tv Susan Page Madam Speaker CSPAN December 20, 2021 3:01pm-4:02pm EST
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facebook comments, accent weeks. sunday january 2 noon eastern on in-depth on book tv. ♪♪ >> welcome to the institute of politics and global affairs at cornell and off of series nancy pelosi and the lessons of power written by susan page.ag we'll have a nice conversation with susan. and who will go to your own questions about 7:35 a.m. those of us with us this morning and for those of you unfamiliar, we a have one basic mission, to raise understanding on these issues in a bipartisan way. a little bitf of housekeeping if i may, may 12 at 7:00 o'clock, we are featuring a program on
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now to our guests this evening, the host of conversations and publishes newsletter, it is essential in understanding what's really going on. you can sign up online. this is technology, science, education, political conversations. we have a special guest this evening, susan page. she writes about politics in the white house, she's covid seven white house administrations, 11 elections, she's interviewed the past ten presidents and reported
from continent, i don't know where you went wrong on the seventh, i don't what happened, she moderated the vice presidential debate, kamala harris. before we get into the first question, it has been a personal privilege.al as many people know, i've shared campaign committees whether it was me or any other chair, that's regarded as nancy pelosi's chief political lieutenant and with that position comes a responsibility of getting to know her so a typical day, three years with nancy pelosi, five meetings, i thought i knew more about her than anybody else.
i'll be honest when i picked up the book, i was a little skeptical. what could i possibly learn from this book that i don't know having spent as much time as i did with her? i learned more about nancy pelosi from this book than i knew about her from interactions with her. so i cannot recommend this book, if you want to understand her strategic view tactical view, personal witness and relationships with she has with family, you must get this book. susan, thank you for joining us this evening. appreciate it. >> such a pleasure to be with you. t my husband is a proud graduate of cornell, so i am excited i am speaking with your institute.
i know the institute is doing great in value work. i appreciate your words about my book, i don't want to out my sources but i did have an excellent source. his name, initials were steve israel. some of credit goes to you so thank you. >> most member of congress read books back to front. you interviewed 150 people who spoke with nancy pelosi ten times including some of the most complex basis she had in leadership where research was so detailed youth found the house, nancy pelosi worked in 1963, pelosi was paid $106 a week, you
know nancy pelosi part of anyone else. here's my first question, with all the informationof, what knowledge should you have of nancy pelosi prior to the book that was most changed through the process? >> i'm not sure my view changed so much but one of the big surprises for me, it wasn't her father who was -- and many people i don't think realize this, mayor of baltimore, she was really born into political royalty, the mother, a woman way ahead of her time. nancy pelosi said if she was
born today, she would be president when she was smart and ambitious and restless. she was a big risk taker, she had a regular spot at pamlico, her husband and her would go to the restaurant and pay out the bookies. she was the keeper of the file which means exactly what it sounds like, the keeper of the constituents, they were paid on election day, she was so partisan, it sounds like a long story, i'll make it short. 1984 white house calls, the president's guess at this event,
he would think they would say yes. they said after all the things ronald reagan has done, don't let him come near us so there could so concerned, they call her son, former mayor to ask if his mother pose a physical threat to ronald reagan. her son are short that she was no physical threat, just a political one. that shows you the particle roots of nancy pelosi. >> triggered something from the book, you talk about nancy and her husband paul moved to san francisco, they cannot find an apartment, they are under tremendous pressure. they finally find a perfect apartment until they found out the landlord -- talk about that.
>> nobody wanted to rent to them. there was a swing set and it's in the right place and they are about to sign the lease and she said to the woman at the house, wise's house available?s she said my husband, hew and that's why removing to washington. nancy said i can't rent the house that was available because richard nixon. she wouldn't rent the house. she bought the house because of her cash at how strong her politics are. her father took her to election day as he often did in a poll worker tried to get this little girl a stuffed elephant as a twine and she wouldn't take it because even then she knew what elephant stood for.
