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tv   Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Centennial  CSPAN  December 26, 2021 1:00am-2:01am EST

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that the people were told the reason it was and why. and i have complete in the americans people ability if they know and if they have leadership and no one can move without leadership. >> so the time that you feel there is leadership. >> yes. >> take a closer look at the nation's presidents, the private lives, rules and legacies, let's all of this programs online, and >> today, we are going to talk about the tomb of the unknown soldier and this is the 100th anniversary of the tomb of the unknown soldier, the unknown soldier did lay in state in the capitol and samuel holliday will
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talk to you about that and let me give you a perspective on the samuel holliday and icms and organizer of this event but let me give you a little bit of background about him, his childhood, he artist masters in public policy and a bachelor of arts in public policy the college in maryland and joined the society in june of 2016, as had various conditions serving as a tour guide and a speaker, professional, communications professional end up with retail and programmers and looking at the basic administration of the organization and before he came to the historical society, he worked for a trade association is a freelance scheduler and the title abstractor and commercial property manager so samuel holliday comes to us with a fascinating background, and a
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real passion for history and so it is my privilege to welcome you and to welcome our speaker today, samuel holliday. >> chain thank you for that kind and warm introduction and is truly a joy to work for the historical society to work with you and it is our mission to inspire and inform patriotism which is really beautiful way of capturing what it is we do here and so that being said, i am samuel holliday, and as we get into today's discussion, set the stage event i first explained why it is that we are giving this talk and of course it is an important anniversary, the 100th anniversary of the creation of the tomb of the unknown soldier and the world war one unknowns and there is history to this but also a little of personal society hahistory that goes into how we have got involved in this commemoration it of the tomb
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centennial. manyny of you will recognize the award winning historian it and this photo was taken when we were giving him the freedom award from the society's highess honor and some of we call it fortunate enough to know the other people and you know that they are some of the finest people to have walked the earth and on the left you will see dorothy cosby, who is a great great friend of the society because in part, her father the late congressman, created this organization 59 years ago this year and on the right, you will see her late husband, who served for an extended period as organizationthis it but for today's conversation, the col. cosby served as part of the honor guard at the tomb of the unknown soldier if you look closely, i noticed difficult but if you look closely, the pin he is wearing on his lapel as a
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representation of that patch and it was part of his identity that was sent tont him and he helped found it this organization and focused on the tomb of the unknown soldier and the society of the honor guard, the nine talk more about them that because we have the sort of society family connection, this is particularly meaningful to talk about the history and talk about the tackling of the history of the tomb of the unknown soldier. i want to take a step back and talk about how the capitol plays a role in the understanding of public life and memory and from the earliest designed to the capitol building, there was this picture here, of the capitol, decrypt, and also the tomb for george washington and many of you who took it to her, listen to some of our webinars will now that's an empty tomb for george washington to buy from its
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toearliest conception, this wasa place of somberon reflection it and the lessons that we can learn from george washington and i think it's an important way to understand the catalyst that you mentioned, the temple of democracy that not only isme a place will be set the laws for ourselves,e we given ourselves and the people but also a place where we celebrate the best we have to offer and to mourning those who we have lost in the ceremonies take place inn the rotunda at the capitol and picture here in this image and so as we push forward it is important to think that this is where our countryry comes togetr to again celebrate into mourning those great figures who we have lost and one of the ways that i just mentioned that we have a paid tribute to leading figures and importedti to people in our nations i history is through the line that we see at the ceremonies, it is a somber occasion part of the funeral in
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which they are placed upon the catapult, laying in state, a support structure which we will talk more about for this politics program and people in the republic publicll are allowd to come in and pay their respects and you see this in the black and it is a very powerful and somber occasion if you are ever in washington for such an occasion, and we know that there are few and far removed but it is open to the public in a really powerful way to participate by paying tribute at that laying in state funeral, henry clay in 1952 was the first when he passed away, this is a very rare honor to be still and somebody pulling 35le people the nation's history have laying in state total today and only ten, have laying in state before the world war one note in the was 1952 abraham lincoln in 1855 and
