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tv   Lectures in History Civil War Naval Warfare  CSPAN  December 18, 2021 11:00am-11:55am EST

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through the connecting compete program, eventually. [background sounds]. , cox, ringing us closer, cox along with these television supports cspan2 as a public service. and next, an american history tv, it is history with southern utah professor laura june davis on warfare and pulitzer prize-winning author and tells a story of how winning the war and enslaved women with survived slavery twice in her former owner suing her for damages in 1970, and later military historian it greco talks about capping and than captain harry truman in world war i and the
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how it shaped his presidency and find the full schedule of cspan .org or consent your program guide and begin now on american history tv, intellectual history would. >> last class we talked about the start of the civil war and some of the key land battles, also compared the compared and the confederacy and lecturing them military capabilities and today in a program, is about less known about the civil war, and focus on what they decide about global warfare. and i've done some of this in my own research and so, i will share with you a story. i will begin to tell you a story pretty should behind me, is around 11:00 p.m. on august 4th 1963 and most retired to their cabins and most
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were asleep and all was quiet and always calm. it simply all share this is a move from prison in two hurricane of the upper deck of the seizure pendant it was easier when the season turned of the engine and ironically, of the steamboat travel pretty but the fire had broken out in the far end of the button a carpenter shop, the ladies cabinet. and they hastened the fire and the women and they quickly went over the wheel in the carpenter shop, especially as this came about, and he had issues on the. [inaudible]. and they try to put out the flames with water buckets but the flames grew and grew and peter, he said that nothing in the focus was to rescue.
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meanwhile, they rushed down the and the boat was carrying treasures boxes that are carrying $2.6 million predict and to ulysses s grant army, in the box was supposed to be where they will be but they will not be there for long and within minutes all cabinet is developen flames and the passengers crowded toward the front of the ship and comfort became a very precious commodity in within a 20 minutes, the upper portion of the boat has fallen into the hall and crashing it into most all the money. meanwhile and violently shifted off course and threatening the lives of everybody aboard ship. several passengers jumped overboard because they thought it was safer to be in the water than the burning ship. they tried to secure the ship to the shore but it's not long
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enough for him to do so and so there's more things to stop the ship to burn from literally stopping the money from going up in smoke, that encircled the steamer that flight and the smell of hickory and threading they melded together his fear became possible. and passengers continue to going over one another and crashes into the connecting others this ship again, safer option. nineteen the combination of built-in a cold and one, the culmination of the heat so intense that actually fused the higher end predict the five exploded and stopped and this journey, two more miles before she finally sinks into the mud. now this destruction results in thousands of dollars of damages plus a complete loss of all of
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the government money and even more is the staff of 26 people and that includes the key master, the clerks handed african-american women in several freed men. most of the cafeteria actually drowned in the victims a village of the water when the fire collapsed at the ship and amongst them, the kind of come to the situation and they learn most of the crew survived but they lost most of the passengers. there's no satisfactory here as to how the fire originated and the risk of people working on this and we'll know this is in a research over the people who actually destroyed it. and so the tragic lives lost, will find out afterwards this was an intentional act of sabotage and they set it on fire in order to put the u.s.
