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tv   Allied Occupation of Japan Following World War II  CSPAN  December 19, 2021 6:53am-8:02am EST

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television companies and more including buckeye broadband. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ buckeye broadband along with these television companies support cspan2 as a public service. cooksey spent in american history tv continues now. you can find the full schedule for the weekend on your program guide at >> good morning. my name is maggie i am the assistant director of public engagement here at that national world war ii museum. thank you for joining us for today's lunch box lecture. today's lecture is called winning the peace occupation of japan with amanda williams education manager of the
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memorial and norfolk, virginia. this lecture was rescheduled due to hurricane and was designed to commemorate the end of the war in the pacific. so now without further do i will now turn this over too amanda to share about general macarthur's unique approach to the obligation. >> thank you maggie. and thank you to the world war ii museum for having me. today i'm going to give you an overview of the occupation of japan and try to explain why it can be considered one of the most effective occupations in history. i think it history demonstrates a great battlefield victory can often unravel in occupations that follow them. occupations are less formal fields of battle.
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he'll lose the thought of a great battlefield victory. and although it is dismissed at the end of a conflict in occupations or reconfiguration of the battlefield and is therefore a very vital arena where peace can be won or lost. i think we think about the bigger fighting that took place in the pacific during world war ii, and september 5 the occupation of japan was a very daunting prospect. i think that has the potential to really and very nation way. it may 45, when word breaks of nazi germany's decision should surrender, the important the pacific was still raging. he was not something that meant a lot to the men fighting in the pacific. pacific was a very, very difficult place to be in terms of environments. in terms of the entity that you are facing.
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in terms of the vastness of this theater. americans are think i understand you're they could comprehend it. asia i think you have so. compare the oral histories that truth and europe with those the pacific, i think you get a sense of this. it's a very difficult war and very different war and perhaps some of the europe. persisted in the story of occupation to japan begins in mid august 1945. japan announces its intention to cease fighting. in may of 1945 >> with elation all around the world because it basically means that world war ii is over. the allies have one and both of these major theaters. i think for some people victory seemed very complete at this point. a few people probably thinking about what happened next in
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terms of japan has been at war since the 1930s its economy is pretty much shattered at this point. they use the term burned planes to describe the country. sixty-eight japanese cities have been wiped off the map. sixty-six of those due to conventional bombing. to do to the atomic bomb. schools, hospitals, transportation infrastructure, communication, they have largely been destroyed or terribly damaged in this war. you have 2 million dead and this is almost an entire generation of young japanese men. you also have about 15 million people in the country who are homeless. as people struggle to survive it's going to break down there
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be lawlessness, the japanese are also going to be confronted by disease, by famine. we note most understandably a sense of fear. it is basically a country on its knees looking for some sign of hope. and into this drama steps the general of the army douglas macarthur. he is informed he'll be the supreme allied powers and will run the occupation of japan. it is a job i think he had been weighing the groundwork for. it is a job he sees as his destiny. he was a man who sees this occupation of japan, think what you will about his flaws and they think we could do an entire session on some of those. there is not a serious scholar today who thanks he was the
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wrong choice for the job. but why was he such an inspired choice? he had experience in asia he had four tours of duty there the time he gets his commission in 193 to the 1930s. in this second period of service and agent starts in about 1905 when he serves as an aid to his father and army officer in general it was sent to to do fact-finding. going to be intertwined and then back again to what is basically known as southeast asia today. it leads him to gain an appreciation of the huge economic potential of asia
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while also forming a nuanced understanding of the billions of people there as a nuanced human beings. his sees the people living in asia is not dissimilar from himself and fellow american citizens. he sees people with aspirations as people who have families and who want in some cases to be free as c by the end of the trip he developed a distrust of the colonial system and the belief that such systems with the strong belief that race has no bearing on anybody's capability and this is gonna be important he decide to visit 1906 he is going to carry it with them for the rest of his life and as a young officer he is going to different a lot of the future political and intellectual
