tv The Presidency Jackie Kennedys Style Substance CSPAN January 10, 2021 8:43pm-9:31pm EST
barbara perry, miller centers presidential centers director, discusses jacqueline kennedy's time as first lady. jackie kennedy actively developed symbols of the kennedy presidency as a fashion icon. a crucial part of the presidency. the white house historical association hosted this event and provided the video. >> good afternoon to everyone. it is a pleasure to introduce our presenter today. barbara perry is the gerald professor and director of presidential studies at the university of virginia's miller center, where she co-directs the presidential oral history program. she is the author and editor of 14 books on presidents, first ladies, the kennedy family, the supreme court, civil rights and civil liberties. professor perry has conducted over 100 interviews for the george bush, george h.w. bush, bill clinton and barack obama
presidential history oral programs. she also directs the oral history project. she served as a u.s. supreme court fellow for chief justice william rehnquist, and has worked for both republican and democratic members of the united states senate. her books include "42, inside the presidency of bill clinton." "41, inside the presidency of george h.w. bush." "rose kennedy, the life and times of a political matriarch." "jacqueline kennedy, the first lady in the new frontier." "edward kennedy, an oral history." and "the priestly tribe, the supreme courts image in the american mind." we welcome dr. perry to the program. just as a quick reminder, we will have time for questions from the audience at the
conclusion of our program. if you do have questions for dr. perry, please type them in and we will get to as many as possible at the conclusion of the program. welcome, barbara. >> thank you so much. thanks for that lovely introduction. thank you to stewart as well for his superb leadership of this wonderful association. i am proud to be a member. i have over my shoulder today might john f. kennedy christmas ornament that comes with membership. i cannot wait to put it on my christmas tree this coming season for the holidays. thank you as well to luke and robert who are helping us with the technology in putting this program together, and all those at the association who make this just a wonderful set of programs to celebrate. this is kennedy's birthday today. we are going to do a presentation of about 20 minutes or so that will obviously not cover all of the details of mrs. kennedy's life or time as first lady, but if robert can bring up the power point presentation, we can get started with that. then, as colleen said, we look forward to your questions and comments, not only about the presentation, but any elements of mrs. kennedy's life and her time as first lady, or maybe
even after her first ladyship. we will focus on her time in the white house today. if i can have robert go to the next slide, we want to talk about mrs. kennedy today in light of the tremendous symbols and imagery that surrounded her first ladyship and the kennedy presidency. she was very straightforward in putting together and very detailed in how she went about this. but i love to have some sort of a hook on which we can hang those symbols and images she developed. some were quite forceful. she was deliberate in. and some were just how she looked. to do that, i borrowed a definition from a political science colleague of mine, the late barbara hinkley, who wrote a book called the symbolic presidents and the symbolic presidency. the subtitle was, how presidents present themselves. her definition, as you will see
on the screen, was that political symbols convey a range of meaning beyond themselves. that is beyond what we might just see in the symbolism. and what we might see in the objects. that that symbol conveyed amoral al or emotional or psychological impact. i think the second part of the definition is even more intriguing. that's why i emphasized it. that is that barbara said that a political symbol does not need to be in that moral, psychological or emotional impact. it does not need to be true in and of itself, but it will tap into ideas people want to believe in as true. so i saw, when stewart was speaking for example, the american flag behind him. that is the perfect example of a symbol. are we a perfect country? no, but we are a great country. as george h. w. bush said, we are a good country and a good people. people will indeed give their lives for that symbol. it is a piece of cloth with red, white and blue and stars, but it
symbolizes our country. with the next slide, we will see how mrs. kennedy in some ways could not help but see be -- but be symbolic. stewart mentioned she was only 31 when she came to the white house. among our youngest first ladies. it just so happened that she had been preceded by older first ladies. hoover and roosevelt and truman and eisenhower. they were all great first ladies, but they were older. they were in their fifties and sixties. they had older children. some of them already had grandchildren in the white house. because of their age group and because of the time and fashions in which they lived, it was such a contrast and refreshing when mrs. kennedy came onto the scene. you will see here this photo of her and president kennedy visiting mexico in 1962. part of the substance of her was her multi-lingualism. she was fluent in french and spanish. she could step to the microphone and speak in the native tongue