>> thank you, stephen. you noted some would check themselves, i did notice at least one of the names, former representatives listening, a gentleman had his name checked in susan's book. susan, i usually write these conversations at the beginning, it is remarkable, and incredible young girl named nancy, it is a great tale but you've also written about power. everyone who wants to know about nancy pelosi remarks on her power, her use of power and
where does it come from? what is the essence of her power? you talk about her family but also could you talk about the different facets of it? the way you described the way she engaged with three different president, george w. bush, obama and fenn trump and the way she had different types of power with each of them, talk about nancy pelosi and power. >> i kept changing the title of the book, every title i had had the word power in it because one of the distinguishing things about nancy pelosi is house comfortable she is with power. she has no. qualms about power. it's a trait among male politicians and even rare among
women in politics. amassing power, holding power. a longtime friend of ours, congressional correspondent about a decade ago he wrote a profile of pelosi described her as an iron fist in a gucci glove. i think that's justs about the perfect description of nancy pelosi use of power because she does have a gucci club glove. when she knew hard power, she had an iron fist and i found myself in the ninth interview i did with her, i asked her about something she didn't want me to put in the book she said he
shouldn't put this in the book and i said actually, i think it should be in the book for this reason and started to display the iron fist she didn't raise her voice and she didn't threaten me but she did somehow get bigger, she started about 5-foot five and by the end of the conversation, she was about 6-foot two. she asked probing questions that forced me to articulate and defend the position i was taking. at the end of the interview, i told her should be in the book and it is in the book but i was so fast is about 3:00 p.m. i drove home, i poured a glass of wine, crawled into bed and
watched roulette for a couple of hours until i felt a little better. i can onlytt imagine being a member of congress having an exchangech and much greater inpt than this one, nancy pelosi's iron fist. >> steve, how many glasses of wine did you have as a result of nancy pelosi's power? >> she will wear you down, that is one of her talent. she will stay with you as long as she needs to. susan, when you go to her office, there's a wonderful photograph of her father, eleanor roosevelt. talk about her relationship with her father, a powerbroker, street fighter mayor of baltimore but there's a quote in the book i'd like to share with you and get your perspective,
after she became the most powerful woman in thehe historyf the country, she said her children in shaping the leader she became and it was first my children, having children in six years and the difference in personalities is a real lesson. talk about the lessons she derived from her children. >> i know churn parents who have school-aged children who have kids now understand the skills you obtain money a household. she said being the mother in a house of five children required the same skills being speaker in the house trying to impose order and chaos, dealing with grievances, trying to convince people to stop doing what
they're doing and do what is it you want them to do, shifting alliances, five kids you can imagine 422 and sometimes your all and, very much like congress. it's an argument as you know when you are recruiting candidates when you t are head f that seat, this is an issue with women when she wanted to run office saying they didn't have the right experience, their experience was mostly in the home and tell me if this was right but she would tell them the same story being a mother fronting the household are not dissimilar. did you hear her make the argument? >> i heard the argument many times. there is a famous quote speaker pelosi used in a white house
meeting with president trump he began yelling at her. please don't characterize strength but another one was more direct, can you share the boat? >> oh yes, she said i recognize one when i see one. she came back to a meeting and shrugged off the fact that he brought his top and said i recognize a temper tantrum when i see one. i can tell you i don't know what trump said when he heard her say that but i'm sure it wasn't good because she had another famous exchange the last time of them had a,
all of the men were looking at their shoes. general billy, he seems to be praying. she standing up yelling out trump and nancy pelosi walks out from the cabinet room, something i've never heard of before, trump says you are a politician erand then said if he had heard trump say that, apparently it was directed at nancy pelosi, he would have said if nancy pelosi is a politician, i'm a politician and you are not a politician at all. >> i also write about what steve just said about nancy pelosi having learned from her
children, from the relationship and the fact that her parents, i would have expected the possible subtitle of your book to be apples don't fall far from the tree. could you take us back to 1950 all the more? you bring this time from other cars and buses in schools baltimore oriole returning and nancy pelosi, it seems that's where she learned the benefit of being operational. i would love to hear about all the more 1950 and the role they use politics to operate, to create feminist for constituents
take us back to that part. >> that was definitely a larger-than-life figure. he was 13 years old, never went back to get it of any kind. st. louis invited him back and graduated from elementary school but new politician challenged a democratic in punk, and congress from loyalty to fdr was one of the main differences, he was so enamored with fdr he named his first son thomas afterer himself and a second son franklin roosevelt, please were politicians, people who believed in an expansive government to help people.