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military leaders of southeast asia he missed connections at the very young man and a lot of people he's meeting are going to cms somebody is not racist and anticolonial and they're going to have to deal with an american they want to deal with him. also world war i. macarthur young officer fighting in the war he is one of the most popular battlefield leaders and when the war entities devastated he is deeply troubled by what he experienced a world war i indie feels that the treaty in 1919 betrays the sacrifices of the troops that fought in the war. and of the treaty rights it's more like a treaty of perpetual war than perpetual peace. he believes world war i failed off the battlefield and from
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1941 - 1945 hayes determined world war ii will not fail in a similar way. from the very start of world war ii may be by the time he gets to australia in 1942 he has an endgame he know this must win the peace. he knows what a successful piece should look like and victory on the battlefield. one he will put those into practice and occupation you will run. i'm not sure any of the generals or admirals in the pacific s in 1945 and the experience in asiah to make him a good fit for this job another reason to make human
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theater. i don't know why there's arguments against this, and the united states and particularly by westerners, he's basically a master of information operation. a master of propaganda and self-promotion. this pays huge dividends on the occupation of japan in number of talented officers and none of them had the ability or desire to term and to determine an oscar worthy performance in his talent as a showman is going to be a major part of the occupation and use dividends for the united states and policy. say what you will about being theatrical dramatic it's all
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true. there is circumstance since expression occupation were that is the personality and level of trauma that is needed. macarthur was a great student of history and as he prepares to set up the occupation he let the staff know the odds are against them. the great battlefield victories unravel and occupation in the captain of history alexander, all of these men have seen great battlefield victories to dry up in occupations that unravel. you naturally cc men as his. group and that can be weird to a lotn of people but it masks the fact that he has studied the problem of occupations for
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decades, he's discovered a pattern how to have successful versus unsuccessful. he was formulated a plan to choose that and determined to break the mold and be successful. he goes into an occupation with a short list of must tops to be successful. the japanese have to think that he is invincible ands all-powerful and they have to believe his leadership of the occupation is absolutely legitimate. in this book all-powerful and legitimate and his agency of the japanese people he has three advantages in his pocket. he hopes to perceived occupation and very pragmatic and culturally sensitive way, let's
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talk about invincible how does he pull off invincible days before the war ends august 30, 1945 macarthur began in japan for kamikaze training the war is not over at this point and he does this on purpose and lands the bodyguard is injured 20 miles to yokohama in a car that breaks down every so often along the road he's traveling the road with japanese soldiers still armed, no one takes a shot at him. his arrival is publicized in a massive target but he assures his staff that the japanese are very important he is told the war is over and not to shoot macarthur during this trip into visit and walk about him. impression first
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that the japanese have of him. and he devoured powerful what and it makes him seem untouchable. also drives the allied victory home further. it also speaks to something else, perhaps to an idea off respect there is a sense that he understands and respects the concept of just under discipline and japanese culture and against the japanese little bit of hope that this might be somebody who understands this just a little bit. i think at this point had he been killed on this trip, i think the world would not have ended the way it did on september 2, 1945.r winston churchill hears about macarthur's visit in the interest japan he says it's one of the bravest acts of the war.
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this is the way macarthur presents himself as invincible. one of them that will support is occupation. all-powerful days later on september 2 he is in charge of the surrender ceremony and president truman and the other allied leaders combined with the japanese impression that is t all-powerful. is he on his own in japan, does he have total control, no oversight, of course not he's under the authority of truman the jcs in the far eastern commission is also supposed to be under the control of the allied counsel for japan then he wiggles three from the last commission i mentioned is under
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the control under president truman, he's not on his own in japan he does return to the japanese people with all authority in japan. his personality and leadership stylena in this concept and perception of japan. in legitimacy, how do you started occupation doing what the occupied people now no legitimate ruler early in occupation macarthur sent a message does not need to confirm himself with the emperor, he is the authority in japan and the emperor is irrelevant at this point to the state department and the white house they will figure out what to do w a later
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date. macarthur always believed they would be a key part of legitimizing any occupation, the person of the emperor said you have the religious political and military leader of a nation and one person they know the japanese people are waiting anxiously for signs of what the occupation is going to be like in the future and of the cooperation of the japanese people. he cannot appear desperate for the beating and can't yield the high ground in terms of the optics and to see macarthur.
