort immediately, and if he does not, to reduce the fort. the next day on april 11, 1861, this man you see here, james chestnut, mary chestnut's husband, who actually used to be senator from south carolina who had resigned, was a colonel in the confederate army, he, along with captain stephen d. lee and chisel, are going to go out to fort sumter, they row out there, meet with anderson, and tell him his options. anderson says he is going to be starved out in four days and he will leave then. chestnut is going to take that message back to beauregard, and
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they discuss it, and around midnight they are going to go back one more time. and they say basically that they would need to leave immediately. anderson does not agree to this, and so chestnut tells anderson, we will fire on you in exactly one hour. and the time was 3:30 in the morning. his wife is back in charleston. she writes in her diary that at that time, i do not pretend to go to sleep. how can i? if anderson does not accept terms at 4:00, the orders are he shall be fired upon. i count four st. michael's bells chime out, and i begin to hope. at half past 4:00, the heavy coming of cannon. i spring out of bed and on my knees i prayed as i never prayed before. right after chestnut meets with anderson, he and his group are going to go over to james island to fort johnson.
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at fort johnson, they are joined also by a former virginia congressman, who you see over on the right side here, named roger prior. and roger prior was a fire eater. he was really pushing to get virginia to secede. but they hadn't at that point. and what's going to happen is chestnut is going to tell the commander of the mortar battery there, who is this man on the left, his name was captain george f. james, who would actually die later at the battle of south mountain, he gives him the command to fire the first shot at 4:30. james is going to give roger prior the opportunity to fire the first shot, and prior demures. he says, he cannot fire the first gun of the war. instead a lieutenant, henry s. farley, is given the command to fire. the cannonball arches into the sky and explodes over fort sumter. that was the signal for all the
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batteries surrounding charleston harbor to open fire on fort sumter. and this was the first shot of the civil war. some people said that was not the first shot. and often you hear that the first shot was this man who fired the first shot. this guy is edmund ruffin, who is a really fascinating historical figure. he was very much a fire eater. he actually gained national fame for being an agriculturalist before the civil war. he was from virginia and basically from 1855 on, he devoted himself to nothing but preaching secession. sometimes known as the father of secession. he traveled all across the country giving speeches, he writes pamphlets, always looking to provoke secession, and he actually snuck in and was able to witness the hanging of john brown. and he went down to charleston to watch the secession of south carolina. and he goes out to morris island
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and here he is almost 70 years old, and the palmetto guard allow him into their company. you can see he is wearing the uniform of palmetto guards. and they are going to give him the opportunity to fire the first shot after the signal went off. and he is at the iron battery which is right there on morris island. he yanks the lanyard, and his shot is the first one that will actually hit fort sumter. he fires and hits the fort. abner doubleday, he was in the forst, he actually remembers hearing the first blast hitting the fort and he believed that came with complements from mr. ruffin. edmund ruffin is going to keep a diary throughout the war, which is a great resource to not only think what he's thinking butity -- thinking, but for a civilian's perspective of the whole war. but when he finds out about the defeat of general lee's army and the defeat of the army, rather than submit to what he calls yankee rule, he's going to put his rifle in his mouth and shoot himself in the head and commit suicide.