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thaddeus stevens at 1868, charles sumner in 1974, and in 1875, president james garfield pictured actually from garfield ceremony of laying in state and another in 1886, president mckinley, in 1901, peter charles, the designer from city of washington, laying in state, when he was at arlington national cemetery onn his way to the base but they cosby and so that he could receive state honors in the capitol building and it's important that they were paying tribute to do a figure who had served time to obscurity and buried in a pauper's grave. and then relevant to world war one at this commemoration, george dewey was laying in state in 1917 before we get to the world warar one in 1921. i was also played a role in
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supporting the membrane thehe preservation of an attributed to those who made the ultimate sacrifice, and service of our country and in 1862, congress pays the active which included an provisions that you can see from the national archives and a transcription it and it provided the program with the authority to acquire land and create national cemeteries for those who gave their last measure of devotion those who died for service of our country and ever since, the catalyst is, been involved in preserving the memory and supporting those families that lost loved ones in wars. push forward we started talk about the conflicts after the civil war, i should mention before we get into that are significant number of unknowns
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buried at arlington from the civil war, more than 2000 remains in a large memorial and we can get into that a little bit later. the spanish-american war was fought on for the locations when the civil war of the mexican-american war in the revolutionary war of 1812, and you the policy enacted at the edreprieve 805 bringing back the remains of the deceased service members who died in the spanish-american war and brought them back to the continental united states to be buried closer to home and then conflict did not last quite as long and had significantly fewer casually than the first world war which plays into the decision-making about how to deal with repatriation and importance, i will say tomb of the unknown soldier. and i will mention it that in 1913, congress approved unauthorized spending for the
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government is creating an amphitheater at arlington national cemetery and at this point, they recognize the need for a larger and more somber space to accommodate the visitors who were there to pay tribute to their deceased loved ones. they authorize is planning to create this new amphitheater and made this investment to national cemetery ask the nation's premier cemetery, to pay the special tribute. after the first world war, the congressman from new york, the fish family was very prominent in u.s. politics going back to the colonial era and was a secretary of state, hamilton fish's grandfather was a general
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and of new york is on the revolution and here he is, the first world war highly decorated with a superstar and retired out of it and turn as a major of the u.s. army in h east pictured on the left in his uniform. and he was a lt. general commanded him during that war in any month the election as a republican answer there for 25 years in congress and this was the driving force for the creation of the tomb of the unknown soldier any was his major advocate on capitol hill. and the content for the tomb of the unknown soldier was one that was demonstrated by france in the united kingdom after the first world war. this was a tremendously costly war, devastating in terms of
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casualties in terms of loved ones lost. there were significant concerns that at the conclusion of thee war that retrieval of the remains from these battlefields could be done in peril, the reputed julie some chemical weapons used during the first world war pose significant risk but the risk to print united kingdom kingdom had to restrict many of their soldiers lost during work could be brought back to the cemeteries at home and so those countries opted to pursue the creation of the tomb of the unknown soldier in their perspective capitals, westminster abbey, when they got the parents were returned with great solemnity and purpose of the unknown soldiers so that the people of those perspective countries united kingdom and france, could haveiv a place too
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and pay tribute to the ones they could not bring home to their families. and it served as a very personal tribute who wanted to pay their respects and so hamilton fish the success in the importance of this sort of memorial and throughout the u.s., while they were still undertaking repatriation, great number of unknowns, that the soldiers from the first world war and so he tagain opted the legislation to create this tomb of the unknown soldier and the arlington national cemetery here just across the river from our capitol city is a nod to the nations to mourn who lost whether they came home or not. and there were a great number of unknowns soldiers who perished by the of the first world war. this process was actually rather fascinating and i should mention that they gathered from several
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different major battlefields and different unknown soldiers who had fought a battle and they brought them to a small town in the region of france where one of the highest declaration did soldiers and veterans of the war made a final selection of the non- numbness conference to be the unknown soldier and internal memory as a symbol and as a tangiblee representation of all of his other unknowns and across the notion of from their families and loved ones. and the unknown soldier of world war i brought to shore in southeast washington dc, project work from a u.s. vessel india which had seen significant battle and more lately during