of a country she and the president might be visiting. but also look at the difference in her fashion. this is beautiful, bright pink suit that was sleeveless. with the next slide, we can see that in addition to how she looked, stewart of course talked about some of her most important work as first lady as restoring the white house. on a scholarly note, i would like to point out that it wasn't just that she thought the white house should be historically accurate and beautiful, though that is what's she helped to create. and then in putting together the white house historical association and putting together committees that would ensure that the white house would always look this way, or always be up to date in its history and how it was presenting itself. it so happened that the dean of presidential scholars at that time, a professor who taught at columbia and harvard, had written a book in 1960 called "presidential power." instead of focusing on formal powers of the president, as are portrayed in the constitution,
which most scholars had focused on at the time. instead, he said the power of the president is the power to persuade. to persuade all of the constituencies at home and abroad that he must persuade in order to be successful. that sounds rather common now, but it was a different approach. in some ways, you've got the power of the president right to the person in the white house at the very moment that mrs. kennedy was restoring the white house and making it a symbol of our democracy, as it had been for many years, but in a new media age. she also created the guidebook. i have a picture at the top here on the left. she --st addition that the first edition that she produced. when i was in high school, my parents' graduation gift to me was a visit to the white house. i still have the guide books that are signed by mrs. nixon, because she was the first lady when i arrived for the first time at the white house.
i will always remember sitting in beautiful lafayette square one evening with my mother, across pennsylvania avenue. i said, mother, someday, i don't know how, but i know this will be my lifelong passion. i'm going to be a part of this in some way. so just simply by being a member of the white house historical association, i get to have that feeling. but getting to work in the supreme court and executive branch over the years, as well as teach about the white house and those who occupied it. i feel like my dream has come true. then the tour that mrs. kennedy gave in 1962 of the redecoration process and the rooms that have been completed by them. -- completed by then. that went around the world and the u.s. information agency was even able to send that behind the iron curtain. at the end of the documentary that she made with charles collingwood, president kennedy makes a cameo appearance and he talks about the importance of the white house as a symbol in
the cold war of democracy. if we could please have the next slide. the kennedys also used state entertainment as a way to showcase the white house. in their thousand days in the white house, they had 16 state dinners. one of the dinners they had, the noble laureate dinner that many people remember where president kennedy famously said it was the greatest assemblage of talent at the white house since thomas jefferson had dined alone. since i'm sitting in charlottesville, the birthplace of thomas jefferson, i thought i would mention that. notice that picture at the bottom left. mrs. kennedy leaning into talk to the poet, robert frost. this was just the showcase of the nobel laureates throughout the western hemisphere. but also, the state dinners of bringing in those heads of state from around the world. the president of pakistan and his wife. mrs. kennedy created this beautiful state occasion at
mount vernon where guests were voted down the potomac to mount vernon. even notice her dress that evening, it's sort of represented the columns of mount vernon. but also, the revolutionary spirit that created our country. the revolutionary spirit of pakistan. she thought that would be an interesting parallel. the other point that is so important about the state dinners is that the candidates -- the kennedys reached out to what we would then call third world leaders, but so many of the nations in africa, latin america and south america were on the line. -- they were unaligned. they had not cast their lot with the soviets and communism or the leaders of the free world, including the united states. many of them were black and brown leaders of black and brown people. so the kennedys went out of their way, in the case of entertaining the president of the ivory coast and his wife, and so that created symbolism as well. we can have the next slide.