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macarthur has his message linked so everyone knows emperor isth making the first overture and is thinking about taking the unprecedented step of visiting someone else. the emperor does not go see people people go see the emperor and it's an unprecedented offer. then he has his own response back and he basically tells emperor don't come to my military headquarters, there is tons of press around there and he basically says come to myy private residence away from the press and the idea of a photo while to march through my six-foot guard. i don't want to humiliate you come to my private residence double talk. this is going to be incredible
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macarthur will have the emperor come to his residence the take the famous photograph and talk one single photograph does anything incredible this does not. this sanctions and legitimizes occupation of japan. it's a brilliant piece of theater and establishes the empire of an essential part of the occupation it is secures a soft occupation. and japanese people and japanese institutions to run but this meeting in photograph set up a way for that to happen. again macarthur believes the emperor is very important the emperor helped him secure legitimacy in terms of this occupation but it's also going to protect the emperor from war crimes trials and he receives a lot of criticism because of
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this. he basically believes that the best way to run this occupation. we can argue that macarthur's architect of the myth he was not involved in any of the military decisions japan made in the work he was pushed into rubberstamping really, really bad and he was a harmless biologist looking at a microscope for most of the work. he's a gentleman but not a word maker or war criminal. there's a lot of pushback today macarthur believes the emperor is essential to this occupation success in he's willing to make those confessions in terms of protecting the emperor from trials by doing this.
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>> the emperor in japan was traditionally very remote as well and respected and obeyed he will try to play some of the role. other than the time that he's in japan he will work very hard to not overexpose himself to the japanese people if you lived in tokyo to his office or his health several times a day but is not goingng to go to baseball games and throughout first pitches and it's one of the most beautiful countries in the world and he never goes anywhere he is very remote he works seven days a week but ever present unseen power throughout the country they seem very removed by not humiliated the japanese.
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he gives them spiritual and psychological space to accept the occupation. there is no quest for even do the daily life and japanese people don't feel like that with occupying forces. that will be safer were criminals will talk about that little while. >> how does this occupation go from the start. the japanesehi journalist writes an autobiography of macarthur at the start of the occupation and he describes as a living god in the living carnation of the first japanese empire who came back to restore japan to the community of nations. seven months into the occupation this book has sold 800,000 copies. radio censorship during the occupation macarthur's headquarters is running the
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censorship. there are hardly any accurate passages in this biography of grmacarthur but the occupation don't censor it it's allowed to go to press and distributed throughout the country. this is a foolish but it endures something important the japanese are hungry for information about macarthur and a heroic positive light i don't think he was a fan of this book i think he believes what was written in it but if this is what people need to buy into this occupation the popular homegrown propaganda that you can abide in a positive
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information about him, here you have japanese journalist doing the work for the occupation, pr people into good start to the occupation. there is also salmon in japan. especially in the first year of the occupation in the japanese are facing terrible medical shortages are very difficult, the allies at the start of the occupation are determined that nobody will go to japan to rebuild there is not going to be a marshall plan for japan and a huge mill and trim military in crisis developing in the u.s.
