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tv   Nashville After the War of 1812  CSPAN  November 27, 2021 12:10pm-1:01pm EST

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podcasts on the c-span now app. you can watch about books at 7:30 p.m. on sundays or online anytime at booktv.org. >> c-span's american history continues now. you can find the full schedule for the weekend on your program guide or at c-span according/history. -- c-span.org/history. >> on h behalf of andrew jackson foundation, i want to welcome you to jackson's home and to inaugural history in court or program. today the is the first installment of a three-part series to celebrate the bicentennial of the first version ofof the hermitage mansion's completion in 1821. for the prior 17 years, the jacksons have loved in a two-story -- lived in a two-story log farmhouse on this property. in november of that year, they moved into their newly-completed
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dream home, my term. the house is nucleus of the mansion we treasure today. in history uncorked, we want to give our participants, you, a sense of early 19th century social, economic, political and aesthetic context of times in which jacksons live and when the mansion was constructed. ed today we are honored to have dr. carol busey as the first speaker in our history uncorked series. dr. busey is professor of history at volunteer state community college. she holds a ph.d. in history from vanderbilt university as well as history degrees from baylor university and george peabodyrg college. sorry. in 2011 dr. busey was appointed davidson county historian by
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then-mayor carl dean, a position she continues to hold. carol is the author of "tennessee through the time: the early years" and" tennessee through time the: the later years." these are the textbooks currently used in the fourth and fifth grad classrooms in numerous schools across tennessee. she's also the author of "history carved in stone," "women helping women: the ywca of nashville." the league of women voters and public policy 1945-1964 and several scholarly articles. she has served as a member of the board of directors of the presbyterian historical society in h philadelphia and is the vie president ofla the tennessee historical society.
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as a longtime advocate for local and state history, she regularly conducts educator workshops on incorporation of tennessee history into existing u.s. history courses and is the frequent speaker across the state on a variety of historical subjects. you know, if you've ever heard someone say history is boring, clearly they have never heard dr. busey speak. she brings her subjects tremendous academic knowledge, deep and thorough research, a true passion for history and a delightfully dry sense of humor. i'm also excited to report that c-span heard about our series, and dr. busey's presentation, and they are here filming tonight's episode that will be broadcast later this fall. at conclusion of her comments, you are invited to ask
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questions. to do so, please step up to the microphone here in theas centerf the room. also please plan to join us for our next history uncorked program on october 14th. so i hope you have all uncorked some wine. now sit back and hear some delightful storytelling. please join with me in giving a warm hermitage welcome to dr. carol busey. ms. . [applause] >> thank you, howard. i'm really delighted to be here tonight, and it's always a pleasure to haven an opportunity to talk about nashville's history. now, i don't know about you, but in the interest of full disclosure, i'm going tout tell you right now i am not a native. now, i grew up in texas. i came here to graduate school before some of you were born,
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i'm sure, and i liked it so much, i've stayed ever since. ikand i just think this is a lovely place to be here at the hermitage. i remember coming here on a vacation in the family station wagon. we drove from bonham, texas, all the way to washington, d.c. to tour, for my parents to give my brother and me the tour of nation's capital, and we stop here at the hermitage. and i was message herrized. i hadd never -- mesmerized. it was a great experience, and i have enjoyed coming out here over the 47 years that i have been married to a tennessean and then coming out here to the hermitage for various events and various programs. now, i want to tell you a little bit about nashville and get us up to 1820 when the beginning of the hermitage as you and i know it began. nashville began as a dream.