the big city government, government that was known for patronage, one political path wanted to place them in a steady jobor and it was said what can u do? the political process we can't do much of anything and they say we could have a blank slate for the no-show job so a different time nancy pelosi continues to reflect the agenda, she continues in a big government but especially at a time like we have today in the wake of his pandemic putting a big role in providing. >> i'd like to talk about her
readership, covid it marvelously, one of the lessons nancy pelosi learns from the jerry brown primary for president and other races, you don't look to get into an election, you get in on your own terms, not anybody else's. she decides she's going to run for leader, no woman had ever been in a leadership position in the house of representatives and she decides she's going to kick the door open. can you talk about what it was like in her approach to that race? her timing and how she worked the carcass. >> not only had no woman been in the leadership position, no woman had ever been in any leadership in either chamber for either party. there was somebody waiting in line the democratic
orestablishment, that was jenny, who nancy pelosi had known the days therewe were both working r senator -- she disputed the need to refer to the people awaiting. this campaign she announced before there was an opening and the process of getting open, this lasted three years and involved millions of dollars in many ways for nancy pelosi's contributions to members of the house democratic caucus. it was brutal, april fight but left some scars that remained for a long time "afterwards". the fact that it's a secret ballot made more complicated.
nancy pelosi demonstrated and that race her ability to count boat which was one of her skills ever since. when it came open, the boat was justal held after 9/11. she was the one who one. >> there is so much about rivalry between pelosi and how detrimental it is. i attribute it to think there's a problem when you have all of these, two heavy hitters. chris, you mentioned, you brought us to that. , you mentioned not 11, susan. you write a lot about nancy pelosi's reaction at 9/11 and even more about the iraq war
pelosi's relationship with george w. bush as we got into the war and as things progressed. we live now in a pretty toxic time of politics but that was not a great relationship and my leaving of what you have to say is that maybe not all george bush's fault. you might be told nancy pelosi could be responsible as well. did i read that correctly? >> nancy pelosi's skills in negotiating polarized time in politics, i think critics would say she didn't do much to make the change to make it less toxic. she created the situation, we find government being dysfunctional, it said worked in the world shen was given, she didn't try to transform it, she
and george w. bush had a difficult relationship, nancy pelosi was the highest ranking member of congress to oppose the iraq war from the start. i was thinking about that on liz cheney, a position now that is politically powerless with her own party. donald trump met with cheney, that was also true with the democraticth party and iraq war, democrats who had presidential ambitions, almost personally supported the war, it turned out to be something that was damaging. in any case, nancy pelosi, highest ranking member opposed the war from the start. when she was first elected speaker in large part because of the war from the 2006 election republicans on this, she was
convinced she be able to persuade george w. bush to change course on iraq. she was unable to do that despite two years of the efforts she could think of. by the time there were 2008 financial markdowns, it had been months since they talked, the president and speaker had had a conversation. they started talking again only because of financial crisis forced partisan action to address it. >> we've had the opportunity, you and i, to talk about your vote against the iraq war. as i was reading susan's telling about and nearly two thirds voting no, 126, one of those 126 was steve israel.
nobody thought including myself i would get reelected and remember speaking with her and going through the arguments andr saying look at, we would keep you here, nancy pelosi is brilliant and she knows how to councils and she also knows how to keep the democrats in congress and so she threaded the needle in blue that she did that with her and others were going to open it up to questions and answers in just about five minutes. i would ask you, about the book, you talk about the fixation of where nancy pelosi's, and headlines were nancy pelosi is not a party girl, things like that pretty in this obsession with what she is wearing and how she dresses which i believe it there directed at any male politician, i do remember that
in my 16 years of congress nothing on my shoes or my assumes no, so youou talk about her own attitude towards it those processions. >> she did not worry about the much, just the subject of clearly and sexual attacked the only way she ever lost was when she ran for temperature after 1984 debacle. with mondale lost so after that, state law and she had been chair of the california democratic party and she had the best candidate the national chair and she probably was but, she was subjected to like that she was a party girl and the political director called her and nancy pelosi could do anything and airhead, she was not but she
complained about it and complain about the content the attacks and she never supported them ever with those complain publicly again i think she decided that was useful to respond and phrase that she developed in the wake of that, and she would use this for the rest of her time and that is don't agonize and so when people would come to her and say something about was of a thought about her and particularly the thousands of dollars and millions of dollars in attacks in a minute raised by the republicans and she said, she doesn't usually respond she said, don't agonize, organize. >> is have natalie give instruction for the folks who want to ask questions i want to remind everybody that we are with susan page and "the triumph
of nancy reagan" and also including don't agonize, organize and also the power and let's take another one of our things sponsored about theer university politics and affairs, and honey business questions please. >> thank you. and will take the questions at the end of the program and you can also use the links the talk about on the screen. [inaudible]. >> and chris, is queuing up, whether to pose a question pretty. >> yes when you are talking about they attacks and nancy pelosi and i wanted to ask you about the politicians when mullen said that i think that he spent four years attacking it nancy pelosi until recently. there's a striking line from your book, but obviously with donald trump in office, nancy had it highest ranking american
