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tv   Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Centennial  CSPAN  December 25, 2021 10:00pm-11:01pm EST

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footage of gerald ford playing high school football. just a minute, you will see number 23 coming in from the right hand side. slow it down and there he is, junior ford, number 23. >> watch the full program and other presidency programs on our website, c-span.org. .. your program right c-span.org/history. >> today we're going to talk about the tomb of the unknown soldier. this is the >> and this is the 100th anniversary of a the truman of e tomb of the unknown soldier in the capitol and talking about that and given a little perspective, you see how the organizer of this event let me
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give you a background and he earned his masters in public policy and a bachelors in art and in the college and joining the in june of 2016, and is held various serving as a tour guide, speaker, communications professional and working with retail and working with program management and working with the basic administration of the organization pretty before he came to the historical society, he worked as a free lance scheduler and an abstractor and commercial property manager sela fascinating background and real passion for history and so it is my privilege to welcome you and welcome our speaker today, samuel holliday. >> thank you so much for that
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kind and warm introduction and is truly a joy to work with you and it is our mission to inspire patriotism which is really i think a beautiful way of capturing what it is we do here and so that being said, i am samuel holliday, and this discussion today, who want to the stage a a little bit in a firste explaining why we are giving this talk and of course is, an important anniversary, te 100th anniversary of the creation of that tomb of the unknown soldier and the first world war unknown and there is history but also a little bit of personal society history that goes into how we got involved in this commemoration it in the centennial predict so start the program maybe recognize that david mccullough the way an award-winning historian it and this was taken in the award in 2016, and the highest honor and
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it some of you in the call, it's important to know that the other people pictured here, no some of the finest people to have walked the earth and lsu will see dorothy, a great great friend of the society because in part, her father, the late thomas found h, 59 years ago this year. and on the right, you will see the wonderful colonel, who served for an extended period as the treasurer of this organization it and for today's conversation, the col. served as the honor guard for tomb of the unknown soldier and if you look closely, if you look closely, the pin on his lapel is a representation of the badge, and part of his identity that he helped found this organization focused on the tomb of the unknown soldier and guarded in
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the society of the undercard of the tomb of the unknown soldier and we will talk more about that in a little bit and because we have this sort of society family connection, this is particularly meaningful to talk about the history and to talk about this past history for the tomb of the unknown soldier. let me go ahead and there we go so oakmont to take a step back and talk about how the council plays a rolei in our understanding of the t public right and memory and the earliest design for the capitol building there was this picture here, the proved at the capitol designed to house the tumor for george washington and forced many of you who have taken a capitol to work or listen some of our webinars, and for george washington but this conception this was a place of somber reflection it and the lessons that we can learn from george washington it and i think it's an important way a to understand as was mentioned, the temple of
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democracy that not only is is a place where we sent the laws for herself we tell ourselves ase a people but also a place where we celebrate the best we have to offer and to mourn ones we've lost and congressional gold medals in the state ceremonies will take place at the capitol rotunda. in his picture here in this image so as we push forward it's important to think that this is where our country comes together to celebrate than to mourn those great figures who we have lost. one of the ways that i just mentioned that we have paying tribute to these leading figures and important people in our nations history is through lying in state ceremony, is a somber occasion as part of the official state funeral in which the casket of the deceased is placed upon a cannibal structure which we will talk more about in this program and it people, the public are allowed it to in and pay their respects and you see the rotunda and is a very
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powerful and somber occasion it if you're ever in washington, there are few and far removed it but itew is typically open to te public and it is a really powerful way to participate by paying tribute atpa the funeral. henry clay was the first person to lay in state in 1852 when he passed away and this is a very rare honor, only 35 people in our nations history have lain in state totalgh through today and linkedin, have laden state before the world war unknown, henry clay in 1952, abraham lincoln in 1855, thaddeus stevens in 1858, charles sumner in 1974, vice president henry wilson in 1875, president james -ja actual from laying in state ceremony 1981 and senator john