in addition to using the white house as a show place for the arts, which we will see momentarily with -- mrs. kennedy also brought to the united states through a collaboration she did with the french, to have them loan us the mona lisa for exhibits in washington and new york city. stewart was very kind to give me the first addition of this book by margaret leslie davis. she will of course be speaking to you tomorrow evening. but it is an amazing book about this amazing experience, to have brought this masterpiece to the united states. in this picture, you see the president on the left. then the portrait of the mona lisa. then a french author that mrs. kennedy loved. he was the cultural minister of france it
-- mrs. kennedy and vice president johnson is there to her side. i want you to know how mrs. kennedy is standing next to the french cultural ambassador. and leaning into robert frost. she had this way of making people feel close to her. this was actually a source of her power as well. that she would sort of sidle up to people and speak very intimately with them. some people call that soft power on the part of first ladies and even women in public office. but i think it is sometimes overlooked how powerful that can be. in the next slide, i mentioned the visit to the white house. pablo casals had come to the white house and played. the maestro of the cello for theodore roosevelt in the early 20th century. but he was boycotting the united states because it had recognized
fascistsons -- the -like government of francisco franco. pablo casals had left his native spain because of the civil war in the 1930's, and because franco had become to power. he was self exiled in puerto rico. so he was boycotting the united states. but this young new couple, the new frontier of the kennedy's, gave him such hope that he offered to come to the white house and play. and he did. i love this photograph of him kissing mrs. kennedy's hand in the east room of the white house. mrs. kennedy also was able to expand the arts by making the white house a stage for the arts. remember, we did not yet have our national cultural center, which became the kennedy center. she worked to support that in her time as first lady and after, but we did not have that yet. so we did not really have it international stage. this was part of the cold war message as well, that the united states had a cultural history.
i love stewards term about mrs. kennedy's cultural diplomacy. this fit in with president kennedy's policies, which he explained especially in the fall of 1963, his speech about the arts at the amherst college. dedicating the frost library there. about the importance of arts and the representation of arts in a free democracy. next slide, please. i did not think that lafayette square would be quite in the news as it has been when i put together this presentation. but we need to thank mrs. kennedy for preserving it because in the eisenhower administration, there had been a movement supported by the president to take down the beautiful 19th century town homes surrounding lafayette square. which in a way, they are viewed as an adjunct to the white house. sort of the presidents' park if you will. one of those town homes was dolly madison's, where she had lived after the presidency and after her husband had died. mrs. kennedy got wind that might be torn down to put up a new high rise office buildings for the burgeoning federal bureaucracy.
she approached her husband and asked if that could be held off. they brought in their mutual the westck warner key , coast architect who specialized in historic preservation, and you can see him and mrs. kennedy with an architectural rendering of what it now looks like at lafayette square. that these low rise, red brick office buildings for federal offices are there to this day, but so are the beautiful town homes, historic town homes. and the office buildings almost fade into the background. you almost don't even notice they are there. so with that we will move to the next. part of that diplomacy in addition to the cultural side that stewart mentioned, mrs. kennedy was a goodwill ambassador, so when she traveled with her husband and their famous trip to paris in 1961, the u.s. was having difficulty with an ally. charles de gaulle was an ally. he often wanted to go his own
way. in the cold war alliance of the four powers, the three that were now democracies in holding tight to the free world, the soviets going their own way into the communist world, he is completely mesmerized by mrs. kennedy here. she can speak fluent french from her year abroad, junior year abroad in college. she had spent it in france. and she usually wore beautiful gowns and suits because he was an american designer. here she is at the state dinner. in the middle picture, it's intriguing as well because she accompanied her husband on that trip to the summit in vienna where he was having a difficult meeting with the head of the soviet union. she was being that goodwill ambassador, and she is the
second from the right in the fairly long suit that is quite bold in its floral design, she apparently was a lovely woman, she was very well educated, multi lingual. as a bit of a joke, i say if you are an say if you were an un-allied country and you had to decide whether to go with the americans or the soviets and could only decide based on the presentation of the first lady, i think you might choose misses kennedy. she also did a semi official visit to india and pakistan in 1962. she went with her sister. just the very fact she could approach both of those countries and both of those leaders when tensions were often very taught between them here she is, just a , wonderful goodwill visit. sentsia filmed that and that around the world. vienna, as i mentioned, in addition to being a goodwill ambassador with misses kuester --khrushchev, she was also
a goodwill ambassador with premier khrushchev. he salvaged president kennedy with very tough talk, when he came to the state and arm that evening, he said he wanted to shake mrs. kennedy's hand. she was wearing a beautiful beige colored sparkling gown. "the washington post" made the comment that khrushchev look like a russian schoolboy on the banks of the river in the spring when the snow melts. he was aglow. it may be apocryphal, but the story as he was trying to impress misses kennedy by saying how many tractors the soviets produced each year, and she said, "mr. chairman, don't bore me with statistics." she began to think, what could she talk to him about, she talked to him about the dogs the soviets were sending into space. you can see there is a mutual delight there. in this instance, i say that it -- she is both a cold warrior in her diplomacy but also a beautiful style icon as well.