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and other countries want to see happening in the japanese people. he understands some things, when you're in charge of the responsibility to those people in the hungry angry people and if you end up with hungry angry people with introducing other problems and to make sure the basic food and medical needs of the japanese are met early in this occupation. >> there is significant japanese agencies and they tend to refer to this as a bamboo strategy and the japanese decide to bend but not break any occupation in the
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areas whether that comfortable, macarthur doesn't want the japanese to break, he sees nothing fundamentally wrong or evil about japan or the japanese, he just has a problems with with military is him that has got to go that's what he believes japan went wrong. , is going to have to change japan that change will be swift in some areas but japan is not going to be left oblique slate. to celebrate easily minus militarism they will respond to
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this pragmatic way, they will whether the changes brought by the new constitution that he will put into place, it will remain people with the each inherited and be very proud of that heritage is something that he doesn't support the fullness of their defeat in world war ii and the early success of the i occupation allows for this, most of the policies of the occupation will be. under pretty banal event and reasonable and there's not going to be a reason for everyday japanese citizen to resist occupation. >> let's talk about the soviets and occupation. what we do with the soviets in the occupation of japan germany and korea are split up into occupation zones, he wants to prevent that from happening in japan. he understands he's in charge of an allied occupation he would,
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under his authority and with any soviet troops in japan. the representative to macarthur's headquarters were bear the brunt of this rejection, he will show up for appointments with macarthur and macarthur will ghost him. he'll be told that he has the wrong date, runtime and the general is not available for him to meet with him driving in tokyo and japanese police in the policy from the japanese police force any storms to macarthur's office and tells the meeting to make this go away and he says you have to follow the laws they had the right to deal with you this way and details and we have to respect the japanese laws, yes they lost the war but is
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this of occupation. later on he will tell macarthur that the soviets will put a division or so and macarthur says as soon as they do that he will arrest them and throw them in jail. this is one area where treatment and macarthur always agree in terms of his treatment with the soviets wanting to come into japan. macarthurof convinces washington by keeping them or protecting them from war crimes that the u.s. will help avoid creating a cultural in japan and soviets communism. if the school board is ramping up japan is a place where the soviets can most easily be counted. because she's not having much in occupation enable returning macarthur will tell him i'm so happy to see you one stalin
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brought you back he will chop your head off they have a relationship with the soviets are not able to exercise any authority in the occupation of japan like they would like to do. , the bottom line no political attention in germany, japan or korea. one unified country. macarthur is happy if japanese want to be homegrown communist, he is absolutely opposed to their being influenced by the soviets in any way. the occupation begins of these four goals there to be carriedor out with no into japan and marshall plan to rebuild. today with racism and epoliticians felt but this is
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something even macarthur thought would be best. aside from his early humanitarian invention to macarthur he's always anxious that american allies be strong and independent any save japan and future allies and believes that japan has to play the biggest role in reinventing and rebuilding itself. in doing so someday they'll be an ally that doesn't have to be propped up or constantly bought and these are the four goals that he has. the first will be militarized japan. the number one most pressing goal. a start to the collection andmm destruction of military equipment of the country. 1.3 million rifles are seized very early on it occupation. one point to million tons admission, 190,000 coastal
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artillery pieces.nd whatever survives in september 1945 is pretty much destroyed as a way to make sure that japan is fully demilitarized. in the group repatriation of all the leaves japanese troops that are all over the pacific. albert nine rented october 1945, 4 million japanese servicemen are repatriated to japan the soviet union has a million of these men and to send that back, 700,000 back at about 300,000 will never, never return. this is going to present the occupation administration predated credible task, how do you integrate the young men bact into society. especially when the economy is not where it needs to be in infrastructure throughout japan is so destroyed and you have the
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issue of famine, what to do with the millions of young men that don't have work and were soldiers and other military serviceman. education reform, will play a major role in solving the social problems of reintegrating these men. massive education reform will take place very early on and the occupation. student to any ages, japanese citizens, workers all is been encouraged to believe japan is not racially superior to any other country. japan has no right to war. there is going to be purchased militarist to work in education and to work in a government. there will be purges of people who are politicians or obviously military leaders.
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anybodybe who shaped or filled their militaristic identity, they are purged from their position in place with other people. , they have been arrested by the japanese for militarism and criticizing the war effort they are ran out of prisons and were invited to play a subdued role in japanese life. the goal is to let these people out, not to antagonize the former militarist with them but to create a marketplace of ideas, competing ideas and alternatives to militarism. these are light out and encouraged in a subdued way to talk with their fellow citizens with alternatives for japan, alternatives to >> then it comes to war crime
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the allies really want japan to pay for the world war ii. it was an absolutely brutal work, lots of war crimes and they want to see people punished macarthur sees this as part of the education of the japanese people as well. he sees no need to visit jan and jim vengeance on the rank-and-file but he believes some examples have to be made. war crime trial will be held all over the pacific like singapore, morte, tokyo, thousands of japanese servicemen will be accused of war crime and atrocity. they'll be executed for these crimes but the most controversial is manila the homeland needs of the general says biggest personal setbacks during the war and many had his hand on the scale on the trial in these men probably did not receive the trial.