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in 1886, president william - in i1901, peter charles, the designer for the city of washington, laid in state whenn he was interpreted at the arlington national cemetery on his way to that reinterment they caused aer deposit so that he could receive state owners in the capitol building it and they are paying tribute to a figure who had time to fall into obscurity and an impoverished grave and then it into world war i in this admirably, george dewey, was lying in state in 1917 before we get to the world war i unknowns of 1921. congress is also played a role in supporting the memory and the preservation of the tribute to those who have made the ultimate sacrifice, the last interment of
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devotion to our country in 1862, they passed the act which included and provisioned here from the national archives, transcription that provided the program the authority to acquire land and to create national cemeteries for those who gave that measure of devotion and died to service of the country and ever since, the congress has been involved in preserving the memory and the supporting roles who have lost loved ones in wars and now pushed forward, we start to talk about after the civil war, and it should mention before we get into that that there are actually significant number ofre another unknowns buried in arlington from the civil war, more than 2000 remains are in a large memorial and we can get into that a little bit later c but you get o
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the french american war, the farthest locations of the civil war in the next american war, the revolutionary war and the war of 1812, and you have a policy enacted, bringing back the remains of the deceased service members who died fighting in the spanish-american war and bringing them back to the continental united states to be buried closer to home in the conflict did not last quite as long and it had significantly fewer casually thanal from the first world war which plays into some of the decision-making about how to deal with the pay creationat and how the importane i should say of the tomb of the unknown soldier but before we get to that i will mention that in 1913, congress approved and authorized spending for the government creating memorial amphitheater, arlington national cemetery at this point cemetery had been used in the civil war the recognize the need for a
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larger more somber to accommodate the visitors who were there to pay tribute to their deceased loved ones and so again they appropriated the funds in the authorized the spending to create this new empathy has dark and were able to make this investment in arlington national cemetery as the nation's premier cemetery, premier place pay the special tribute. after the first world war, get a congressman from new york, the fish family was very prominent in new york politics going back to a family and a wholly-owned male era and his father was a secretary of state, his grandfather was too general and of new york thought and revolution and so he thought in his first world war highly decorated and one silver star
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and retired out as major the u.s. army in his picture here on the left in his uniform with one of the lt. generals commanded them duringhe the war and then s a republican from new york to congress on the election and served there for 25 years. and he was really the driving force for the creation of the tomb of the unknown soldier and he was a major advocate on capitol hill ande the concept of a tomb of the unknown soldier was one that put to good use and was demonstrated by france in the united kingdom after the first world war and this was a tremendously costly war, this was a devastating war in terms of casualties and terms of what was lost and the concerns and the conclusion of the war that the retrieval of some of these battlefield could be fought with peril and there were potentially
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some of these weapons or chemical weapons used during the first moral underworld work and significant risk of present united kingdom actually had to restrict and try to restrict how many of their soldiers lost during the war had been brought the cemeteries at home and so there is under this country is opting to pursue the creation of a tomb of the unknown soldier in respect to the capitol and west missed minister abby, in paris, they were in turn with great sublimity and purpose and known soldiers so that the people of those perspective countries united kingdom and france could have a place to go and pay tribute to the ones they did not bring home to the families. and to serve as immigrant personal tribute for those who might want to pay their respects and soap the success in the
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importance of the memorial in the u.s. was still undertaking repatriating and re- appreciation, that resulted from the first world war and so again the offered legislation to tcreate this tomb of the unknon soldier and place it onto the national cemetery here just across the river from our capitol city as a monument for the nation tomorrow those lost whether they came home or not. so cemented there were great number of an notice soldiers who were parish by the end of the first world war this process was actually fascinating and i should mention i gathered from several different major battle fields and different unknown soldiers who fought a battle and they brought them to a small town in the champagne region of france where one of the highest
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decorated soldiers of the war, made the final selection of the anonymous coffins to be the and known soldier to be left in our internal memory and glory as a symbol and abl tangible representation of all of those other unknowns in all those others who were in service reservation from the families loved ones.. now the end known soldier of world war i brought here in southeast washington dc and he was brought to shore from the mu.s. olympia which you see a significant battle and more valiantly during the course ofly the first world war and really back from françoise hardly a smooth passage and in fact is a road through there are reports that the swelling and they were