they fully go to the next, please. -- if we could go to the next, please. just at the time that mrs. kennedy is portraying herself in this way, she is also working with the media. the beautiful "life" magazine that had gone color with their glossy photos and those of you remember they are about this big every week athem home. we saved many of them. i have many of these from that kennedy era, this is the one on the left portrayed in "life" magazine. she's in a red suit, red pill box hat. assinit with corsini -- c and asked him to put that outfit together when they met with the royal canadian mounted police. this is may of 1961. this was the kennedys' first trip outside the country together. and then charles collingwood in
the middle for the tour of the white house. even when she was in a rather sedate beige look, look how beautiful she looks on the truman balcony on the white house with washington monument behind her. the glossy color magazines, the coloring her beauty, her , clothing. the tv, even those black and white, it still looks beautiful, and the news reels that were still showing and again the usia documentaries, they were very important for the image of the united states. next slide, please. sadly, we are coming towards the end of her first ship. there were two tragedies that that ending suffered. we of course know how the presidency ends. but they lost their baby patrick in august of 1963. here, this beautiful family with caroline and john, they are pictured at cape cod with the family canines. was just after misses kennedy lost their premature baby. days, butved only two he had a long ailment that could not be treated.
couple years later, it was able to be treated and he would have lived. but the president brought from washington the family came in to try and boost morale at a sad time. this imagery of this beautiful young family really had had such -- we had not had such a young family in the white house since theodore roosevelt. the grandchildren yes, but not the young children of the president and the young lady. at the time, this is a baby-boom. my mother took me to see john f. kennedy when i was four years old. she was a homemaker in the suburbs. she packed my brothers and me into the car and drove us to downtown louisville. she put us in front of the podium and got there early because she wanted to see senator kennedy one month before he was elected. we are catholic. and to have the first catholic president was very important. and i think my mother, as many people did, could relate to mrs. kennedy because she was in the age group as my mother was, all the mothers of baby boomers, she was raising a young family.
next slide please. i always say when i come to this portion that if i could wave a magic wand and wish away what happens after this, i would do it. but we do know this is what happens, mrs. kennedy agreed to accompany her husband on what was to be the kickoff of the 1964 reelection campaign, to go through texas, make a tour through texas in order to mend fences in the democratic party and raise money for 1964, they arrived looking so beautiful at love field november 22nd, 1963. in the motorcade, as we know, the president suffered a fatal wound, and mrs. kennedy, despite having just lived through that horrific experience, it is beyond comprehension to me that
on air force one, sitting on the tarmac, that she could honor the new president, the new first lady, lyndon johnson and lady bird johnson. they asked if she would come and stand with them for the swearing in ceremony. you can see the look of utter shock on her face. but again, she summoned from deep within her the courage to do that. next slide, please. our she became, i believe, mourner in chief for our country. as her brother-in-law would eulogize her when she passed in 1994, he said in those horrible days of 1963, she not only held our family together but she held our country together. here she is pictured leaving the rotunda where the ceremony had taken place for the line in state of the president, bobby kennedy, the attorney general, the president's brother, and the president's sister and young caroline and john with their
mother -- how she was able to do that in that glare of public spotlight to maintain her composure, it is beyond me. in the next photo, we will see another element of her profile and courage from those four days that on monday of the president's funeral, november 25th, she and edward kennedy came back to the white house after the funeral because mrs. kennedy thought it was her duty to greet and thank for coming the diplomats and the presidents and heads of state from around the country who had marched with her up connecticut avenue from the white house, led by charles de gaulle. led by selassie of ethiopia. and they went to saint matthews cathedral in washington for the funeral service. she somehow managed to stay on her feet and perform that last diplomatic duty for herself and her husband. then they went upstairs, if you can imagine this, to the residents to mark the third birthday of john junior.