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aspects of the trial will go to the americansns supreme court in truman is in agreement with all of this and a lot of legal scholars believe that there was probably an obstruction of justice during this particular child's but there is also an idea that somebody had to be punished so everybody looks the other way. the biggest trial will be in tokyo that will be before the tribunal of the far east that's another very high ranking people will be charged with crimes against the peace and waging aggressive war several will be executed in 1948 in other way the occupation seeks to reeducate japanese citizens is through museums and arts. you probably heard of the monument, they were in japan to
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but in japan the role was different about censorship and going around protecting cultural objects for more there gonna go through museums and religious sites throughout the country that the content doesn't glorify militarism. they will help them get grants to stay afloat and share japanese culture with the rest of the world museums and cultural institutions add powerful voices and macarthur realizes he's always happy to exercise soft power in this arena. what's interesting his wife mrst inron of arts and culture japan and really help a lot of cultural interchange between the united states and japan while they're there and country.
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another goal macarthur has is to re-democratize japan. in 1845 with individual average rates of japan's are limited only landowners, ownership of industry and big tracts of land were controlled by a few dozen our families that controls access and this is in control of the country of the handsds of a very few elite. women have few rights minorities had few rights and there was no freedom of the press or freedom of speech. his mission was to re-democratize that's basically because japan had experimented with the democratic system earlier in its history. 1868 constitution of japan came out of it.
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that created a system in japan with caution in british governing system half constitutional and half monarchy but by 1945 there are a lot more structural problems and japan you have the problem of howow yu deal with the militarist and we can't just go back to 1868 constitution we have to do something more dramatic to assure a new course in the future for japan. they asked the japanese to come up with a new constitution. he gives some pointers of what he would like to see. a while later it has something he wanted to see and it. he steps in and the new constitution will be drafted and be written by macarthur's occupation headquarters staff. based off of a list of things that he wants to see and it. his inspiration says will be the
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bill of rights the american constitution the british parliament and constitutional law the swish constitution the gettysburg address the league of nations and what i find most interesting the new deal that he waged against the new deal in america. he thought the new deal was socialism and going toho destroy america. he's very happy to use his policies and concepts and the remaking of japan at the japanese constitution. the new constitution is about 5000 words long it goes into effect may 3, 1947 and it guarantees a parliamentary system of government and fundamental rights for all and japan. in futures universal suffrage, freedom of speech and the press and many other revolutionary
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concepts. the most important part of the constitution for macarthur's article nine. this is a part of the japanese constitution and which war is announced as of right of the japanese state. macarthur ceases as his greatest achievement in the biggest victory and steppingstone in terms of winning a permanent peace in the united states and japan.oi women's suffrage is also going to be enshrined in the constitution. aside from article nine macarthur is most proud of this he informed the japanese government very early on to the occupation that this was nonnegotiable he said there could be no democracy if half the citizenry are disenfranchised. in the 19th century victorian he thinks women are better than men he thinks are more decent and bring better judgment to politics today we reject, he's
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committed to giving women the right to vote in japan and he's also interested in marriage rights and under the occupation government mutual consent to marriage becomes a law essentially women cannot be forced into a marriage they have to say yes i want to be married to you. this is all about picking apart the power of the elite, i think macarthur believes the militarist, a lot of men chauvinistic system and it raises their political profile and their value as citizens in this new japan. there would be a way to combat military is him from ever coming back. the first election in 1946 in
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1947 japanese women turn up to vote and macarthur is thrilled by this big propaganda campaign by headquarters to get the award to get women to vote political scientist and anthropologist said it couldn't be done in such a traditional society but the turnout was high and women are elected to office foror the firt time and it's a huge step for japan. it doesn't leave it there though, after the election he meets with the women who been elected, this shows his support for them and he wants to show the japanese people that these women are inadequate to betoken members of this legislature. he plans to back them and see them and have more women elected in the future. he does something veryte interesting to avoid coming together and just becoming a woman's locking women's issues.