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wstrong and the marines regardg the casket which had been washed to the deck of the olympia and was given the option to retreat below decks and refuse and said they couldn't maintain their wash through these challenging circumstances and pay the sign c on her do that heart attributed to an unknown soldier representative by so many others who were given that last measure of devotion. these navy yards and then proceeded out to the capitol building is we've been discussing in the state ceremony is a somber and high honor to be paid to someone and playing in state of the unknown and world war i it and what we see here we mentioned it briefly theee catapult, highlighted here in my cursor the catapult in which the world war one resting this image, and the it was used for abraham lincoln and every lying
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in state ceremony since has used the lincoln catapult which remains in possession of that capitol and partners and preserve it and display it when this is a reopen us, is on display in their exhibition hall when needed in which case they remove it had to make sure that it is ready for further service to our country and supporting those who have paid tribute to. and the lying in state we may proceed for the internment on november 11, 1921, the casket by horseback and they have the state funeral ceremony and that reconstructed amphitheater which had been decently completed at this point and is presided over by harding in the internment is
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made on just the other side of the amphitheater here in newly created tomb of the unknown soldier and you can see this is just a small snapshot of the thousands upon thousands of americans who came to pay tribute and again this one person representing so many more, and the panels through which they could participate inn public it morning and memory pretty and congress involvement in the tomb of the unknown soldier and how we pay tribute to those but it did not and it with the first world war and the internment have the first unknown,n, in 1926, congress appropriated the funds authorized the spending to increase and improve the tomb of the unknown soldier to enhance the tomb of the unknown soldier by adding this large money must on top but if you look, and i say briefly this initial to was actually at grade and same level and they had this structure
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above and the words, here in this grave, i don't want to but through this, this is a beautiful and powerful sand, so we'll get to that later and you the structure printed on top of the existing tomb, to create that much more space and more somber of a space to remind people that this is a place of great place and we all know that there were combats after the first world war has been named the first world war and after the conclusion of the second world war, the communist past what is now law and 39 - 49, authorizing the internment of a world war ii tomb of the unknown soldier in or at the tomb of the
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unknown soldier and they were in the process of preparing this election and the transport back to the united states and there washe repatriation for its in te suspended that operationn after the korean war broke out and then when it concluded the congress passed a new law public 975, it authorized the selection and internment of the korean war of tomb off the unknown soldier and around tomb of the unknown soldier, in arlington national cemetery. they continue to view this as a way for the nation to pay tribute and to all of the sauce, whether they were repatriation are not in the place with a country becomes together here lying in state for both the world war ii and corian work tomb of the unknown soldier, soldiers in the capitol building and you will note that they are
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side-by-side in the rotunda and as we mentioned everyone, that lincoln catapult which you can see in greater detail here this is a picture but yet the congress on capitol institution decided to facilitate this dual ceremony joy ceremony and to create a replica and the second catapult that couldha be used multiple caskets are needed and so side-by-side you havede the lincoln catapult the second catapult they actually during the course of the lincoln state rotated the caskets of the world war two and korean war unknown so at some point during the ceremony both rested on the link in the catapult as part of this great tribute and they were than carried with great honor and somber spirit, to the arlington
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national cemetery for internment in front of the plaza from the main that we were showing you a moment ago. in 1973, by the selection of an internment of tomb of the unknown soldier of the vietnam war and there was actually display, some skepticism that the unknown, that there would be unknowns as we into the identifying, by that dog tags and they hade been more reliable and then used to identify the remains of whether there will be unknown by the 1980s, the unknown soldier has been specified or i should say they have been selected that comes up later in just a moment. in brief note, hamilton, and
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some from rep. hamilton fish, iii the third who we spoke about earlier and then rep. hamilton fish, iv, earlier they introduced a resolution to select an unknown soldier from a viet known for at the tomb of the unknown soldier but hisis resolution got sold into the larger package which was passed later. and i mentioned and i'm getting ahead of myself, the unknown soldier of vietnam was actually successfully identified and if so, there was some thought has people were working through the challenges of missing in action and following the printed non- war, and the airports.