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the first world war in the british back from france was hardly a smooth passage in effect, as i drove through it and sailed through it, there were reports that the rain and wind us were so strong that they were the casket in the olympia, they were given the option to retreathe below deck and they refused and so they can maintain their watch duty through this challenging circumstances in vegas high honor that was giving that last measurable devotion and they proceeded up to the capitol building as we have been discussing to the lying in state ceremony, he somber in a high honor to be paid to someone in the image was from the state of the unknown of world war i and
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what you seeee here, we mentiond it briefly, the catapult, highlighting her with my cursor, upon which the world war one unknown in this image, was the same one that was constructed and used for abraham lincoln and in fact, every lying in state ceremony since abraham lincoln has use the lincoln catapult which remains in a position of the architect of the capitol, and refine partners across the street had a preservative handed the display it when reopens, is honestly and their exhibition hall until it is needed in which case the remove it and make sure that it is ready for further service to our country and supporting those who have paid tribute to and then they proceeded for the internment to audit the november the 11th of 1921, the casket on the case on and they take it over and they
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have the state funeral ceremony that reconstructed amphitheater which is been recently completed at this point, and it presided over by then president harding and the internment is made of just the other side of the theater here and is being created for tomb of the unknown soldier and you can see the just small snapshot of the thousands upon thousands of americans who came to pay tribute and again to this one person represented so many more. and the panels of which they could participate in public morning and in public memory and congressman involvement in the tomb of the unknown soldier and how we pay tribute to those who fought, in the first world war and the unknown and in 1926 they appropriated and authorized is spinning to increase and improve the tomb of the unknown soldier to enhance the tomb of the unknown soldier by adding this
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march 20 went on top and if you look, i will turn back briefly, this initial tomb of the unknown soldier, that actually at grade at same level as around surrounding it and they added this structure of for balance and the words are here in his grave, you know what pretty i do not want to brush her this beautiful and powerful sentence but you have the structure added on top of the existing tomb to e that much more common of a space not much more somber the space to remind people that this is a place of great solemnity. and we all know there were conflicts after the first world war and named the first world war and after the conclusion of the second world war, congress passed what is now 79 - 49
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fundraising the internment of a world warrl ii, and known soldir in the art at the tomb of the unknown soldier and they were in process of preparing the selection and preparing the transport back to the united states, the repatriation for the internment when the korean war broke out and we suspended that operation and after the korean war, congress passed a new law, a four - 75, which authorize the selection of the internment of korean war of the unknown soldier and around the tomb of the unknown soldier in arlington national cemetery. t they continue to view this as a way for the nation to pay tribute against all of this a ws whether they work repatriation are not in a place where the
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country could come together and here is lying in state ceremony for both the world war ii hand that korean war of the unknown soldiers in the capitol building if anyone will note that there side-by-side in the rotunda and as we briefly mentioned, every lying in state ceremony has use the lincoln catapult which you can see in greater detail here. this is the lincoln catapult picture, the congress and the capitol institutions decided to do to facilitate this dual ceremony, this joint ceremony of high honor wasas to create a replica, the catapult they could be used when multiple caskets are needed and so side-by-side, you have the lincoln catapult and then the second catapult and actually during the course of lying in state, they rotated the caskets so the world war ii and the korean war unknown so that
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at some point during the ceremony, both rested on the lincoln catapult as part of this great tribute and they were then curated it with great honor and somber spirit to arlington national cemetery, along the plaza and we we should do this a moment ago. and after the conclusion of the vietnam war, they authorize the selection of of internment of unknown soldier from vietnam floor and there were actually at this point, some skepticism about it unknown that there woud be an unknown as we had advanced in identifying technology has dog tags which was then used that world in front work but had made a more reliable and used to identify remains and whether there t would be a note but by e