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he tells them that they need to meet the men on the floor and complete equality and they need to represent all of japan going forward. >> moving on reform will be something that is very interested in an pre-roll japan two thirds of all agricultural land is rented and not owned by the farmers who formed it and farmers make up about 50% of the workforce and they pay 50% of the crop and rent the average farm size was about 1 acre. that is not a lot if you're farming to support your family you have to pay 50% of your crops and rent it makes for substantial living. farmers are going to be living poverty. occupation error land reform is going to take away from major landlords and redistributed to
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farmers who own very little who own very little land this to a lot of people sound like socialism and the redistribution of wealth, things that macarthur learned against but this is what is doing in japan he's flexible in his terms of his ideology, he feels japan is different than the united states and what works here might not work and vice versa. they believe the farmers become more economically independentfa and they rise to some day form and middle class and then they will participate more freely in the democracy. if he feels is a positive generational wealth that the new
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middle class can be to the alisa militarist who turned japan and the wrong direction in the 1930s. we know what is the any of this of the united states, absolutely not. he believes it's really important to do this in japan and is faced withpa the problemf what to do with the million japanese service members being repatriated back into the country they don't have anything get away to make a living here is some land now you can be a farmere is away to deal with te influx of soldiers returning and needed to put them to work and let them on something in an insurgency. >> these giants family business corporation in japan. they control japan's industry and pretty much japan's economy, macarthur and eisenhower are always talking about the military-industrial complex. >> initial occupation policy to
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turn japan into a powerhouse and help them lead the war. in the summer of 1945 macarthur is moving forward quickly with this season the holdings of these cavities regular monopoly, stuff like that. suddenly reverse course comes into play now intentions are rising and the cost of the occupation in europe and japan are pretty enormous and they need a reassessment of occupation policy. the government comes to an idea that japan can be a better bulwark to communism in asia if it's not an agrarian backwater but instead an economic powerhouse with a capitalist country. macarthur will be told it's time for you to switch course, never mind without we need japan with a strong industrial base reverse course. >> he reverses course and embarks on a policy with a lot
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of japanese cooperation to make sure the japanese corporations are in a better place and they were during the early stages of the occupation. this is the reason today we have many of these companies you see on the screen and the descendents around today japan is to be an economic powerhouse in macarthur is running the occupation, that becomes his goal. in the end japan's postwar economic recovery is ultimately assured by the korean war, not may be so much by reverse course, although that does impart but is mostly the fact from 1950 - 1953 japan will become the industrial supply depot and an important base of operation for american troops in the korean war. again later in vietnam japan will be the same thing. in the case of the korean war
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japan isea only five years from the devastation of world war ii and i think this gives you an idea of what an incredible transformation happens in that country in about five years of this occupation. macarthur was commander of the united nations forces k in kore. while he still in charge of the occupation of japan he 70s at this point, technically he had retired from the united states army before world war ii started and recalled an active duty. he has two major jobs at this point in his career and when he fired by president truman in 1951 he is removed from the occupation of japan and from his leadership of the korean war. he'll return to the united states after this and he will return for the first time in over a decade. he'll be out of the country serving in the pacific. reactions to his removal and
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japan are not what a lot of people might assume, the japanese are pretty worried about this, they don't want to see him go. it's a dramatic moment for many of them and there is great concern over who will replace them. he has more support for the presidential ambition about the japanese who can't vote in american selection then there will be in the future of terms of american support for his presidential ambition. the fears of the japanese people were unnecessary. by the time he is fired in 1951 the occupation is pretty much accomplished its goals and isoc almost over. before a peace treaty and the allies in japan assigned in september 1951 about 5 months after macarthur is fired. macarthur is not part of thees family that takes place in san francisco. it's something he had been a major architect of.