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military, potential sabotage and this is the scope of the trends we see happening it in the civil war is that pro-confederate sympathizers will potentially target commercial boats on the river, there often called the boat burners, they burn boats. they begin setting fire and burning of these commercial buzz in the summer of 1863, and i haven't gotten there yet but no history, to afford things that would enjoy of 1863, the gettysburg which i hope you all heard of but also the fall of pits and in pittsburgh, the confronted engine confederate hold at a mississippi river. nus trying to get complete control of the mississippi river and this was one of the last holdouts when they fall in july 4th, 1863, they have
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complete control of the river, is part of that anaconda plan rated and delivered under u.s. control the confederates are frustrated and angry and acts of civil warfare on the monitor unit trying to challenge and u.s. military control they go after the commercial steamboats but also the supply of the u.s. military. and it is the intersection of our two topics for today, and here is it for the day, the focus on two different navies, the confederacy and look at different aspects of the naval war international he had the technology in a couple of key pieces. and they will shift into the more and what it is and the efforts of that warfare so the positions they are taking us, if
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there to be on how the usa compares with a competitive confederate navy and what they can achieve with the case studies are pretty and getting into some of this case studies that's what want to focus on. so there is that, the u.s. navy and the confederacy will try to create one as well we are talking about naval access to the work and i want you to remember that happened across the globe so the u.s. and the confederacy are actually in a fine art five different oceans, and dozens of rivers rated in and fulfilling it with the anaconda plan. [inaudible]. but to challenge it in the naval ships on both sides also served as records for the troops, the supplies and food for the base armies and even the warehouses,
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universities. so first off, so here are all of the details pretty u.s. navy is in a very unique position in history is actually the military force and 1820 in the american revolution it and the small military force this time there going to be stronger and the entire navy and is only asymmetrical, their bigger and stronger and they have more people read and the civil war this navy, had about 7000, 600 and listed the souls in about 1600 officers. and it they try to do get more sailors to enlist in the navy but all of these members had very minimal experience so there were people trying to work in
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the man the boats to do not know what they are doing. and, this is an 1862, navy has over 50000 men, about 51500 plus an additional 16880 laborers. the mechanics and people working on the ships predict these people the work, this is over the course of four or more years, is that 100,000, and it 15 of those were actually african-american amended in a be starting in 1863, about 18000 people read and most importantly, the navy right, so there were 42 vessels, misleading because actually in the united states is operational and the last thing of the international waters trying to
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get repaired and u.s. navy would go on a massive spree and by the end of the war, they have 671, vessel so they will become one of the largest navies in the gulf and they were converted to the ships and they were battleships and they would convert the ships and a lot of these work also involved in building the ironclads and will talk more about those in a minute so they were lots of men over 100,000 it in over 676, and that was a substantial military force on the water and then there is the confederacy. they do not set off well, they basically start off with officers nothing else. no ships no sailors, substantial number of naval officers who are from the u.s. navy at the start of the civil war and about 473 of them, but not all of them
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would find their ways and some of them and and other elements of the confederacy so no less event, and these ships, but then there's more designed and it takes the ships with them, the property so they decided to keep the federal property with the government and so no ships and no man in this is a problem. in the confederacy would be just try a 5000 man and managed the next part of the war in april of 1864. and officially the confederate navy numbers but a total of six - 7000 men across the four years. because the confederate navy has no ships, they would have to put a navy together. get a shave anyway you can, if you buy them, you build them, convert existing ships into a warship so do whatever you can.
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so they purchased a whole variety of ships, steam, fairies, boats, and they rehab commercial vessels into war chains. machines. the confederate warship in the price is going to happen on two fronts, think i mentioned this before but the confederate navy, very much international work because they were relying on plans to build the boats that they are going to purchase. so it happens overseas mostly and so they will buy the ships from england or france, and the confederacy was going about they have the ship and it international waters, then they would apply the boat of deniability. [inaudible]. and if so, a lot of shipbuilding happen in france including a in liverpool, which they are
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constructed and we will talk about more of that later but there is some domestic shipbuilding that happened it. confederate shipbuilding happen in places like virginia, south carolina, havana, georgia and alabama, and new orleans. so the confederacy is more than they have ever ever ever with the u.s. navy and think about it you have the maximum strains on the 5000 men, and a 51 and 51000 men like tolman was six - 7000 versus over 100,000 predict very few ships versus 601 ships, so there's no way that they can compete and so that the navy was asymmetrical so they will have o take on different strategies and tactics if they want to be able to compete against the u.s.