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so, some argue he fired the first and the last shot of the civil war. but once the battery opens up on fort sumter, there was no response. there are 43 cannons surrounding fort sumter and they are all firing on the fort. and major anderson tries to conserve powder. it is not until 7:00 a.m. the union are going to fire back. and that was actually fired by abner doubleday. so he fires the first shot in return. and all of a sudden now you have both sides firing back and forth at each other. and this is going to go on really for hours and hours. and every two minutes the confederates are firing from different batteries all around the entire island. here you can see an image of them firing on the fort. and the bombardment is going to last a total of 34 hours. and meanwhile, in the city of charleston, you can see people
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all ran to rooftops and they ran up to watch the bombardment. similar to what you will see where civilians are watching this battle, some are celebrating, some weeping as well, and you can see the batteries firing on all sides. and you will see smoke billowing out of fort sumter as well. in addition to just artillery shells and artillery shot, they are also firing hotshot, which is basically where they take cannonball, put it in a furnace until it got red-hot, and these were originally used to fire it ships to catch them on fire. they are using them on fort sumter to get the buildings inside there caught on fire. and they start getting successful and hit some of the buildings and there are fires. anderson's men are trying to fire back and put out fires within the fort. and it starts getting pretty chaotic inside the fort. anderson at one point only had
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six cannons that he's firing back at everybody. meanwhile, while this bombardment is going on, who appears on the coast, but the expedition that was sent to relief major anderson. now, the confederates were scared that this group is going to try and land and attack them, or join in on the fight, but they do not join at all. much to the consternation of the defenders of fort sumter, because they are wondering if they are going to get any relief or help during this battle. but that does not happen. and here you see an image of the fire and the firing going on. doubleday writes memoirs after the war where he describes pretty much everything that happened. he has a great quote that showed you how chaotic was. he writes about showers of balls poured into the fort in one incessant stream causing flakes of masonry to fall in all directions. when the immense mortar shells, after sailing high in the air, came down in a vertical themselvesnd buried in the parade ground, their
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explosions shook the fort like an earthquake. overnight of the 12th, the union is going to stop firing to conserve ammunition, but they're going to resume on the morning of the 13th. now, on the 13th, they are going to fire and they're going to catch the officer's quarters on fire in the fort. and that even leads to a larger fire, and there is fear that this fire is going to get to the powder magazine, which would blow the entire fort. around this time, it is around 1:00 p.m. in the afternoon on april 13, one cannonball hits the union flag flying over the fort and knocks it to the ground and quickly, some of the union defenders, including sergeant peter hart, climb up and replace of cannon are flying around, replace the american flag at the top of the fort. during this time, when the confederates see the flag down, a big cheer erupts and they think anderson is surrendering. and immediately, a former united
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states senator, louis wigfall, he quickly hops into a rowboat, rows up to the fort, and he immediately starts negotiating with major anderson. he's basically saying, are you surrendering the fort? anderson at first does not want to, but then he quickly realizes again that he should surrender. so he agrees to surrender and he puts up a white flag. whigfall rows back. when beauregard's men see the white flag, chestnut goes back out there and there is confusion because wigfall had no authority to negotiate a surrender. but after discussing with chestnut, anderson agrees again to surrender the fort. but they would be given generous terms. they would all be able to go back to new york and take their personal possessions an their
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flags. so they agree to this. on the next day, april 14, is when the union prepares to leave. and while they are firing their salute -- it was supposed to be a 100 gun salute to the american flag -- and when they get to number 47, disaster happens. private daniel howe is loading the canon when it goes off, rips off his arm. he's going to bleed out and die. but some of the powder ignites powder around the cannon and an explosion happens, and about half a dozen are wounded, and one of the other men who is wounded would be mortally so. these you could argue are the first fatalities, military fatalities, of the civil war. because when anderson surrendered the fort, he had asked did the confederates have casualties? and they said no. anderson did not have casualties during the actual battle either , which is remarkable. but anderson also cries out, thank god, because he did not
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want to be responsible for some of these first deaths. but this accident that happens, like i said, are the first deaths. and so they're going to stop at a 50 gun salute rather than a 100 gun salute. they file out of the fort onto a ship and go back with the relief expedition back to new york. the confederates march in, edmund ruffin at the head carrying the palmetto flag. they are going to raise the palmetto flag and the new confederate states of america flag over fort sumter. now, what was the response to this? lincoln is -- first of all, sumter all of a sudden becomes a rallying cry. the confederates fired on fort sumter, they fired on the american flag. all across communities in the north people are rallying to join up with the union army. lincoln is going to immediately call, on april 15, 75,000 volunteers to suppress the southern confederacy. by doing that, the army at that time is only 15,000.
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so you can imagine how big of an army that is he is talking about. and these men, just calling up volunteers is going to drive two days later virginia to secede and three other upper south states. thus, the civil war began. because of that focus on the war goes to virginia, where a lot of the fighting is going to happen such as manassas. but fort sumter stood as the symbol of where the first shot was fired. what happens to anderson and his men? they go back to new york where they are greeted as heroes. thousands of people come to new york to see the actual flag that they brought back with them that have been fired on by the confederates. and like i said, many of them are going to go off and do much bigger things during the civil war. and some of them are going to die of disease and other things like that during the war. probably one of the more interesting stories is the man you see in the back row, second from the right. his name was richard mead, and
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he was a virginian who fought with anderson's men during the battle. but when virginia succeeds on april 17, he resigns and joins the confederate army. and he will actually fight against the union before he dies of disease during the war. but charleston, the union is going to come back in 1861 to south carolina, and the confederates are very quick to fortify the entire harbor. so you can see the massive amount of earthworks they build around the harbor. like i said, the union is going to eventually make that one of their headquarters. eventually they will get onto morris island to get a foothold. they are going to try taking charleston by land, and they are going to meet utter disaster at the battle of secession fill -- in which dan gave a wonderful presentation at last year's conference.