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[inaudible]. and came to believe that he might've been the vietnam war on known and so the department of defense agreed to exhume the vietnam unknown work soldier and to update testing which confirmed that affect the vietnam war unknown was lt. michael so at the request of his family, his remains were removed it closer to home to the jefferson national cemetery in st. louis, missouri. and that happened in 1998 and then in 1999, is constitution day and more clearly for this purpose, prisoner of war missing recognition day which the department of defense re- designated the vietnam war to the tomb of the unknown soldier for all of the missing service members who never made it home. so in a similar away, in a different george washington is a permanent tribute to those lost even though there's none
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directly to that stone. so as we get to a point here, i want to mention that we are part of a bigger quilt of recognitions and commemorations a bigger coalition of commemorations i should say, all of this important centennial. the society of the honor guard and founded tomb of the unknown soldier in part by the late and they have done some fantastic work organizing and then really wonderful research and there is a very concise and important history of the tomb in the tomb guarded and frequently asked questions and we can work on some of those as a people start to submit questions and the president of that organization, a wonderful fellow that has been
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very helpful as we participated in try to help as they organize thiss commemoration. and the research as one of our history and turns ethan fine so that concludes my brief interview of the history of the tomb of the unknown soldier. and congressional history and w now i will, any questions you may have, screen chair will be stopped and then we will go through the questions. >> a question to you, one of our listeners, she's asked in honor of an american soldier, known to god. [inaudible]. and now i have a question on, do the unknown soldiers remains or they live together or are the
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repurpose when there's a removal and what happens. >> that is a good question and i realized that i should've included a diagram for an aerial view to illustrate this but it might be able to pointed out, i included in the presentation but they are not on top of each other, not all in the same plot that make sense, there is the world war i unknowns, and then to the east, make sure you my geography rightur here, we decid to tomb, below grade level from the plaza are the world war ii and korean war unknowns in the fault or the vietnam unknown so there are separated it but are in the same vicinity as the larger area were everybody is
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familiar with and they are all there. and there are the sentinels and it is between the belowground pulse for the world war ii korean war unknowns and the gallery, the public gallery from where people can pay their respects with a visit arlington national cemetery. >> here is an interesting question, created question so do you have any information about why they were used instead of beer. because, the towns where beer is more - at the tavern. >> absolutely, and thatt is one it that over my years working it in a scholarship at the u.s. capitol the historical society is there frequently elections
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from our audience questions thao i have to say that i actually do not know the answer to that but it is a fascinating one. i imagine, at the historical society weri want to make sure e give you a factual has a responsible and imagine the terminal was selected during a lincoln's lying in state and the processes of the commemoration because everyone has used the sense and the term whether it was selected stock even when they created it specially second one of the exact replica that i don't know the reason and that it was when term was selected at the time but that is an excellent question and gosh, - >> one all of you to know that given time, that we don't always
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know the answer but here's a question, do you know the selection process for choosing the unknown soldier like out of they determined that the soldier was totally unknown. because of the register of the dog tags and how did that come to be. >> true, well that is a great question and i want to print out some of my g notes here becausei give you the exact answer in just a moment but i can tell you that the initial part of the question, whether someone was o truly unknown was had to be assumed, that they could not identify the remains of the fallen soldier on the battlefields, they were often times buried in large maybe not quite mass graves but they were buried as unknown soldiers there
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were many many of them in the number that i mentioned earlier, at just at arlington, there are over 2000 unknowns from the civil war and by the time that you get to the first world war, there were again i think that the number that rep. hamilton fish said was 15000 unknown disease from american service members fighting in the first world war so in terms of whether they were unidentified or unknown, that was really, pretty much whether they could determine when they fail in the battle and who they were. that is where the technology of our time is really, the evolution of technology has
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really improved the way we can pay tribute more specifically we can identify people like a senate vietnam unknowns in the dna technology which at this point has while we hope that is known pretty but is enabled as to identify those unknowns and n terms of the actual selection, i can tell you that world war i unknowns, like i said, they gathered the on known military personnel from different military cemeteries that have been set up in france and brought them to apologize, french speaking listeners here, in the champagne region of france where they prepared the whole of the towns of the
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selections and in 1921, a major of court aided by french american soldiers rearranged so that each rested on a shipping case upon it had arrived i should also mention arlington national cemetery has been married some wonderful resources for the centennial of the tomb of the unknown soldier as well and the website is arlington cemetery . mail and is a wealth of information if this is of importance to you. and a t selector could not determine if which battlefield a soldier hadch fallen in from eah of the four unknowns gathered. and another who had served, 50th infantry, and germany and received high military honors