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1980s, and known soldier had been identified and that comes up later. brief notes, so hamilton fish the fourth, actually introduced a revolution in in congress, and from newpu york, and earlier, he introduced a resolution to select an unknown soldier from vietnam war at the tomb of the unknown soldier and his revolution was forwarded into the larger package which was passed later in that same congress. i mentioned that the unknown soldier from vietnam, was actually successfully identified so there was some thought as
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people were working through the challenges of war and missing in action following the vietnam war, but then tend to believe that you might've been the vietnam war unknown. so the department of defense agreed to exhume the vietnam war unknown soldier and to have a dna testing confirmed that t in fact the vietnam war unknown it was dependent michael - so at the request of his family, his remains were moved closer to home to the jefferson national cemetery in st. louis, missouri andur that happened in 1998, and by 1999, on september 17, which was the constitution day and more importantly for this purpose, prisoner of war missing in action recognition day, the department of defense redesignated the vietnam war
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tomb for tomb of the unknown soldier for all those missing service members who never made a home so is candace in similar way to the crypt george washington, is a permanent tribute to those lost even though not directly to that stone. and to get to your point that i want to mention we are part of a bigger quilt of recognitions and commemorations in a bigger coalition of commemoration i should say, all of this important centennial, and the entity is that the society of the guards and the tomb of the unknown soldier founded in part by the late great cosby and may have done some fantastic work organizing commemorations some really wonderful research and they have a really great precise and important history of the tomb and the tomb guard and
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frequently asked questions and you can look at some of those as people start to submit questions printed the president of the organization, a wonderful fellow, and is been very hopeful as we have participated and try to help as they organize this commemoration, justin gordon, as had research work order history in terms would so that concludes my brief overview of the history of the tomb of the unknown soldier pretty and congressional history and now i will, any questions you may have, i'll stop the screen chair and jane will start. >> samuel holliday, and the listeners found the quote, here rest and honor and glory an american soldier, known to god.
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[inaudible]. and i have a question. do the unknown soldier remains in the various ways did they live together or are they replaced or what happened this with them. >> that is an excellent question and i realize i should have included a diagram or an aerial to help illustrate her might be able to pointed out in one of the things that i did including the presentation but are not on top of each other pretty they are not all in the same spot if that makes sense, they are world war i unknowns and then so be east, make sure that i get my geography right here, so beside a tomb for the world war i unknown, though great so atde below ground level, are the world war ii and the korean war
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unknowns and an empty vault for the vietnam unknown so they are separated but they were are within the vicinity of that area which everyone is familiar with so they are all guarded by the sentinelsar and that matters between the below ground balls for the world war two korean war unknowns and the gallery, the public gallery for people can pay their respects when they visit arlington national cemetery. >> here's an interesting question, they had such creative questions so do youat have any information about why the catapult was used instead of a higher area because it has religious overturns and another
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secular term. >> absolutely and it what i learned over my years working on a scholarship the u.s. capitol historical society is that there frequently this incredible questions fromio our audience bt i have to say that i actually do not know the answer to that but it is fascinating. i imagine that the historical study, we do want to make sure you get accurate information as possible and the term was selected to, during lincoln's lying in state and the processes and everyone since selected stock even when they created a second one especially when they created the second one, the exact replica and i don't know the reason that it was that term was selected at the time but
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that is an excellent question. >> and given the time, we have the answers but here is a question it, do you know the selection process for choosing the unknown soldier like how do they determine that the soldier was totally unknown. did it check the dog tags or the thregistrar, how did that come o be. >> that is a great question and i'm glad i have some of my research knows here because i believe i havee the exact answer in just a moment but i can tell you these initial part of the question, whether someone was truly unknown was it could be assumed that if they could not identify the remains of the
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fallen soldier, the battlefields, they were often times buried in large cup quite a mess great but they were buried has hunt known soldiers and there were many of them, the number of mentioned earlier, there are 2000 unknown in the civil war and by the time you that you get to the first world war, there were, i think the number that 1400 hamilton fish mention was 1700 unknown deceased from the american service members then fighting the first world more so in terms of whether they were identified unknown, was really pretty much whether they could determine