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navy. they didn't have the financial capabilities in the materials to compete rated so there's a couple of things and also ways that they can enhance their naval efforts pretty and number one, president jefferson davis, is going to issue letters of mark, in the war of 1812, it would issue a letter of a more candid you are given in a private ship captain the ability to do the acts of piracy, privateering, they already have the country like you can do many things of sanction, and it really give you that you can do these acts of pirating on the acts of the confederate government and this ensures davis that he is manning these boats and privatizing the navy
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by doing this. and the military forces by doing this active marcus park and secondly the confederacy will experiment more with the naval technology they will ignore everything when it comes to this and they were the first was to build an ironclad in the u.s., and bill of the u.s. and that typically predates the civil war but there going to experiment with it and it explosive devices printed torpedoes and you can see a picture behind me, this is one of the torpedoes what it lod like an an explosive device in the waterways of the ship would cause to explode and then actually they were have designed and pass out summaries predict the use of a whole lot of experimental technologies and they learn to take risks, they
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are ready and a huge disadvantage. in the last thing the confederacy does, they issue this mark in the use experimental technology and it last thing they do is employ this that i write about, they are going to use those and literally pay people to sabotage and destroy commercial steamboats and other vessels pretty and i can identify at least 40 different kind of steamboats that they were able to destroy and potentially paid out out of the confederate government the money. the confederate congress has sanctioned this to happen. so now they understand some of the things the confederacy is doing in the fact that they were experimental technology use and i want to look at one of the specific types of technology that they are using and that is the ironclad, and some of the most fascinating technologies of this century. so having the most important contribution of the civil war,
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at-large is going to be the use of ironclad this and that typically the ironclad this avenues before this but they work never be built to scale this will be the first time ever that you seen ironclad - and they would be used in the u.s. and the confederacy and the primary feature of them, very shaped sizes and designs, the primary feature is its iron armor that is put on a wooden chip, hence the name ironclad. they would clad it in an iron space and the also building a completely iron whole vessels known and on both sides of of this revolving ironclad technology and the reason why we are so committed to that and one of the most important powers of
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the navy and the civil war is the battle of hampton way. i love the battle of hampton way. so again, this is a case study naval history and confederate in the navy, he and his men and captured it a u.s. vessel known as the merrimack hit and this vessel and turn it into a confederate war issued and specifically into a confederate ironclad. the cfs virginia predict and the purpose of this ironclad and what they would do for all the ironclads is to use them to targeting and to be able to fire on a destroy u.s. kinship so that would .
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[inaudible]. so the confederates and started to build the ironclads first, the virginia and it it would find out with the confederacy is up to in the u.s. and secretary of the navy, is going to find out when the confederacy is up to because a former enslaved woman by the name of mary, is going to steal blueprints. she was still the blueprints, and it bringing them all the way to dc in order to do this, she was a former enslaved black woman in and she's going to the u.s. capitol, she's never caught, never captured. and then she actually shows of these blueprints read and the military knows what the confederacy is up to. and it so she is going to create a kind of a commission to the
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top of the various designs of the ironclads. the one most famous. below sitting one pretty so the battle would fold over today's, and if you started with the confederate ironclad, the cfs, virginia and the commandant of buchanan rated and this was in the 19th century. [inaudible]. and so this is an control of the virginia. so the u.s. vessels and going to go after and around 10:00 p.m., she is there with the u.s. cumberland it with a 1600-pound ironclad and this is the cumberland, the giant hole in
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the hole because of the slamming. and next to the virginia, another u.s. show, and the congress is saying this is a bad idea. and in turn, the virginia is on congress, and to eventually the u.s. vessel to surrender. march 8, and the ironclad, right, destroyed all u.s. wooden ships. so is different on march 9th, 1862 and that is because in the night, the u.s. - has shown that in the region it, hampton bay in the chesapeake bay area if you look at your geography predict this is crazy radical design ironclad ship, and you can see it sets way lower in the water.
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and they has this sharp turn so it's like. [inaudible]. 's on march 9th, the u.s. minnesota is getting ready to be attacked by then cfs virginia and again the u.s. before that, is this u.s. ironclad and monitor. so the ironclad, and this is ironclad ship versus an ironclad ship. and it both ironclad ships, the fire is bouncing off the side of the ships. and the cannon fire, the virginia tries to ram a them and
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eventually, they go into the -- on date to march 9, 1862, and clad versus than that, it is a draw. and really about the battle of hampton bay and why it was so important and this would forever change the worker because of the new technology and many ships, the ironclads are vessel, photos, pretty much they would win every single time. and it has the potential draw. that was on march night, so now the u.s. has ironclad technology in the confederacy has the ironclad technology and so the navy across the world, because the more you see it, is the ironclads. and this would have a huge
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change in technology and impacts them u.s. for the greater good. and, basically this into more ironclad ships predict this is so important and a key key study about the end of the war. and kind of plays out in a variety of ways, so the battles like hampton bay, but for the most part, is boring, the blockaded so more about the anti- clan fact, just remind ourselves, this is a strategy on how u.s. is going to try to win the war. that is to force, blockaded him entire coastline of the confederacy. so they will blockaded the
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atlantic seaboard in the gulf of mexico and the reason for going to blockade the entire coastline, as they will prevent the confederacy from being shipped in or out. the boy duke heard the confederacy economy and they take the cotton out to europe, they lose money. and if they can't have money, they can finance the war in the confederate ships cannot bring the goods and food and supplies in new york, this will hurt the war effort. so this is an economic focus warfare so the second part of his again complete control of the mississippi river. and we talked about last time about why that is so important, if they surrender, you now threaten it and cut it in half but more importantly, the river the blockaded now you can see the shape of this into
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surrender. and that's why this is called the anaconda plan. and with this anaconda plan through the u.s., they're doing blockaded duty. in your out of the water, and you're staring at another ship. that is really boring, for hours and hours and hours on end. the super boring. in trying to blockade and there's 3500 miles of coastline there trying to blockaded, 189 malls and carvers and you can't build an entire wall pretty so they have to be selective in what they focus the blockaded like you're trying to big cities. and in carolinas and alabama in new orleans and so a set of
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things, ships will be able to get through. like they will be able to get through. they will have a variety of operations pretty cannot be supplied, they'll have physical, florida, mobile and the blockaded is pretty protective of, 200 las vegas, that pretty good, especially the confederacy with the ships to begin with, is a big deal. by the end of the war, it's actually in the southern confederate economy. in the 19th and lack of supplies and so the blockade will be effective. there c just sits idly by.