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was called upon to select the final unknown to make the voyage to washington and he did so by placing a detailed white roses on one of the four caskets in a similar ceremony took place for world war two unknown, not to get too far off topic for the question but world war ii was such a global war that there was some effort to make sure that this unknown soldier could represent all of the unknown soldiers whether they work in africa or the pacific, actually carried out a similar process for the gathered a group of unknowns from each theater and it made an anonymous selection and then they kept repeating the process until finally the one
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unknown from the european theater and the pacific theater in the atlantic and pacific place on board at the naval vessel just offff of the coast f virginia. and once they were on the boat, the selector did not know who was from which theater and he put roses on the ultimate selection so it is really fascinating and also very somber process that they went through printed for pretty in the korean war, they had it similar top prices and that is a great quesd i think i saw that some questions put into the hat area and some of the answers about the university of the catapult so i know they just asked that and
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perhaps the listener donna, if you could put that in the chat for everyone i think that would be helpful tool for people so we can continue the discussion and by the way, i meant to mention earlier before we jumped to the next question, when introducing legislation for the world war i, and really for the tomb of the unknown soldier, hamilton fish, had aor really beautiful explanation of why he thought this was important and he said the legislation was to bring on the body of an unknown american warrior, who in himself represents and creates and moreover, in america and supreme sacrifice. so as we talk about those memories in public and mornings that was part of the legislation to help.
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>> so we have much more sophisticated identification process and there is no unknown soldier beyond the vietnam war that is actually empty vessel. is that correct. >> that is correct, that is correct and it remains the case and you hope that not the fallen in service of our country but some small solace that dna technology in identifying the technology has reached a point where we can identify those who give the last measure devotions of the family has closure so they can be re- pretreated to work in pain and their families have a place pay tribute to and
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in a very personal way so that tomb of the unknown soldier the memorial and an important way that anyone who lost someone could go pay tribute through the channel of the unknown. i think it is reasonable to say to be able to identify people so that they have a more personal tribute is better. we are fortunate in that is something to be said for the ability of the medical care and this incredible things with the medicines in the 21st century there were not available in those earlier conflicts. so through a t combination of factors, it is thought to be fairly certain that there won't be a future on the phone can
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certainly hope that is the case. >> sam, how can you be certain it that's truly are american not enemy or an american ally. >> that is naturally a good question and does a lot of how they were initially you know, identified as an american soldier or enemy soldier but not necessarily identified as an individual person so you know, this is one of the areas where i can drawn interest but i don't have a definitive answer necessarily on these specific things but seems reasonable that when they were initially because all of these unknowns, they were
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not taken straight from the battlefield to washington they were looked as unknown soldiers in this american cemeteries in these foreign theaters and the recent conversation, when she served on the battle, oversee cemeteries work american service members during the battle. with a i careful lens of inference, i can say that it's likely they work tell me readily whether somebody was an american servicemember or enemy service member during these conflict when they were initially but in closer to the battlefield but that's not excellent question and an interesting point, that tomb and memorial that a mention about the civil war, is a mix of
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indian and confederate unknowns and they had difficult up to that point that they had difficulty identifying by the time they moved them to arlington, if they had to been in other parts of the country pfor the area they had identifying difficulties whether they had been confederate reunion. so the civil war unknowns at the tomb in arlington is it technology mix. >> telus was there any opposition in congress. >> and to the creation of. [inaudible]. >> it seems like there are something certain in life, attrition and congress seems tos be one of them but to the best
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of my recollection through the research on this was pretty widely held. and of the initial interments, there was bipartisan wide support for this sort of memorial. put it this way, i don't think it was an appeal battle for the congress in 1920s in a couple 92of points, sorry i'm coming bk i see a couple of things in the chat session, similar to the point that uniforms are wearing where they were buried can help draw the thinking that if they were the americans service members, there's an initialem st about triage identification but
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this is an american servicemember but they were not able to identify the person so think you for the couple of folks who put that in the chat session and i know we have more questions. >> there's another question, and asking about the - everyone registered will get an e-mail that will give you a copy of the recording so if you want to share this with your friends and your neighbors, happy to do that, you should know sam, two guys served from 29 - 2001, want to share a very special thanks because it was a very precious time in his life. >> god love you think you for your service and it is really special and i can say on behalf of the society it is an honor for us to in this commemoration, this is an important anniversary in our mission is to form
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patriotism and part of that is recognizing the sacrifices and were able to have this constitutional democracy and that telling the story ofuty the temple of democracy, the united six k-uppercase-letter is a story of sacrifices made it for generations and the preservation it of our democracy so it has been an honor to work on this absolutely. >> he showed a picture of the monument itself, how is the monument shown senate and how is a sculpture chosen it on what is the history of the monument and area around the tomb of the unknown soldier. >> let's see what i have in my note.