it was his third birthday, the day of his dad's funeral. very familiar i'm sure with the internal flame marking the president's gravesite at our links are -- arlington ceremony. the president had made a comment on a visit to the area for a veterans day ceremony that he looked out over rushin washingtn and said "i could stay here forever." some of the family wanted him to buturied in massachusetts, because he had made this comment, bobby kennedy and mrs. kennedy thought this would be the perfect place for him. he is there now with mrs. kennedy and their two children and patrick and stillborn daughter they had in the 1950's. it is such a peaceful site. this is a photo i took a couple easters ago. you have the tulip trees, and the japanese magnolia blooming. that flame that mrs. kennedy
wanted to represent symbol of , a the president saying, the torch has been passed to new generation. the glow from that fire will light the world. mrs. kennedy it's seen such a flame flickering under the arc de triomphe. to this day, you can see the flame flickering there in arlington. next, please. these last few slides will show you this concept that allows the presidency and the first lady ship of the kennedys to continue to remain in our mind. misses kennedy you gave to the presidency of her husband a label that really took hold. remember back to the definition of political symbolism. mrs. kennedy said that one of the president's favorite show , the playfrom camelot that ran through his presidency. and she said, there will be a great "presidency a gun but there will never be another camelot."
she wanted people to think of what they thought of her husband's thousands day of presidency. she said this very carefully, to a journalist of life magazine. she called him to her one week after his assassination and asked him to use that label. he did and it has stuck to the end. next slide, please. i think the power of the symbol of camelot is that it tapped into what people not only want to think about the kennedy administration and her first lady ship, but it also tapped into another legend, the legend of king arthur, the arthur of the mythical king of england. he ruled in a golden age. so she took that set of lyrics from julie andrews and richard return who had been in the broadway play, "don't let it be forgot that once there was a spot for one brief shining moment, known as camelot." next slide, please. what was true about her is that
in many ways, it was a golden age. as robert frost said at the inaugural, it was certainly a golden age of the arts. it was a golden age of reaching out to the world. it was literally brief, only a little over 1000 days, it was shining. there is something effervescent about this young couple and young family and particularly in contrast to eisenhower, the previous president, who was 70 when he left office and at that time was our oldest president. he had been somewhat sickly, the exact age of the president's mother. to have an age of a new generation, my mother could relate to and my dad, a world war ii veteran as was president kennedy, it was a new generation and it was shining and effervescent. now for the last slide. just when people ask about how mrs. kennedy's first lady ship fit into the concept of women's history. she was a stride of both the traditionalism of her
motherhood, of her marriage to the president, of raising her young children in the white house which she said was the most important but was modern and she knew the concept of the modern media. in mone many ways, she had one foot in the camp of traditionalism and what would be the modern women's movement. in her first lady ship, she could really come into her own. with that, thank you so much. a happy birthday to mrs. kennedy and i look forward to colleen monitoring our comments and questions from you. >> thank you so much, barbara, for that terrific presentation. we do have a lot of questions coming in, so we will try and get to as many as possible. the first question is from george. he asks, is there any real definition of the duties of a first lady? is it a merely symbolic role or is it really a significant role, significant political role? >> that is a great question. the answer to the first is there
is no set duties given to the first lady, because as you indicate, it is an unofficial position and one that the first lady makes it. but every first lady has contributed in some way, being a first lady or being a help mate to her husband and political career, or i would say one extreme if you look at first lady's and their involvement, would be someone like eleanor roosevelt, who in some ways was a copresident in part because of fdr's issues related to his mobility. she was able to get out in the world and travel and also had long-standing interests and policies. i would put misses kennedy toward the middle category of the continuum. she used the symbolism of the first lady ship and added to it but her policy concerns also related to preserving the white
house at a time in the cold war, which was particularly important, her cultural diplomacy, and the arts. particularly because of the cold war and our attempts to get those unaligned nations over to us, that symbolism, i argue, was especially important during the cold war. but first ladies have to be careful, because eleanor roosevelt came in for a lot of criticism, for being too powerful or attempting to be too powerful. and we have to remember that first ladies are unaccountable. they are unelected. that sweeto find spot which i think most modern first ladies have of picking one issue and focusing on that, as well as carrying out symbolic duties of the first ladyship. >> next question is from debra. how did mrs. kennedy make the white house grounds, a strong setting for the presidency? >> thank you for that question. i'm so glad you ask. i write about this in my book.