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and they will do anything to spread blockaded printed. so they actually have sections in the key waterways like in charleston harbor and the most get in, they cannot go after them and the federal boats are in the rivers in the u.s. navy then they cannot go to the port cities or the confederate towns either. and they run the blockades and they usually operate in the middle of the night in and out of the parts and they would watch the weather is super cloudy day, that's when they would try to run the blockaded and again, they would go anywhere they can and they were pretty successful. in 75 percent of this went
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through as always say, if 75 percent make through on their left with 25 percent. this why some scholars have referred to this as the confederacy so if this is how the confederacy supports itself economically especially pretty is now the confederates in the food and supply and luxury items. they buy a whole bunch of stuff from the get arms, gunpowder, coffee, wine, steaks, and necessities and some luxury items printed in english of all of those items in the caribbean to place like havana, bermuda and osaka and in the caribbean's, havana nassau, two are waiting and to any ships,
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they love themselves with the supplies and try to make it superquick. a trip back to the confederacy and try to sneak in for these much-needed supplies the blockaded running is super important. so the confederacy, they have the best in technology and because they were saved, more to respond, santa to them and on time in effect is that because the confederacy is taken away, the u.s. navy is going to have to change their tactics. so the way to finance a way to buy the ships so specifically buying a ship known as a commerce later, and why the confederacy needs them.
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so the start of the civil war, the confederacy as privateers, individuals who has waters of the mark in the act of piracy and so, remember, american recognizes the confederacy, sought a separate independent country. and it's not a separate independent country, and cannot issue letters of mark predict sophia confederate o mark mark, you are not an actual privateer you are now a pirate who has acts of treason against the unid states. and it how you go after the privateer something about this, very enterprising profitable military to the confederate privateers.
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a traitor and a pirate by the u.s. government and will capture and imprison you. and it can be daunting so by the hand of 1862, they cannot use the letters of mark anymore they cannot use privateering so that's where they're going to shift to the commerce. and commerce writing is where you have a specific better boat manned by the confederate person and in the privateers and they have a kind of a emerging vessel or trader ships. they would capture and. [inaudible]. is actual sanctioned ships with actual confederate and they need to do this because congress they are successful they will travel
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around international waters and they actually destroy 284 u.s. merchant ships. in the economic damages are out of the city, they submerge the vessels. one of the most famous commerce rater is the shenandoah, this is in your notes pretty it started out as 1160-ton steam cruiser, actually built in chinese tea trade and her name was the same king would she went from scotland it initially in august of 1863 within the confederacy quickly by her and rename her, the senate entered shenandoah. and stop operating on behalf of confederacy in october of 1864. i remember this is international
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so the shenandoah is out there in the atlantic ocean and in the indian ocean and she captures see vessels, she thinks them and in january of 1865, she makes it all the way to australia. the opposite end of the globe with the confederacy. she hangs out there and she will keep operating the pacific ocean even after the merchant vessels and and think about this. in the confederate ship, you're in the pacific ocean, how do you know when the war is over. if you don't. there's no instagram, there's no whatsapp, no text messaging, there's no way to know. so they keep operating in the pacifica even after the confederate armies have
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surrendered, she is the last confederacy that will surrender in april 1885, after the war is basically over, she will have successful ventures and she actually destroyed 32 vessels pretty and finally in august she gets word that the civil war is over, oops we bad, so they go back to england and she goes bao liverpool and they can the confederacy over because no one knows they surrender it to british and put it away so no one would be captured or punished for doing all of this stuff after the war is over rated so the naval war, so right, take away the things that i want you to really remember is that by april of 1865, u.s. has now announced the largest navy in the world, the power to a massive maritime power and spent
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$87 million in $1860, up to's intercity one for ships carrying 4610 guns in this mainly because the navy initiative. because they come so large, they always asymmetrical, the usa was away stronger, bigger, more successful. and that's why the confederacy had to take all of those risks. lastly the u.s. navy as chief allies itself, but we won't talk about all of them. but more often than not take our working in conjunction with the u.s. army and think about the army versus navy, they work together and combined operations. and they are the unsung heroes of a lot of these battles that we will be talking about for the rest of the week.