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so i will pull up the, just a moment, i believe the question is about the actual monument and i know the figures facing towards us in this mhr ballard there are six previous representing the world war unknowns, six major battlefield of the first world war and one is facing towards amphitheater and also guarding the tomb. member listeners was able to write into us because again, it's too good of the quote to get wrong so, specific
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information to you guys, about the - that is a quick read, the siding from the honor guard at arlington national soldier for tomb of the unknown soldier, really outstanding resources to talk about this and the anniversary in the history of the tomb. i do know in his car, that the memorial artists by the speakers on the call today but for those did some of the call and work i believe at the lincoln memorial elsewhere in monument to monument in washington, the work on this monument for the tomb of the unknown soldier. so it is steeped in washington
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history as well. >> we have come to the end of our time together is given the first approach, or the things that he was very interested in encouraging people to celebrate the tomb of the unknown soldier in their own communities on this veterans day coming up in november. because while there is no tomb of the unknown soldier in every community, there are people who served in the military and people who lost loved ones across the nation and so, that is something that society had a set of resources that we can record in the fall with ideas
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about how we celebrate. everybody wants to give banks including that you can do things on your own and everybody, the amazing sin under thing is that you can have a variety of the creativity of the american spirit as we move forward. >> yes, and to the point, and a whole list of centennial project they are promoting and working with people to never forget gardens with a representation of the tomb and surviving honors in the american soldier an attribute that we may never forget and those never forget those who made an ultimate
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sacrifice, you said there working on the national salutel contract and so, all of that is on to your point, it is on the tomb .org website that we will share the follow-up. >> there are a couple of questions, people are in the chat in the q&a and 41 members in society will be going to france in october 18, to be part of three creation it in the world war i selection in france. on the question that came through is there are too many unknown soldiers and is very important in this national life, not really visited much, where tomb of the unknown soldier was
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often visited and often by dignitaries y and deal of insigt into how the tomb has become such a big part of global diplomacy. >> that is a fascinating question and this is one of those other areas where open be careful historian, i don't have a specific answer to it but i can assure that with the british tomb of the unknown soldiers, and westminster abby, still functional space for other purposes and the course the artist here in arlington national cemetery which is more of a public of the whole purpose of national cemeteries paying tribute to those of made the ultimate sacrifice for our nation.
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but for global diplomacy, is a fascinating russian. as a geopolitical question, it is a foreign policy question but the question is absolutely asked him pointing out that you can go to the arlington national cemetery they n have a page that you can find a gallery and a house full of images going back many years, in a world leader that is come to washington laid a wreath at the tomb of the unknown soldier and perhaps part of the answer is that we have a process available for these world leaders to pay tribute. and during that person tournament of the world war i,
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the unknown from world war one was decorated by a great number of nations i sent dignitaries to award some of their military highest honors to the world war one andwn note part of the services so perhaps a little bit of interest but perhaps for the importance of our tomb of the unknown soldier is that there was already some global interest and appreciation of and the respect for what we were doing here with our world war one and i will mention it briefly, never forget garden plaque, was the east part of the tomb that is a correction for anybody looking to plant their, you can find more information aboutat them at
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tomb .org website. >> several people are commenting tthat also maybe that the united states played at critical role in finalizing both ofot the word wars which then created the united states as a world military power and therefore the tomb of the unknown soldier is a component of that and many european nations, the soviets haven't tomb of the unknown soldier but this is ours and we are talking about hours and we also james livingston who note that the tomb is made up of seven pieces, and marble, in colorado, and also with hudson jones and the architect and more
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more rich, we are very interested in our folks who really have great resources we're just about at the close of her time so would you like to have a charge as we move forward. we would like people to say this is something very interesting but we would really like you to take action and find a way in their own communities to plant a garden, to do a commemoration of, this is 100 years of that tomb of the unknown soldier and is just one way that we recognize the people who served in the military, and their families, the loved ones serve in the military in the past and even today.