because she also had, as did the president, how the symbolism of the white house grounds appeared. many other presidents had taken an interest in using the gardens, and creating formal gardens over the years, but mrs. kennedy actually wrote out a long, long list of things that she noted that needed to be done differently about the lawn. for example, she said why does , the lawn look so brown? it needs to be green all the time. it needs to be manicured. and she and the president wanted it to look that way as a beautiful setting for the executive branch. -- executive mansion, but also as a place where they could greet, and bring in foreign dignitaries. they did not really want to take the time and go to the national airport or the union station at that time, and take time out of their schedule. in those were just not beautiful settings. so, they said let's make this a showplace. in addition, president kennedy
asked bunnie melon to redo the rose garden so it could be a stage for when he could bring heads of state in and also peace corps volunteers, the boys nation. there's a famous picture of a 16-year-old bill clinton shaking hands with president kennedy in the rose garden. that was the idea president and to have ady had, place they could showcase both on the inside and outside. they also put together beautiful concerts, particularly for disadvantaged children, when weather permitted to see concerts. i should also note that our current first lady, mrs. trump , is going to update the rose garden. i think that mrs. kennedy and president kennedy would be pleased it is continuing to be used as a stage and a venue for presidents. >> our next question is from one of our national council members. do you believe at the end of mrs. kennedy's life, she looked
back as being has her own life being a happy one? >> oh, how can we judge, the views that people have of themselves in their lives? but i would tell you that she tote a very personal note the president's friend, bill walton, the artist. she said during her white house dreadede said, i really coming to the white house for fear of loss of privacy, and what would be the impact on these young children? firster, they are the president and first lady to have a baby between the election and inauguration. they come to the white house and the children do not come immediately. three year old caroline, an infant john junior. she was worried what would be the impact of living in this fishbowl? she wrote to bill walton about halfway through her time and she said it's the happiest time i've known. i have control of the things i need to do, and i can farm out those things i don't want to do,
but i get to live at the same home with my husband, whereas before he would be out on the road frequently campaigning and running in the senate. this way, his office was at home. he had a home office. she said at that point, it was happy. but obviously, the tragedies at the end of the presidency took their toll, but certainly towards the end of her life, she seems to have had real happiness with maurice templeton. her children were doing well. she had grandchildren, one named for her house jack, and two granddaughters from caroline. and i think at the end, she was a happy person. she also had her career in publishing and historic preservation, saving grand central station in new york. i think despite the terrible tragedies she had endured, she would have said that she had a happy life. and we certainly are appreciative and we know she had a productive life and
contributed so much to the country. >> very interesting. first lady michelle obama wrote something similar in her biography "becoming," that she actually got to spend more time with president obama after he had been elected president than when he was running for president. the next question is from jeff. jackie kennedy was often put criticized for being too french. did that affect your public -- her activity in the white house and her public duties? orals, she says in her celestewith arthur/injur schlesinger that after , the end of the white house years, in march of 1964, she did eight hours of oral history which are now available -- she said it was ironic to her that when her husband was running for senate, when he was running for president, she would sometimes be accused of being too european, or to french, or being
too high society and not a woman of the people. in her clothing, the way she spoke, the fact that she could speak fluent french. and what she said was i didn't up toread and have flour my elbows, but ironically, when i became those all seem to be first lady, pluses. i think she's right about that. while she did have to be careful about what she wore, and whether she was wearing american designs, and how expensive they might be, but she was very careful, and very diplomatic about the cost of restoring the white house and put in place these mechanisms, and these nonprofit organizations that would allow her to raise money. so she would not have to go to congress asking for money because she did not want to be in the position mary todd lincoln ended up in viewed as a , spendthrift by her husband and the american people during the civil war. mrs. kennedy said it wasn't irony, but what was viewed as a
criticism, as a weakness became a strength, probably because of the cultural diplomacy she was able to make use of her european background and speaking of french and spanish. >> our last question before we go to our special presentation at the end, is from james. mrs. kennedy was keenly aware, of the image and legacy of her husband and herself. could you comment on how she preserved and honored that legacy of both jfk and herself throughout her life? >> yes. well, of course, it starts with the camelot legacy and that legacy.nd the arthurian after that, it becomes much more symbolism. it becomes concrete with the kennedy library in south boston. that's where i did most of the research on mrs. kennedy. most of her papers are still not released, but there are obviously many other people who had corresponded with her like