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when they fell in battle who they were. and that is where the technology of our timeon the revolution of technology for identification and has really improved the way we can pay tribute more specifically which you know you identify people like the vietnam unknown, the dna technology at this point has you know, we hope that is known and is enabled us to identify those who have given their lives and then in terms of the actual selection, i can tell you that world war i unknowns, i said, they gathered the unknown known military personnel from different military cemeteries that was set up in france and they brought them to apologize,
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it to the any of the printed speaking listeners here, in the champagne region of france where they prepared the city hall of the selection and in 1921, major robert, aided by french american soldiers rearranged campus so we can rest on the later one that had arrived at arlington national cemetery. they have prepared wonderful resources for the cemetery of the tomb of the unknown soldier. and it is a wealth of creation of and this is of importance to you. so they arrange it so that the selector could not determine it. which battlefield that the soldier had fallen from each of
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the four and then another who had served in thehe second battalion and courtney's, 50th infantry, in germany and they received high military honors was called upon to select the se final unknown and he did so by placing a bouquet of white roses on one of the four caskets and then the ceremony took place for the world war ii unknown actually not to get too far off topic for the question but world war ii was such a global war that there was effort to make sure that this unknown soldier could represent all of the unknown soldiers whether they were inno europe, africa, pacif, so they actually carried out a similar concept where they gathered o it a group of unknows from each theater and made an
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anonymous selection and then they repeating the process and then finally, one unknown each from the european theater in the pacific theater, the atlantic and pacific were placed on board the naval vessel off the coast of virginia and they were, the selector did not know which was from which the attorney place of bouquet of red and white roses on the selection of the conference so it really is fascinating and somber process that they were through and for the first world war, in the second world war and likewise convey had a similar process in place. so that is a bit about the selection and that isse a great question as well and i saw and i think it's all that other jeff i had better think that i saw questions putur into the hat ar,
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some of these answers about catapult and i know that they ask our listener, donna, if you can put that in for everyone, that would be helpful tool for people as we continue this discussion and by the way, there is a quarter mentioned earlier when introducing the legislation for the world war i, of the tomb of the unknown soldier, hamilton fish, and a beautiful explanation of wonkey thought this was important and he said it was to bring home the body of an unknown american warrior who himself represented created or place and the way of work and
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the soul of america and the supreme sacrifice for her heroic death and as we talk about public memory and public mourning, that was at the heart. >> now that we have much more sophisticated it of identification process, there is no unknown soldier beyond the vietnam war and that is actually empty vessel, is that correct. >> that is correct and it will remain the case and again, we hope that of the fallen but that that dna in the identification of technology has reached a point where you know, we can identify those who give their
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lives in that last devotion and so their families could have closure they could be repatriation and that their families have a place to pay tribute in a very personal way. the tomb of the unknown soldier is a beautiful memorial and an important way that anyone who lost someone can pay tribute through the channel of the unknown but you know i think that it is to say to be able to identify people so that they can have a more personal tribute is better. we are fortunate and something to be said for the ability of medical care and is incredible that medicines in the 21st century that was not available in the earlier conflicts.
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so combination of factors, i think that is going to be nearly certain that there won't be a unknown and we can certainly hope that is the case. >> how can you be certain it that they are truly are an american, not an enemy or an camerican ally. >> that is an excellent question and i think that a lot of that has to do with how they were initially than identified as to an american soldier or an enemy soldier. when not necessarily identified as an individual person so again, this is another area where i can draw some inference and i don't have a definitive
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answer necessarily on these specific unknowns but seems reasonable that when they were initially inferred because all of these unknowns, they were not taken straight from the battlefield to washington. they were unknown soldiers and americans cemeteries in these foreign theaters and the conversations, when she served on the battle lines, these overseas cemeteries for american service members during the battle and so again, with his inference, i can say that i need to you pretty readily what or whether somebody was an american servicemember or an enemy servicemember in these conflicts however they were initially inferred closer to the battlefield.