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so sam give us our charge as we move forward. >> absolutely and i think that what i would say is our role in the mentioned earlier, is to pay patriotism at and part of our hecivic engagement, there are a lot of ways in which people engage in our democracy, is a participatory sport in our democracy and a lot of that is, while the important piece of that is respect and appreciation for the sacrifices that we made to give us this system and that we are in 2021, and we had this absolute privilege to live and exist and work and support this democracy we have that because people have made the ultimate sacrifice and give it to us
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these many generations fought so think that her charge to ourselves and those of you who are kind enoughre to spend time with us today is some time, on this 100th anniversary of the tomb of the unknown soldier, think about how sin makes an engagement and participating in our democracy can be without in a way that pays tribute here to the sacrifices made and it's important and part of our duty and our obligation as citizens to be part of making sure the sacrifices are not forgotten. and we live up to the promise of our democracy and would not always lived up toro the promise of our families and the promise of our identity but we always strive to do so that is making the commitment to pay tribute and to remember and you know to
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appreciate. >> will thank you sam your words and scholarship and we appreciate this in a different way today, samuel holliday. >> to world war i historians joins us from the 1921, silent film on the journey of the remains of unknown world war i soldier from france, to arlington national cemetery. >> and i said how did this whole concept of the unknown soldier come about. >> will really goes back to the recognization it of world war i and you can love more of unindicted fillable remains of course you have a lot more that people really were trouble with the fact that this were so great britain and france in 1920, married in unknown soldier in each of the countries in great britain it like the westminster abbey and in paris so the u.s.
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decided to do something and it started by a representative from representative hamilton fish of new york and legislation to bury an unknown soldier from the u.s. and is being carried it down the united states capitol steps at the scene that modern americans will the familiar with with this ceremonies in our time. and over through washington and through arlington cemetery, let's watch for just a minute. [background sounds]. [background sounds].
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>> so that is where today you see this larger area over that of which is not constructed at this moment. >> there's the final shots of arlington national cemetery much as we see it today with many light headstones marking the graves of the fallen. >> the capitol tonight,. >> i think it's important to pause for a moment about the meaning of the tomb of the unknown soldier at this time, it was also thought to be a memorial that could connect all of the americans and stretch beyond world war one and honor all of those who serve in our nation's armed forces and very strongly through to today. >> you are watching american history tv, exploring our nation's past. >> c-span's new video app and
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stay up-to-date with live video coverage of today's biggest events, lifestream house and senate floor and keep congressional hearings alike as he and supreme court oral arguments and even our live programs washington journal everyday cspan now has you covered and download the app for free today. >> we can since he spent two are an intellectual feast, every saturday american history tv documents america story and on sundays book tv brings you the latest nonfiction books and authors and funding for "c-span2" comes from these television companies and more including cox, it is committed to providing eligible families access to affordable internet through the connected programs and one connection and engagement at a time, cox, bringing us closer, cox, along
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with these television company supports "c-span2" is a public service. >> did you know that all of cspan's american history programs are available to watch online, go to cspan.org/history and type in your topic of interest in the search box and thousands of programs looking at the people in places that cheaper nation all available online at cspan.org/history. >> greetings everybody, this afternoon we are going to be starting our discussion of the great depression and what we will be doing today is talking about how the great depression affected ordinary people and we are going to talk about sort of the symbols of the situation and the things that people experienced in their everyday lives if they were seriously effective by the problems of the decade and

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