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so that is a crash course in naval war with keep highlights, and remember touching base of research, the stories and the worker printed onto the intersection of naval and warfare the navy and the truth of the matter is, many confederates, though never experienced civil war as we study it and they will never see these armies marching by, the not going to going to hear the gunfire or the canons. their experiences acts of violence. that's in their neighborhoods and in their towns. and there civil war is characterized by that brutal war. global warfare is what we call irregular warfare, nontraditional tactics. if are things like ambushes, and
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surprise rated, tax on private property, murder even. so all this, the conventional army would never do this pretty for the not supposed to do. so is often seen as chaotic and disorganized and savage and is one of the most famous book about civil warfare is called a savage conflict. to describe what is going on and you see it typically in the confederacy remember, the u.s. would occupy all of that territory of the confederacy so often there is a rising up against the forces that were trying to occupy that territory and challenge u.s. would let understand that there are pro confederates and this happens in all theaters and in all areas this most difficult confederacy and we see often in places like missouri braided and it gets
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more intensive and more and more extreme and profound impact on how the civil war plays out and out also there's no one cleared definition, there are many different it highlights of the guerrilla fighters, the spectrum. so on your right, pirates and rangers, traditional soldier like legitimate combatants good uses guerrilla types of fighting in the confederate congress passed 1962, the partisan ranger act which means unfermented you are allowed to sign up to become ranger instead of signing up to become a soldier so the pirates and soldiers in uniforms, command instructions, the raiders had commissioned and they had a report to the greater
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army and even though they were kind of like confederate soldiers, the do act for the warfare so they were private civilians and they will go after location lines and fires and go after fiscal lines and railroads. and talk about these rangers in virginia, that's a good example of a ranger. , they think about the bush workers and a small gangs in a group of armed men with lots of knives they are called bush workers is intended to hide behind the lines with use the newest of the bush, they would pop up with a surprise attack grade the bush walkers did not want to enter the army, they often have chaos.
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they do tend to operate in gangs more in the lands rather than in the big cities, like places like in missouri. and they have more affiliation with the confederate army and completely separate from the confederate forces they do not wear official uniforms that being said, they were leaders, get a minor command section and unofficial uniform. this work on the shirts, simply a home spun shirt that had a lot of fancy burglary and flowers. they would make these shirts for these guerrilla fighters. an example of a bushwhacker fighter and fighter, brought it spectrum, it's a very negative term, 19th century slang term for body lice.
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and these are a sense of taking advantage of a civil war in acts of regular violence so not much better than criminals and they pray on the enemy and they embrace criminality. and then to make it complicated, this is our conventional spectrum, and intends to focus on the land battles. and it both runners intersect with these different categories. they are self constituted, they cease to engage in sabotaging the murder and they focused their attention exclusively on the water weight naturally build the ships their billing. but they will potentially build of the ships that they are targeting and make sure the both runners we use torpedoes and exposing devices naturally
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torpedo the second glass of cold but solid out as done powder and leave that on a steamship and the engineer has no idea and shovel the coal into the fire and then boom, a bomb had gone off. later on, 1964, the changed tactics in the burnet ship, commercial sheesh and the teacher that would set it on fire. and what is important will bounce from ship to ship to ship so if you set one a fiery destroyed seven - eight votes. and in warfare is of dodge and espionage, proto- character -isms of the intersection and because we tended to differentiate the bush walkers from the civilians, u.s. military will codify what makes soldier, and what makes the
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guerrilla fire rated we call this a general order of 100 comes into play this is all about having the u.s. view the controls of the u.s. army specifically they went to columbia scholar and said can you write me a code of conduct for the war read from the very first time in the codification the laws of war has happened and he used it just as an inspiration for modern day nation for the laws of war so according to kevin is gone, the general order of 100 of their three things make you an official soldier. you wear a uniform, if command structure and capacity to do the lord so that's what makes you, and you cannot be all of these things, and you are not officially a soldier most cannot
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do this then makes them a combatants and their legal combatants, you can treat them differently than a soldier, a captive soldier, and you can hold them as a prisoner of war rated a bushwhacker, you can view them as a combatant so that's what makes them different pretty and they want talk about things like how you trick the civilians and property and you're not supposed to harm an unarmed civilian or murder and again, they might murder or kidnap somebody in a military necessity so first leads to indispensable for security and some for predict so you can be a lot of things but this seems okay but you can bring in a quick end to the war.