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land speculation was abundant and a major cause of people -- primarily scotch-irish but not crossing theoncern appalachian mountains before the revolutionary war. they crossed the appalachian mountains and came across over here where they weren't supposed to be. it was illegal to do that, but they saw opportunity. and people had come into that upper eastern corner of our state, and things go, people then began to come in more numbers. now, that is not the place you're going to have n a big plantation with lots of cotton the, right? on rocky top there will not be a lot of cotton raised on rocky top. they came not for that purpose, they came for the opportunity to own land and own a big plot of land even if they were going to have to take it from someone
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else, another part of this story. but they came here for the opportunity to own land because land equals independence. it equals you are your own person, you owe no one anything. and so the population of those little settlements there grew very, very slowly. but then concern and the revolutionary war is beginning, it was decided that about half the population was going to really, i hate to say this, but take advantage of war going on on the other side of the mountain to a come all the way over here. they weren't going to have that normal progression of losing just a little bit further west and a little bit further west. they were going to do what theodore roosevelt and the former state historian called the great leap westward.
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they were going to leap over the cumberland plateau and settle here. reason theyy had picked this spt was that james robertson, who was a surveyor, had been here a time or two, and he had seen the abundant amount of game. because all of the salt licks where salt comes up out of the surface of the ground were attracting animals. and so you had animal trails leading all over middle tennessee where you could see what the land looked like, and then they were l followed by hunters, native american hunters as well as the long hunters coming from primarily virginia and north carolina. and so this great leap was made in the middle of the revolution war, and it was a hotly-contest thed effort to claim land because a hostile group of the
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cherokees had tried to prevent these people from staying. they had tried to push them out. and the casualty rate among early settlers was very, very high. but things do begin to settle down. north carolina will ultimately claim this pocket of settlements here. you've got a pocket in east tennessee and a pocket here was about 300 miles in between two pockets of settlement. and so you've got people here, and north carolina's going to create some counties. and so they create sum county, tennessee -- sumner county, tennessee county and davidson county. and when these counties are created, of course, if you're going to have a county, you've got of a county judge, right? andy then if you're going to hae a court, i think you're going to need a lawyer, right? so north carolina's legislature appoints john mcnairly to be county judge, and he brings with
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him his bud key and lawyer friend -- buddy and lawyer friend none other than andrew jackson. and andrew jackson develops quite a successful legal practice here on the frontier area, on the edge of civilization. he did lots of land claims as part of his legal business. you think it's my land, and the neighbor is saying, no, the boundary is not that rock, it's that tree. so people were arguing about land here all the time. these were truly adventurous people. and just think about the women thatus had the fortitude to come on this madcap adventure. rachel donaldson's parents were part of the leading effort, and her father -- who was 51 years old which looks pretty young to me today -- but he was elderly. james robertson was in his 30s. he was the perfect frontiersman.
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but john donaldson saw opportunity, and he was coming. and so, you know, he and his wife have some children that are grown, and one of his daughters got all the way to ohio river on these flat boats that had come all the way down tennessee river then up the ohio and up the cumberland to here. they had decided when they got to the ohio river they could not go upstream, and so they head for mississippi. so andrew jackson is here, and i've got to tell you, nashville grows, but the city, the town itself because not grow very rapidly. it's kind of a wild place. now, these scotch-irish, they were highly literate. the people who signed the cumberland compact, there was only a couple of people who could not write their name. all male, of course. but they signed the cumberland compact. and so these people are not
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particularly interested in church. they're not over here to found chumps and be in addition theirs concern churches and be missionaries. what they want to do is get their children educationed. andd so -- educated. and so the first institution they create is a school, davidson academy, and they bring in a presbyterian minister who was tos run the school and educate the children. now, davidson academy had a hard timeth going, but there were two other really important institutions here before and after statehood. one was the masonic lodge. the masonic lodge was sort of what i would call secular christianity. it was a male organization. it was what some people might today call networking as you were this with these other people. the masonic lodge actually started some schools too, but the masonic lodge was one of the male institutions, and it was if you were a rising person with ambition, you would join the
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masonic lodge. and then the other thing that every male had no choice but to be in buzz the state -- was the state's militia. and that wasit actually writtenn before the statement, that was written into the cumberland compact, that every young man over about 16 was going to have to be armed and ready because they knew they were going to be fighting the cherokees. they had left no doubt that they were not going to allow these settlers to stay here. and so nashville rose rather slowly. and yet here comes this invention, the cotton gin. and once it is patented, people living here start the looking for more opportunity. south? maybe down towards columbia and polasky? if longer growing season, down
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in alabama which was part of the mississippi territory and over into mississippi. west tennessee where the chickasaws had control of that land. treaty after treaty had been signed with the various tribes reserving this piece of land or this piece of land for these tribes. but again and again, land-hungry settlers came and put their, themselves there and staked theire claim in spite of the fat that it was on land reserved for the native americans. so once the cotton gin gets introduceded here, you are suddenly going to see land-hungry people coming. that intensifies when tennessee becomes a state in 1796. and people are still coming. and so they are pushing all the way down to the tennessee/alabama border by about 1910 -- 1810.