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this is a growing site, the japanese think it's rude that macarthur is not part of this instead of big role to play in it. but it's not appropriate according to the americans to happen at this point. his presence is not appropriate. a year after his removal occupation itself and but the framework for close us-japan bilateral relations iss established and it continues today. this makes occupation of japan one of the most successful in all of history. as we look at asia and the post-world war ii. we see most of the allies are not willing to give up the colonial possession and not part of the world. the british, the dutch, the french, all of these groups are causing territories want to keep tracking keep hold of the
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colonial possessions. you see a lot of civil unrest and violence in these areas as a people that live there want to have independence. in contrast i think after world war ii, the united states goes through very interesting revolutions. you have independence in 1946 in any of the occupation of japan led by an anti-colonialist douglas macarthur. i think this is very significant there are missteps coming in terms of american policy in the future. initial american policy in asia and set up very well initially in the post world. in a thick macarthur is a big part of that in terms of the philippines and japan. the japanese perspective of the occupation. after the tsunami that devastated japan in 2011. the japanese agencies reached out to get the rights to this particular image, a macarthur arriving right before the end of the war right before the main
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occupation starts. they printed this and japanese newspapers in the wake of that disaster and the message was have hope, endure, we can rebuild again. i think it's interesting almost seven years later mccarthy's arrival in japan in 1945 from being seen as a moment from defeat is seen as a reminder that prosperity will return. japan is never defeated or destroyed i think this is significant that ten years ago this is a perspective of that in japan. macarthur is referred to as the american caesar. this is why, julius caesar, nono one will argue with you about them. he could be a great battlefield commander in times of war. the nickname dugout dog is fake
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news. like caesar he was a master propagandist and it's easy to despise the drama and ego that he brings with them but at some point in his career and made him look very foolish but other times his mastery of information operation and propaganda play huge dividends for the united states and for the mission and finally like caesar that's a legacy of japan and u.s. relations today. the occupation of japan wins the piece and it's a piece the honors the sacrifice of the service members who gave their lives in the pacific theater. i would argue that japan u.s. relationships today continue to honor the sacrifices. thank you very much that was an interesting overview of the work. if there's any questions, get to
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go. >> thinking amanda that was an incredible presentation. for our audience members watching us on zoom place any questions that you have within the q&a future at the bottom of your screen. if you're watching on facebook place your questions as a comment and we will jump in because we have a ton of questions already. the first question is from robert he asks how long after macarthur arrives in japan did he have that meeting. >> the first happened in september, september 1945 it's very early in the occupation. >> building on that jim asks he explains his question first. i understand the cultural keeping them in
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place but what are the arguments for not keeping them in place other than the ones advocated for justice for his alleged war crimes and you made these arguments and do they matter? >> there are a lot of politicians democrats and republicans in congress who don't want to seen emperor there. they see this is outdated you can't have a modern new japan with constitutional monarch. there very much in favor of we have got to get rid of them, were crimes don't hurt them a lot of constituents of people whose family members died because of atrocities. but you have a lot of politicians saying get rid of them, a lot of new dealers and later on truman's administration
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who think you want and emperor there. again atrocities are always going to playal a part were crie will be a part of the argument but just the idea how you can have somebody newr and modern in stock democratic model that macarthur is insistent fromst te beginning he believes the emperor is the linchpin in the emperor will help prevent a cultural vacuum that will not allow usk to win the peace ther. he pushes back against all of the arguments and he eventually wins, he has a lot of guys on a the staff that know quite a lot about japan and know about japanese culture. they are going to help them back up and make the arguments in favor of keeping the emperor. >> absolutely looking occupation itself. becky on zoom asks was there aso
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sylvia allied occupation of japan really discussed in a similar way to what the allies were doing in europe? >> yes enl. >> the fact that japan proper is not occupied when technically they surrendered they had atomic bombs dropped on them. the idea no troops had affair they already in the americans are island hopping through the pacific and writing for innovation japan is ready too gt the and they are the ones that get there, the commonwealth troops coming in. the same time macarthur the world to tokyo went to the pacific not through nigeria in the final hours of the war and i think the russians in-depth getting in the occupation of