woman in politics, twice she was voted for that in the affordable care act and the bailout and so ndmany things that have been accomplish in matthew right, it was her ability to with donald trump the finally met policy with the underestimated war. was donald trump good for nancy pelosi. >> donald trump had a big effect on her because not many people, but she had been planning this through the entire 2016, election. and she could count on hillary clinton to protect the affordable care act which was she was most proud of and she was 76 years old and that would be retiring age but on that election night, she or when she
realized it earlier than the rest of us, the trump was going to win that election, she described it as feeling like she was being connected and she said is not a metaphor, she physically felt like she had been kicked by mule. and she decided to stay in power and say on and she fell the donald trump posed like the affordable cares act and also a a threat to democracy. and she wanted to serve greater and greater and greater over time. and also with apex and with the general on the capitol and from's ascension could've made the democrats and everyone else aware that some issues been displayed it through february legislature that not everybody had one of the ways that she keeps power is that giving
credit to others and she gave credit to barack obama for an was true would not have been affordable care act without him printed and without nancy pelosi and in congress and i think that her skill and holding the democrats together in place in her ability and smart long-term strategic politics, i think that is really been the capstone of her career. >> let's take some questions printed. [inaudible]. i think there is a question, to chris pretty. >> democratic congress from pennsylvania and is going to have you on predict. >> thank you david is good to be here and susan, thank you so much for writing this book and
my question is more like as historical and in favor is that i happen to be at woodlands when jack and then nancy pelosi gave a presentation at and southwestern pennsylvania and you references in your i am curious to hear more and importantly my time there was a quick. i was so busy and never really got a chance to sit down with the speaker and talk about her relationship with jeff and i would be curious to hear from you what she said and thank you pretty. >> thank you and i'm honored that you are joining us tonight and it she has openly an emotional person at, she's very disciplined and guarded but one way that i try to cultivate and
be more candid, i discovered in the research and this biography and one of the things that are found in the archives at the university of pittsburg is that jack - papers including some hand written notes that he had made about his thoughts on nancy pelosi. these notes weree made when he was going to write a memoir which he never did. >> for those of you know who don't not know jack, forgive me with nancy pelosi go ahead. >> especially well you have a smart audience, nancy pelosi is a liberal and it jack is the guy from core country, a marina. i remember the old guard congress, not exactly a natural ally of nancy pelosi but the truth is that they became clear
or they become friends and allies one of the big assets that she had when she thought leadership position that jacket agreed to run her leadership campaign and this was a huge thing pretty and smart looking at these papers and that he was willing to do this and his handwritten notes, he said that a lot of the guys were as a womanwo leader but that she wass effective of a leader as he is ever met. animate a copy of this like a tablet which is nothing fancy. but i made a copy of those entered into speaker policy in the next and i was interviewing her and it was about as emotional as i ever saw forget
thinking about jack, who has now passed away in the first thoughts about her. >> thank you. natalie, next question. >> running for congress, she writes the speaker's life and experience of politics and do you think that women operating. [inaudible]. >> that is such a great question and i may be have someone who congress, be curious about and reminding you that she was very s disciplined. there has not been a woman who has served thiss position of
great authority and that more effectively than any other speaker, in modern times pretty i pretty there's never been another speaker in a has to send a message to woman that month these positions of leadership tg about a career in politics, little girls are thinking about what can i do in life and they look of an ac ruth bader ginsburg and also nancy pelosi speaker of the house so i thinkt does make a difference. >> overwhelmingly, our questions are coming in if you could give me insight onn the speaker if se was running for another position
position. in 2018, when the house democrats were moving to a generation of leadership and at that point, nancy pelosi made an offer that she would serve or that this would be her last congress and the the leadership and interestingly, this was nevernd put into the well is a t of new cannot make her do it. and she did make kind of a statement about what her plans are but sher did indicate that she was making this offer in 2018, and she indicated that she planned to live up p to that. and particularly in politics, the expectation is that this will be her last two years as a leader and last year as a member of congress. and have a personal theory, so
to give her what it is worth that i can see president biden appointing her as ambassador to the vatican or easily what her grandparents immigrated from is kind of a closing element of her career and one reason i think that is because her mentor, was boggs, congresswoman from louisiana who after she had with congress and appointed with president clinton and the vatican and the daughter was - who i interviewed for the book before she passed away and she had said that she had really liked that, that if nancy pelosi with success in that way. t-mac could you please speak on
nancy pelosi's fundraising ability. >> she is unparallel, her office and asked couple ofup weeks ago that she is now $1 billion that she was elected to the position in the democratic campaign, a billion dollars and nobody else's come close to that in fundraising has long been one of her strengths. one of the things you bring to the table. and she has used it to reward people and to cultivate and the elected democrats and it is really a phenomenal amount of money. >> and if you could go ahead and unmute and ask your questions.