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now, imagine this. if you go west from here, you'll get to the tennessee river. oubut one of the tributaries ovr there a little bit south of where waverly is, one of the tributaries over there is the duck river. and a group of settlers had gone over there and planted themselves and were there when the creeks decided to attack. and so creeks attack this settlement, they kill a lot of people. they take the martha crawley as a hostage, and they go back down into southern alabama where they live. now, of course that word travels very fast in nashville. and people many nashville are readyo to -- in nashville are ready to go. they want to go down there and avenge the attack the on this kick river settlement. and so there's -- duck river settlement. is so there's a lot of talk about this in nashville. now, our major general of our
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militia -- tennessee is a state, mind you -- is andrew jackson. and he has defeated john certificate veer in that the contest, he has defeated john seveir. you know, that older generation that had been in some way or another affected by the revolutionary war, they had experienced war. they were not so ready to go. but the younger whippersnappers that are here, they are ready to go avenge the deaths at duck river. and thenuc the creeks again make an attack, and this time it's in alabama almost to gulf -- to the coast down towards-- the coast there. they have a large group of settlerse there, and the creeks attack them at fort mims and pretty much killil everybody, women and children.
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so our governor is ready to call up the militia, and he finally gets permission from president madison to go could be this. -- to go do this. so we've got to get to our militia down there to avenge all of these killings of settlers. well, there's one small problem with our mill saw. -- militia. it seems that our major general has been in a little bit of a barroom drawl with the bicepton -- brawl with the benton brothers, and he has a little affliction. he has taken a bullet somewhere up here in his chest or shoulder, and he can't really get on his horse with only one arm. so we have to wait until our major general is ready to ride before the militia can go off down into alabama. and not so many years ago they, theea militia reconnoitered with the mill that coming from east -- militia coming from east tennessee in fayetteville which is south of nashville almost to
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the alabama border. they reconnoitered there, and the people of fayetteville had a painting done for this occasion, and it was some anniversary. and they've got jackson on his horse with his arm in a sling. but he was ready to go, and these young men were ready to go as well. and so what takes place, you've got notable people there at what is called the battle of horseshoe bend, a bend of the river. what takes place is pretty much att bloodbath. the creeks thought they had a really good defensive position in this bend of the river, but here comes the tennessee militia. they have two of those old short cannons, and they start lobbing cannonballs over this embankment that theve creeks have put up, d the creeks are really, really badly defeated. and very few survived the
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battle. so now the tennessee militia is redeeming everything that people have said about the people who lived over here in the cumberland settlement. noww let me read what one writer wrote about what the settlements, nashville settlements were before the war of 1812. she calls it a male preserve, a brawling, hard-drinking town on the surface he's at least, hardly even a community. there were. taverns here, there andwh yon run by all sorts of people, and the people who really were the residents really mostly lived out in the country where the land was. they weren't living down there at the public square of market street on the riverfront, and that was a hard-drinking place. but here we have become heroes overnight, and so president madison was going to appoint andrew jackson to be the major general of the u.s. army and
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sends our boys could be to new orleans. well -- down to novels. well, you knowwn what's going to happen in new orleans. unfortunately, the news did not travel very fast, and the war had been kind of a disaster from the point of view of united states. after the city of washington, d.c. was burned and dolley madison had to the race out from the dinner table without even getting to eat her dinner as the british burned the president's mansion. so president madison had already decided to send negotiators to europe to negotiate a peace treaty with great britain, and so the treaty of ghent ending war was signed on december 24th in belgium. ..