schlesinger. you can see many correspondence is that he had with her, about the guidebooks and the white house historical association. so the kennedy library particularly, she went on tv after the president's death in january of that next year, to thank the american people, and the 800,000 condolence notes. she said that we are going to create a library for my husband, for his papers and archives, so that people for generations on will learn about him. the kennedy center i believe in washington also is a concrete tribute to him and to her and the arts. also, the kennedy institute of politics at harvard and the kennedy school of government. both carry on the tradition of learning about politics, learning about diplomacy and government. i think all of those things, in addition to her own children, particularly ambassador caroline kennedy serving in the obama administration, in that sense to
o, mrs. kennedy's legacy continues. caroline became the ambassador to japan. think about what that means, her father had almost been killed in world war ii fighting in the south pacific, but it shows you and howory changes -- the american people do reach out to former enemies and to become the ambassador to japan was quite remarkable and quite important. and i'm sure that president kennedy and mrs. kennedy, i think there is an afterlife. if there is they are looking down with pride. >> thank you very much, dr. barbara perry, in joining us this afternoon and providing such perfect such great insights about jacqueline kennedy. this evening it is my pleasure 8 from george washington to george w. bush, every sunday we feature the presidency, the weekly series explained the presidents, their policy, politics and legacies. you're watching american history tv all weekend, every weekend on
c-span3. >> you are watching american history tv, every weekend on c-span3, explore our nation's past. american history tv on c-span3, created by america's cable television companies. today, we are brought to you by these television companies to provide american history tv to viewers as a public service. ♪ >> each week, american history tv's "real america" brings archival films that provide context for today's public affairs issues. ♪ >> there are real and growing dangers tower simple and most precious possessions. the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the land which
sustains us. the rapid depletion of irreplaceable minerals, the erosion of topsoil, the beauty, theof blight of pollution, the demands of increasing billions of people, all combined to create problems that are easy to observe and predict, but difficult to resolve. act, the world of the year 2000 will be much less able to sustain life than it is now. >> the story of these last eight years and this presidency goes far beyond any personal concerns. it is a continuation really of a far larger story, a story of a people and a cause. a cause that from our earliest beginnings has defined us as a nation and given purpose to our national existence. the hope of human freedom, the quest for it, the achievement of it, is the american saga and i
have often recalled one group of early settlers making a treacherous crossing of the atlantic on a small ship when their leader, a minister, noted perhaps their venture would fail and they would become a byword, a footnote to history. help,rhaps too, with gods they might also found a new world, a city upon a hill, a light under the nations. onwe annually spelling spend military alone more than the net income of all united states corporations. > this conjunction of an immense military establishment an the total influence, economic, political, even spiritual, is felt in every city, every statehouse, every office of the federal government. we recognize the imperative need for this development, yet we
must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. our toil, resources, and livelihood are all involved. so is the structure of our society. and the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. >> now it is time to leave. that 100 may be said , that by working , we helped to make our country more just. more just for all of its people. ensure andto guarantee the blessings of liberty for all of our posterity.
hope. what i that at least it will be said that we tried. [applause] >> you can watch archival films on public affairs in their entirety in our weekly series "reel america," saturday at 10:00 p.m. and sunday at 4:00 p.m. eastern here on american history tv. >> weeknights this month, we are featuring american history tv programs as a preview of what's available every weekend on c-span3.
monday, we begin a night of programs about the johnson presidency with a film describing the death and funeral kennedy, who was assassinated in dallas november 22, 1963.it includes footage of president lyndon johnson's statement upon arriving in washington, the funeral processions, the mass at saint matthews cathedral, and the funeral at arlington. watch monday, beginning at 8:00 p.m. eastern, and enjoy american history tv every weekend on c-span3. ♪ you are watching american history tv, covering history c-span style with event coverage, eyewitness account,
archival films, lectures in college classrooms, and visits to museums and historic laces. all weekend, every weekend on c-span3. each week, american artifacts takes viewers into archives, museums, and historic sites around the country. , we visit the national constitution center in philadelphia to learn about the life and legacy of john marshall , the fourth chief justice of the united states who served on the supreme court from 1801-1835. donnelly and tom i'm senior fellow for studies at the constitutional center here in philadelphia. we are here to talk about chief justice john marshall in our new exhibit, "john marshall: patriot, statesman, chief justice." what's amin