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after that disaster, they are going to keep trying to capture fort sumter by sea. they're going to do a large ironclad attack in april of 1863 that is bloodily repulsed. once they get on morris island, they're going to try multiple attempts to try and capture the whole island. you have seen the famous movie "glory," this is where the battle of wegner happens in july of 1863. that is repulsed as well. eventually the confederates are going to abandon morris island. once the union captures morris island, they are less than half a mile from fort sumter. and artillery had grown leaps and bounds by this time. the artillery they were using during the first battle was only accurate really up to a mile. by this time they have rifles, artillery that is accurate up to four or five miles. in fact, the union have a large cannon, the swamp angel, that was firing rounds into the city of charleston.
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which was, like i said, a distance of about four miles. but once they get onto morris island, the union is going to hammer fort sumter. they are going to fire on it almost continuously all throughout 1864 and 1865. and it is just going to be an unrelenting attack to try and capture fort sumter. the new rifle artillery just demolishes the wall. as you can see, this is what it looks like by that point. the rifle artillery smashes through these brick walls, but what they did not realize is it is making it stronger. this message down and basically turned fort sumter into one giant earthwork. the confederates are going to be living like rats on the inside of it and fighting back all sorts of attempts by the union to put landing groups on there to capture it. and those are going to be repulsed as well. so they just kind of resort to that. now like i said, the war kind of
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starts devolving, and south carolina refuses to get symbolic imports of fort sumter and give up on fort sumter. this is an image by conrad trapman, who painted all sorts of scenes from that time around charleston harbor. you can see this lone confederate sentry standing there with the second national confederate flag. in the distance, you can see the union blockade, all the vessels arrayed, and you can see morris island where they were shelling fort sumter from. like i said, not only were they shelling fort sumter, they were hitting the city of charleston. what confederate force did is they're going to put union prisoners of war in charleston in the city. and let the union know they might hit some of their own men. in retaliation to this, the union is going to take confederate prisoners down and they are going to put them on the edge of morris island to use them as human shields.
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so, here again, like i said, how this war had devolved from this gentleman's warfare to, by the end, they're literally using prisoners as human shields. but over the course of -- and this is another shot after the war of what fort sumter looked like. over the course of two years, the union is going to fire 3500 tons of metal into that island. and like i said, just turn it into one giant earthwork. but they never do capture it. they're never able to actually capture fort sumter. and confederates are going to hold charleston all the way up until february, 1855. by that point, sherman has completed his march to the sea. he was marching up through south carolina, and people were wondering if he would go to charleston or columbia. he goes to columbia instead of charleston. but it basically made indefensible the city of charleston. on februaryderates
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17, 1865, evacuate charleston harbor and they evacuate fort sumter. the next day, february 18, union soldiers finally get fort sumter and they raised the american flag over it. general sherman -- charleston had been ravaged by being shelled during the war. they also suffered a fire in 1861 that burned out a lot of the city as well. general sherman and many of the union soldiers wanted revenge on charleston for having started the war. he wrote, i doubt any city was ever more terribly punished than charleston. but as her people had been agitating for war and discord and finally inaugurated the civil war, the judgment of the world will be that charleston deserved the fate that befell her. on april 14, 1865, major anderson, who is now general, returns to fort sumter to reraise the american flag over fort sumter.
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and the celebration that happened that day was of course overshadowed that same night when president abraham lincoln was shot in washington, d.c. at ford's theater. so, what's fort sumter today? today, if you go visit the fort -- it was used by the u.s. military in the 1940's and now is a national park service site. you will see -- the immediate thing you notice is there is no more of those three tiers of walls. there's only one level of the brick wall around the island. you'll see this large, black battery that was built during the spanish-american war. it now sits in the middle of the parade ground. there have been numerous changes over there and very little fabric from the original 1861 still exists, but it does exist on different places in the island. and inside this battery today is a wonderful museum that has a lot of objects related to the actual battle.