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>> and in new orleans and the british, and it is the thing that their outcome of the battle of new orleans. and i can still hear him saying about the battle of new orleans, so the tennessee volunteers, it was up army, sharpshooters, you've got some enslaved people and you've got some various of the hundred other folks from new orleans in the army but they held the day and now the war is over,ve hurrah, hurrah we have defeated theor british, not once but twice in the first george washington it if needd them in the revolutionary war was the second george washington is andrew jackson.
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people here are enthusiastic to know him and he is in national name all of a sudden and the winning of the war and the timing, simultaneously with the coming of the steam boat that is a major turning point in national history in tennessee before the civil war because here we are this frontier outpost, hardly a town and he had been inee the tennessee militia has fought with jackson, he now invests in steamboat that thehim coming down mississippi river from pittsburgh all of the way to do your millions 11, in 1912, so he investve in steamboat that will come up the river and that you think of a a steamboat in the general objection in the jackson what he looks like but things were very low boats with a side
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paddle in a steamboat on them they were dangerous because the engines often exploded but he invest in the steamboat with gel jackson and it comes to nashville and it is going to change nashville's future because the center right here in the middle of what is going to become this big center of commerce, they're going to have banks, trading business, it is going to be absolutely phenomenal. and when the war ends decrease or push out like alabama and the chickasaw's hard kick out of what is mississippi ines west tennessee, so guess what, land, land, land, get over here quickly advise him. it is going to go fast so james winchester from summer county and another from davidson county andrew jackson and also michael
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moore from davidson county, managed to invest in a great deal of acreage in west tennessee and they start selling it with a cotton gin and now this, you are going to see people land speculations frenzy and of course if you going to raise coffin, you know what else is going to bring to nashville and the rest of the area. larger numbers of enslaved people they've ever had been expected. and indeed the market for slavery suddenly went up, surplus of slaves in the virginia area, now there is a demand for slaves here and slaves will be brought through middleton it on the way west to be sold in a higher price and slavery was a business in nashville as well.
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here we have all of these people buying land, and then we have our first national depression. the panic of 1893. the citizens who invested in land but did not have the money to come another was a product they go to the state legislatures in general and suddenly they said, help us and what we need you to do is get the banks to post for closing onos a land and of coure in some cases, some of the land owners had mores or less had personal financing and they were owed money as well. the legislature voted to that and it was considered unconstitutionale in the court decided it in constitutional but mercifully, we recovered it from the depression and from that point forward, nashville was a city we will soon attract a
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first-rate educator from princeton and jersey to come to nashville. leslie to open a new college, the university of nashville, which will become an leading institution across the south, educationally, has a medical school and engineering school and has many many courses. you will see baking thrive and you will see riverboats coming up and down the river and you will see all sorts of people wanting to come and visit with andrew jackson, one of the people on been there and they finally get around to fanning churches in nashville andar they did not haveom any churches fora while. it one person is a man who was ordained as a presbyterian minister, alexander campbell and he was a founder of this restoration movement which restored the new testament church, and he comes in quite a lot and he comes out to eric to
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have dinner with general jackson, general lafayette makes a grand tour of the united states and there is a parade, and a beautiful ball and he is here to visit with the general asge well. so this post nashville on the map and we are still on the map today.da national change almost overnight from his hard drinking town of drunks onki the street, and i kw what you are thinking about that, i'm not going to talk about those so i'm not going to bring that subject up but we have changed it into a cosmopolitan place. animus in the 200 years later, it is a great pleasure for me to live here and also always a pleasure for me to see any historic house remaining upright and thriving and beautifully
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cared for as this one is because we have lost a good bit of our historical fabric in many of the houses that we did not preserve. thank you very much. now, i am ready to take questions if you will come to this microphone over here and i would love to hear questions from you whether i can answer them or not, remains to be seen and we would love to hear questions from you. there are people here who know a lot more about andrew jackson than i do but i'll get help from them if i need it in our their questions. please come up to the microphone. >> so can you talk about what the infrastructure in nashville was like at the time and what with roadways like, how hard was travel at the time when jackson