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actually, that's an interesting point, the tomb of the unknown r that i mentioned, is a mix of indian and confederate unknowns that they had to that point, they had difficulty identifying and arlington whether they had been in other parts of the cemetery or the area that they had difficulty identifying them when they were or had they been confederate or union, so the unknown tomb at arlington is a mix and it's a knowledge of mix. >> tell us, was their opposition in congress and to the creation.
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>> something seems certain in this life and friction in congress, seems to be one of them but to the best of my recollection, for the research of this was pretty widely held and through all four of these initial interments, there was pretty bipartisan white support for this historical memorial so that, i don't think it was uphill battle for congress in the 1919 and 1920s and a couple of points, and jumped back your little bit but what we are saying from a couple of folks in the chat section, similar too the point that the uniform they are wearing her where they were buried can help
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draw the thinking that these are in fact american service members that those initial sort of triage implications that this is an american service member and put them intome an american cemetery but they were not able to identify the presence of thank you to those folks in the chat section i know we have more questions. >> here's another question, someone asked about those who were registered, that will give you an e-mail will give you a link to the recording so if you want to share this with your friends and neighbors, you can do that and you should know that serving from 99 - 2001, a very special thanks because it was precious time in his life. >> god love you and thank you for your service and it is really you know, i can speak on
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behalf of the society, it is been an honor for us to play a small part of this commemoration that this is an important anniversary and like we talked about our mission is to inspire and inform patriotism as part of that is recognizing the sacrifices and being able for us to have this constitutional democracy and that telling the story of the democracy, the united states capitol is a story of sacrifices made for the preservation of of our democracy so it is been an honor working on this, absolutely. >> so there's a question, you show the picture of the monument, how is the monument it shows that it and how were these chosen, what is a history of the monument and that area around
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the area. >> so let's see, i have - let's see here. so i will pull this up, i'll bring this backup give me a moment so i believe the question is about the actual monument. i know the figures facing towards us in this image of, there are six briefs, of the major battlefields of the first world war, there's a quote facing towards the theater the
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garden of the tomb, the beautiful quote one of our listeners was able to write into us because again, it was too good of a quote to get it wrong so let's see here. specific information for you guys about the quick brief on that and again for the honor guard to the tomb of the unknown soldier in the arlington national cemetery, really outstanding resources to talk about this and anniversary in the history of the tomb. i do know that the memorial was carved by. >> i apologize, you can hear this onvi the call, but some of
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the carvings i believe was from the memorial and elsewhere in washington they worked on the this monument for the tomb of the unknown soldier. so is steeped in washington dc history. >> one of the other things that i think we should talk about as we come to the end of our time together is the first approach, he was very interested in and encouraging people of the tomb of the unknown soldier in their own communities on veterans day coming up in november because while there is not a tomb of the unknown soldier in every community, there are people who served in the military and people who lost loved ones across the nation and so, that
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is one saying that the tomb in society has resources that we can include in the follow-up information of the ideas about how we celebrate you know veeverybody. [inaudible]. and including you can do this on the phone and everybody, the amazing thing is that now you don't need a church bell, you have church bells on your phone in a variety, the creativity of the american spirit as we move forward. okay go ahead. >> and to the point, they have a whole list of centennial project that they're promoting and working with people to plant these never forget gardens which representation of the tomb, and
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that american soldier, the tribute that we may never forget those who made the ultimate sacrifice and working on the national salute contract and so all of that is to your point, on the tomb guard .org website and we will have that link. >> and people are shouting out in the q&a, one thing is that 41 - society will be going to france on october 18, to be part of france's recreation of the world war i collection on this and the question that came through is the tomb of the
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unknown soldier, the. for in the national life and visited much by foreign dignitaries were asked arlington it tomb of the unknown soldier is often visited by the foreign dignitaries and you have insight on how the two has become a such a big part of global diplomacy. >> that is a fascinating question and this is one of those other areas where i need to be careful historian i will say that i do not have a specific answer to but i can infer that the british tomb of the unknown soldier is in westminster a abby in a space fr other purposes, and the here at the national cemetery more of a