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korea they have boots on the ground with the wardens they did not have the boots on the ground in japan and they were never able to get them there because macarthur and truman don't want that they do a good job of keeping them out and is definitely good for the occupation if that's the way that that shakes out. >> definitely, switching gears little bit we have multiple questions one from zoom and facebook about what role if any does macarthur have in the rebuilding of the philippines. >> not much at all, he goes there in the anniversary of him landing in 1944 don't take manella and 1945 no celebrate camps, one starts looking towards japan and ends up in the occupation he was not happy and
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what was going to happen politically or what the rebuilding is going to look like he goes to japan and that's it. he'll go back to the philippines towards end of his life in the 60s and he'll always be connected with people there, he loves the philippines but he will not have an official role in rebuilding who he is done with the philippines after he moves in 1945. >> gotcha. >> switching back to japanese occupation, jim asks what major mistakes did general macarthur make during the occupation? >> i would say most criticism was during the war crimes trials and putting his finger on the scales, that is obviously kind of problematic and there's other people that would say him protecting the imperial family
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is a mistake and should not of been made. one that a lot of people don't know about there is a lot of censorship a lot of people don't know much about the atomic bombn and what it's done to the japanese cities and the long-term effects in 45 and 46 that radiation is not a good thing with the human body. and the government said we need to not let the american reporters tell the government we have a lot of trials to go through we don't want people to be overly sympathetic to the japanese and we don't want anti-bomb, working to turn this cold war. we need this weapon and we need more of them. if he's gonna play a role in the censorship that keeps most generals out there were generals that are published something as a new yorker that will get this information out" of five people
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to macarthur's credit he does not try to team down on the story but he was someone who hated the bombs and hated anything that targeted civilians on noncombatants and he helped hide the story for a while until it's out i think he regarded that later on. >> taking a look at the constitution we have quite a few questions related to theio japanese constitution. the first one is from john was japan's new constitution made effective with macarthur as an executive order since japan didn't have a legislature government in the sense of her time. >> they technically do, it's a soft occupation not a hard military occupation when
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macarthur first drafted the constitution he's talking to a committee of japanese leaders. when they don't do it the way he wants to his headquarters takes the lead button is approved by the emperor in a ratified sort but is basically accepted by the japanese government and by the emperor who gives it his seal of approval. it's not something that he issued an executive order from the occupation, it is something that the japanese participate, except in a ratifies a new constitution. >> jim asked in article nine of the constitution effectively obligate the united states and japan? >> not within the japanese constitution, article nine doesn't say were never going to go to work but if something happens the u.s. will help us in. but technically by demilitarized
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japan and very much limiting their ability to defend themselves, the united states does take on that responsibility especially once the treaty is signed in the relations between the two countries are normal, it's a very interesting time because if you're watching the news right now japan is possibly going to be changing its military stance and stability to defend itself and interestingly enough it seems the united states is very supportive of that because with china you want stronger not just economically strong japan but a more military arcapable japan. it'll be interesting to see what happens by article nine does not say the u.s. will help us if we needed but that will be a default mode that will happen in >>the future.
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>> absolutely we have a ton of questions and i want to take everyone's for submitting them and a lot of people said this ir an excellent presentation. the final question i would like to ask you is from lisa, she says her view of macarthur has been greatly overhauled after embracing defeat in japan of world war ii by john w dower. i want to add to have any other resources, books et cetera you would recommend on this topic. >> either read a book in a very, very long time. i can't comment too much on what i've been reading books about macarthur and his relationship with the different japanese political leaders in the
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japanese agency and occupation in macarthur's how we figure out the things like the constitution and how we pushol the reforms in the japanesere politicians how h they bent to not broke and how we understood the bamboo psychology of japan. i always recommend the people disagreeing a good biography of macarthur because a major part of the story is occupation whether you made the were in manchester. i think you will be surprised by the man that you meet, he is very complicated, he's not lovable but you see somebody who services country to the best of his abilities and someone while we americans cannot see it, he was worried the best foot forward we may be 50/50 on him
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japan and south korea particularly in the war of the biography of him, you get a sense of that thank you for sharing about his role in occupation of japan. >> you are welcome, thank you for having me. >> you been watching american history tv. every saturday on c-span2 visit the people places that told him i story and watch thousands of historical stories online anytime at you can also find us on twitter, facebook and youtube at c-span
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