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was here. >> trouble is pretty hard, we didn't spend a lot of money, we've always been the taxes over here, scotch irish folks who were the founders here. we had some rodents, the state of north carolina actually set some soldiers over here for the statehood and built the roads to connect the east tennessee settlements with the cumberland settlements and it ran more or less from knoxville, sort of 2-gallon ten and i was called the avery trace and north carolina built that road but they were not a lot of rodents and it is not really until about this time when the homages being built, the nashville decided that it really needs a waterworks. so they have a big sister downtown in a place in the cumberland river and its if you
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are going from here to downtown nashville, to the stadium, you will send this place where it was as kind of a pot of brick things into me i guess i would call it in the middle of the cumberland river which is where they took the long route. they had a system and they had can you imagine this, they had woodenks water pipes, wooden war pipes. here and knoxville, very sophisticated and they had a way of getting that hauled out and he cannot imagine it and tools that it took to get those things hollowed out to hold water but nonetheless, they had volunteer fire departments, they did have a flat laid out, drawn by thomas malloy, aol survey, very early, 1794, and had the city lots and again the names a of all of the streets in the streets running
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by the river was called front street or water street and first avenue as youou know now is nashville and is first avenue so you have the street and in the second one was market and so on and so forth. they had about ten blocks and where our state capitol's debate, was a senior not alexander, alexander campbell but another campbell, but the hill and it was given to the state in 1840s, they can you believe that it took tennesseans help 1843,3, to decide on where they were going to have a permanent capitol. now if you live in tennessee, will you know exactly why, memphis did not wanted in nashville, but they sure didn't want to go to knoxville and they didn't want to in memphis. they did it one in nashville either so these regional rivalries.
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one of the west tennessee legislatures and was tennessee would just receive from tennessee and this was in the 1840s, they created their own state called guess what, jacksonian anna. catching a note to thank others another state rep from east tennessee and is young and his name is andrew johnson and his future as i guess right but nonetheless, he said if you're going to do this and we will go back to that name of franklin so what do the legislature horse from nashville do. they start appropriating money to build roads in west tennessee and also in east tennessee but in despite of this grid, the streets were pretty much nonexistent. and you would have some boardwalks for sidewalks and you
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would have some s transportation but overall, living in the city was really a kind of a dirty place to live because you have chickens running loose, and you have all land, not a good sewage system. so living in the city, was in some ways kind of unhealthy so that is why people build these houses if they had w any wealth, they would build a house out like all of these houses out in this area. the donald under donaldson's build and when travelers rest and then thehe thompson's had eventually, del monte, close to the civil war when that house is built but they are going to want to stay out as opposed to building in town. so a lot of men kept the townhouses in the city and work in the city but then they had a
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house out in the countryside somewhere. to keep the kids healthy because epidemics would come through and one of the big up and and came through a lot, was cholera we now know that that was caused by drinking contaminatedg drinking water. the way this happened that in the spring when it would rain hard from the water table under the ground would rise and then people would be drinking contaminated water and one of the people died of cholera in 1849, and a big epidemic was present james k who would just come home from his term in the white house. and so cholera is a very deadly disease, was not contagious however. it was from drinking bad water and yet doctors here are some doctors refused to believe i was bad water and some would say
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that it was diet and you are eating the wrong foods. some said it was contagious and of course we have the measles diphtheria, yellow fever, all this things work far more contagious than cholera because you got it from drinking the water. there is a roundabout way to answer your questions and we didn't have many but that brings me to an interesting point about 1820. like you said this place on the map by thenap and so they propod and initiate to big major capitol building protest projects. the building exactly but big project and one is to build a bridge across the cumberland river and so indeed, they get the plans drawn, there's not enough labor here to build it and so they entice irish workers from the f northeast to come to