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but there you can't cross, you cannot be cruel or deceptive. so the war for starters global warfare because it's appealing to people because it gives you a lot more freedom with the armies and command sections coming to say super close to home and defend your family and your communities predict and more more federal occupations having a more more acts of bubble warfare. i will tell you about two and one of the most famous incident of global warfare is what happened in lawrence, kansas. in 1863. took about lawrence kansas before it's actually hotbed of antislavery prounion sentiments and he says, sympathizers, the pro-confederate sympathizers, things that they don't like.
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this is in missouri and actually arrested some of the wives and girlfriends and imprisoned them in kansas city and ran for president in august of 1863, and collapsed. several of the women dry and invite braided and the guerrilla are furious, they had a code of conduct and they are furious they died in the present. and after the prounion in lawrence, kansas. so in august 21st, 1863, he needs 450 raiders on the campus near trying to take over the city and think about what i said about what makes this appropriate warfare. at least 183 people were dead and they would into people's homes and kidnap them and put them out of the street and shot
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them in front of their family so they are doing acts of kidnapping and murder and setting houses on fire rated in the way back to missouri river, back to safety printed they will respond with hardware tactics and we will talk more about that next time and so like the u.s. military if they thought anybody was aiding and abetting in a day two, they set in a blaze along the missouri river. so we see the warfare of the u.s. often respond in kind, very aggressive tactics read in the conduct of the day is that jesse james is part of the screw read and a real fact, the rangers this is part of william quantill crew, and are so successful that they are actually it is called the confederacy that he was john singleton in an avengers of his
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battalion calvary. they were out in 1853, 1864, 1865, because they seem to blend into the countryside. and sometimes of the actually but where uniforms disguised themselves in the camp and then go after and kill the camp. the often target u.s. troops. they are so successful the parts of virginia, and shenandoah valley are known as confederacy. so you take away right here, your final thoughts pretty this is a series of ambushes and comt and chaotic and savage. the highest benefits, and after an offer them more freedom and they were able to be of their homes and families need to defend your own communities
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we will talk more about this next time, and hard work, everything can become a target home because these are the things that are aiding and then betting. so this will involve more of the study, more than this in the woods and involves guerrilla fighting and operations. thank you all and i'm out of time so i will answer your questions next time and thank you. >> did you know the lectures in history on the go, stream it is a podcast anywhere, anytime, you are watching american history tv. >> we were talking about the
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form of the tower but it might be if he were looking something, a way forward to a vessel. ♪ ♪♪ ♪ ♪♪ >> the collaboration of is across many many disciplines. >> the conversations amongst ourselves. >> this is really a beacon of hope and that's why we want to talk today a little bit about the billing essence of light coming out. this is part of from president obama's speech. >> the single most important word in our democracy. >> the process of selecting
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words can be so carefully done that we would commit them to the building. >> inside of the building would be about this faraway on this so we can all be finished virtually the same as that. >> when we think about the stories told that the obama presidential center, we are not just tell you a story about the president but telling the stories of people who helped shape the presidency. >> at this moment, we must mark this time in the city. i must restore the park to the original vision so that it once again becomes a people's park. >> i think that we began with an idea that it's a sigler building, is a campus and on about a singular person, it is not about a singular place, it
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is about people coming together. >> michelle obama was talking about her aspirations for the people that it would be a place for the people and so critical for the spark. >> she wanted to be able to see through the park it looks like there's only one building on the site because the landscape covers the top of it and i'll presidential center is with the public and minded kind of inactive place, 24/7. >> a place where people can have fun. >> welcome and live streaming for the women's center of american history braided and vice president of the university at columbia rated and allowed to be partnered at columbia


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