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this is what it looks like inside the parade ground today. some of the case mates are surviving, so you can check those out. you can see the ruins over here of the different barracks and officers quarters, as well as monuments to the defenders of the fort. you can still see some of the actual, you know, artillery that that siege from 1863 to 1865 by the union from morris island, still embedded in the brick walls. which is amazing that you can still see that piece of history. inside the museum there, you will see the actual flag. this is the storm flag that anderson's men flew during the battle. which is a pretty amazing artifact. they also had a larger garrison flag which is at liberty square, which is another site run by the national park service down there. but fort sumter, if you do get a chance to go down there, of
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course it's not the only site to see. this is what fort moultrie looks like. and again, this is where some of the first shots were fired by the confederates, the site of the revolutionary war battle. so you can definitely check out that. and they really interpret all of american coastal defense from 1776 on up to world war ii. probably one of the neatest sites if you go down there is to go to fort johnson, where that first initial shell was fired by captain s. james. captain george s. james. there's a marker denoting that as the first shot of the civil war. morris island is really cool. that's where fort wegner was. but that has changed a lot due to the tides, and so there's nothing out there. all the earthwork have been washed away. there's no monuments or markers. and it's only accessible by boat, so it's difficult to get out there. but yeah, so you have multiple sites to check out there, but charleston overall is a beautiful city.
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and a lot of people associate it with this initial story of what happened there during the civil war, but the history goes all the way back, like i said, even before the revolutionary war, and a lot of the original buildings and sites still exist, so it's a wonderful place to visit and to really involve yourself in a lot of history there. so yeah, thank you very much. oh, if you want to read more about these, if you want to read more about the initial battle, i recommend "allegiance," a very good overview of that first battle. if you want to know about the siege of charleston, read "gate of hell" by stephen wise. and hopefully i think by next year, the former historian, rick hatcher, who i had the privilege of working with when i worked at fort sumter, will have an emerging civil war series book called "thunder in the harbor" that should cover all of this. and also hopefully include a lot of sites you can visit. but thank you all very much. i appreciate the opportunity to speak here today.
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[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2021] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] announcer: you're watching american history tv, every weekend on c-span 3. past. -- explore our nation's past. american history tv on c-span 3. created by american's television companies. today we are brought to you by these companies who provide it to you as a public surface. announcer: this week we are looking back to this date in history. >> we the undersigned, do elected, and serving a look there her president and vice president, hereby certify that we have met in the executive offices of the capital in tallahassee, florida and cast our votes for president of the united states and our votes for vice president of the united states. and as a result, it is as follows. those votes for president of the united states and the number of
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such votes were george w. bush, 25. those receiving votes for vice president of the united states, and the number of such votes were dick cheney, and the number is 25. done in tallahassee, the capital on this 18th day of december, 2000. the pertinent electors and duly attested, mr. president, the certificate of the electoral vote of the state of florida seems to be regular and informed and authentic, and george, therefore, that w. bush of the state of texas receive 25 votes for president, and dick cheney of the state of wyoming receive 25 votes of vice president. >> is their objection? -- is there objection? >> i object. >> we jump them in from florida, mr. hastings -- the gentleman willflorida, mr. hastings,
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present his objection. is it in writing and signed by a member of the house and buy a senator? >> -- and by a senator? >> mr. president, and i take pride in calling you that, i call for deliberate fraud -- >> i remind members that under section 18 of title iii, united states code, no debating is allowed in the joint session. >> to answer your question, the objection is in writing, signed by a number of members of the house of representatives, but not by a member of the senate. thank you. >> the chair thanks the gentleman from florida for his courtesy. since the present objection lacks the signature of a senator, accordingly, the objection may not be received. are there other objections? fo
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>> mr. president, i have an objection. >> is the objection in writing? and signed by a member of the house and buy a senator? >> mr. president, it is in writing and send -- signed by step -- several of my constituents in florida. a senator is needed but listening. of previouslys stated, the objection may not be received. the chair thanks the gentlewoman from florida for her courtesy. >> follow us on social media at c-span history for more this day in history clips and posts. theusan bales ford, daughter of gerald ford and betty ford reflects on the ford family's time in the white house with former abc news white house correspondent ann compton. they focus on first lady betty ford and her impact on american society. the white house historical association hosted this event and provided the video.

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