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nashville to build a bridge over the cumberland river and is where the victory memorial bridge is today, right at the foot of the metro courthouse going across the river there. this was a covered bridge, he was a very far off of the surface of the water so you can see with steamboats coming, the first thing the boats were low but as they get higher and higher, the bridge is going to be obsolete and will ultimately be destroyed. so be the bridge construction going in the board said that if these irish workers will come, they will find building a catholic church for these workers and so the first thing is onst the hill where the capil is today and then they built the
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propers st. mary's of the seven sorrows where it is today i guess maybe it is six, in charlotte and a very lovely church. that is one thing that we got and the people inn nashville decided we needed a proper place to bury and honor are dead predict now up to this point, there was a public graveyard downtown. the churches did not have graveyards, they were not really that strong at this point to have graveyard but there was a public burial ground downtown and that's what it was called, the public graveyard. and so the cemetery movement, the world cemetery movement is taken off and i suppose in massachusetts now auburn cemetery which is very lovely parklike place. so were going to call in a cemetery where we remember the dead and honor the dead, it is not just n a graveyard pretty is
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going to be parklike where you can visit. so the folks in nashville decide they are going to appropriate atlanta for it and by 4 acres and this is in the board of almond minutes, on the plane, south of nashville. now i don't know whether you been to the city cemetery or not, but it's not really no idea of a flat and i suppose us that what they were thinking about in the cemetery will get organized and running and it will open some people's bodies would be brought from the public graveyard which washe approximately a little bit about for the metro courthouse is today. and they were brought to the city cemetery they're buried if you've never been to the city cemetery, you really ought to go. it is absolutely the easiest dose of a history lesson that you will ever get pretty is
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natural history from the beginning up to the civil war. as of the city cemetery was laid out and filled up quickly and they decided to have a fund raiser by selling lots, family plots and so they sell family plots and it expands and expands and is one of the very few early before the civil war cemeteries in the south, that was integrated not only for racial integration but religious integration and we don't really see religion as something that was segregated. but in nashville before the civil war, the catholics did not associate with the protestants in the catholics and the jews, the christians did not associate with the juice in the restricted lines and so the city cemetery, we have catholics buried their way jews buried there and we had
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african-americans prayed there as well. as of the city cemetery is quite a remarkable place in this another sign that we were becoming civilized and we are not just this frontier outpost in the middle of nowhere, we are really kind of the gateway to the west. any other questions. tina can you elaborate more on with the f cotton and cotton business international was a gap year or shipped north or south east western down the river are sold in europe if you can elaborate on that. >> the cotton business really made memphis and memphis would not have really become such a big city had it not been for cotton. but, people close by raise
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cotton from time to time they certainly were raising this in rutherford county and in williamson county in the county south of williamson county was a lot of cotton raised i was brought up here to nashville to be shipped out to market on the steamboats. so cotton really hadad an effect and we haved a need here because we have people coming in and we also have a need for things to buy. so you will see market street having a all implements and leather shops and tool shops and outsourced thanks for people coming in. no another important cross here also labor intensive and also a good number of enslaved people was the tobacco business. particularly in robertson county in sumner county, those counties along the kentucky border,
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really began raising a lot of tobacco and there is one plantation it, and robertson county where they owned i think over 200 slaves and there's a lovely book about that plantation in the enslaved people that lived there. one thing that it brought to nashville was a market for enslaved people so a lot of people are advertising in the newspaper that they are selling slaves as a slave slimmed down the hill where the college bills and is playpen and in market where the bus transit billing is rated is close to the state capitol and slavery becomes a business and one of the most wealthy men in the united states man from sumner county named isaac franklin, it became
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very wealthy buying slaves in alexandria, virginia, and transporting them initially he made them walkti by the writer here. and then they put them on those later and took them on boats and took them around florida and new orleans and of the river. but he became one of the wealthiest men in the country in the slave business there's a new book called the venture in the chain which the historian is taken all of the financial records pretty this was such tedious work and really combed through their and draws the conclusion about isaac franklin in the business in slaves predict so cotton was not just cotton, it meant slaved people that's what brought the population that's what it in the city to grow so rapidly.