okay, we will give howard a try. go ahead and ask your question. >> all right, i do not hear the question so, i will yield my time to the next. >> thank you. [inaudible]. in the congress - >> you do not have to be a member of congress to be leadership so you can still be speaker but if you're thinking about the people are most often it mentioned as successors,
jeffries, congressman from new york and he would also be a groundbreaker, the first person of color to lead either the house or the party in the houses of congress on a decide and that the congresswoman from california, you former speaker of the california house and adam schiff has been interested in the leadership as well and so, there are several people who i think would like this, close to 200 people that would like this job and i think that when it nancy pelosi leaves, there will be a battle, a progressive candidate more than one in the leadership candidates and nancy will have a voice in the matter and as he pelosi understands
that when she got into the leadership, the leadership did not determine her victory, that she would not be in a position toit determine the victory becae the elected h democratic members of the house and it is a secret ballot. >> you talk about the successful talks and how that played out with a number of my colleagues. and in those conversations, she always said she viewed the future it and her successor is somebody with two qualities, number one, someone who reflects court tympanic values number two, somebody you canan keep the carcass together we just no small feat and number three, someone who can negotiate with the president under senate leadership of either party and so to the extent that she actually began speaking about who replaces her to the extent
that on an issue, i think this three criteria will be operative with her. >> and think about how difficult it is to do those things, to keep the carcass together, it is crucial but a his know easy task and her - when they have to go back to the district, and members of the tribe from defecting and that is really feet and she, will it's hard to negotiate with the presidents and people know when they walk into the oval office but she has dealt with a series of them and imparts, goes back to her boy of a picture of her in the book, she was 16 years old and talking to jfk this the prisoners had a lot of dealings with the presidents and is not afraid of
bythem. >> we have about two minutes left, to have questions, timing is well if you have a question. >> i wanted to have a question for susan and ask a question from the chat and you didn't mention it the question is how has the speaker's relationship involved with alc and delete lainto that, you wrote on page , nancy pelosi saw something of herself in aoc and even when aoc was call into trouble, especially than maybe a new talk about that relationship. >> she's not against passionate because she has brought this passionate from the political views and said that when she was
thinking care about this she said well i used to march in protest but he is to go against the politicians who would settle for happen her perspective and this was different because she was destructive and passionate and also operational, or highest praise and these operational means, you can have a strong view we should have a strong view but you need to do the things required to actually make it happen into actually do something and get it done. one of the best interviews i had it with her came on a few hours after she had a big blowup in the democratic caucus. it is on an immigration vote that nancy pelosi had written a lot of it had to be held accountable and it set off his cascading effect in the congress and issues between the personals and chief of staff between other
democrats in congress. and she said that presidents would understand the differences between making a fine and sausage and though it's very nice weekend pate, most of the time, you're making sausage in washington and she also quoted another who was a former chair of the appropriations committee in wisconsin and all she had to say was that when he came to washington, to post your pictures and share how perfect they are and the people came to washington it to actually legislation nancy pelosi would definitely put herself in the corner with those who actually wanted to legislate. and that they do not seem to always understanding the process that is involved invo doing that
>> and in thisop book, go to the website and follow the links to nancy pelosi and the levels of power. >> in the next question, go ahead and ask your question. >> can you hearr me okay ? when the democrats are trying to run the house back in 2006, in we work in the limit heated battle, my wife and nancy called me and especially. [inaudible]. and i told her and it was in september 2006, when she was in the house and she came to the theater she went to the side and then the reception afterwards.