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public, the whole purpose of national cemetery is being are paying tributetr to those who he made the ultimate sacrifice to our nation it but in terms of how would become such a force for globally, it is, will this a fascinating question, geopolitical question and foreign-policy question and absolutely, the question is absolutelyat accurate and pointg out that it is why you can go to the arlington national cemetery they have a page that you can find a gallery, and images, going back several years of every world leader that is come to visit washington the lady reese that the tomb of the unknown soldier and perhaps part of the answer is that we have a
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process available please world leaders to pay tribute to and i think asha well as during the first interment of the of the world war i unknown, that was decorated by a great number of the allegations and they sent dignitaries to award some of the military highest honors to the world war one unknown as part of the sermon so perhaps a little bit of interest but perhaps part of the impact of the importance of the tomb of the unknown soldier is that there was already some global interest in appreciation of that respect for what we are doing here with our world war one time and and i will reach it briefly, for
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correction that the never forget garden placket, it's east of the of tomb for anybody looking for that and you can find more information that on tomb guard .org website. >> and the other thing while several people are commenting that there also may be that the united states played a critical role in formalizing both of the world wars and created united states is at world where power therefore the tomb of the unknown soldier is a component of that in many european nations and beyond, as tomb of the unknown soldier the soviets has a tomb of the unknown soldier but this is ours and we are talking about an hours and also, james livingston, who pointed out the 11 made up of seven
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pieces, from marble from colorado and the sculptor was jones and then the architect, nor more rich braided and we are veryav interested in the folks o have really great resources. we are just about at the close of our time and so would you like to kind of give people a charge as we move forward and it was nice to see people not just take this as being interesting but this is something that we would like you y to take action and find a way in your own community to plant a garden to do a commemoration, this tomb of
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the unknown soldier, this is just one way that we recognize the people who served in the military and the families serving inil the military in the past and even today so samuel holliday, give m us our charge s we move forward. >> absolutely, that is very well put jane and i think what i would say is our role as mentioned earlier is the pay tribute of civic engagement in partf that, there are a lot of ways that people engage in our democracy is aem participatory port but the important piece of that and always need to be present is respect andnd appreciation for the sacrifices that were made to give us this assistance and that here we are in 2021, then we have this
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absolute privilege to live and exist and work and support this democracyha and we have that because people have made the ultimate sacrifice and time again and so i think that our charge to ourselves and to those of you who are quite a is sometimes, but his 100th anniversary of the tomb of the unknown soldier, thinkol about w sin makes an engagement and the participating in the democracy canin be brought about in a way that pays tribute here to those sacrifices made and is incredibly important that it is part of our duty, and our obligation as citizens to be part of making sure that these sacrifices are not forgotten and that we live up to the promise of our democracy and we have not always as a nation lived up to
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the promise of our failings in the promise of our identity but we always drive to making that commitment to pay tribute and to remember to appreciate. >> thank you samuel holliday for your words and scholarship we appreciate this today. >> to world war i historians joined us in the 1921, silent film of the journey of the remains of an unknown american world war one soldier from france to arlington national cemetery. >> how to this whole concept of the un- known soldier be honored come. >> literally goes back to the beginning of the recognition of war so you see the expressive a lot more about a and identifiable amazed that people really work unsettled with the fact that they could not know
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who these casualties were so great britain and france in 1920, unknown soldier in each of the countries in great britain, the west minister abby in france, in paris, so the u.s. decided to do something similar to that, so representative hamilton fish of new york legislation to bury the unknown soldier from the u.s. >> and that was carried down the steps of the united states capitol and assessing the modern americans are familiar with this ceremonies in our time and put on the, and it will make its way over to the streets of washington over to arlington cemetery and let's watch for just a minute. [background sounds]. [background sounds].
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[background sounds]. >> you see the larger part over that which is not yet constructed at this moment. >> there is a final shot from the arlington national cemetery and watch as we see it today with many of the white headstones grace of the fallen. >> i think it's important to pause for a moment and think about what the unknown soldier had at this time and it was also thought to be a memorial that could keep connect all of the different american conflict that could stretch beyond world war i and all of those who served in our nations armed forces that continues very strongly until
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