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let's move forward fast to the civil war. east tennessee, mom-and-pop farms and no need for cotton, no need for enslaved people, they can't raise cotton over there but weather is not right in the land is not right, it's persistent farming. an agricultural abundance, lots and lots of cotton being raised over there and here in middleton, the city where sort of the seesaw and it if you will because are we going to vote with these issues or east tennessee and the issues west or east, they had different economic goals and so when the talk of the succession begins, after abraham lincoln is elected president in south carolina, just to race out of the union, tennessee legislature is going to convene to talk about whether or not tennessee should succeed.
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so you can understand who will be the most pro- succession, west tennessee legislatures, east tennessee not so much soo deceptive middle tennessee and legislature did not want to take a vote and they entered be responsible for this so what they did was we will have a referendum of the citizen and of course again, that means the men forget about. so we will have a referendum of people on whether or not they want the state of tennessee to call a convention for the purpose of the discussing of secession. east tennessee had vote, no, we don't want this and west tennessee are you going to vote, yes, yes, let's go, let's go, let's go in middle tennessee, votes with east tennessee not to have a convention to's talk about succession.
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none that is another story you heard. thought the confederacy didn't you that's exactly what happened four months later, four months later after theon attackn the fort and president lincoln calling for the troops to put down the southern election, they signed the tennessee legislature always unique and individual, they are not just going to - they're going to write a document called the tennessee declaration of independence, the only state that did that. and then the referendum of the people, do you support the t declaration of independence in east tennessee, no, west tennessee, yes, we told you that four months ago predict and middle tennessee, tilts the other way. in the issue was defending the homeland us when it became
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apparent that abraham lincoln after the attack at fort sumter was going to go to war to save the union and these people in tennessee or in middle tennessee, recognize that they were going to fight for the confederacy. that's a whole other story on a whole another day. i think we have time for one more question. does anybody have a question while i would say that we've had a greatat conversation tonight s always a pleasure to be here and i hope for our viewers that you will take the opportunity to come into work this beautiful site. it is really magnificent this time of year and all of them is
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coming in the leaves will be turning and things will be glorious, all over middle tennessee and thank you very much and have a good evening. [applause] >> american history tv expelling the people and events and tells the american story on lectures in history, washington university in st. louis, how the pilgrims became the part of americans history of texas and then president nixon senior domestic policy advisor, john roy price gives a behind view for the 37 the presence domestic agenda, and it includes an support children's nutrition on the presidency, watch to first
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honors at the white house the weddings, president and is daughter marries bring captain, december 9th, 1967 and then president nixon's daughter, tricia, marries edward on june 12, 1971. in the first rose garden weddings. >> mr. gorbachev, tear down this wall. in the ronald reagan foundation, takes look at back at present reagan's wall speech is important more than three decades later, the white house speechwriter with records, participated in the event. the american story, watch american history tv, every weekend it and find a full schedule on your program guide or watch online anytime at cspan.org/history. >> this week we are looking back to this date in history pretty.
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>> and giving with a long-standing tradition, were hereby granted a full and unconditional presidential and all americans i wish all americans a happy thanksgiving and god bless you. ... welcome to the nixon library, my name is jim, executive vice president of the richard nixon foundation and special to everyone watching on youtube this evening for the nixon foundation website for all of us watching o

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