>> and that's in your book, and this ironclad grip, for everybody was important there and it right. >> after that we lost the house in 2010, there were times that said that she should not continue and she asked the media to respond in which i did and as to whypr she should remain as leader and i was very happy to do that. and it was an unusual relationship that we had and the kind of bond that forges to have
had an experience like that that i did hearxp several stories frm people who, some were not sincere nancy pelosi but it is very meaningful to have an experience. and also with bob dylan he was excited about the book coming out and nancy, that meant a lot to him and on this interview, and i actually checked back with a an her office to make sure and they had i think we have time for maybe three more questions. >> the tearing up of the
statements, and her bipartisanship. >> i've been in washington for a long time and i've never seen nothing like that. and i asked her about it and about how that and she said that president trump arrived and it was customary to give business she was reading this, she was to see what is going to say so she see something that she thinks is inaccurate and untrue and she wants to make a remark in there so she can find it and so she cannot find it and she doesn't carry her purse there and there was a desk in front of her and she looked in the drawer, there is nothing in the drawer, no pen and so she makes a tiny tiny
tear in the margin of the speech text so thatf she can find this thing that she thinks is untrue and then something not true and then makes number ten and by the time at the end of the speech, there are literally pairs all the way up and down and after she dashed photographers looked back at the pictures they saw those tears and the same speculation that she had been. [inaudible]. and she toldol me that is untrue and she had not decided what to do and then the president wrote to rush limbaugh and said it was in front of an inappropriate thing to do and especially to rush limbaugh, and her democrats and she stands up and she said i
decided that is going to shredded the truth that i was going to shred his speech. and she divided into four separate pages so that each of them a intern would have tested them on the desk and meanwhile, my favorite part is mike pence was standing next to her pretending that he cannot see what she was doing. [laughter] >> okay let's take one final question. >> could you please talk about nancy pelosi and newt gingrich and if you believe that the speaker pelosi was the unifier of her own party. >> she definitely lives in a polarized world as also newt gingrich pretty and follow the
strategies and more polarizing nancy pelosi is critical and new gingrich is also very critical of nancy pelosi and i did interview newt gingrich for the book and on policy as a hard liberal but then he said or he started talk about how much respect he had for her as a politician it and is someone who knew how to get and use power for the purposes she had and he said that when she entered he look at nancy pelosi, he saw a fellow pirate. and i think of your newt gingrich, and i think that phrase as fellow pirate. >> in a few months infrastructure bill with a continued response to covid-19 and with campaign finance reform and with really significant
challenges and if you want to understand it, how nancy pelosi develops strategy and tactics and operationalizes it, we should read this book and it will give you the best insight of these very critical times and such a delight to have you susan and join us in education and politics with the congresswoman and chairwoman of the house appropriations committee in may 19, governor bill richardson how to navigate international situations and you can receive more information by going to the institute of politics and i do recommend that you go to ww w. com rated. [inaudible]. and also thank you very much again. >> cspan running out, watch the days biggest political events
five or on demand anytime, anywhere on her new mobile video happen cspan now, highlights and c-span radio and discovering new podcasts and all for free, download cspan now today. >> sunday, january 2nd, on in-depth, historians joins us live to talk about the history of the united states and the civil war, and the reconstruction era, the highlights included emancipated or said the data. a biography of the civil war, general conversations and comments and texts and tweets when on sunday january 2nd, at noon easter on in-depth. >> in this week's center for
public affairs, we bring you conversation with the washington post national politics is joining us in conversation iran new book, "the triumph of nancy reagan" karen tumulty rated and she's worked for time magazine at the los angeles times and has been associated many awards including political - and simon & schuster biography the book is being published tomorrow on april 15th, 2021, they call the "the triumph of nancy reagan" the exhaustive biography which is the private life and the book draws interviews of how the members and friends and family members and shares how she became one of the most influential first ladies of the century we now invite you to join in conversation it by the reagan foundation institute pre